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Versions: 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 RFC 4728

IETF MANET Working Group               David B. Johnson, Rice University
INTERNET-DRAFT                David A. Maltz, Carnegie Mellon University
24 February 2003                            Yih-Chun Hu, Rice University



                  The Dynamic Source Routing Protocol
                    for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks (DSR)

                     <draft-ietf-manet-dsr-08.txt>


Status of This Memo

   This document is an Internet-Draft and is subject to all provisions
   of Section 10 of RFC 2026.

   Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
   Task Force (IETF), its areas, and its working groups.  Note
   that other groups may also distribute working documents as
   Internet-Drafts.

   Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
   and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at
   any time.  It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
   material or to cite them other than as "work in progress".

   The list of current Internet-Drafts can be accessed at
   http://www.ietf.org/ietf/1id-abstracts.txt

   The list of Internet-Draft Shadow Directories can be accessed at
   http://www.ietf.org/shadow.html.

   This Internet-Draft is a submission to the IETF Mobile Ad Hoc
   Networks (MANET) Working Group.  Comments on this draft may be sent
   to the Working Group at manet@itd.nrl.navy.mil, or may be sent
   directly to the authors.



















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Abstract

   The Dynamic Source Routing protocol (DSR) is a simple and efficient
   routing protocol designed specifically for use in multi-hop wireless
   ad hoc networks of mobile nodes.  DSR allows the network to be
   completely self-organizing and self-configuring, without the need
   for any existing network infrastructure or administration.  The
   protocol is composed of the two main mechanisms of "Route Discovery"
   and "Route Maintenance", which work together to allow nodes to
   discover and maintain routes to arbitrary destinations in the ad hoc
   network.  All aspects of the protocol operate entirely on-demand,
   allowing the routing packet overhead of DSR to scale automatically
   to only that needed to react to changes in the routes currently in
   use.  The protocol allows multiple routes to any destination and
   allows each sender to select and control the routes used in routing
   its packets, for example for use in load balancing or for increased
   robustness.  Other advantages of the DSR protocol include easily
   guaranteed loop-free routing, support for use in networks containing
   unidirectional links, use of only "soft state" in routing, and very
   rapid recovery when routes in the network change.  The DSR protocol
   is designed mainly for mobile ad hoc networks of up to about two
   hundred nodes, and is designed to work well with even very high
   rates of mobility.  This document specifies the operation of the DSR
   protocol for routing unicast IPv4 packets.



























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                                Contents



Status of This Memo                                                    i

Abstract                                                              ii


 1. Introduction                                                       1

 2. Assumptions                                                        3

 3. DSR Protocol Overview                                              5

     3.1. Basic DSR Route Discovery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .    5
     3.2. Basic DSR Route Maintenance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .    8
     3.3. Additional Route Discovery Features . . . . . . . . . . .   10
           3.3.1. Caching Overheard Routing Information . . . . . .   10
           3.3.2. Replying to Route Requests using Cached Routes  .   11
           3.3.3. Preventing Route Reply Storms . . . . . . . . . .   12
           3.3.4. Route Request Hop Limits  . . . . . . . . . . . .   14
     3.4. Additional Route Maintenance Features . . . . . . . . . .   15
           3.4.1. Packet Salvaging  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   15
           3.4.2. Queued Packets Destined over a Broken Link  . . .   15
           3.4.3. Automatic Route Shortening  . . . . . . . . . . .   16
           3.4.4. Increased Spreading of Route Error Messages . . .   17
     3.5. Optional DSR Flow State Extension . . . . . . . . . . . .   17
           3.5.1. Flow Establishment  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   18
           3.5.2. Receiving and Forwarding Establishment Packets  .   19
           3.5.3. Sending Packets Along Established Flows . . . . .   19
           3.5.4. Receiving and Forwarding Packets Sent Along
                          Established Flows  . . . . . . . . . . . .  20
           3.5.5. Processing Route Errors . . . . . . . . . . . . .   21
           3.5.6. Interaction with Automatic Route Shortening . . .   21
           3.5.7. Loop Detection  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   22
           3.5.8. Acknowledgement Destination . . . . . . . . . . .   22
           3.5.9. Crash Recovery  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   22
          3.5.10. Rate Limiting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   22
          3.5.11. Interaction with Packet Salvaging . . . . . . . .   23

 4. Conceptual Data Structures                                        24

     4.1. Route Cache . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   24
     4.2. Send Buffer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   27
     4.3. Route Request Table . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   28
     4.4. Gratuitous Route Reply Table  . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   29
     4.5. Network Interface Queue and Maintenance Buffer  . . . . .   30



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     4.6. Blacklist . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   31

 5. Additional Conceptual Data Structures for Flow State Extension    32

     5.1. Flow Table  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   32
     5.2. Automatic Route Shortening Table  . . . . . . . . . . . .   33
     5.3. Default Flow ID Table . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   33

 6. DSR Options Header Format                                         35

     6.1. Fixed Portion of DSR Options Header . . . . . . . . . . .   36
     6.2. Route Request Option  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   39
     6.3. Route Reply Option  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   41
     6.4. Route Error Option  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   43
           6.4.1. Node Unreachable Type-Specific Information  . . .   45
           6.4.2. Flow State Not Supported Type-Specific Information  45
           6.4.3. Option Not Supported Type-Specific Information  .   45
     6.5. Acknowledgement Request Option  . . . . . . . . . . . . .   46
     6.6. Acknowledgement Option  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   47
     6.7. DSR Source Route Option . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   48
     6.8. Pad1 Option . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   50
     6.9. PadN Option . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   51

 7. Additional Header Formats and Options for Flow State Extension    52

     7.1. DSR Flow State Header . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   53
     7.2. Options and Extensions in DSR Options Header  . . . . . .   54
           7.2.1. Timeout Option  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   54
           7.2.2. Destination and Flow ID Option  . . . . . . . . .   55
           7.2.3. New Error Type Value for Unknown Flow . . . . . .   56
           7.2.4. New Error Type Value for Default Flow Unknown . .   57
           7.2.5. Acknowledgement Request Option
                          Previous Hop Address Extension . . . . . .  58

 8. Detailed Operation                                                59

     8.1. General Packet Processing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   59
           8.1.1. Originating a Packet  . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   59
           8.1.2. Adding a DSR Options Header to a Packet . . . . .   59
           8.1.3. Adding a DSR Source Route Option to a Packet  . .   60
           8.1.4. Processing a Received Packet  . . . . . . . . . .   61
           8.1.5. Processing a Received DSR Source Route Option . .   63
           8.1.6. Handling an Unknown DSR Option  . . . . . . . . .   65
     8.2. Route Discovery Processing  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   67
           8.2.1. Originating a Route Request . . . . . . . . . . .   67
           8.2.2. Processing a Received Route Request Option  . . .   69
           8.2.3. Generating a Route Reply using the Route Cache  .   71
           8.2.4. Originating a Route Reply . . . . . . . . . . . .   73
           8.2.5. Processing a Received Route Reply Option  . . . .   75
     8.3. Route Maintenance Processing  . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   76



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           8.3.1. Using Link-Layer Acknowledgements . . . . . . . .   76
           8.3.2. Using Passive Acknowledgements  . . . . . . . . .   77
           8.3.3. Using Network-Layer Acknowledgements  . . . . . .   78
           8.3.4. Originating a Route Error . . . . . . . . . . . .   81
           8.3.5. Processing a Received Route Error Option  . . . .   82
           8.3.6. Salvaging a Packet  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   83
     8.4. Multiple Interface Support  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   85
     8.5. Fragmentation and Reassembly  . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   86
     8.6. Flow State Processing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   87
           8.6.1. Originating a Packet  . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   87
           8.6.2. Inserting a DSR Flow State Header . . . . . . . .   89
           8.6.3. Receiving a Packet  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   89
           8.6.4. Forwarding a Packet Using Flow IDs  . . . . . . .   94
           8.6.5. Promiscuously Receiving a Packet  . . . . . . . .   94
           8.6.6. Operation where the Layer below DSR Decreases
                          the IP TTL Non-Uniformly . . . . . . . . .  95
           8.6.7. Salvage Interactions with DSR . . . . . . . . . .   95

 9. Protocol Constants and Configuration Variables                    96

10. IANA Considerations                                               97

11. Security Considerations                                           98


Appendix A. Link-MaxLife Cache Description                            99

Appendix B. Location of DSR in the ISO Network Reference Model       101

Appendix C. Implementation and Evaluation Status                     102


Changes from Previous Version of the Draft                           104

Acknowledgements                                                     105

References                                                           106

Chair's Address                                                      110

Authors' Addresses                                                   111












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1. Introduction

   The Dynamic Source Routing protocol (DSR) [15, 16] is a simple and
   efficient routing protocol designed specifically for use in multi-hop
   wireless ad hoc networks of mobile nodes.  Using DSR, the network
   is completely self-organizing and self-configuring, requiring no
   existing network infrastructure or administration.  Network nodes
   cooperate to forward packets for each other to allow communication
   over multiple "hops" between nodes not directly within wireless
   transmission range of one another.  As nodes in the network move
   about or join or leave the network, and as wireless transmission
   conditions such as sources of interference change, all routing is
   automatically determined and maintained by the DSR routing protocol.
   Since the number or sequence of intermediate hops needed to reach any
   destination may change at any time, the resulting network topology
   may be quite rich and rapidly changing.

   In designing DSR, we sought to create a routing protocol that had
   very low overhead yet was able to react very quickly to changes in
   the network.  The DSR protocol provides highly reactive service in
   order to help ensure successful delivery of data packets in spite of
   node movement or other changes in network conditions.

   The DSR protocol is composed of two main mechanisms that work
   together to allow the discovery and maintenance of source routes in
   the ad hoc network:

    -  Route Discovery is the mechanism by which a node S wishing to
       send a packet to a destination node D obtains a source route
       to D.  Route Discovery is used only when S attempts to send a
       packet to D and does not already know a route to D.

    -  Route Maintenance is the mechanism by which node S is able
       to detect, while using a source route to D, if the network
       topology has changed such that it can no longer use its route
       to D because a link along the route no longer works.  When Route
       Maintenance indicates a source route is broken, S can attempt to
       use any other route it happens to know to D, or can invoke Route
       Discovery again to find a new route for subsequent packets to D.
       Route Maintenance for this route is used only when S is actually
       sending packets to D.

   In DSR, Route Discovery and Route Maintenance each operate entirely
   "on demand".  In particular, unlike other protocols, DSR requires no
   periodic packets of any kind at any layer within the network.  For
   example, DSR does not use any periodic routing advertisement, link
   status sensing, or neighbor detection packets, and does not rely on
   these functions from any underlying protocols in the network.  This
   entirely on-demand behavior and lack of periodic activity allows
   the number of overhead packets caused by DSR to scale all the way



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   down to zero, when all nodes are approximately stationary with
   respect to each other and all routes needed for current communication
   have already been discovered.  As nodes begin to move more or
   as communication patterns change, the routing packet overhead of
   DSR automatically scales to only that needed to track the routes
   currently in use.  Network topology changes not affecting routes
   currently in use are ignored and do not cause reaction from the
   protocol.

   All state maintained by DSR is "soft state" [6], in that the loss
   of any state will not interfere with the correct operation of the
   protocol; all state is discovered as needed and can easily and
   quickly be rediscovered if needed after a failure without significant
   impact on the protocol.  This use of only soft state allows the
   routing protocol to be very robust to problems such as dropped or
   delayed routing packets or node failures.  In particular, a node in
   DSR that fails and reboots can easily rejoin the network immediately
   after rebooting; if the failed node was involved in forwarding
   packets for other nodes as an intermediate hop along one or more
   routes, it can also resume this forwarding quickly after rebooting,
   with no or minimal interruption to the routing protocol.

   In response to a single Route Discovery (as well as through routing
   information from other packets overheard), a node may learn and
   cache multiple routes to any destination.  This support for multiple
   routes allows the reaction to routing changes to be much more rapid,
   since a node with multiple routes to a destination can try another
   cached route if the one it has been using should fail.  This caching
   of multiple routes also avoids the overhead of needing to perform a
   new Route Discovery each time a route in use breaks.  The sender of
   a packet selects and controls the route used for its own packets,
   which together with support for multiple routes also allows features
   such as load balancing to be defined.  In addition, all routes used
   are easily guaranteed to be loop-free, since the sender can avoid
   duplicate hops in the routes selected.

   The operation of both Route Discovery and Route Maintenance in DSR
   are designed to allow unidirectional links and asymmetric routes
   to be easily supported.  In particular, as noted in Section 2, in
   wireless networks, it is possible that a link between two nodes may
   not work equally well in both directions, due to differing antenna
   or propagation patterns or sources of interference.  DSR allows such
   unidirectional links to be used when necessary, improving overall
   performance and network connectivity in the system.

   This document specifies the operation of the DSR protocol for
   routing unicast IPv4 packets in multi-hop wireless ad hoc networks.
   Advanced, optional features, such as Quality of Service (QoS) support
   and efficient multicast routing, and operation of DSR with IPv6 [7],
   are covered in other documents.  The specification of DSR in this



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   document provides a compatible base on which such features can be
   added, either independently or by integration with the DSR operation
   specified here.

   The keywords "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
   document are to be interpreted as described in RFC 2119 [4].


2. Assumptions

   The DSR protocol as described here is designed mainly for mobile
   ad hoc networks of up to about two hundred nodes, and is designed
   to work well with even very high rates of mobility.  Other protocol
   features and enhancements that may allow DSR to scale to larger
   networks are outside the scope of this document.

   We assume in this document that all nodes wishing to communicate with
   other nodes within the ad hoc network are willing to participate
   fully in the protocols of the network.  In particular, each node
   participating in the ad hoc network SHOULD also be willing to forward
   packets for other nodes in the network.

   The diameter of an ad hoc network is the minimum number of hops
   necessary for a packet to reach from any node located at one extreme
   edge of the ad hoc network to another node located at the opposite
   extreme.  We assume that this diameter will often be small (e.g.,
   perhaps 5 or 10 hops), but may often be greater than 1.

   Packets may be lost or corrupted in transmission on the wireless
   network.  We assume that a node receiving a corrupted packet can
   detect the error and discard the packet.

   Nodes within the ad hoc network MAY move at any time without notice,
   and MAY even move continuously, but we assume that the speed with
   which nodes move is moderate with respect to the packet transmission
   latency and wireless transmission range of the particular underlying
   network hardware in use.  In particular, DSR can support very
   rapid rates of arbitrary node mobility, but we assume that nodes do
   not continuously move so rapidly as to make the flooding of every
   individual data packet the only possible routing protocol.

   A common feature of many network interfaces, including most current
   LAN hardware for broadcast media such as wireless, is the ability
   to operate the network interface in "promiscuous" receive mode.
   This mode causes the hardware to deliver every received packet to
   the network driver software without filtering based on link-layer
   destination address.  Although we do not require this facility, some
   of our optimizations can take advantage of its availability.  Use
   of promiscuous mode does increase the software overhead on the CPU,



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   but we believe that wireless network speeds are more the inherent
   limiting factor to performance in current and future systems; we also
   believe that portions of the protocol are suitable for implementation
   directly within a programmable network interface unit to avoid this
   overhead on the CPU [16].  Use of promiscuous mode may also increase
   the power consumption of the network interface hardware, depending
   on the design of the receiver hardware, and in such cases, DSR can
   easily be used without the optimizations that depend on promiscuous
   receive mode, or can be programmed to only periodically switch the
   interface into promiscuous mode.  Use of promiscuous receive mode is
   entirely optional.

   Wireless communication ability between any pair of nodes may at
   times not work equally well in both directions, due for example to
   differing antenna or propagation patterns or sources of interference
   around the two nodes [1, 20].  That is, wireless communications
   between each pair of nodes will in many cases be able to operate
   bidirectionally, but at times the wireless link between two nodes
   may be only unidirectional, allowing one node to successfully send
   packets to the other while no communication is possible in the
   reverse direction.  Although many routing protocols operate correctly
   only over bidirectional links, DSR can successfully discover and
   forward packets over paths that contain unidirectional links.  Some
   MAC protocols, however, such as MACA [19], MACAW [2], or IEEE
   802.11 [13], limit unicast data packet transmission to bidirectional
   links, due to the required bidirectional exchange of RTS and CTS
   packets in these protocols and due to the link-layer acknowledgement
   feature in IEEE 802.11; when used on top of MAC protocols such as
   these, DSR can take advantage of additional optimizations, such as
   the ability to reverse a source route to obtain a route back to the
   origin of the original route.

   The IP address used by a node using the DSR protocol MAY be assigned
   by any mechanism (e.g., static assignment or use of DHCP for dynamic
   assignment [8]), although the method of such assignment is outside
   the scope of this specification.

















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3. DSR Protocol Overview

   This section provides an overview of the operation of the DSR
   protocol.  The basic version of DSR uses explicit "source routing",
   in which each data packet sent carries in its header the complete,
   ordered list of nodes through which the packet will pass.  This use
   of explicit source routing allows the sender to select and control
   the routes used for its own packets, supports the use of multiple
   routes to any destination (for example, for load balancing), and
   allows a simple guarantee that the routes used are loop-free; by
   including this source route in the header of each data packet, other
   nodes forwarding or overhearing any of these packets can also easily
   cache this routing information for future use.  Section 3.1 describes
   this basic operation of Route Discovery, Section 3.2 describes basic
   Route Maintenance, and Sections 3.3 and 3.4 describe additional
   features of these two parts of DSR's operation.  Section 3.5 then
   describes an optional, compatible extension to DSR, known as "flow
   state", that allows the routing of most packets without an explicit
   source route header in the packet, while still preserves the
   fundamental properties of DSR's operation.


3.1. Basic DSR Route Discovery

   When some source node originates a new packet addressed to some
   destination node, the source node places in the header of the packet
   a "source route" giving the sequence of hops that the packet is to
   follow on its way to the destination.  Normally, the sender will
   obtain a suitable source route by searching its "Route Cache" of
   routes previously learned; if no route is found in its cache, it will
   initiate the Route Discovery protocol to dynamically find a new route
   to this destination node.  In this case, we call the source node
   the "initiator" and the destination node the "target" of the Route
   Discovery.

   For example, suppose a node A is attempting to discover a route to
   node E.  The Route Discovery initiated by node A in this example
   would proceed as follows:

            ^    "A"    ^   "A,B"   ^  "A,B,C"  ^ "A,B,C,D"
            |   id=2    |   id=2    |   id=2    |   id=2
         +-----+     +-----+     +-----+     +-----+     +-----+
         |  A  |---->|  B  |---->|  C  |---->|  D  |---->|  E  |
         +-----+     +-----+     +-----+     +-----+     +-----+
            |           |           |           |
            v           v           v           v

   To initiate the Route Discovery, node A transmits a "Route
   Request" as a single local broadcast packet, which is received by
   (approximately) all nodes currently within wireless transmission



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   range of A, including node B in this example.  Each Route Request
   identifies the initiator and target of the Route Discovery, and
   also contains a unique request identification (2, in this example),
   determined by the initiator of the Request.  Each Route Request also
   contains a record listing the address of each intermediate node
   through which this particular copy of the Route Request has been
   forwarded.  This route record is initialized to an empty list by the
   initiator of the Route Discovery.  In this example, the route record
   initially lists only node A.

   When another node receives this Route Request (such as node B in this
   example), if it is the target of the Route Discovery, it returns
   a "Route Reply" to the initiator of the Route Discovery, giving
   a copy of the accumulated route record from the Route Request;
   when the initiator receives this Route Reply, it caches this route
   in its Route Cache for use in sending subsequent packets to this
   destination.

   Otherwise, if this node receiving the Route Request has recently seen
   another Route Request message from this initiator bearing this same
   request identification and target address, or if this node's own
   address is already listed in the route record in the Route Request,
   this node discards the Request.  Otherwise, this node appends its
   own address to the route record in the Route Request and propagates
   it by transmitting it as a local broadcast packet (with the same
   request identification).  In this example, node B broadcast the Route
   Request, which is received by node C; nodes C and D each also, in
   turn, broadcast the Request, resulting in a copy of the Request being
   received by node E.

   In returning the Route Reply to the initiator of the Route Discovery,
   such as in this example, node E replying back to node A, node E will
   typically examine its own Route Cache for a route back to A, and if
   found, will use it for the source route for delivery of the packet
   containing the Route Reply.  Otherwise, E SHOULD perform its own
   Route Discovery for target node A, but to avoid possible infinite
   recursion of Route Discoveries, it MUST piggyback this Route Reply
   on the packet containing its own Route Request for A.  It is also
   possible to piggyback other small data packets, such as a TCP SYN
   packet [31], on a Route Request using this same mechanism.

   Node E could instead simply reverse the sequence of hops in the route
   record that it is trying to send in the Route Reply, and use this as
   the source route on the packet carrying the Route Reply itself.  For
   MAC protocols such as IEEE 802.11 that require a bidirectional frame
   exchange as part of the MAC protocol [13], the discovered source
   route MUST be reversed in this way to return the Route Reply since it
   tests the discovered route to ensure it is bidirectional before the
   Route Discovery initiator begins using the route; this route reversal
   also avoids the overhead of a possible second Route Discovery.



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   However, this route reversal technique will prevent the discovery of
   routes using unidirectional links, and in wireless environments where
   the use of unidirectional links is permitted, such routes may in some
   cases be more efficient than those with only bidirectional links, or
   they may be the only way to achieve connectivity to the target node.

   When initiating a Route Discovery, the sending node saves a copy of
   the original packet (that triggered the Discovery) in a local buffer
   called the "Send Buffer".  The Send Buffer contains a copy of each
   packet that cannot be transmitted by this node because it does not
   yet have a source route to the packet's destination.  Each packet in
   the Send Buffer is logically associated with the time that it was
   placed into the Send Buffer and is discarded after residing in the
   Send Buffer for some timeout period; if necessary for preventing the
   Send Buffer from overflowing, a FIFO or other replacement strategy
   MAY also be used to evict packets even before they expire.

   While a packet remains in the Send Buffer, the node SHOULD
   occasionally initiate a new Route Discovery for the packet's
   destination address.  However, the node MUST limit the rate at which
   such new Route Discoveries for the same address are initiated, since
   it is possible that the destination node is not currently reachable.
   In particular, due to the limited wireless transmission range and the
   movement of the nodes in the network, the network may at times become
   partitioned, meaning that there is currently no sequence of nodes
   through which a packet could be forwarded to reach the destination.
   Depending on the movement pattern and the density of nodes in the
   network, such network partitions may be rare or may be common.

   If a new Route Discovery was initiated for each packet sent by a
   node in such a partitioned network, a large number of unproductive
   Route Request packets would be propagated throughout the subset
   of the ad hoc network reachable from this node.  In order to
   reduce the overhead from such Route Discoveries, a node SHOULD use
   an exponential back-off algorithm to limit the rate at which it
   initiates new Route Discoveries for the same target, doubling the
   timeout between each successive Discovery initiated for the same
   target.  If the node attempts to send additional data packets to this
   same destination node more frequently than this limit, the subsequent
   packets SHOULD be buffered in the Send Buffer until a Route Reply is
   received giving a route to this destination, but the node MUST NOT
   initiate a new Route Discovery until the minimum allowable interval
   between new Route Discoveries for this target has been reached.  This
   limitation on the maximum rate of Route Discoveries for the same
   target is similar to the mechanism required by Internet nodes to
   limit the rate at which ARP Requests are sent for any single target
   IP address [3].






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3.2. Basic DSR Route Maintenance

   When originating or forwarding a packet using a source route, each
   node transmitting the packet is responsible for confirming that data
   can flow over the link from that node to the next hop.  For example,
   in the situation shown below, node A has originated a packet for
   node E using a source route through intermediate nodes B, C, and D:

         +-----+     +-----+     +-----+     +-----+     +-----+
         |  A  |---->|  B  |---->|  C  |-->? |  D  |     |  E  |
         +-----+     +-----+     +-----+     +-----+     +-----+

   In this case, node A is responsible for the link from A to B, node B
   is responsible for the link from B to C, node C is responsible for
   the link from C to D, node D is responsible for the link from D to E.

   An acknowledgement can provide confirmation that a link is capable of
   carrying data, and in wireless networks, acknowledgements are often
   provided at no cost, either as an existing standard part of the MAC
   protocol in use (such as the link-layer acknowledgement frame defined
   by IEEE 802.11 [13]), or by a "passive acknowledgement" [18] (in
   which, for example, B confirms receipt at C by overhearing C transmit
   the packet when forwarding it on to D).

   If a built-in acknowledgement mechanism is not available, the
   node transmitting the packet can explicitly request a DSR-specific
   software acknowledgement be returned by the next node along the
   route; this software acknowledgement will normally be transmitted
   directly to the sending node, but if the link between these two nodes
   is unidirectional, this software acknowledgement could travel over a
   different, multi-hop path.

   After an acknowledgement has been received from some neighbor, a node
   MAY choose to not require acknowledgements from that neighbor for a
   brief period of time, unless the network interface connecting a node
   to that neighbor always receives an acknowledgement in response to
   unicast traffic.

   When a software acknowledgement is used, the acknowledgement
   request SHOULD be retransmitted up to a maximum number of times.
   A retransmission of the acknowledgement request can be sent as a
   separate packet, piggybacked on a retransmission of the original
   data packet, or piggybacked on any packet with the same next-hop
   destination that does not also contain a software acknowledgement.

   After the acknowledgement request has been retransmitted the maximum
   number of times, if no acknowledgement has been received, then the
   sender treats the link to this next-hop destination as currently
   "broken".  It SHOULD remove this link from its Route Cache and
   SHOULD return a "Route Error" to each node that has sent a packet



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   routed over that link since an acknowledgement was last received.
   For example, in the situation shown above, if C does not receive
   an acknowledgement from D after some number of requests, it would
   return a Route Error to A, as well as any other node that may have
   used the link from C to D since C last received an acknowledgement
   from D. Node A then removes this broken link from its cache; any
   retransmission of the original packet can be performed by upper
   layer protocols such as TCP, if necessary.  For sending such a
   retransmission or other packets to this same destination E, if A has
   in its Route Cache another route to E (for example, from additional
   Route Replies from its earlier Route Discovery, or from having
   overheard sufficient routing information from other packets), it
   can send the packet using the new route immediately.  Otherwise, it
   SHOULD perform a new Route Discovery for this target (subject to the
   back-off described in Section 3.1).






































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3.3. Additional Route Discovery Features

3.3.1. Caching Overheard Routing Information

   A node forwarding or otherwise overhearing any packet SHOULD add all
   usable routing information from that packet to its own Route Cache.
   The usefulness of routing information in a packet depends on the
   directionality characteristics of the physical medium (Section 2), as
   well as the MAC protocol being used.  Specifically, three distinct
   cases are possible:

    -  Links in the network frequently are capable of operating only
       unidirectionally (not bidirectionally), and the MAC protocol in
       use in the network is capable of transmitting unicast packets
       over unidirectional links.

    -  Links in the network occasionally are capable of operating only
       unidirectionally (not bidirectionally), but this unidirectional
       restriction on any link is not persistent, almost all links
       are physically bidirectional, and the MAC protocol in use in
       the network is capable of transmitting unicast packets over
       unidirectional links.

    -  The MAC protocol in use in the network is not capable of
       transmitting unicast packets over unidirectional links;
       only bidirectional links can be used by the MAC protocol for
       transmitting unicast packets.  For example, the IEEE 802.11
       Distributed Coordination Function (DCF) MAC protocol [13]
       is capable of transmitting a unicast packet only over a
       bidirectional link, since the MAC protocol requires the return of
       a link-level acknowledgement packet from the receiver and also
       optionally requires the bidirectional exchange of an RTS and CTS
       packet between the transmitter and receiver nodes.

   In the first case above, for example, the source route used in a data
   packet, the accumulated route record in a Route Request, or the route
   being returned in a Route Reply SHOULD all be cached by any node in
   the "forward" direction; any node SHOULD cache this information from
   any such packet received, whether the packet was addressed to this
   node, sent to a broadcast (or multicast) MAC address, or overheard
   while the node's network interface is in promiscuous mode.  However,
   the "reverse" direction of the links identified in such packet
   headers SHOULD NOT be cached.










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   For example, in the situation shown below, node A is using a source
   route to communicate with node E:

         +-----+     +-----+     +-----+     +-----+     +-----+
         |  A  |---->|  B  |---->|  C  |---->|  D  |---->|  E  |
         +-----+     +-----+     +-----+     +-----+     +-----+

   As node C forwards a data packet along the route from A to E, it
   SHOULD add to its cache the presence of the "forward" direction
   links that it learns from the headers of these packets, from itself
   to D and from D to E.  Node C SHOULD NOT, in this case, cache the
   "reverse" direction of the links identified in these packet headers,
   from itself back to B and from B to A, since these links might be
   unidirectional.

   In the second case above, in which links may occasionally operate
   unidirectionally, the links described above SHOULD be cached in both
   directions.  Furthermore, in this case, if node X overhears (e.g.,
   through promiscuous mode) a packet transmitted by node C that is
   using a source route from node A to E, node X SHOULD cache all of
   these links as well, also including the link from C to X over which
   it overheard the packet.

   In the final case, in which the MAC protocol requires physical
   bidirectionality for unicast operation, links from a source route
   SHOULD be cached in both directions, except when the packet also
   contains a Route Reply, in which case only the links already
   traversed in this source route SHOULD be cached, but the links not
   yet traversed in this route SHOULD NOT be cached.


3.3.2. Replying to Route Requests using Cached Routes

   A node receiving a Route Request for which it is not the target,
   searches its own Route Cache for a route to the target of the
   Request.  If found, the node generally returns a Route Reply to the
   initiator itself rather than forwarding the Route Request.  In the
   Route Reply, this node sets the route record to list the sequence of
   hops over which this copy of the Route Request was forwarded to it,
   concatenated with the source route to this target obtained from its
   own Route Cache.

   However, before transmitting a Route Reply packet that was generated
   using information from its Route Cache in this way, a node MUST
   verify that the resulting route being returned in the Route Reply,
   after this concatenation, contains no duplicate nodes listed in the
   route record.  For example, the figure below illustrates a case in






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   which a Route Request for target E has been received by node F, and
   node F already has in its Route Cache a route from itself to E:

         +-----+     +-----+                 +-----+     +-----+
         |  A  |---->|  B  |-               >|  D  |---->|  E  |
         +-----+     +-----+ \             / +-----+     +-----+
                              \           /
                               \ +-----+ /
                                >|  C  |-
                                 +-----+
                                   | ^
                                   v |
           Route Request         +-----+
           Route: A - B - C - F  |  F  |  Cache: C - D - E
                                 +-----+

   The concatenation of the accumulated route record from the Route
   Request and the cached route from F's Route Cache would include a
   duplicate node in passing from C to F and back to C.

   Node F in this case could attempt to edit the route to eliminate the
   duplication, resulting in a route from A to B to C to D and on to E,
   but in this case, node F would not be on the route that it returned
   in its own Route Reply.  DSR Route Discovery prohibits node F
   from returning such a Route Reply from its cache; this prohibition
   increases the probability that the resulting route is valid, since
   node F in this case should have received a Route Error if the route
   had previously stopped working.  Furthermore, this prohibition
   means that a future Route Error traversing the route is very likely
   to pass through any node that sent the Route Reply for the route
   (including node F), which helps to ensure that stale data is removed
   from caches (such as at F) in a timely manner; otherwise, the next
   Route Discovery initiated by A might also be contaminated by a Route
   Reply from F containing the same stale route.  If node F, due to this
   restriction on returning a Route Reply based on information from its
   Route Cache, does not return such a Route Reply, node F propagates
   the Route Request normally.


3.3.3. Preventing Route Reply Storms

   The ability for nodes to reply to a Route Request based on
   information in their Route Caches, as described in Section 3.3.2,
   could result in a possible Route Reply "storm" in some cases.  In
   particular, if a node broadcasts a Route Request for a target node
   for which the node's neighbors have a route in their Route Caches,
   each neighbor may attempt to send a Route Reply, thereby wasting
   bandwidth and possibly increasing the number of network collisions in
   the area.




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   For example, the figure below shows a situation in which nodes B, C,
   D, E, and F all receive A's Route Request for target G, and each has
   the indicated route cached for this target:

                +-----+                 +-----+
                |  D  |<               >|  C  |
                +-----+ \             / +-----+
      Cache: C - B - G   \           /  Cache: B - G
                          \ +-----+ /
                           -|  A  |-
                            +-----+\     +-----+     +-----+
                             |   |  \--->|  B  |     |  G  |
                            /     \      +-----+     +-----+
                           /       \     Cache: G
                          v         v
                    +-----+         +-----+
                    |  E  |         |  F  |
                    +-----+         +-----+
               Cache: F - B - G     Cache: B - G

   Normally, each of these nodes would attempt to reply from its own
   Route Cache, and they would thus all send their Route Replies at
   about the same time, since they all received the broadcast Route
   Request at about the same time.  Such simultaneous Route Replies
   from different nodes all receiving the Route Request may cause local
   congestion in the wireless network and may create packet collisions
   among some or all of these Replies if the MAC protocol in use does
   not provide sufficient collision avoidance for these packets.  In
   addition, it will often be the case that the different replies will
   indicate routes of different lengths, as shown in this example.

   In order to reduce these effects, if a node can put its network
   interface into promiscuous receive mode, it MAY delay sending its
   own Route Reply for a short period, while listening to see if the
   initiating node begins using a shorter route first.  Specifically,
   this node MAY delay sending its own Route Reply for a random period

      d = H * (h - 1 + r)

   where h is the length in number of network hops for the route to be
   returned in this node's Route Reply, r is a random floating point
   number between 0 and 1, and H is a small constant delay (at least
   twice the maximum wireless link propagation delay) to be introduced
   per hop.  This delay effectively randomizes the time at which each
   node sends its Route Reply, with all nodes sending Route Replies
   giving routes of length less than h sending their Replies before this
   node, and all nodes sending Route Replies giving routes of length
   greater than h sending their Replies after this node.





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   Within the delay period, this node promiscuously receives all
   packets, looking for data packets from the initiator of this Route
   Discovery destined for the target of the Discovery.  If such a data
   packet received by this node during the delay period uses a source
   route of length less than or equal to h, this node may infer that the
   initiator of the Route Discovery has already received a Route Reply
   giving an equally good or better route.  In this case, this node
   SHOULD cancel its delay timer and SHOULD NOT send its Route Reply for
   this Route Discovery.


3.3.4. Route Request Hop Limits

   Each Route Request message contains a "hop limit" that may be used
   to limit the number of intermediate nodes allowed to forward that
   copy of the Route Request.  This hop limit is implemented using the
   Time-to-Live (TTL) field in the IP header of the packet carrying
   the Route Request.  As the Request is forwarded, this limit is
   decremented, and the Request packet is discarded if the limit reaches
   zero before finding the target.  This Route Request hop limit can be
   used to implement a variety of algorithms for controlling the spread
   of a Route Request during a Route Discovery attempt.

   For example, a node MAY use this hop limit to implement a
   "non-propagating" Route Request as an initial phase of a Route
   Discovery.  A node using this technique sends its first Route Request
   attempt for some target node using a hop limit of 1, such that any
   node receiving the initial transmission of the Route Request will
   not forward the Request to other nodes by re-broadcasting it.  This
   form of Route Request is called a "non-propagating" Route Request;
   it provides an inexpensive method for determining if the target is
   currently a neighbor of the initiator or if a neighbor node has a
   route to the target cached (effectively using the neighbors' Route
   Caches as an extension of the initiator's own Route Cache).  If no
   Route Reply is received after a short timeout, then the node sends a
   "propagating" Route Request (i.e., with no hop limit) for the target
   node.

   As another example, a node MAY use this hop limit to implement an
   "expanding ring" search for the target [16].  A node using this
   technique sends an initial non-propagating Route Request as described
   above; if no Route Reply is received for it, the node originates
   another Route Request with a hop limit of 2.  For each Route Request
   originated, if no Route Reply is received for it, the node doubles
   the hop limit used on the previous attempt, to progressively explore
   for the target node without allowing the Route Request to propagate
   over the entire network.  However, this expanding ring search
   approach could have the effect of increasing the average latency of
   Route Discovery, since multiple Discovery attempts and timeouts may
   be needed before discovering a route to the target node.



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3.4. Additional Route Maintenance Features

3.4.1. Packet Salvaging

   When an intermediate node forwarding a packet detects through Route
   Maintenance that the next hop along the route for that packet is
   broken, if the node has another route to the packet's destination in
   its Route Cache, the node SHOULD "salvage" the packet rather than
   discarding it.  To salvage a packet, the node replaces the original
   source route on the packet with the route from its Route Cache.  The
   node then forwards the packet to the next node indicated along this
   source route.  For example, in the situation shown in the example of
   Section 3.2, if node C has another route cached to node E, it can
   salvage the packet by replacing the original route in the packet with
   this new route from its own Route Cache, rather than discarding the
   packet.

   When salvaging a packet, a count is maintained in the packet of the
   number of times that it has been salvaged, to prevent a single packet
   from being salvaged endlessly.  Otherwise, it could be possible for
   the packet to enter a routing loop, as different nodes repeatedly
   salvage the packet and replace the source route on the packet with
   routes to each other.

   As described in Section 3.2, an intermediate node, such as in this
   case, that detects through Route Maintenance that the next hop along
   the route for a packet that it is forwarding is broken, the node also
   SHOULD return a Route Error to the original sender of the packet,
   identifying the link over which the packet could not be forwarded.
   If the node sends this Route Error, it SHOULD originate the Route
   Error before salvaging the packet.


3.4.2. Queued Packets Destined over a Broken Link

   When an intermediate node forwarding a packet detects through Route
   Maintenance that the next-hop link along the route for that packet
   is broken, in addition to handling that packet as defined for Route
   Maintenance, the node SHOULD also handle in a similar way any pending
   packets that it has queued that are destined over this new broken
   link.  Specifically, the node SHOULD search its Network Interface
   Queue and Maintenance Buffer (Section 4.5) for packets for which
   the next-hop link is this new broken link.  For each such packet
   currently queued at this node, the node SHOULD process that packet as
   follows:

    -  Remove the packet from the node's Network Interface Queue and
       Maintenance Buffer.





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    -  Originate a Route Error for this packet to the original sender of
       the packet, using the procedure described in Section 8.3.4, as if
       the node had already reached the maximum number of retransmission
       attempts for that packet for Route Maintenance.  However, in
       sending such Route Errors for queued packets in response to a
       single new broken link detected, the node SHOULD send no more
       than one Route Error to each original sender of any of these
       packets.

    -  If the node has another route to the packet's IP
       Destination Address in its Route Cache, the node SHOULD
       salvage the packet as described in Section 8.3.6.  Otherwise, the
       node SHOULD discard the packet.


3.4.3. Automatic Route Shortening

   Source routes in use MAY be automatically shortened if one or more
   intermediate nodes in the route become no longer necessary.  This
   mechanism of automatically shortening routes in use is somewhat
   similar to the use of passive acknowledgements [18].  In particular,
   if a node is able to overhear a packet carrying a source route (e.g.,
   by operating its network interface in promiscuous receive mode), then
   this node examines the unexpended portion of that source route.  If
   this node is not the intended next-hop destination for the packet
   but is named in the later unexpended portion of the packet's source
   route, then it can infer that the intermediate nodes before itself in
   the source route are no longer needed in the route.  For example, the
   figure below illustrates an example in which node D has overheard a
   data packet being transmitted from B to C, for later forwarding to D
   and to E:

         +-----+     +-----+     +-----+     +-----+     +-----+
         |  A  |---->|  B  |---->|  C  |     |  D  |     |  E  |
         +-----+     +-----+     +-----+     +-----+     +-----+
                        \                       ^
                         \                     /
                          ---------------------

   In this case, this node (node D) SHOULD return a "gratuitous" Route
   Reply to the original sender of the packet (node A).  The Route
   Reply gives the shorter route as the concatenation of the portion of
   the original source route up through the node that transmitted the
   overheard packet (node B), plus the suffix of the original source
   route beginning with the node returning the gratuitous Route Reply
   (node D). In this example, the route returned in the gratuitous Route
   Reply message sent from D to A gives the new route as the sequence of
   hops from A to B to D to E.





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   When deciding whether to return a gratuitous Route Reply in this way,
   a node MAY factor in additional information beyond the fact that it
   was able to overhear the packet.  For example, the node MAY decide to
   return the gratuitous Route Reply only when the overheard packet is
   received with a signal strenth or signal-to-noise ratio above some
   specific threshold.  In addition, each node maintains a Gratuitous
   Route Reply Table, as described in Section 4.4, to limit the rate at
   which it originates gratuitous Route Replies for the same returned
   route.


3.4.4. Increased Spreading of Route Error Messages

   When a source node receives a Route Error for a data packet that
   it originated, this source node propagates this Route Error to its
   neighbors by piggybacking it on its next Route Request.  In this way,
   stale information in the caches of nodes around this source node will
   not generate Route Replies that contain the same invalid link for
   which this source node received the Route Error.

   For example, in the situation shown in the example of Section 3.2,
   node A learns from the Route Error message from C, that the link
   from C to D is currently broken.  It thus removes this link from
   its own Route Cache and initiates a new Route Discovery (if it has
   no other route to E in its Route Cache).  On the Route Request
   packet initiating this Route Discovery, node A piggybacks a copy
   of this Route Error, ensuring that the Route Error spreads well to
   other nodes, and guaranteeing that any Route Reply that it receives
   (including those from other node's Route Caches) in response to this
   Route Request does not contain a route that assumes the existence of
   this broken link.


3.5. Optional DSR Flow State Extension

   This section describes an optional, compatible extension to the DSR
   protocol, known as "flow state", that allows the routing of most
   packets without an explicit source route header in the packet.  The
   DSR flow state extension further reduces the overhead of the protocol
   yet still preserves the fundamental properties of DSR's operation.
   Once a sending node has discovered a source route such as through
   DSR's Route Discovery mechanism, the flow state mechanism allows the
   sending node to establish hop-by-hop forwarding state within the
   network, based on this source route, to enable each node along the
   route to forward the packet to the next hop based on the node's own
   local knowledge of the flow along which this packet is being routed.
   Flow state is dynamically initialized by the first packet using a
   source route and is then able to route subsequent packets along
   the same flow without use of a source route header in the packet.
   The state established at each hop along a flow is "soft state" and



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   thus automatically expires when no longer needed and can be quickly
   recreated as necessary.  Extending DSR's basic operation based on an
   explicit source route in the header of each packet routed, the flow
   state extension operates as a form of "implicit source routing" by
   preserving DSR's basic operation but removing the explicit source
   route from packets.


3.5.1. Flow Establishment

   A source node sending packets to some destination node MAY use the
   DSR flow state extension described here to establish a route to
   that destination as a flow.  A "flow" is a route from the source to
   the destination represented by hop-by-hop forwarding state within
   the nodes along the route.  Each flow is uniquely identified by a
   combination of the source node address, the destination node address,
   and a flow identifier (flow ID) chosen by the source node.

   Each flow ID is a 16-bit unsigned integer.  Comparison between
   different flow IDs MUST be performed modulo 2**16.  For example,
   using an implementation in the C programming language, a
   flow ID value (a) is greater than another flow ID value (b) if
   ((short)((a) - (b)) > 0), if a C language "short" data type is
   implemented as a 16-bit signed integer.

   A DSR Flow State header in a packet identifies the flow ID to
   be followed in forwarding that packet.  From a given source to
   some destination, any number of different flows MAY exist and
   be in use, for example following different sequences of hops to
   reach the destination.  One of these flows may be considered to be
   the "default" flow from that source to that destination.  A node
   receiving a packet with neither a DSR Options header specifying the
   route to be taken (with a Source Route option in the DSR Options
   header) nor a DSR Flow State header specifying the flow ID to be
   followed, is forwarded along the default flow for the source and
   destination addresses specified in the packet's IP header.

   In establishing a new flow, the source node generates a nonzero
   16-bit flow ID greater than any unexpired flow IDs for this
   (source, destination) pair.  If the source wishes for this flow to
   become the default flow, the low bit of the flow ID MUST be set (the
   flow ID is an odd number); otherwise, the low bit MUST NOT be set
   (the flow ID is an even number).

   The source node establishing the new flow then transmits a packet
   containing a DSR Options header with a Source Route option; to
   establish the flow, the source node also MUST include in the packet
   a DSR Flow State header, with the Flow ID field set to the chosen
   flow ID for the new flow, and MUST include a Timeout option in the
   DSR Options header, giving the lifetime after which state information



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   about this flow is to expire.  This packet will generally be a normal
   data packet being sent from this sender to the receiver (for example,
   the first packet sent after discovering the new route) but is also
   treated as a "flow establishment" packet.

   The source node records this flow in its Flow Table for future use,
   setting the TTL in this Flow Table entry to be the value used in the
   TTL field in the packet's IP header and setting the Lifetime in this
   entry to be the lifetime specified in the Timeout option in the DSR
   Options header.

   Any further packets sent with this flow ID before the timeout that
   also contain a DSR Options header with a Source Route option MUST use
   this same source route in the Source Route option.


3.5.2. Receiving and Forwarding Establishment Packets

   Packets intended to establish a flow, as described in Section 3.5.1,
   contain a DSR Options header with a Source Route option, and are
   forwarded along the indicated route.  A node implementing the DSR
   flow state extension, when receiving and forwarding such a DSR
   packet, also keeps some state in its own Flow Table to enable it
   to forward future packets that are sent along this flow with only
   the flow ID specified.  Specifically, if the packet also contains
   a DSR Flow State header, this packet SHOULD cause an entry to be
   established for this flow in the Flow Table of each node along the
   packet's route.

   The Hop Count field of the DSR Flow State header is also stored in
   the Flow Table, as is Lifetime option specified in the DSR Options
   header.

   If the Flow ID is odd and there is no flow in the Flow Table with
   Flow ID greater than the received Flow ID, set the default Flow ID
   for this (IP Source Address, IP Destination Address) pair to the
   received Flow ID, and the TTL of the packet is recorded.

   The Flow ID option is removed before final delivery of the packet.


3.5.3. Sending Packets Along Established Flows

   When a flow is established as described in Section 3.5.1, a packet
   is sent which establishes state in each node along the route.
   This state is soft; that is, the protocol contains mechanisms for
   recovering from the loss of this state.  However, the use of these
   mechanisms may result in reduced performance for packets sent
   along flows with forgotten state.  As a result, it is desirable
   to differentiate behavior based on whether or not the sender is



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   reasonably certain that the flow state exists on each node along
   the route.  We define a flow's state to be "established end-to-end"
   if the Flow Tables of all nodes on the route contains forwarding
   information for that flow.  While it is impossible to detect whether
   or not a flow's state has been established end-to-end without sending
   packets, implementations may make reasonable assumptions about the
   retention of flow state and the probability that an establishment
   packet has been seen by all nodes on the route.

   A source wishing to send a packet along an established flow
   determines if the flow state has been established end-to-end.  If
   it has not, a DSR Options header with Source Route option with this
   flow's route is added to the packet.  The source SHOULD set the
   Flow ID field of the DSR Flow State header either to the flow ID
   previously associated with this flow's route or to zero.  If it sets
   the Flow ID field to any other value, it MUST follow the processing
   steps in Section 3.5.1 for establishing a new flow ID. If it sets the
   Flow ID field to a nonzero value, it MUST include a Timeout option
   with a value not greater than the timeout remaining in the node's
   Flow Table, and if its TTL is not equal to that specified in the Flow
   Table, the flow MUST NOT be used as a default flow in the future.

   Once flow state has been established end-to-end for non-default
   flows, a source adds a DSR Flow State header to each packet it wishes
   to send along that flow, setting the Flow ID field to the flow ID of
   that flow.  A Source Route option SHOULD NOT be added to the packet,
   though if one is, then the steps for processing flows that have not
   been established end to end MUST be followed.

   Once flow state has been established end-to-end for default flows,
   sources sending packets with IP TTL equal to the TTL value in the
   local Flow Table entry for this flow then transmit the packet to the
   next hop.  In this case, a DSR Flow State header SHOULD NOT be added
   to the packet and a DSR Options header likewise SHOULD NOT be added
   to the packet; though if one is, the steps for sending packets along
   non-default flows MUST be followed.  If the IP TTL is not equal to
   the TTL value in the local Flow Table, then the steps for processing
   a non-default flow MUST be followed.


3.5.4. Receiving and Forwarding Packets Sent Along Established Flows

   The handling of packets containing a DSR Options header with
   both a nonzero Flow ID and a Source Route option is described in
   Section 3.5.2.  The Flow ID is ignored when it is equal to zero.
   This section only describes handling of packets without a Source
   Route option.

   If a node receives a packet with a Flow ID in the DSR Options
   header that indicates an unexpired flow in the node's Flow Table, it



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   increments the Hop Count in the DSR Options header and forwards the
   packet to the next hop indicated in the Flow Table.

   If a node receives a packet with a Flow ID that indicates a flow not
   currently in the node's Flow Table, it returns a Route Error of type
   UNKNOWN_FLOW with Error Destination and IP Destination addresses
   copied from the IP Source of the packet triggering the error.  This
   error packet SHOULD be MAC-destined to the node from which it was
   received; if it cannot confirm reachability of the previous node
   using Route Maintenance, it MUST send the error as described in
   Section 8.1.1.  The node sending the error SHOULD attempt to salvage
   the packet triggering the Route Error.  If it does salvage the
   packet, it MUST zero the Flow ID.

   If a node receives a packet with no DSR Options header and no DSR
   Flow State header, it checks the Default Flow Table.  If there is
   an entry, it forwards to the next hop indicated in the Flow Table
   for the default flow.  Otherwise, it returns a Route Error of type
   DEFAULT_FLOW_UNKNOWN with Error Destination and IP Destination
   addresses copied from the IP Source of the packet triggering the
   error.  This error packet SHOULD be MAC-destined to the node from
   which it was received; if it cannot confirm reachability of the
   previous node using Route Maintenance, it MUST send the error as
   described in Section 8.1.1.  The node sending the error SHOULD
   attempt to salvage the packet triggering the Route Error.  If it does
   salvage the packet, it MUST zero the Flow ID.


3.5.5. Processing Route Errors

   When a node receives a Route Error of type Unknown Flow, it marks
   the flow to indicate that it has not been established end-to-end.
   When a node receives a Route Error of type Default Flow Unknown, it
   marks the default flow to indicate that it has not been established
   end-to-end.


3.5.6. Interaction with Automatic Route Shortening

   Because a full source route is not carried in every packet, an
   alternative method for performing automatic route shortening is
   necessary for packets using the flow state extension.  Instead, nodes
   promiscuously listen to packets, and if a node receives a packet
   with (IP Source, IP Destination, Flow ID) found in the Flow Table
   but the MAC-layer (next hop) destination address of the packet is
   not this node, the node determines whether the packet was sent by
   an upstream or downstream node by examining the Hop Count field in
   the DSR Flow State header.  If the Hop Count field is less than the
   expected Hop Count at this node, the node assumes that the packet
   was sent by an upstream node, and adds an entry for the packet to



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   its Automatic Route Shortening Table, possibly evicting an earlier
   entry added to this table.  When the packet is then sent to that node
   for forwarding, the node finds that it has previously received the
   packet by checking its Automatic Route Shortening Table, and returns
   a gratuitous Route Reply to the source of the packet.


3.5.7. Loop Detection

   If a node receives a packet for forwarding with adjusted TTL lower
   than expected and default flow forwarding is being used, it sends
   a Route Error of type Default Flow Unknown back to the IP source.
   It can attempt delivery of the packet by normal salvaging (subject
   to constraints described in Section 8.6.7) or by inserting a
   Flow ID option with Special TTL extension based on what that node's
   understanding of the default Flow ID and TTL.


3.5.8. Acknowledgement Destination

   In packets sent using Flow State, the previous hop is not necessarily
   known.  In order to allow nodes that have lost flow state to
   determine the previous hop, the address of the previous hop can
   optionally be stored in the Acknowledgement Request.  This extension
   SHOULD NOT be used when a Source Route option is present, MAY be used
   when flow state routing is used without a Source Route option, and
   SHOULD be used before Route Maintenance determines that the next-hop
   destination is unreachable.


3.5.9. Crash Recovery

   Each node has a maximum Timeout value that it can possibly generate.
   This can be based on the largest number that can be set in a timeout
   option (2**16 - 1 seconds) or set in system software.  When a node
   crashes, it does not establish new flows for a period equal to this
   maximum Timeout value, in order to avoid colliding with its old
   Flow IDs.


3.5.10. Rate Limiting

   Flow IDs can be assigned with a counter.  More specifically, the
   "Current Flow ID" is kept.  When a new default Flow ID needs to be
   assigned, if the Current Flow ID is odd, the Current Flow ID is
   assigned as the Flow ID and the Current Flow ID is incremented by
   one; if the Current Flow ID is even, one plus the Current Flow ID is
   assigned as the Flow ID and the Current Flow ID is incremented by
   two.




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   If Flow IDs are assigned in this way, one algorithm for avoiding
   duplicate, unexpired Flow IDs is to rate limit new Flow IDs to an
   average rate of n assignments per second, where n is 2**15 divided by
   the maximum Timeout value.  This can be averaged over any period not
   exceeding the maximum Timeout value.


3.5.11. Interaction with Packet Salvaging

   Salvaging is modified to zero the Flow ID field.  Also, any time the
   this document refers to the Salvage field in the Source Route option
   in a DSR Options header, packets without a Source Route option are
   considered to have the value zero in the Salvage field.








































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4. Conceptual Data Structures

   This document describes the operation of the DSR protocol in terms
   of a number of conceptual data structures.  This section describes
   each of these data structures and provides an overview of its use
   in the protocol.  In an implementation of the protocol, these data
   structures MAY be implemented in any manner consistent with the
   external behavior described in this document.


4.1. Route Cache

   All ad hoc network routing information needed by a node implementing
   DSR is stored in that node's Route Cache.  Each node in the network
   maintains its own Route Cache.  A node adds information to its
   Route Cache as it learns of new links between nodes in the ad hoc
   network; for example, a node may learn of new links when it receives
   a packet carrying a Route Request, Route Reply, or DSR source route.
   Likewise, a node removes information from its Route Cache as it
   learns that existing links in the ad hoc network have broken; for
   example, a node may learn of a broken link when it receives a packet
   carrying a Route Error or through the link-layer retransmission
   mechanism reporting a failure in forwarding a packet to its next-hop
   destination.

   Anytime a node adds new information to its Route Cache, the node
   SHOULD check each packet in its own Send Buffer (Section 4.2) to
   determine whether a route to that packet's IP Destination Address
   now exists in the node's Route Cache (including the information just
   added to the Cache).  If so, the packet SHOULD then be sent using
   that route and removed from the Send Buffer.

   It is possible to interface a DSR network with other networks,
   external to this DSR network.  Such external networks may, for
   example, be the Internet, or may be other ad hoc networks routed
   with a routing protocol other than DSR.  Such external networks may
   also be other DSR networks that are treated as external networks
   in order to improve scalability.  The complete handling of such
   external networks is beyond the scope of this document.  However,
   this document specifies a minimal set of requirements and features
   necessary to allow nodes only implementing this specification to
   interoperate correctly with nodes implementing interfaces to such
   external networks.  This minimal set of requirements and features
   involve the First Hop External (F) and Last Hop External (L) bits
   in a DSR Source Route option (Section 6.7) and a Route Reply option
   (Section 6.3) in a packet's DSR Options header (Section 6).  These
   requirements also include the addition of an External flag bit
   tagging each link in the Route Cache, copied from the First Hop
   External (F) and Last Hop External (L) bits in the DSR Source Route
   option or Route Reply option from which this link was learned.



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   The Route Cache SHOULD support storing more than one route to each
   destination.  In searching the Route Cache for a route to some
   destination node, the Route Cache is indexed by destination node
   address.  The following properties describe this searching function
   on a Route Cache:

    -  Each implementation of DSR at any node MAY choose any appropriate
       strategy and algorithm for searching its Route Cache and
       selecting a "best" route to the destination from among those
       found.  For example, a node MAY choose to select the shortest
       route to the destination (the shortest sequence of hops), or it
       MAY use an alternate metric to select the route from the Cache.

    -  However, if there are multiple cached routes to a destination,
       the selection of routes when searching the Route Cache MUST
       prefer routes that do not have the External flag set on any link.
       This preference will select routes that lead directly to the
       target node over routes that attempt to reach the target via any
       external networks connected to the DSR ad hoc network.

    -  In addition, any route selected when searching the Route Cache
       MUST NOT have the External bit set for any links other than
       possibly the first link, the last link, or both; the External bit
       MUST NOT be set for any intermediate hops in the route selected.

   An implementation of a Route Cache MAY provide a fixed capacity
   for the cache, or the cache size MAY be variable.  The following
   properties describe the management of available space within a node's
   Route Cache:

    -  Each implementation of DSR at each node MAY choose any
       appropriate policy for managing the entries in its Route Cache,
       such as when limited cache capacity requires a choice of which
       entries to retain in the Cache.  For example, a node MAY chose a
       "least recently used" (LRU) cache replacement policy, in which
       the entry last used longest ago is discarded from the cache if a
       decision needs to be made to allow space in the cache for some
       new entry being added.

    -  However, the Route Cache replacement policy SHOULD allow routes
       to be categorized based upon "preference", where routes with a
       higher preferences are less likely to be removed from the cache.
       For example, a node could prefer routes for which it initiated
       a Route Discovery over routes that it learned as the result of
       promiscuous snooping on other packets.  In particular, a node
       SHOULD prefer routes that it is presently using over those that
       it is not.






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   Any suitable data structure organization, consistent with this
   specification, MAY be used to implement the Route Cache in any node.
   For example, the following two types of organization are possible:

    -  In DSR, the route returned in each Route Reply that is received
       by the initiator of a Route Discovery (or that is learned from
       the header of overhead packets, as described in Section 8.1.4)
       represents a complete path (a sequence of links) leading to the
       destination node.  By caching each of these paths separately,
       a "path cache" organization for the Route Cache can be formed.
       A path cache is very simple to implement and easily guarantees
       that all routes are loop-free, since each individual route from
       a Route Reply or Route Request or used in a packet is loop-free.
       To search for a route in a path cache data structure, the sending
       node can simply search its Route Cache for any path (or prefix of
       a path) that leads to the intended destination node.

       This type of organization for the Route Cache in DSR has been
       extensively studied through simulation [5, 10, 14, 21] and
       through implementation of DSR in a mobile outdoor testbed under
       significant workload [22, 23, 24].

    -  Alternatively, a "link cache" organization could be used for the
       Route Cache, in which each individual link (hop) in the routes
       returned in Route Reply packets (or otherwise learned from the
       header of overhead packets) is added to a unified graph data
       structure of this node's current view of the network topology.
       To search for a route in link cache, the sending node must use
       a more complex graph search algorithm, such as the well-known
       Dijkstra's shortest-path algorithm, to find the current best path
       through the graph to the destination node.  Such an algorithm is
       more difficult to implement and may require significantly more
       CPU time to execute.

       However, a link cache organization is more powerful than a path
       cache organization, in its ability to effectively utilize all of
       the potential information that a node might learn about the state
       of the network.  In particular, links learned from different
       Route Discoveries or from the header of any overheard packets can
       be merged together to form new routes in the network, but this
       is not possible in a path cache due to the separation of each
       individual path in the cache.

       This type of organization for the Route Cache in DSR, including
       the effect of a range of implementation choices, has been studied
       through detailed simulation [10].

   The choice of data structure organization to use for the Route Cache
   in any DSR implementation is a local matter for each node and affects




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   only performance; any reasonable choice of organization for the Route
   Cache does not affect either correctness or interoperability.

   Each entry in the Route Cache SHOULD have a timeout associated
   with it, to allow that entry to be deleted if not used within some
   time.  The particular choice of algorithm and data structure used
   to implement the Route Cache SHOULD be considered in choosing the
   timeout for entries in the Route Cache.  The configuration variable
   RouteCacheTimeout defined in Section 9 specifies the timeout to be
   applied to entries in the Route Cache, although it is also possible
   to instead use an adaptive policy in choosing timeout values rather
   than using a single timeout setting for all entries; for example, the
   Link-MaxLife cache design (below) uses an adaptive timeout algorithm
   and does not use the RouteCacheTimeout configuration variable.

   As guidance to implementors, Appendix A describes a type of link
   cache known as "Link-MaxLife" that has been shown to outperform
   other types of link caches and path caches studied in detailed
   simulation [10].  Link-MaxLife is an adaptive link cache in which
   each link in the cache has a timeout that is determined dynamically
   by the caching node according to its observed past behavior of the
   two nodes at the ends of the link; in addition, when selecting a
   route for a packet being sent to some destination, among cached
   routes of equal length (number of hops) to that destination,
   Link-MaxLife selects the route with the longest expected lifetime
   (highest minimum timeout of any link in the route).  Use of
   the Link-MaxLife design for the Route Cache is recommended in
   implementations of DSR.


4.2. Send Buffer

   The Send Buffer of a node implementing DSR is a queue of packets that
   cannot be sent by that node because it does not yet have a source
   route to each such packet's destination.  Each packet in the Send
   Buffer is logically associated with the time that it was placed into
   the Buffer, and SHOULD be removed from the Send Buffer and silently
   discarded after a period of SendBufferTimeout after initially being
   placed in the Buffer.  If necessary, a FIFO strategy SHOULD be used
   to evict packets before they timeout to prevent the buffer from
   overflowing.

   Subject to the rate limiting defined in Section 8.2, a Route
   Discovery SHOULD be initiated as often as possible for the
   destination address of any packets residing in the Send Buffer.








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4.3. Route Request Table

   The Route Request Table of a node implementing DSR records
   information about Route Requests that have been recently originated
   or forwarded by this node.  The table is indexed by IP address.

   The Route Request Table on a node records the following information
   about nodes to which this node has initiated a Route Request:

    -  The Time-to-Live (TTL) field used in the IP header of the Route
       Request for the last Route Discovery initiated by this node for
       that target node.  This value allows the node to implement a
       variety of algorithms for controlling the spread of its Route
       Request on each Route Discovery initiated for a target.  As
       examples, two possible algorithms for this use of the TTL field
       are described in Section 3.3.4.

    -  The time that this node last originated a Route Request for that
       target node.

    -  The number of consecutive Route Discoveries initiated for this
       target since receiving a valid Route Reply giving a route to that
       target node.

    -  The remaining amount of time before which this node MAY next
       attempt at a Route Discovery for that target node.  When the
       node initiates a new Route Discovery for this target node, this
       field in the Route Request Table entry for that target node is
       initialized to the timeout for that Route Discovery, after which
       the node MAY initiate a new Discovery for that target.  Until
       a valid Route Reply is received for this target node address,
       a node MUST implement a back-off algorithm in determining this
       timeout value for each successive Route Discovery initiated
       for this target using the same Time-to-Live (TTL) value in the
       IP header of the Route Request packet.  The timeout between
       such consecutive Route Discovery initiations SHOULD increase by
       doubling the timeout value on each new initiation.

   In addition, the Route Request Table on a node also records the
   following information about initiator nodes from which this node has
   received a Route Request:

    -  A FIFO cache of size RequestTableIds entries containing the
       Identification value and target address from the most recent
       Route Requests received by this node from that initiator node.

   Nodes SHOULD use an LRU policy to manage the entries in their Route
   Request Table.





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   The number of Identification values to retain in each Route
   Request Table entry, RequestTableIds, MUST NOT be unlimited, since,
   in the worst case, when a node crashes and reboots, the first
   RequestTableIds Route Discoveries it initiates after rebooting
   could appear to be duplicates to the other nodes in the network.
   In addition, a node SHOULD base its initial Identification value,
   used for Route Discoveries after rebooting, on a battery backed-up
   clock or other persistent memory device, in order to help avoid
   any possible such delay in successfully discovering new routes
   after rebooting; if no such source of initial Identification
   value is available, a node after rebooting SHOULD base its initial
   Identification value on a random number.


4.4. Gratuitous Route Reply Table

   The Gratuitous Route Reply Table of a node implementing DSR records
   information about "gratuitous" Route Replies sent by this node as
   part of automatic route shortening.  As described in Section 3.4.3,
   a node returns a gratuitous Route Reply when it overhears a packet
   transmitted by some node, for which the node overhearing the
   packet was not the intended next-hop node but was named later in
   the unexpended hops of the source route in that packet; the node
   overhearing the packet returns a gratuitous Route Reply to the
   original sender of the packet, listing the shorter route (not
   including the hops of the source route "skipped over" by this
   packet).  A node uses its Gratuitous Route Reply Table to limit the
   rate at which it originates gratuitous Route Replies to the same
   original sender for the same node from which it overheard a packet to
   trigger the gratuitous Route Reply.

   Each entry in the Gratuitous Route Reply Table of a node contains the
   following fields:

    -  The address of the node to which this node originated a
       gratuitous Route Reply.

    -  The address of the node from which this node overheard the packet
       triggering that gratuitous Route Reply.

    -  The remaining time before which this entry in the Gratuitous
       Route Reply Table expires and SHOULD be deleted by the node.
       When a node creates a new entry in its Gratuitous Route Reply
       Table, the timeout value for that entry should be initialized to
       the value GratReplyHoldoff.

   When a node overhears a packet that would trigger a gratuitous
   Route Reply, if a corresponding entry already exists in the node's
   Gratuitous Route Reply Table, then the node SHOULD NOT send a
   gratuitous Route Reply for that packet.  Otherwise (no corresponding



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   entry already exists), the node SHOULD create a new entry in its
   Gratuitous Route Reply Table to record that gratuitous Route Reply,
   with a timeout value of GratReplyHoldoff.


4.5. Network Interface Queue and Maintenance Buffer

   Depending on factors such as the structure and organization of
   the operating system, protocol stack implementation, network
   interface device driver, and network interface hardware, a packet
   being transmitted could be queued in a variety of ways.  For
   example, outgoing packets from the network protocol stack might be
   queued at the operating system or link layer, before transmission
   by the network interface.  The network interface might also
   provide a retransmission mechanism for packets, such as occurs in
   IEEE 802.11 [13]; the DSR protocol, as part of Route Maintenance,
   requires limited buffering of packets already transmitted for
   which the reachability of the next-hop destination has not yet been
   determined.  The operation of DSR is defined here in terms of two
   conceptual data structures that together incorporate this queuing
   behavior.

   The Network Interface Queue of a node implementing DSR is an output
   queue of packets from the network protocol stack waiting to be
   transmitted by the network interface; for example, in the 4.4BSD
   Unix network protocol stack implementation, this queue for a network
   interface is represented as a "struct ifqueue" [36].  This queue is
   used to hold packets while the network interface is in the process of
   transmitting another packet.

   The Maintenance Buffer of a node implementing DSR is a queue of
   packets sent by this node that are awaiting next-hop reachability
   confirmation as part of Route Maintenance.  For each packet in
   the Maintenance Buffer, a node maintains a count of the number
   of retransmissions and the time of the last retransmission.  The
   Maintenance Buffer MAY be of limited size; when adding a new packet
   to the Maintenance Buffer, if the buffer size is insufficient to hold
   the new packet, the new packet SHOULD be silently discarded.  If,
   after MaxMaintRexmt attempts to confirm next-hop reachability of
   some node, no confirmation is received, all packets in this node's
   Maintenance Buffer with this next-hop destination SHOULD be removed
   from the Maintenance Buffer; in this case, the node also SHOULD
   originate a Route Error for this packet to each original source of
   a packet removed in this way (Section 8.3) and SHOULD salvage each
   packet removed in this way (Section 8.3.6) if it has another route
   to that packet's IP Destination Address in its Route Cache.  The
   definition of MaxMaintRexmt conceptually includes any retransmissions
   that might be attempted for a packet at the link layer or within
   the network interface hardware.  The timeout value to use for each
   transmission attempt for an acknowledgement request depends on the



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   type of acknowledgement mechanism used by Route Maintenance for that
   attempt, as described in Section 8.3.


4.6. Blacklist

   When a node using the DSR protocol is connected through an
   interface that requires physically bidirectional links for unicast
   transmission, it MUST maintain a blacklist.  A Blacklist is a table,
   indexed by neighbor address, that indicates that the link between
   this node and the specified neighbor may not be bidirectional.  A
   node places another node's address in this list when it believes that
   broadcast packets from that other node reach this node, but that
   unicast transmission between the two nodes is not possible.  For
   example, if a node forwarding a Route Reply discovers that the next
   hop is unreachable, it places that next hop in the node's blacklist.

   Once a node discovers that it can communicate bidirectionally with
   one of the nodes listed in the blacklist, it SHOULD remove that
   node from the blacklist.  For example, if node A has node B in its
   blacklist, but A hears B forward a Route Request with a hop list
   indicating that the broadcast from A to B was successful, then A
   SHOULD remove B from its blacklist.

   A node MUST associate a state with each node in the blacklist,
   specifying whether the unidirectionality is "questionable"
   or "probable".  Each time the unreachability is positively
   determined, the node SHOULD set the state to "probable".  After the
   unreachability has not been positively determined for some amount of
   time, the state should revert to "questionable".  A node MAY expire
   nodes from its blacklist after a reasonable amount of time.






















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5. Additional Conceptual Data Structures for Flow State Extension

   This section defines additional conceptual data structures used by
   the optional "flow state" extension to DSR.  In an implementation of
   the protocol, these data structures MAY be implemented in any manner
   consistent with the external behavior described in this document.


5.1. Flow Table

   A node implementing the flow state extension MUST implement a Flow
   Table or other data structure consistent with the external behavior
   described in this section.  A node not implementing the flow state
   extension SHOULD NOT implement a Flow Table.

   The Flow Table records information about flows from which packets
   recently have been sent or forwarded by this node.  The table is
   indexed by a triple (IP Source Address, IP Destination Address,
   Flow ID), where Flow ID is a 16-bit token assigned by the source as
   described in Section 3.5.1.  Each entry in the Flow Table contains
   the following fields:

    -  The MAC address of the next-hop node along this flow.

    -  An indication of the outgoing network interface on this node to
       be used in transmitting packets along this flow.

    -  The MAC address of the previous-hop node along this flow.

    -  An indication of the network interface on this node from which
       packets from that previous-hop node are received.

    -  A timeout after which this entry in the Flow Table MUST be
       deleted.

    -  The expected value of the Hop Count field in the DSR Flow State
       header for packets received for forwarding along this field (for
       use with packets containing a DSR Flow State header).

    -  An indication of whether or not this flow can be used as a
       default flow for packets originated by this node (the flow IP
       MUST be odd).

    -  The entry SHOULD record the complete source route for the flow.
       (Nodes not recording the complete source route cannot participate
       in Automatic Route Shortening.)

    -  The entry MAY contain a field recording the time this entry was
       last used.




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   The entry MUST be deleted when its timeout expires.


5.2. Automatic Route Shortening Table

   A node implementing the flow state extension SHOULD implement an
   Automatic Route Shortening Table or other data structure consistent
   with the external behavior described in this section.  A node
   not implementing the flow state extension SHOULD NOT implement an
   Automatic Route Shortening Table.

   The Automatic Route Shortening Table records information about
   received packets for which Automatic Route Shortening may be
   possible.  The table is indexed by a triple (IP Source Address, IP
   Destination Address, Flow ID). Each entry in the Automatic Route
   Shortening Table contains a list of (packet identifier, Hop Count)
   pairs for that flow.  The packet identifier in the list may be any
   unique identifier for the received packet; for example, for IPv4
   packets, the combination of the following fields from the packet's
   IP header MAY be used as a unique identifier for the packet:  Source
   Address, Destination Address, Identification, Protocol, Fragment,
   and Total Length.  The Hop Count in the list in the entry is copied
   from the Hop Count field in the DSR Flow State header of the received
   packet for which this table entry was created.  Any packet identifier
   SHOULD appear at most once in the list in an entry, and this list
   item SHOULD record the minimum Hop Count value received for that
   packet (if the wireless signal strength or signal-to-noise ratio at
   which a packet is received is available to the DSR implementation
   in a node, the node MAY, for example, remember instead in this list
   the minimum Hop Count value for which the received packet's signal
   strength or signal-to-noise ratio exceeded some threshold).

   Space in the Automatic Route Shortening Table of a node MAY be
   dynamically managed by any local algorithm at the node.  For example,
   in order to limit the amount of memory used to store the table, any
   existing entry MAY be deleted at any time, and the number of packets
   listed in each entry MAY be limited.  However, when reclaiming space
   in the table, nodes SHOULD favor retaining information about more
   flows in the table rather than more packets listed in each entry
   in the table, as long as at least the listing of some small number
   of packets (e.g., 3) can be retained in each entry.  In addition,
   subject to any implementation limit on the number of packets listed
   in each entry in the table, information about a packet listed in an
   entry SHOULD be retained until the expiration of the packet's IP TTL.


5.3. Default Flow ID Table

   A node implementing the flow state extension MUST implement a Default
   Flow Table or other data structure consistent with the external



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   behavior described in this section.  A node not implementing the flow
   state extension SHOULD NOT implement a Default Flow Table.

   For each (source, destination) pair for which a node forwards
   packets, the node MUST record:

    -  the largest odd Flow ID value seen

    -  the time at which all of this (source, destination) pair's flows
       that are forwarded by this node expire

    -  the current default Flow ID

    -  a flag indicating whether or not the current default Flow ID is
       valid

   If a node deletes this record for a (source, destination) pair,
   it MUST also delete all Flow Table entries for that (source,
   destination) pair.  Nodes MUST delete table entries if all of this
   (source, destination) pair's flows that are forwarded by this node
   expire.
































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6. DSR Options Header Format

   The Dynamic Source Routing protocol makes use of a special header
   carrying control information that can be included in any existing
   IP packet.  This DSR Options header in a packet contains a small
   fixed-sized, 4-octet portion, followed by a sequence of zero or more
   DSR options carrying optional information.  The end of the sequence
   of DSR options in the DSR Options header is implied by total length
   of the DSR Options header.

   For IPv4, the DSR Options header MUST immediately follow the IP
   header in the packet.  (If a Hop-by-Hop Options extension header, as
   defined in IPv6 [7], becomes defined for IPv4, the DSR Options header
   MUST immediately follow the Hop-by-Hop Options extension header, if
   one is present in the packet, and MUST otherwise immediately follow
   the IP header.)

   To add a DSR Options header to a packet, the DSR Options header is
   inserted following the packet's IP header, before any following
   header such as a traditional (e.g., TCP or UDP) transport layer
   header.  Specifically, the Protocol field in the IP header is used
   to indicate that a DSR Options header follows the IP header, and the
   Next Header field in the DSR Options header is used to indicate the
   type of protocol header (such as a transport layer header) following
   the DSR Options header.

   If any headers follow the DSR Options header in a packet, the total
   length of the DSR Options header (and thus the total, combined length
   of all DSR options present) MUST be a multiple of 4 octets.  This
   requirement preserves the alignment of these following headers in the
   packet.






















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6.1. Fixed Portion of DSR Options Header

   The fixed portion of the DSR Options header is used to carry
   information that must be present in any DSR Options header.  This
   fixed portion of the DSR Options header has the following format:

    0                   1                   2                   3
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |  Next Header  |F|   Reserved  |        Payload Length         |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   .                                                               .
   .                            Options                            .
   .                                                               .
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

      Next Header

         8-bit selector.  Identifies the type of header immediately
         following the DSR Options header.  Uses the same values as the
         IPv4 Protocol field [32].

      Flow State Header (F)

         Flag bit.  MUST be set to 0.  This bit is set in a DSR Flow
         State header (Section 7.1) and clear in a DSR Options header.

      Reserved

         MUST be sent as 0 and ignored on reception.

      Payload Length

         The length of the DSR Options header, excluding the 4-octet
         fixed portion.  The value of the Payload Length field defines
         the total length of all options carried in the DSR Options
         header.

      Options

         Variable-length field; the length of the Options field is
         specified by the Payload Length field in this DSR Options
         header.  Contains one or more pieces of optional information
         (DSR options), encoded in type-length-value (TLV) format (with
         the exception of the Pad1 option, described in Section 6.8).

   The placement of DSR options following the fixed portion of the DSR
   Options header MAY be padded for alignment.  However, due to the
   typically limited available wireless bandwidth in ad hoc networks,




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   this padding is not required, and receiving nodes MUST NOT expect
   options within a DSR Options header to be aligned.

   Each DSR option is assigned a unique Option Type code.  The most
   significant 3 bits (that is, Option Type & 0xE0) allow a node not
   implementing processing for this Option Type value to behave in the
   manner closest to correct for that type:

    -  The most significant bit in the Option Type value (that is,
       Option Type & 0x80) represents whether or not a node receiving
       this Option Type SHOULD respond to such a DSR option with a Route
       Error of type OPTION_NOT_SUPPORTED, except that such a Route
       Error SHOULD never be sent in response to a packet containing a
       Route Request option.

    -  The two follow bits in the Option Type value (that is,
       Option Type & 0x60) are a two-bit field indicating how such a
       node that does not support this Option Type MUST process the
       packet:

          00 = Ignore Option
          01 = Remove Option
          10 = Mark Option
          11 = Drop Packet

       When these two bits are zero (that is, Option Type & 0x60 == 0),
       a node not implementing processing for that Option Type
       MUST use the Opt Data Len field to skip over the option and
       continue processing.  When these two bits are 01 (that is,
       Option Type & 0x60 == 0x20), a node not implementing processing
       for that Option Type MUST use the Opt Data Len field to remove
       the option from the packet and continue processing as if the
       option had not been included in the received packet.  When these
       two bits are 10 (that is, Option Type & 0x60 == 0x40), a node not
       implementing processing for that Option Type MUST set the most
       significant bit following the Opt Data Len field, MUST ignore the
       contents of the option using the Opt Data Len field, and MUST
       continue processing the packet.  Finally, when these two bits are
       11 (that is, Option Type & 0x60 == 0x60), a node not implementing
       processing for that Option Type MUST drop the packet.













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   The following types of DSR options are defined in this document for
   use within a DSR Options header:

    -  Route Request option (Section 6.2)

    -  Route Reply option (Section 6.3)

    -  Route Error option (Section 6.4)

    -  Acknowledgement Request option (Section 6.5)

    -  Acknowledgement option (Section 6.6)

    -  DSR Source Route option (Section 6.7)

    -  Pad1 option (Section 6.8)

    -  PadN option (Section 6.9)



































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6.2. Route Request Option

   The Route Request option in a DSR Options header is encoded as
   follows:

    0                   1                   2                   3
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |  Option Type  |  Opt Data Len |         Identification        |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                         Target Address                        |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                           Address[1]                          |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                           Address[2]                          |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                              ...                              |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                           Address[n]                          |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

   IP fields:

      Source Address

         MUST be set to the address of the node originating this packet.
         Intermediate nodes that retransmit the packet to propagate the
         Route Request MUST NOT change this field.

      Destination Address

         MUST be set to the IP limited broadcast address
         (255.255.255.255).

      Hop Limit (TTL)

         MAY be varied from 1 to 255, for example to implement
         non-propagating Route Requests and Route Request expanding-ring
         searches (Section 3.3.4).

   Route Request fields:

      Option Type

         2

      Opt Data Len

         8-bit unsigned integer.  Length of the option, in octets,
         excluding the Option Type and Opt Data Len fields.



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      Identification

         A unique value generated by the initiator (original sender) of
         the Route Request.  Nodes initiating a Route Request generate
         a new Identification value for each Route Request, for example
         based on a sequence number counter of all Route Requests
         initiated by the node.

         This value allows a receiving node to determine whether it
         has recently seen a copy of this Route Request:  if this
         Identification value is found by this receiving node in its
         Route Request Table (in the cache of Identification values
         in the entry there for this initiating node), this receiving
         node MUST discard the Route Request.  When propagating a Route
         Request, this field MUST be copied from the received copy of
         the Route Request being propagated.

      Target Address

         The address of the node that is the target of the Route
         Request.

      Address[1..n]

         Address[i] is the address of the i-th node recorded in the
         Route Request option.  The address given in the Source Address
         field in the IP header is the address of the initiator of
         the Route Discovery and MUST NOT be listed in the Address[i]
         fields; the address given in Address[1] is thus the address
         of the first node on the path after the initiator.  The
         number of addresses present in this field is indicated by the
         Opt Data Len field in the option (n = (Opt Data Len - 6) / 4).
         Each node propagating the Route Request adds its own address to
         this list, increasing the Opt Data Len value by 4 octets.

   The Route Request option MUST NOT appear more than once within a DSR
   Options header.
















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6.3. Route Reply Option

   The Route Reply option in a DSR Options header is encoded as follows:

    0                   1                   2                   3
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
                   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
                   |  Option Type  |  Opt Data Len |L|   Reserved  |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                           Address[1]                          |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                           Address[2]                          |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                              ...                              |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                           Address[n]                          |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

   IP fields:

      Source Address

         Set to the address of the node sending the Route Reply.
         In the case of a node sending a reply from its Route
         Cache (Section 3.3.2) or sending a gratuitous Route Reply
         (Section 3.4.3), this address can differ from the address that
         was the target of the Route Discovery.

      Destination Address

         MUST be set to the address of the source node of the route
         being returned.  Copied from the Source Address field of the
         Route Request generating the Route Reply, or in the case of a
         gratuitous Route Reply, copied from the Source Address field of
         the data packet triggering the gratuitous Reply.

   Route Reply fields:

      Option Type

         1.  Nodes not understanding this option will ignore this
         option.

      Opt Data Len

         8-bit unsigned integer.  Length of the option, in octets,
         excluding the Option Type and Opt Data Len fields.






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      Last Hop External (L)

         Set to indicate that the last hop given by the Route Reply
         (the link from Address[n-1] to Address[n]) is actually an
         arbitrary path in a network external to the DSR network; the
         exact route outside the DSR network is not represented in the
         Route Reply.  Nodes caching this hop in their Route Cache MUST
         flag the cached hop with the External flag.  Such hops MUST NOT
         be returned in a cached Route Reply generated from this Route
         Cache entry, and selection of routes from the Route Cache to
         route a packet being sent MUST prefer routes that contain no
         hops flagged as External.

      Reserved

         MUST be sent as 0 and ignored on reception.

      Address[1..n]

         The source route being returned by the Route Reply.  The route
         indicates a sequence of hops, originating at the source node
         specified in the Destination Address field of the IP header
         of the packet carrying the Route Reply, through each of the
         Address[i] nodes in the order listed in the Route Reply,
         ending with the destination node indicated by Address[n].
         The number of addresses present in the Address[1..n]
         field is indicated by the Opt Data Len field in the option
         (n = (Opt Data Len - 1) / 4).

   A Route Reply option MAY appear one or more times within a DSR
   Options header.






















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6.4. Route Error Option

   The Route Error option in a DSR Options header is encoded as follows:

    0                   1                   2                   3
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |  Option Type  |  Opt Data Len |   Error Type  |Reservd|Salvage|
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                      Error Source Address                     |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                   Error Destination Address                   |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   .                                                               .
   .                   Type-Specific Information                   .
   .                                                               .
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

      Option Type

         2.  Nodes not understanding this option will ignore this
         option.

      Opt Data Len

         8-bit unsigned integer.  Length of the option, in octets,
         excluding the Option Type and Opt Data Len fields.

         For the current definition of the Route Error option,
         this field MUST be set to 10, plus the size of any
         Type-Specific Information present in the Route Error.  Further
         extensions to the Route Error option format may also be
         included after the Type-Specific Information portion of the
         Route Error option specified above.  The presence of such
         extensions will be indicated by the Opt Data Len field.
         When the Opt Data Len is greater than that required for
         the fixed portion of the Route Error plus the necessary
         Type-Specific Information as indicated by the Option Type
         value in the option, the remaining octets are interpreted as
         extensions.  Currently, no such further extensions have been
         defined.

      Error Type

         The type of error encountered.  Currently, the following type
         values are defined:

             1 = NODE_UNREACHABLE
             2 = FLOW_STATE_NOT_SUPPORTED
             3 = OPTION_NOT_SUPPORTED



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         Other values of the Error Type field are reserved for future
         use.

      Reservd

         Reserved.  MUST be sent as 0 and ignored on reception.

      Salvage

         A 4-bit unsigned integer.  Copied from the Salvage field in
         the DSR Source Route option of the packet triggering the Route
         Error.

         The "total salvage count" of the Route Error option is derived
         from the value in the Salvage field of this Route Error option
         and all preceding Route Error options in the packet as follows:
         the total salvage count is the sum of, for each such Route
         Error option, one plus the value in the Salvage field of that
         Route Error option.

      Error Source Address

         The address of the node originating the Route Error (e.g., the
         node that attempted to forward a packet and discovered the link
         failure).

      Error Destination Address

         The address of the node to which the Route Error must be
         delivered For example, when the Error Type field is set to
         NODE_UNREACHABLE, this field will be set to the address of the
         node that generated the routing information claiming that the
         hop from the Error Source Address to Unreachable Node Address
         (specified in the Type-Specific Information) was a valid hop.

      Type-Specific Information

         Information specific to the Error Type of this Route Error
         message.

   A Route Error option MAY appear one or more times within a DSR
   Options header.











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6.4.1. Node Unreachable Type-Specific Information

   When the Route Error is of type NODE_UNREACHABLE, the
   Type-Specific Information field is defined as follows:

    0                   1                   2                   3
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                    Unreachable Node Address                   |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

      Unreachable Node Address

         The address of the node that was found to be unreachable
         (the next-hop neighbor to which the node with address
         Error Source Address was attempting to transmit the packet).


6.4.2. Flow State Not Supported Type-Specific Information

   When the Route Error is of type FLOW_STATE_NOT_SUPPORTED, the
   Type-Specific Information field is empty.


6.4.3. Option Not Supported Type-Specific Information

   When the Route Error is of type OPTION_NOT_SUPPORTED, the
   Type-Specific Information field is defined as follows:

    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |Unsupported Opt|
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

      Unsupported Opt

         The type of option triggering the Route Error.
















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6.5. Acknowledgement Request Option

   The Acknowledgement Request option in a DSR Options header is encoded
   as follows:

    0                   1                   2                   3
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |  Option Type  |  Opt Data Len |         Identification        |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

      Option Type

         160.  Nodes not understanding this option will remove the
         option and return a Route Error.

      Opt Data Len

         8-bit unsigned integer.  Length of the option, in octets,
         excluding the Option Type and Opt Data Len fields.

      Identification

         The Identification field is set to a unique value and is copied
         into the Identification field of the Acknowledgement option
         when returned by the node receiving the packet over this hop.

   An Acknowledgement Request option MUST NOT appear more than once
   within a DSR Options header.
























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6.6. Acknowledgement Option

   The Acknowledgement option in a DSR Options header is encoded as
   follows:

    0                   1                   2                   3
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |  Option Type  |  Opt Data Len |         Identification        |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                       ACK Source Address                      |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                     ACK Destination Address                   |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

      Option Type

         32.  Nodes not understanding this option will remove the
         option.

      Opt Data Len

         8-bit unsigned integer.  Length of the option, in octets,
         excluding the Option Type and Opt Data Len fields.

      Identification

         Copied from the Identification field of the Acknowledgement
         Request option of the packet being acknowledged.

      ACK Source Address

         The address of the node originating the acknowledgement.

      ACK Destination Address

         The address of the node to which the acknowledgement is to be
         delivered.

   An Acknowledgement option MAY appear one or more times within a DSR
   Options header.












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6.7. DSR Source Route Option

   The DSR Source Route option in a DSR Options header is encoded as
   follows:

    0                   1                   2                   3
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |  Option Type  |  Opt Data Len |F|L|Reservd|Salvage| Segs Left |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                           Address[1]                          |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                           Address[2]                          |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                              ...                              |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                           Address[n]                          |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

      Option Type

         96.  Nodes not understanding this option will drop the packet.

      Opt Data Len

         8-bit unsigned integer.  Length of the option, in octets,
         excluding the Option Type and Opt Data Len fields.  For the
         format of the DSR Source Route option defined here, this field
         MUST be set to the value (n * 4) + 2, where n is the number of
         addresses present in the Address[i] fields.

      First Hop External (F)

         Set to indicate that the first hop indicated by the DSR
         Source Route option is actually an arbitrary path in a network
         external to the DSR network; the exact route outside the DSR
         network is not represented in the DSR Source Route option.
         Nodes caching this hop in their Route Cache MUST flag the
         cached hop with the External flag.  Such hops MUST NOT be
         returned in a Route Reply generated from this Route Cache
         entry, and selection of routes from the Route Cache to route
         a packet being sent MUST prefer routes that contain no hops
         flagged as External.

      Last Hop External (L)

         Set to indicate that the last hop indicated by the DSR Source
         Route option is actually an arbitrary path in a network
         external to the DSR network; the exact route outside the DSR
         network is not represented in the DSR Source Route option.



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         Nodes caching this hop in their Route Cache MUST flag the
         cached hop with the External flag.  Such hops MUST NOT be
         returned in a Route Reply generated from this Route Cache
         entry, and selection of routes from the Route Cache to route
         a packet being sent MUST prefer routes that contain no hops
         flagged as External.

      Reserved

         MUST be sent as 0 and ignored on reception.

      Salvage

         A 4-bit unsigned integer.  Count of number of times that
         this packet has been salvaged as a part of DSR routing
         (Section 3.4.1).

      Segments Left (Segs Left)

         Number of route segments remaining, i.e., number of explicitly
         listed intermediate nodes still to be visited before reaching
         the final destination.

      Address[1..n]

         The sequence of addresses of the source route.  In routing
         and forwarding the packet, the source route is processed as
         described in Sections 8.1.3 and 8.1.5.  The number of addresses
         present in the Address[1..n] field is indicated by the
         Opt Data Len field in the option (n = (Opt Data Len - 2) / 4).

   When forwarding a packet along a DSR source route using a DSR Source
   Route option in the packet's DSR Options header, the Destination
   Address field in the packet's IP header is always set to the address
   of the packet's ultimate destination.  A node receiving a packet
   containing a DSR Options header with a DSR Source Route option MUST
   examine the indicated source route to determine if it is the intended
   next-hop node for the packet and determine how to forward the packet,
   as defined in Sections 8.1.4 and 8.1.5.














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6.8. Pad1 Option

   The Pad1 option in a DSR Options header is encoded as follows:

   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |  Option Type  |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

      Option Type

         224.  Nodes not understanding this option will drop the packet
         and return a Route Error.

   A Pad1 option MAY be included in the Options field of a DSR Options
   header in order to align subsequent DSR options, but such alignment
   is not required and MUST NOT be expected by a node receiving a packet
   containing a DSR Options header.

   If any headers follow the DSR Options header in a packet, the total
   length of a DSR Options header, indicated by the Payload Length field
   in the DSR Options header MUST be a multiple of 4 octets.  In this
   case, when building a DSR Options header in a packet, sufficient Pad1
   or PadN options MUST be included in the Options field of the DSR
   Options header to make the total length a multiple of 4 octets.

   If more than one consecutive octet of padding is being inserted in
   the Options field of a DSR Options header, the PadN option, described
   next, SHOULD be used, rather than multiple Pad1 options.

   Note that the format of the Pad1 option is a special case; it does
   not have an Opt Data Len or Option Data field.






















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6.9. PadN Option

   The PadN option in a DSR Options header is encoded as follows:

   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+- - - - - - - - -
   |  Option Type  |  Opt Data Len |   Option Data
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+- - - - - - - - -

      Option Type

         0.  Nodes not understanding this option will ignore this
         option.

      Opt Data Len

         8-bit unsigned integer.  Length of the option, in octets,
         excluding the Option Type and Opt Data Len fields.

      Option Data

         A number of zero-valued octets equal to the Opt Data Len.

   A PadN option MAY be included in the Options field of a DSR Options
   header in order to align subsequent DSR options, but such alignment
   is not required and MUST NOT be expected by a node receiving a packet
   containing a DSR Options header.

   If any headers follow the DSR Options header in a packet, the total
   length of a DSR Options header, indicated by the Payload Length field
   in the DSR Options header MUST be a multiple of 4 octets.  In this
   case, when building a DSR Options header in a packet, sufficient Pad1
   or PadN options MUST be included in the Options field of the DSR
   Options header to make the total length a multiple of 4 octets.




















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7. Additional Header Formats and Options for Flow State Extension

   The optional DSR flow state extension requires a new header type, the
   DSR Flow State header.

   In addition, the DSR flow state extension adds the following options
   for the DSR Options header defined in Section 6:

    -  Timeout option

    -  Destination and Flow ID option

   Two new Error Type values are also defined for use in the Route Error
   option in a DSR Options header:

    -  Unknown Flow

    -  Default Flow Unknown

   Finally, an extension to the Acknowledgement Request option in a DSR
   Options header is also defined:

    -  Previous Hop Address

   This section defines each of these new header or option formats.




























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7.1. DSR Flow State Header

   The DSR Flow State header is a small 4-byte header optionally used
   to carry the flow ID and hop count for a packet being sent along a
   DSR flow.  It is distinguished from the fixed DSR Options header
   (Section 6.1) in that the Flow State Header (F) bit is set in the DSR
   Flow State header and is clear in the fixed DSR Options header.

    0                   1                   2                   3
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |  Next Header  |F|  Hop Count  |        Flow Identifier        |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

      Next Header

         8-bit selector.  Identifies the type of header immediately
         following the DSR Flow State header.  Uses the same values as
         the IPv4 Protocol field [32].

      Flow State Header (F)

         Flag bit.  MUST be set to 1.  This bit is set in a DSR Flow
         State header and clear in a DSR Options header (Section 6.1).

      Hop Count

         7-bit unsigned integer.  The number of hops through which this
         packet has been forwarded.

      Flow Identification

         The flow ID for this flow, as described in Section 3.5.1.




















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7.2. Options and Extensions in DSR Options Header

7.2.1. Timeout Option

   The Timeout option is defined for use in a DSR Options header to
   indicate the amount of time before the expiration of the flow ID
   along which the packet is being sent.

    0                   1                   2                   3
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |  Option Type  | Option Length |            Timeout            |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

      Option Type

         128.  Nodes not understanding this option will ignore the
         option and return a Route Error.

      Opt Data Len

         8-bit unsigned integer.  Length of the option, in octets,
         excluding the Option Type and Opt Data Len fields.

         When no extensions are present, the Opt Data Len of a Timeout
         option is 2.  Further extensions to DSR may include additional
         data in a Timeout option.  The presence of such extensions is
         indicated by an Opt Data Len greater than 2.  Currently, no
         such extensions have been defined.

      Timeout

         The number of seconds for which this flow remains valid.

   The Timeout option MUST NOT appear more than once within a DSR
   Options header.

















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7.2.2. Destination and Flow ID Option

   The Destination and Flow ID option is defined for use in a DSR
   Options header to send a packet to an intermediate host along one
   flow, for eventual forwarding to the final destination along a
   different flow.  This option enables the aggregation of the state of
   multiple flows.

    0                   1                   2                   3
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |  Option Type  | Option Length |      New Flow Identifier      |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                   New IP Destination Address                  |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

      Option Type

         129.  Nodes not understanding this option will ignore the
         option and return a Route Error.

      Opt Data Len

         8-bit unsigned integer.  Length of the option, in octets,
         excluding the Option Type and Opt Data Len fields.

         When no extensions are present, the Opt Data Len of a
         Destination and Flow ID option is 6.  Further extensions to
         DSR may include additional data in a Destination and Flow ID
         option.  The presence of such extensions is indicated by an
         Opt Data Len greater than 6.  Currently, no such extensions
         have been defined.

      New Flow Identifier

         Indicates the next identifier to store in the Flow ID field of
         the DSR Options header.

      New IP Destination Address

         Indicates the next address to store in the Destination Address
         field of the IP header.

   The Destination and Flow ID option MAY appear one or more times
   within a DSR Options header.








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7.2.3. New Error Type Value for Unknown Flow

   A new Error Type value of 129 (Unknown Flow) is defined for use in
   a Route Error option in a DSR Options header.  The Type-Specific
   Information for errors of this type is encoded as follows:

    0                   1                   2                   3
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                Original IP Destination Address                |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |            Flow ID            |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

      Original IP Destination Address

         The IP Destination Address of the packet that caused the error.

      Flow ID

         The Flow ID contained in the DSR Flow ID option that caused the
         error.































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7.2.4. New Error Type Value for Default Flow Unknown

   A new Error Type value of 130 (Default Flow Unknown) is defined
   for use in a Route Error option in a DSR Options header.  The
   Type-Specific Information for errors of this type is encoded as
   follows:

    0                   1                   2                   3
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |               Original IP Destination Address                 |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

      Original IP Destination Address

         The IP Destination Address of the packet that caused the error.





































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7.2.5. Acknowledgement Request Option Previous Hop Address Extension

   When the Option Length field of an Acknowledgement Request option
   in a DSR Options header is greater than or equal to 6, a Previous
   Hop Address Extension is present.  The option is then formatted as
   follows:

    0                   1                   2                   3
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |  Option Type  | Option Length |       Packet Identifier       |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                   ACK Request Source Address                  |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

      Option Type

         5

      Option Length

         8-bit unsigned integer.  Length of the option, in octets,
         excluding the Option Type and Option Length fields.

         When no extensions are presents, the Option Length of a
         Acknowledgement Request option is 2.  Further extensions to
         DSR may include additional data in a Acknowledgement Request
         option.  The presence of such extensions is indicated by an
         Opt Data Len greater than 2.

         Currently, one such extension has been defined.  If the
         Option Length is at least 6, then a ACK Request Source Address
         is present.

      Packet Identifier

         The Packet Identifier field is set to a unique number and is
         copied into the Identification field of the DSR Acknowledgement
         option when returned by the node receiving the packet over this
         hop.

      ACK Request Source Address

         The address of the node requesting the DSR Acknowledgement.









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8. Detailed Operation

8.1. General Packet Processing

8.1.1. Originating a Packet

   When originating any packet, a node using DSR routing MUST perform
   the following sequence of steps:

    -  Search the node's Route Cache for a route to the address given in
       the IP Destination Address field in the packet's header.

    -  If no such route is found in the Route Cache, then perform
       Route Discovery for the Destination Address, as described in
       Section 8.2.  Initiating a Route Discovery for this target node
       address results in the node adding a Route Request option in
       a DSR Options header in this existing packet, or saving this
       existing packet to its Send Buffer and initiating the Route
       Discovery by sending a separate packet containing such a Route
       Request option.  If the node chooses to initiate the Route
       Discovery by adding the Route Request option to this existing
       packet, it will replace the IP Destination Address field with the
       IP "limited broadcast" address (255.255.255.255) [3], copying the
       original IP Destination Address to the Target Address field of
       the new Route Request option added to the packet, as described in
       Section 8.2.1.

    -  If the packet now does not contain a Route Request option,
       then this node must have a route to the Destination Address
       of the packet; if the node has more than one route to this
       Destination Address, the node selects one to use for this packet.
       If the length of this route is greater than 1 hop, or if the
       node determines to request a DSR network-layer acknowledgement
       from the first-hop node in that route, then insert a DSR Options
       header into the packet, as described in Section 8.1.2, and insert
       a DSR Source Route option, as described in Section 8.1.3.  The
       source route in the packet is initialized from the selected route
       to the Destination Address of the packet.

    -  Transmit the packet to the first-hop node address given in
       selected source route, using Route Maintenance to determine the
       reachability of the next hop, as described in Section 8.3.


8.1.2. Adding a DSR Options Header to a Packet

   A node originating a packet adds a DSR Options header to the packet,
   if necessary, to carry information needed by the routing protocol.
   A packet MUST NOT contain more than one DSR Options header.  A DSR
   Options header is added to a packet by performing the following



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   sequence of steps (these steps assume that the packet contains no
   other headers that MUST be located in the packet before the DSR
   Options header):

    -  Insert a DSR Options header after the IP header but before any
       other header that may be present.

    -  Set the Next Header field of the DSR Options header to the
       Protocol number field of the packet's IP header.

    -  Set the Protocol field of the packet's IP header to the Protocol
       number assigned for a DSR Options header (TBA???).


8.1.3. Adding a DSR Source Route Option to a Packet

   A node originating a packet adds a DSR Source Route option to the
   packet, if necessary, in order to carry the source route from this
   originating node to the final destination address of the packet.
   Specifically, the node adding the DSR Source Route option constructs
   the DSR Source Route option and modifies the IP packet according to
   the following sequence of steps:

    -  The node creates a DSR Source Route option, as described
       in Section 6.7, and appends it to the DSR Options header in
       the packet.  (A DSR Options header is added, as described in
       Section 8.1.2, if not already present.)

    -  The number of Address[i] fields to include in the DSR Source
       Route option (n) is the number of intermediate nodes in the
       source route for the packet (i.e., excluding address of the
       originating node and the final destination address of the
       packet).  The Segments Left field in the DSR Source Route option
       is initialized equal to n.

    -  The addresses within the source route for the packet are copied
       into sequential Address[i] fields in the DSR Source Route option,
       for i = 1, 2, ..., n.

    -  The First Hop External (F) bit in the DSR Source Route option is
       copied from the External bit flagging the first hop in the source
       route for the packet, as indicated in the Route Cache.

    -  The Last Hop External (L) bit in the DSR Source Route option is
       copied from the External bit flagging the last hop in the source
       route for the packet, as indicated in the Route Cache.

    -  The Salvage field in the DSR Source Route option is
       initialized to 0.




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8.1.4. Processing a Received Packet

   When a node receives any packet (whether for forwarding, overheard,
   or as the final destination of the packet), if that packet contains
   a DSR Options header, then that node MUST process any options
   contained in that DSR Options header, in the order contained there.
   Specifically:

    -  If the DSR Options header contains a Route Request option, the
       node SHOULD extract the source route from the Route Request and
       add this routing information to its Route Cache, subject to the
       conditions identified in Section 3.3.1.  The routing information
       from the Route Request is the sequence of hop addresses

          initiator, Address[1], Address[2], ..., Address[n]

       where initiator is the value of the Source Address field in
       the IP header of the packet carrying the Route Request (the
       address of the initiator of the Route Discovery), and each
       Address[i] is a node through which this Route Request has passed,
       in turn, during this Route Discovery.  The value n here is the
       number of addresses recorded in the Route Request option, or
       (Opt Data Len - 6) / 4.

       After possibly updating the node's Route Cache in response to
       the routing information in the Route Request option, the node
       MUST then process the Route Request option as described in
       Section 8.2.2.

    -  If the DSR Options header contains a Route Reply option, the node
       SHOULD extract the source route from the Route Reply and add this
       routing information to its Route Cache, subject to the conditions
       identified in Section 3.3.1.  The source route from the Route
       Reply is the sequence of hop addresses

          initiator, Address[1], Address[2], ..., Address[n]

       where initiator is the value of the Destination Address field in
       the IP header of the packet carrying the Route Reply (the address
       of the initiator of the Route Discovery), and each Address[i]
       is a node through which the source route passes, in turn, on
       the route to the target of the Route Discovery.  Address[n] is
       the address of the target.  If the Last Hop External (L) bit is
       set in the Route Reply, the node MUST flag the last hop from
       the Route Reply (the link from Address[n-1] to Address[n]) in
       its Route Cache as External.  The value n here is the number of
       addresses in the source route being returned in the Route Reply
       option, or (Opt Data Len - 1) / 4.





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       After possibly updating the node's Route Cache in response to
       the routing information in the Route Reply option, then if the
       packet's IP Destination Address matches one of this node's IP
       addresses, the node MUST then process the Route Reply option as
       described in Section 8.2.5.

    -  If the DSR Options header contains a Route Error option,
       the node MUST process the Route Error option as described in
       Section 8.3.5.

    -  If the DSR Options header contains an Acknowledgement Request
       option, the node MUST process the Acknowledgement Request option
       as described in Section 8.3.3.

    -  If the DSR Options header contains an Acknowledgement option,
       then subject to the conditions identified in Section 3.3.1, the
       node SHOULD add to its Route Cache the single link from the node
       identified by the ACK Source Address field to the node identified
       by the ACK Destination Address field.

       After possibly updating the node's Route Cache in response to
       the routing information in the Acknowledgement option, the node
       MUST then process the Acknowledgement option as described in
       Section 8.3.3.

    -  If the DSR Options header contains a DSR Source Route option, the
       node SHOULD extract the source route from the DSR Source Route
       and add this routing information to its Route Cache, subject to
       the conditions identified in Section 3.3.1.  If the value of the
       Salvage field in the DSR Source Route option is zero, then the
       routing information from the DSR Source Route is the sequence of
       hop addresses

          source, Address[1], Address[2], ..., Address[n], destination

       and otherwise (Salvage is nonzero), the routing information from
       the DSR Source Route is the sequence of hop addresses

          Address[1], Address[2], ..., Address[n], destination

       where source is the value of the Source Address field in the IP
       header of the packet carrying the DSR Source Route option (the
       original sender of the packet), each Address[i] is the value in
       the Address[i] field in the DSR Source Route, and destination is
       the value of the Destination Address field in the packet's IP
       header (the last-hop address of the source route).  The value n
       here is the number of addresses in source route in the DSR Source
       Route option, or (Opt Data Len - 2) / 4.





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       After possibly updating the node's Route Cache in response to
       the routing information in the DSR Source Route option, the node
       MUST then process the DSR Source Route option as described in
       Section 8.1.5.

    -  Any Pad1 or PadN options in the DSR Options header are ignored.

   Finally, if the Destination Address in the packet's IP header matches
   one of this receiving node's own IP address(es), remove the DSR
   Options header and all the included DSR options in the header, and
   pass the rest of the packet to the network layer.


8.1.5. Processing a Received DSR Source Route Option

   When a node receives a packet containing a DSR Source Route option
   (whether for forwarding, overheard, or as the final destination of
   the packet), that node SHOULD examine the packet to determine if
   the receipt of that packet indicates an opportunity for automatic
   route shortening, as described in Section 3.4.3.  Specifically, if
   this node is not the intended next-hop destination for the packet
   but is named in the later unexpended portion of the source route in
   the packet's DSR Source Route option, then this packet indicates an
   opportunity for automatic route shortening:  the intermediate nodes
   after the node from which this node overheard the packet and before
   this node itself, are no longer necessary in the source route.  In
   this case, this node SHOULD perform the following sequence of steps
   as part of automatic route shortening:

    -  The node searches its Gratuitous Route Reply Table for an entry
       describing a gratuitous Route Reply earlier sent by this node,
       for which the original sender of the packet triggering the
       gratuitous Route Reply and the transmitting node from which this
       node overheard that packet in order to trigger the gratuitous
       Route Reply, both match the respective node addresses for this
       new received packet.  If such an entry is found in the node's
       Gratuitous Route Reply Table, the node SHOULD NOT perform
       automatic route shortening in response to this receipt of this
       packet.

    -  Otherwise, the node creates an entry for this overheard packet in
       its Gratuitous Route Reply Table.  The timeout value for this new
       entry SHOULD be initialized to the value GratReplyHoldoff.  After
       this timeout has expired, the node SHOULD delete this entry from
       its Gratuitous Route Reply Table.

    -  After creating the new Gratuitous Route Reply Table entry
       above, the node originates a gratuitous Route Reply to the
       IP Source Address of this overheard packet, as described in
       Section 3.4.3.



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       If the MAC protocol in use in the network is not capable of
       transmitting unicast packets over unidirectional links, as
       discussed in Section 3.3.1, then in originating this Route Reply,
       the node MUST use a source route for routing the Route Reply
       packet that is obtained by reversing the sequence of hops over
       which the packet triggering the gratuitous Route Reply was routed
       in reaching and being overheard by this node; this reversing of
       the route uses the gratuitous Route Reply to test this sequence
       of hops for bidirectionality, preventing the gratuitous Route
       Reply from being received by the initiator of the Route Discovery
       unless each of the hops over which the gratuitous Route Reply is
       returned is bidirectional.

    -  Discard the overheard packet, since the packet has been received
       before its normal traversal of the packet's source route would
       have caused it to reach this receiving node.  Another copy of
       the packet will normally arrive at this node as indicated in
       the packet's source route; discarding this initial copy of the
       packet, which triggered the gratuitous Route Reply, will prevent
       the duplication of this packet that would otherwise occur.

   If the packet is not discarded as part of automatic route shortening
   above, then the node MUST process the option according to the
   following sequence of steps:

    -  If the value of the Segments Left field in the DSR Source Route
       option equals 0, then remove the DSR Source Route option from the
       DSR Options header.

    -  Else, let n equal (Opt Data Len - 2) / 4.  This is the number of
       addresses in the DSR Source Route option.

    -  If the value of the Segments Left field is greater than n, then
       send an ICMP Parameter Problem, Code 0, message [29] to the IP
       Source Address, pointing to the Segments Left field, and discard
       the packet.  Do not process the DSR Source Route option further.

    -  Else, decrement the value of the Segments Left field by 1.  Let i
       equal n minus Segments Left.  This is the index of the next
       address to be visited in the Address vector.

    -  If Address[i] or the IP Destination Address is a multicast
       address, then discard the packet.  Do not process the DSR Source
       Route option further.

    -  If the MTU of the link over which this node would transmit
       the packet to forward it to the node Address[i] is less than
       the size of the packet, the node MUST either discard the
       packet and send an ICMP Packet Too Big message to the packet's
       Source Address [29] or fragment it as specified in Section 8.5.



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    -  Forward the packet to the IP address specified in the Address[i]
       field of the IP header, following normal IP forwarding
       procedures, including checking and decrementing the Time-to-Live
       (TTL) field in the packet's IP header [30, 3].  In this
       forwarding of the packet, the next-hop node (identified by
       Address[i]) MUST be treated as a direct neighbor node:  the
       transmission to that next node MUST be done in a single IP
       forwarding hop, without Route Discovery and without searching the
       Route Cache.

    -  In forwarding the packet, perform Route Maintenance for the
       next hop of the packet, by verifying that the next-hop node is
       reachable, as described in Section 8.3.

   Multicast addresses MUST NOT appear in a DSR Source Route option or
   in the IP Destination Address field of a packet carrying a DSR Source
   Route option in a DSR Options header.


8.1.6. Handling an Unknown DSR Option

   Nodes implementing DSR MUST handle all options specified in this
   document, except those options pertaining to the optional flow
   state extension (Section 7).  However, further extensions to
   DSR may include other option types that may not be understood by
   implementations conforming to this version of the DSR specification.
   In DSR, Option Type codes encode required behavior for nodes not
   implementing that type of option.  These behaviors are included in
   the most significant three bits of the Option Type.

   If the most significant bit of the Option Type is set (that is,
   Option Type & 0x80 is nonzero), and this packet does not contain
   a Route Request option, a node SHOULD return a Route Error to the
   IP Source Address, following the steps described in Section 8.3.4,
   except that the Error Type MUST be set to OPTION_NOT_SUPPORTED and
   the Unsupported Opt field MUST be set to the Option Type triggering
   the Route Error.

   Whether or not a Route Error is sent in response to this DSR option,
   as described above, the node also MUST examine the next two most
   significant bits (that is, Option Type & 0x60):

    -  When these two bits are zero (that is, Option Type & 0x60 == 0),
       a node not implementing processing for that Option Type MUST
       use the Opt Data Len field to skip over the option and continue
       processing.

    -  When these two bits are 01 (that is, Option Type & 0x60 == 0x20),
       a node not implementing processing for that Option Type MUST use
       the Opt Data Len field to remove the option from the packet and



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       continue processing as if the option had not been included in the
       received packet.

    -  When these two bits are 10 (that is, Option Type & 0x60 == 0x40),
       a node not implementing processing for that Option Type MUST set
       the most significant bit following the Opt Data Len field; in
       addition, the node MUST then ignore the contents of the option
       using the Opt Data Len field, and MUST continue processing the
       packet.

    -  Finally, when these two bits are 11 (that is,
       Option Type & 0x60 == 0x60), a node not implementing processing
       for that Option Type MUST drop the packet.








































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8.2. Route Discovery Processing

   Route Discovery is the mechanism by which a node S wishing to send a
   packet to a destination node D obtains a source route to D.  Route
   Discovery is used only when S attempts to send a packet to D and
   does not already know a route to D.  The node initiating a Route
   Discovery is known as the "initiator" of the Route Discovery, and the
   destination node for which the Route Discovery is initiated is known
   as the "target" of the Route Discovery.

   Route Discovery operates entirely on demand, with a node initiating
   Route Discovery based on its own origination of new packets for
   some destination address to which it does not currently know a
   route.  Route Discovery does not depend on any periodic or background
   exchange of routing information or neighbor node detection at any
   layer in the network protocol stack at any node.

   The Route Discovery procedure utilizes two types of messages, a Route
   Request (Section 6.2) and a Route Reply (Section 6.3), to actively
   search the ad hoc network for a route to the desired destination.
   These DSR messages MAY be carried in any type of IP packet, through
   use of the DSR Options header as described in Section 6.

   Except as discussed in Section 8.3.5, a Route Discovery for a
   destination address SHOULD NOT be initiated unless the initiating
   node has a packet in its Send Buffer requiring delivery to that
   destination.  A Route Discovery for a given target node MUST NOT be
   initiated unless permitted by the rate-limiting information contained
   in the Route Request Table.  After each Route Discovery attempt, the
   interval between successive Route Discoveries for this target SHOULD
   be doubled, up to a maximum of MaxRequestPeriod, until a valid Route
   Reply is received for this target.


8.2.1. Originating a Route Request

   A node initiating a Route Discovery for some target creates and
   initializes a Route Request option in a DSR Options header in some
   IP packet.  This MAY be a separate IP packet, used only to carry
   this Route Request option, or the node MAY include the Route Request
   option in some existing packet that it needs to send to the target
   node (e.g., the IP packet originated by this node, that caused the
   node to attempt Route Discovery for the destination address of the
   packet).  The Route Request option MUST be included in a DSR Options
   header in the packet.  To initialize the Route Request option, the
   node performs the following sequence of steps:

    -  The Option Type in the option MUST be set to the value 2.





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    -  The Opt Data Len field in the option MUST be set to the value 6.
       The total size of the Route Request option when initiated
       is 8 octets; the Opt Data Len field excludes the size of the
       Option Type and Opt Data Len fields themselves.

    -  The Identification field in the option MUST be set to a new
       value, different from that used for other Route Requests recently
       initiated by this node for this same target address.  For
       example, each node MAY maintain a single counter value for
       generating a new Identification value for each Route Request it
       initiates.

    -  The Target Address field in the option MUST be set to the IP
       address that is the target of this Route Discovery.

   The Source Address in the IP header of this packet MUST be the node's
   own IP address.  The Destination Address in the IP header of this
   packet MUST be the IP "limited broadcast" address (255.255.255.255).

   A node MUST maintain in its Route Request Table, information about
   Route Requests that it initiates.  When initiating a new Route
   Request, the node MUST use the information recorded in the Route
   Request Table entry for the target of that Route Request, and it MUST
   update that information in the table entry for use in the next Route
   Request initiated for this target.  In particular:

    -  The Route Request Table entry for a target node records the
       Time-to-Live (TTL) field used in the IP header of the Route
       Request for the last Route Discovery initiated by this node for
       that target node.  This value allows the node to implement a
       variety of algorithms for controlling the spread of its Route
       Request on each Route Discovery initiated for a target.  As
       examples, two possible algorithms for this use of the TTL field
       are described in Section 3.3.4.

    -  The Route Request Table entry for a target node records the
       number of consecutive Route Requests initiated for this target
       since receiving a valid Route Reply giving a route to that target
       node, and the remaining amount of time before which this node MAY
       next attempt at a Route Discovery for that target node.

       A node MUST use these values to implement a back-off algorithm to
       limit the rate at which this node initiates new Route Discoveries
       for the same target address.  In particular, until a valid Route
       Reply is received for this target node address, the timeout
       between consecutive Route Discovery initiations for this target
       node with the same hop limit SHOULD increase by doubling the
       timeout value on each new initiation.





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   The behavior of a node processing a packet containing DSR Options
   header with both a DSR Source Route option and a Route Request option
   is unspecified.  Packets SHOULD NOT contain both a DSR Source Route
   option and a Route Request option.

   Packets containing a Route Request option SHOULD NOT include
   an Acknowledgement Request option, SHOULD NOT expect link-layer
   acknowledgement or passive acknowledgement, and SHOULD NOT be
   retransmitted.  The retransmission of packets containing a Route
   Request option is controlled solely by the logic described in this
   section.


8.2.2. Processing a Received Route Request Option

   When a node receives a packet containing a Route Request option, that
   node MUST process the option according to the following sequence of
   steps:

    -  If the Target Address field in the Route Request matches this
       node's own IP address, then the node SHOULD return a Route Reply
       to the initiator of this Route Request (the Source Address in the
       IP header of the packet), as described in Section 8.2.4.  The
       source route for this Reply is the sequence of hop addresses

          initiator, Address[1], Address[2], ..., Address[n], target

       where initiator is the address of the initiator of this
       Route Request, each Address[i] is an address from the Route
       Request, and target is the target of the Route Request (the
       Target Address field in the Route Request).  The value n here
       is the number of addresses recorded in the Route Request, or
       (Opt Data Len - 6) / 4.

       The node then MUST replace the Destination Address field in
       the Route Request packet's IP header with the value in the
       Target Address field in the Route Request option, and continue
       processing the rest of the Route Request packet normally.  The
       node MUST NOT process the Route Request option further and MUST
       NOT retransmit the Route Request to propagate it to other nodes
       as part of the Route Discovery.

    -  Else, the node MUST examine the route recorded in the Route
       Request option (the IP Source Address field and the sequence of
       Address[i] fields) to determine if this node's own IP address
       already appears in this list of addresses.  If so, the node MUST
       discard the entire packet carrying the Route Request option.

    -  Else, if the Route Request was received through a network
       interface that requires physically bidirectional links for



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       unicast transmission, the node MUST check if the Request was last
       forwarded by a node on its blacklist.  If such an entry is found,
       and the state of the unidirectional link is "probable", then the
       Request MUST be silently discarded.

    -  Else, if the Route Request was received through a network
       interface that requires physically bidirectional links for
       unicast transmission, the node MUST check if the Request was last
       forwarded by a node on its blacklist.  If such an entry is found,
       and the state of the unidirectional link is "questionable",
       then the node MUST create and unicast a Route Request packet to
       that previous node, setting the IP Time-To-Live (TTL) to 1 to
       prevent the Request from being propagated.  If the node receives
       a Route Reply in response to the new Request, it MUST remove the
       blacklist entry for that node, and SHOULD continue processing.
       If the node does not receive a Route Reply within some reasonable
       amount of time, MUST silently discard the Route Request packet.

    -  Else, the node MUST search its Route Request Table for an entry
       for the initiator of this Route Request (the IP Source Address
       field).  If such an entry is found in the table, the node MUST
       search the cache of Identification values of recently received
       Route Requests in that table entry, to determine if an entry
       is present in the cache matching the Identification value
       and target node address in this Route Request.  If such an
       (Identification, target address) entry is found in this cache in
       this entry in the Route Request Table, then the node MUST discard
       the entire packet carrying the Route Request option.

    -  Else, this node SHOULD further process the Route Request
       according to the following sequence of steps:

        o  Add an entry for this Route Request in its cache of
           (Identification, target address) values of recently received
           Route Requests.

        o  Conceptually create a copy of this entire packet and perform
           the following steps on the copy of the packet.

        o  Append this node's own IP address to the list of Address[i]
           values in the Route Request, and increase the value of the
           Opt Data Len field in the Route Request by 4 (the size of an
           IP address).

        o  This node SHOULD search its own Route Cache for a route
           (from itself, as if it were the source of a packet) to the
           target of this Route Request.  If such a route is found in
           its Route Cache, then this node SHOULD follow the procedure
           outlined in Section 8.2.3 to return a "cached Route Reply"




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           to the initiator of this Route Request, if permitted by the
           restrictions specified there.

        o  If the node does not return a cached Route Reply, then this
           node SHOULD link-layer re-broadcast this copy of the packet,
           with a short jitter delay before the broadcast is sent.  The
           jitter period SHOULD be chosen as a random period, uniformly
           distributed between 0 and BroadcastJitter.


8.2.3. Generating a Route Reply using the Route Cache

   As described in Section 3.3.2, it is possible for a node processing a
   received Route Request to avoid propagating the Route Request further
   toward the target of the Request, if this node has in its Route Cache
   a route from itself to this target.  Such a Route Reply generated by
   a node from its own cached route to the target of a Route Request is
   called a "cached Route Reply", and this mechanism can greatly reduce
   the overall overhead of Route Discovery on the network by reducing
   the flood of Route Requests.  The general processing of a received
   Route Request is described in Section 8.2.2; this section specifies
   the additional requirements that MUST be met before a cached Route
   Reply may be generated and returned and specifies the procedure for
   returning such a cached Route Reply.

   While processing a received Route Request, for a node to possibly
   return a cached Route Reply, it MUST have in its Route Cache a route
   from itself to the target of this Route Request.  However, before
   generating a cached Route Reply for this Route Request, the node MUST
   verify that there are no duplicate addresses listed in the route
   accumulated in the Route Request together with the route from this
   node's Route Cache.  Specifically, there MUST be no duplicates among
   the following addresses:

    -  The IP Source Address of the packet containing the Route Request,

    -  The Address[i] fields in the Route Request, and

    -  The nodes listed in the route obtained from this node's Route
       Cache, excluding the address of this node itself (this node
       itself is the common point between the route accumulated in the
       Route Request and the route obtained from the Route Cache).

   If any duplicates exist among these addresses, then the node MUST NOT
   send a cached Route Reply.  The node SHOULD continue to process the
   Route Request as described in Section 8.2.2.

   If the Route Request and the route from the Route Cache meet the
   restriction above, then the node SHOULD construct and return a cached
   Route Reply as follows:



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    -  The source route for this reply is the sequence of hop addresses

          initiator, Address[1], Address[2], ..., Address[n], c-route

       where initiator is the address of the initiator of this Route
       Request, each Address[i] is an address from the Route Request,
       and c-route is the sequence of hop addresses in the source route
       to this target node, obtained from the node's Route Cache.  In
       appending this cached route to the source route for the reply,
       the address of this node itself MUST be excluded, since it is
       already listed as Address[n].

    -  Send a Route Reply to the initiator of the Route Request, using
       the procedure defined in Section 8.2.4.  The initiator of the
       Route Request is indicated in the Source Address field in the
       packet's IP header.

   If the node returns a cached Route Reply as described above,
   then the node MUST NOT propagate the Route Request further (i.e.,
   the node MUST NOT rebroadcast the Route Request).  In this case,
   instead, if the packet contains no other DSR options and contains
   no payload after the DSR Options header (e.g., the Route Request is
   not piggybacked on a TCP or UDP packet), then the node SHOULD simply
   discard the packet.  Otherwise (if the packet contains other DSR
   options or contains any payload after the DSR Options header), the
   node SHOULD forward the packet along the cached route to the target
   of the Route Request.  Specifically, if the node does so, it MUST use
   the following steps:

    -  Copy the Target Address from the Route Request option in the DSR
       Options header to the Destination Address field in the packet's
       IP header.

    -  Remove the Route Request option from the DSR Options header in
       the packet, and add a DSR Source Route option to the packet's DSR
       Options header.

    -  In the DSR Source Route option, set the Address[i] fields
       to represent the source route found in this node's Route
       Cache to the original target of the Route Discovery (the
       new IP Destination Address of the packet).  Specifically,
       the node copies the hop addresses of the source route into
       sequential Address[i] fields in the DSR Source Route option,
       for i = 1, 2, ..., n.  Address[1] here is the address of this
       node itself (the first address in the source route found from
       this node to the original target of the Route Discovery).  The
       value n here is the number of hop addresses in this source route,
       excluding the destination of the packet (which is instead already
       represented in the Destination Address field in the packet's IP
       header).



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    -  Initialize the Segments Left field in the DSR Source Route option
       to n as defined above.

    -  The First Hop External (F) bit in the DSR Source Route option is
       copied from the External bit flagging the first hop in the source
       route for the packet, as indicated in the Route Cache.

    -  The Last Hop External (L) bit in the DSR Source Route option is
       copied from the External bit flagging the last hop in the source
       route for the packet, as indicated in the Route Cache.

    -  The Salvage field in the DSR Source Route option MUST be
       initialized to some nonzero value; the particular nonzero value
       used SHOULD be MAX_SALVAGE_COUNT.  By initializing this field to
       a nonzero value, nodes forwarding or overhearing this packet will
       not consider a link to exist between the IP Source Address of the
       packet and the Address[1] address in the DSR Source Route option
       (e.g., they will not attempt to add this to their Route Cache as
       a link).  By choosing MAX_SALVAGE_COUNT as the nonzero value to
       which the node initializes this field, nodes furthermore will not
       attempt to salvage this packet.

    -  Transmit the packet to the next-hop node on the new source route
       in the packet, using the forwarding procedure described in
       Section 8.1.5.


8.2.4. Originating a Route Reply

   A node originates a Route Reply in order to reply to a received and
   processed Route Request, according to the procedures described in
   Sections 8.2.2 and 8.2.3.  The Route Reply is returned in a Route
   Reply option (Section 6.3).  The Route Reply option MAY be returned
   to the initiator of the Route Request in a separate IP packet, used
   only to carry this Route Reply option, or it MAY be included in any
   other IP packet being sent to this address.

   The Route Reply option MUST be included in a DSR Options header in
   the packet returned to the initiator.  To initialize the Route Reply
   option, the node performs the following sequence of steps:

    -  The Option Type in the option MUST be set to the value 3.

    -  The Opt Data Len field in the option MUST be set to the value
       (n * 4) + 3, where n is the number of addresses in the source
       route being returned (excluding the Route Discovery initiator
       node's address).

    -  The Last Hop External (L) bit in the option MUST be
       initialized to 0.



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    -  The Reserved field in the option MUST be initialized to 0.

    -  The Route Request Identifier MUST be initialized to the
       Identifier field of the Route Request that this reply is sent in
       response to.

    -  The sequence of hop addresses in the source route are copied into
       the Address[i] fields of the option.  Address[1] MUST be set to
       the first-hop address of the route after the initiator of the
       Route Discovery, Address[n] MUST be set to the last-hop address
       of the source route (the address of the target node), and each
       other Address[i] MUST be set to the next address in sequence in
       the source route being returned.

   The Destination Address field in the IP header of the packet carrying
   the Route Reply option MUST be set to the address of the initiator
   of the Route Discovery (i.e., for a Route Reply being returned in
   response to some Route Request, the IP Source Address of the Route
   Request).

   After creating and initializing the Route Reply option and the IP
   packet containing it, send the Route Reply.  In sending the Route
   Reply from this node (but not from nodes forwarding the Route Reply),
   this node SHOULD delay the Reply by a small jitter period chosen
   randomly between 0 and BroadcastJitter.

   When returning any Route Reply in the case in which the MAC protocol
   in use in the network is not capable of transmitting unicast packets
   over unidirectional links, the source route used for routing the
   Route Reply packet MUST be obtained by reversing the sequence of
   hops in the Route Request packet (the source route that is then
   returned in the Route Reply).  This restriction on returning a Route
   Reply enables the Route Reply to test this sequence of hops for
   bidirectionality, preventing the Route Reply from being received by
   the initiator of the Route Discovery unless each of the hops over
   which the Route Reply is returned (and thus each of the hops in the
   source route being returned in the Reply) is bidirectional.

   If sending a Route Reply to the initiator of the Route Request
   requires performing a Route Discovery, the Route Reply option MUST
   be piggybacked on the packet that contains the Route Request.  This
   piggybacking prevents a loop wherein the target of the new Route
   Request (which was itself the initiator of the original Route
   Request) must do another Route Request in order to return its
   Route Reply.

   If sending the Route Reply to the initiator of the Route Request
   does not require performing a Route Discovery, a node SHOULD send a
   unicast Route Reply in response to every Route Request it receives
   for which it is the target node.



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8.2.5. Processing a Received Route Reply Option

   Section 8.1.4 describes the general processing for a received packet,
   including the addition of routing information from options in the
   packet's DSR Options header to the receiving node's Route Cache.

   If the received packet contains a Route Reply, no additional special
   processing of the Route Reply option is required beyond what is
   described there.  As described in Section 4.1 anytime a node adds
   new information to its Route Cache (including the information added
   from this Route Reply option), the node SHOULD check each packet in
   its own Send Buffer (Section 4.2) to determine whether a route to
   that packet's IP Destination Address now exists in the node's Route
   Cache (including the information just added to the Cache).  If so,
   the packet SHOULD then be sent using that route and removed from the
   Send Buffer.  This general procedure handles all processing required
   for a received Route Reply option.

   When a MAC protocol requires bidirectional links for unicast
   transmission, a unidirectional link may be discovered by the
   propagation of the Route Request.  When the Route Reply is sent over
   the reverse path, a forwarding node may discover that the next-hop is
   unreachable.  In this case, it MUST add the next-hop address to its
   blacklist.





























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8.3. Route Maintenance Processing

   Route Maintenance is the mechanism by which a source node S is able
   to detect, while using a source route to some destination node D,
   if the network topology has changed such that it can no longer use
   its route to D because a link along the route no longer works.  When
   Route Maintenance indicates that a source route is broken, S can
   attempt to use any other route it happens to know to D, or can invoke
   Route Discovery again to find a new route for subsequent packets
   to D.  Route Maintenance for this route is used only when S is
   actually sending packets to D.

   Specifically, when forwarding a packet, a node MUST attempt
   to confirm the reachability of the next-hop node, unless such
   confirmation had been received in the last MaintHoldoffTime.
   Individual implementations MAY choose to bypass such confirmation
   for some limited number of packets, as long as those packets all
   fall within MaintHoldoffTime within the last confirmation.  If no
   confirmation is received after the retransmission of MaxMaintRexmt
   acknowledgement requests, after the initial transmission of the
   packet, and conceptually including all retransmissions provided
   by the MAC layer, the node determines that the link for this
   next-hop node of the source route is "broken".  This confirmation
   from the next-hop node for Route Maintenance can be implemented
   using a link-layer acknowledgement (Section 8.3.1), using a
   "passive acknowledgement" (Section 8.3.2), or using a network-layer
   acknowledgement (Section 8.3.3); the particular strategy for
   retransmission timing depends on the type of acknowledgement
   mechanism used.  When passive acknowledgements are being used, each
   retransmitted acknowledgement request SHOULD be explicit software
   acknowledgement requests.  If no acknowledgement is received after
   MaxMaintRexmt retransmissions (if necessary), the node SHOULD
   originate a Route Error to the original sender of the packet, as
   described in Section 8.3.4.

   In deciding whether or not to send a Route Error in response to
   attempting to forward a packet from some sender over a broken link,
   a node MUST limit the number of consecutive packets from a single
   sender that the node attempts to forward over this same broken
   link for which the node chooses not to return a Route Error; this
   requirement MAY be satisfied by returning a Route Error for each
   packet that the node attempts to forward over a broken link.


8.3.1. Using Link-Layer Acknowledgements

   If the MAC protocol in use provides feedback as to the successful
   delivery of a data packet (such as is provided by the link-layer
   acknowledgement frame defined by IEEE 802.11 [13]), then the use
   of the DSR Acknowledgement Request and Acknowledgement options



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   is not necessary.  If such link-layer feedback is available, it
   SHOULD be used instead of any other acknowledgement mechanism
   for Route Maintenance, and the node SHOULD NOT use either passive
   acknowledgements or network-layer acknowledgements for Route
   Maintenance.

   When using link-layer acknowledgements for Route Maintenance, the
   retransmission timing and the timing at which retransmission attempts
   are scheduled are generally controlled by the particular link layer
   implementation in use in the network.  For example, in IEEE 802.11,
   the link-layer acknowledgement is returned after the data packet as
   a part of the basic access method of of the IEEE 802.11 Distributed
   Coordination Function (DCF) MAC protocol; the time at which the
   acknowledgement is expected to arrive and the time at which the next
   retransmission attempt (if necessary) will occur are controlled by
   the MAC protocol implementation.

   When a node receives a link-layer acknowledgement for any packet in
   its Maintenance Buffer, that node SHOULD remove that packet, as well
   as any other packets in its Maintenance Buffer with the same next-hop
   destination, from its Maintenance Buffer.


8.3.2. Using Passive Acknowledgements

   When link-layer acknowledgements are not available, but passive
   acknowledgements [18] are available, passive acknowledgements SHOULD
   be used for Route Maintenance when originating or forwarding a packet
   along any hop other than the last hop (the hop leading to the IP
   Destination Address node of the packet).  In particular, passive
   acknowledgements SHOULD be used for Route Maintenance in such cases
   if the node can place its network interface into "promiscuous"
   receive mode, and network links used for data packets generally
   operate bidirectionally.

   A node MUST NOT attempt to use passive acknowledgements for Route
   Maintenance for a packet originated or forwarded over its last hop
   (the hop leading to the IP Destination Address node of the packet),
   since the receiving node will not be forwarding the packet and thus
   no passive acknowledgement will be available to be heard by this
   node.  Beyond this restriction, a node MAY utilize a variety of
   strategies in using passive acknowledgements for Route Maintenance of
   a packet that it originates or forwards.  For example, the following
   two strategies are possible:

    -  Each time a node receives a packet to be forwarded to a node
       other than the final destination (the IP Destination Address
       of the packet), that node sends the original transmission of
       that packet without requesting a network-layer acknowledgement
       for it.  If no passive acknowledgement is received within



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       PassiveAckTimeout after this transmission, the node retransmits
       the packet, again without requesting a network-layer
       acknowledgement for it; the same PassiveAckTimeout timeout value
       is used for each such attempt.  If no acknowledgement has been
       received after a total of TryPassiveAcks retransmissions of
       the packet, network-layer acknowledgements (as described in
       Section 8.3.3) are used for all remaining attempts for that
       packet.

    -  Each node maintains a table of possible next-hop destination
       nodes, noting whether or not passive acknowledgements can
       typically be expected from transmission to that node, and the
       expected latency and jitter of a passive acknowledgement from
       that node.  Each time a node receives a packet to be forwarded
       to a node other than the IP Destination Address, the node checks
       its table of next-hop destination nodes to determine whether to
       use a passive acknowledgement or a network-layer acknowledgement
       for that transmission to that node.  The timeout for this packet
       can also be derived from this table.  A node using this method
       SHOULD prefer using passive acknowledgements to network-layer
       acknowledgements.

   In using passive acknowledgements for a packet that it originates or
   forwards, a node considers the later receipt of a new packet (e.g.,
   with promiscuous receive mode enabled on its network interface) to be
   an acknowledgement of this first packet if both of the following two
   tests succeed:

    -  The Source Address, Destination Address, Protocol,
       Identification, and Fragment Offset fields in the IP header
       of the two packets MUST match [30], and

    -  If either packet contains a DSR Source Route header, both packets
       MUST contain one, and the value in the Segments Left field in the
       DSR Source Route header of the new packet MUST be less than that
       in the first packet.

   When a node hears such a passive acknowledgement for any packet in
   its Maintenance Buffer, that node SHOULD remove that packet, as well
   as any other packets in its Maintenance Buffer with the same next-hop
   destination, from its Maintenance Buffer.


8.3.3. Using Network-Layer Acknowledgements

   When a node originates or forwards a packet and has no other
   mechanism of acknowledgement available to determine reachability
   of the next-hop node in the source route for Route Maintenance,
   that node SHOULD request a network-layer acknowledgement from that
   next-hop node.  To do so, the node inserts an Acknowledgement Request



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   option in the DSR Options header in the packet.  The Identification
   field in that Acknowledgement Request option MUST be set to a value
   unique over all packets transmitted by this node to the same next-hop
   node that are either unacknowledged or recently acknowledged.

   When a node receives a packet containing an Acknowledgement Request
   option, then that node performs the following tests on the packet:

    -  If the indicated next-hop node address for this packet does not
       match any of this node's own IP addresses, then this node MUST
       NOT process the Acknowledgement Request option.  The indicated
       next-hop node address is the next Address[i] field in the DSR
       Source Route option in the DSR Options header in the packet, or
       is the IP Destination Address in the packet if the packet does
       not contain a DSR Source Route option or the Segments Left there
       is zero.

    -  If the packet contains an Acknowledgement option, then this node
       MUST NOT process the Acknowledgement Request option.

   If neither of the tests above fails, then this node MUST process the
   Acknowledgement Request option by sending an Acknowledgement option
   to the previous-hop node; to do so, the node performs the following
   sequence of steps:

    -  Create a packet and set the IP Protocol field to the protocol
       number assigned for a DSR Options header (TBA???).

    -  Set the IP Source Address field in this packet to the IP address
       of this node, copied from the source route in the DSR Source
       Route option in that packet (or from the IP Destination Address
       field of the packet, if the packet does not contain a DSR Source
       Route option).

    -  Set the IP Destination Address field in this packet to the IP
       address of the previous-hop node, copied from the source route
       in the DSR Source Route option in that packet (or from the IP
       Source Address field of the packet, if the packet does not
       contain a DSR Source Route option).

    -  Add a DSR Options header to the packet, and set the DSR Options
       header's Next Header field to the "No Next Header" value.

    -  Add an Acknowledgement option to the DSR Options header in the
       packet; set the Acknowledgement option's Option Type field to 6
       and the Opt Data Len field to 10.

    -  Copy the Identification field from the received Acknowledgement
       Request option into the Identification field in the
       Acknowledgement option.



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    -  Set the ACK Source Address field in the Acknowledgement option to
       be the IP Source Address of this new packet (set above to be the
       IP address of this node).

    -  Set the ACK Destination Address field in the Acknowledgement
       option to be the IP Destination Address of this new packet (set
       above to be the IP address of the previous-hop node).

    -  Send the packet as described in Section 8.1.1.

   Packets containing an Acknowledgement option SHOULD NOT be placed in
   the Maintenance Buffer.

   When a node receives a packet with both an Acknowledgement option
   and an Acknowledgement Request option, if that node is not the
   destination of the Acknowledgement option (the IP Destination Address
   of the packet), then the Acknowledgement Request option MUST
   be ignored.  Otherwise (that node is the destination of the
   Acknowledgement option), that node MUST process the Acknowledgement
   Request option by returning an Acknowledgement option according to
   the following sequence of steps:

    -  Create a packet and set the IP Protocol field to the protocol
       number assigned for a DSR Options header (TBA???).

    -  Set the IP Source Address field in this packet to the IP address
       of this node, copied from the source route in the DSR Source
       Route option in that packet (or from the IP Destination Address
       field of the packet, if the packet does not contain a DSR Source
       Route option).

    -  Set the IP Destination Address field in this packet to the IP
       address of the node originating the Acknowledgement option.

    -  Add a DSR Options header to the packet, and set the DSR Options
       header's Next Header field to the "No Next Header" value.

    -  Add an Acknowledgement option to the DSR Options header in this
       packet; set the Acknowledgement option's Option Type field to 6
       and the Opt Data Len field to 10.

    -  Copy the Identification field from the received Acknowledgement
       Request option into the Identification field in the
       Acknowledgement option.

    -  Set the ACK Source Address field in the option to be the IP
       Source Address of this new packet (set above to be the IP address
       of this node).





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    -  Set the ACK Destination Address field in the option to be the IP
       Destination Address of this new packet (set above to be the IP
       address of the node originating the Acknowledgement option.)

    -  Send the packet directly to the destination.  The IP
       Destination Address MUST be treated as a direct neighbor node:
       the transmission to that node MUST be done in a single IP
       forwarding hop, without Route Discovery and without searching
       the Route Cache.  In addition, this packet MUST NOT contain a
       DSR Acknowledgement Request, MUST NOT be retransmitted for Route
       Maintenance, and MUST NOT expect a link-layer acknowledgement or
       passive acknowledgement.

   When using network-layer acknowledgements for Route Maintenance,
   a node SHOULD use an adaptive algorithm in determining the
   retransmission timeout for each transmission attempt of an
   acknowledgement request.  For example, a node SHOULD maintain a
   separate round-trip time (RTT) estimate for each to which it has
   recently attempted to transmit packets, and it SHOULD use this RTT
   estimate in setting the timeout for each retransmission attempt
   for Route Maintenance.  The TCP RTT estimation algorithm has been
   shown to work well for this purpose in implementation and testbed
   experiments with DSR [22, 24].


8.3.4. Originating a Route Error

   When a node is unable to verify reachability of a next-hop node after
   reaching a maximum number of retransmission attempts, a node SHOULD
   send a Route Error to the IP Source Address of the packet.  When
   sending a Route Error for a packet containing either a Route Error
   option or an Acknowledgement option, a node SHOULD add these existing
   options to its Route Error, subject to the limit described below.

   A node transmitting a Route Error MUST perform the following steps:

    -  Create an IP packet and set the Source Address field in this
       packet's IP header to the address of this node.

    -  If the Salvage field in the DSR Source Route option in the
       packet triggering the Route Error is zero, then copy the
       Source Address field of the packet triggering the Route Error
       into the Destination Address field in the new packet's IP
       header; otherwise, copy the Address[1] field from the DSR Source
       Route option of the packet triggering the Route Error into the
       Destination Address field in the new packet's IP header

    -  Insert a DSR Options header into the new packet.





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    -  Add a Route Error Option to the new packet, setting the Error
       Type to NODE_UNREACHABLE, the Salvage value to the Salvage
       value from the DSR Source Route option of the packet triggering
       the Route Error, and the Unreachable Node Address field to
       the address of the next-hop node from the original source
       route.  Set the Error Source Address field to this node's IP
       address, and the Error Destination field to the new packet's IP
       Destination Address.

    -  If the packet triggering the Route Error contains any Route Error
       or Acknowledgement options, the node MAY append to its Route
       Error each of these options, with the following constraints:

        o  The node MUST NOT include any Route Error option from the
           packet triggering the new Route Error, for which the total
           salvage count (Section 6.4) of that included Route Error
           would be greater than MAX_SALVAGE_COUNT in the new packet.

        o  If any Route Error option from the packet triggering the new
           Route Error is not included in the packet, the node MUST NOT
           include any following Route Error or Acknowledgement options
           from the packet triggering the new Route Error.

        o  Any appended options from the packet triggering the Route
           Error MUST follow the new Route Error in the packet.

        o  In appending these options to the new Route Error, the order
           of these options from the packet triggering the Route Error
           MUST be preserved.

    -  Send the packet as described in Section 8.1.1.


8.3.5. Processing a Received Route Error Option

   When a node receives a packet containing a Route Error option, that
   node MUST process the Route Error option according to the following
   sequence of steps:

    -  The node MUST remove from its Route Cache the link from the
       node identified by the Error Source Address field to the node
       identified by the Unreachable Node Address field (if this link is
       present in its Route Cache).  If the node implements its Route
       Cache as a link cache, as described in Section 4.1, only this
       single link is removed; if the node implements its Route Cache as
       a path cache, however, all routes (paths) that use this link are
       removed.

    -  If the option following the Route Error is an Acknowledgement
       or Route Error option sent by this node (that is, with



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       Acknowledgement or Error Source Address equal to this node's
       address), copy the DSR options following the current Route
       Error into a new packet with IP Source Address equal to this
       node's own IP address and IP Destination Address equal to the
       Acknowledgement or Error Destination Address.  Transmit this
       packet as described in Section 8.1.1, with the salvage count
       in the DSR Source Route option set to the Salvage value of the
       Route Error.

   In addition, after processing the Route Error as described above,
   the node MAY initiate a new Route Discovery for any destination node
   for which it then has no route in its Route Cache as a result of
   processing this Route Error, if the node has indication that a route
   to that destination is needed.  For example, if the node has an open
   TCP connection to some destination node, then if the processing of
   this Route Error removed the only route to that destination from this
   node's Route Cache, then this node MAY initiate a new Route Discovery
   for that destination node.  Any node, however, MUST limit the rate at
   which it initiates new Route Discoveries for any single destination
   address, and any new Route Discovery initiated in this way as part of
   processing this Route Error MUST conform to this limit.


8.3.6. Salvaging a Packet

   When an intermediate node forwarding a packet detects through Route
   Maintenance that the next-hop link along the route for that packet is
   broken (Section 8.3), if the node has another route to the packet's
   IP Destination Address in its Route Cache, the node SHOULD "salvage"
   the packet rather than discarding it.  To do so using the route found
   in its Route Cache, this node processes the packet as follows:

    -  If the MAC protocol in use in the network is not capable of
       transmitting unicast packets over unidirectional links, as
       discussed in Section 3.3.1, then if this packet contains a Route
       Reply option, remove and discard the Route Reply option in the
       packet; if the DSR Options header in the packet then contains no
       DSR options, remove the DSR Options header from the packet.  If
       the resulting packet then contains only an IP header, the node
       SHOULD NOT salvage the packet and instead SHOULD discard the
       entire packet.

       When returning any Route Reply in the case in which the MAC
       protocol in use in the network is not capable of transmitting
       unicast packets over unidirectional links, the source route
       used for routing the Route Reply packet MUST be obtained by
       reversing the sequence of hops in the Route Request packet (the
       source route that is then returned in the Route Reply).  This
       restriction on returning a Route Reply and on salvaging a packet
       that contains a Route Reply option enables the Route Reply to



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       test this sequence of hops for bidirectionality, preventing the
       Route Reply from being received by the initiator of the Route
       Discovery unless each of the hops over which the Route Reply is
       returned (and thus each of the hops in the source route being
       returned in the Reply) is bidirectional.

    -  Modify the existing DSR Source Route option in the packet so
       that the Address[i] fields represent the source route found in
       this node's Route Cache to this packet's IP Destination Address.
       Specifically, the node copies the hop addresses of the source
       route into sequential Address[i] fields in the DSR Source Route
       option, for i = 1, 2, ..., n.  Address[1] here is the address
       of the salvaging node itself (the first address in the source
       route found from this node to the IP Destination Address of the
       packet).  The value n here is the number of hop addresses in this
       source route, excluding the destination of the packet (which is
       instead already represented in the Destination Address field in
       the packet's IP header).

    -  Initialize the Segments Left field in the DSR Source Route option
       to n as defined above.

    -  The First Hop External (F) bit in the DSR Source Route option is
       copied from the External bit flagging the first hop in the source
       route for the packet, as indicated in the Route Cache.

    -  The Last Hop External (L) bit in the DSR Source Route option is
       copied from the External bit flagging the last hop in the source
       route for the packet, as indicated in the Route Cache.

    -  The Salvage field in the DSR Source Route option is set to 1 plus
       the value of the Salvage field in the DSR Source Route option of
       the packet that caused the error.

    -  Transmit the packet to the next-hop node on the new source route
       in the packet, using the forwarding procedure described in
       Section 8.1.5.

   As described in Section 8.3.4, the node in this case also SHOULD
   return a Route Error to the original sender of the packet.  If the
   node chooses to salvage the packet, it SHOULD do so after originating
   the Route Error.











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8.4. Multiple Interface Support

   A node in DSR MAY have multiple network interfaces that support
   ad hoc network routing.  This section describes special packet
   processing at such nodes.

   A node with multiple network interfaces MUST have some policy for
   determining which Request packets are forwarded out which network
   interfaces.  For example, a node MAY choose to forward all Requests
   out all network interfaces.

   When a node with multiple network interfaces propagates a Route
   Request on an network interface other than the one it received the
   Request on, it MUST modify the address list between receipt and
   re-propagation as follows:

    -  Append the address of the incoming interface

    -  If the incoming interface and outgoing interface differ in
       whether or not they require bidirectionality for unicast
       transmission, append the address 127.0.0.1

    -  If the incoming interface and outgoing interface differ in
       whether or not unidirectional links are common, append the
       address 127.0.0.2

    -  Append the address of the outgoing interface

   When a node forwards a packet containing a source route, it MUST
   assume that the next hop is reachable on the incoming interface,
   unless the next hop is the address of one of this node's interfaces,
   in which case this node MUST process the packet in the same way as if
   the node had just received it from that interface.

   If a node which previously had multiple network interfaces receives a
   packet sent with a source route specifying an interface change to an
   interface that is no longer available, it MAY send a Route Error to
   the source of the packet without attempting to forward the packet on
   the incoming interface, unless the network uses an autoconfiguration
   mechanism that may have allowed another node to acquire the now
   unused address of the unavailable interface.

   Source routes MUST never contain the special addresses 127.0.0.1 and
   127.0.0.2.









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8.5. Fragmentation and Reassembly

   When a node using DSR wishes to fragment a packet that contains a DSR
   header not containing a Route Request option, it MUST perform the
   following sequence of steps:

    -  Remove the DSR Options header from the packet.

    -  Fragment the packet.

    -  IP-in-IP encapsulate each fragment.

    -  Add the DSR Options header to each fragment.  If a Source Route
       header is present in the DSR Options header, increment the
       Salvage field.

   When a node using the DSR protocol receives an IP-in-IP encapsulated
   packet destined to itself, it SHOULD decapsulate the packet and
   reassemble any fragments contained inside, in accordance with
   RFC 791 [30].

































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8.6. Flow State Processing

   A node implementing the optional DSR flow state extension MUST follow
   these additional processing steps.


8.6.1. Originating a Packet

   When originating any packet to be routed using flow state, a node
   using DSR flow state MUST:

    -  If the route to be used for this packet has never had a DSR
       flow state established along it (or the existing flow state has
       expired):

        o  Generate a 16-bit Flow ID larger than any unexpired Flow IDs
           used for this destination.  Odd Flow IDs MUST be chosen for
           "default" flows; even Flow IDs MUST be chosen for non-default
           flows.

        o  Add a DSR Options header, as described in Section 8.1.2.

        o  Add a DSR Flow State header, as described in Section 8.6.2.

        o  Initialize the Hop Count field in the DSR Flow State header
           to 0.

        o  Set the Flow ID field in the DSR Flow State header to the
           Flow ID generated in the first step.

        o  Add a Timeout option to the DSR Options header.

        o  Add a Source Route option after the Timeout option.  with the
           route to be used, as described in Section 8.1.3.

        o  The source SHOULD record this flow in its Flow Table.

        o  If this flow is recorded in the Flow Table, the TTL MUST be
           set to be the TTL of the flow establishment packet.

        o  If this flow is recorded in the Flow Table, the timeout MUST
           be set to a value no less than the value specified in the
           Timeout option.

    -  If the route to be used for this packet has had DSR flow state
       established along it, but has not been established end-to-end:

        o  Add a DSR Options header, as described in Section 8.1.2.

        o  Add a DSR Flow State header, as described in Section 8.6.2.



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        o  Initialize the Hop Count field in the DSR Flow State header
           to 0.

        o  The Flow ID field of the DSR Flow State header SHOULD be the
           Flow ID previously used for this route.  If it is not, the
           steps for sending packets along never before established
           routes MUST be followed in place of these.

        o  Add a Timeout option to the DSR Options header, setting the
           Timeout to a value not greater than the timeout remaining for
           this flow in the Flow Table.

        o  Add a Source Route option after the Timeout option with the
           route to be used, as described in Section 8.1.3

        o  If the IP TTL is not equal to the TTL specified in the Flow
           Table, the source MUST set a flag to indicate that this flow
           cannot be used as default.

    -  If the route the node wishes to use for this packet has been
       established end-to-end and is not the default flow:

        o  Add a DSR Flow State header, as described in Section 8.6.2.

        o  Initialize the Hop Count field in the DSR Flow State header
           to 0.

        o  The Flow ID field of the DSR Flow State header SHOULD be the
           Flow ID previously used for this route.  If it is not, the
           steps for sending packets along never before established
           routes MUST be followed in place of these.

        o  If the next hop requires a Hop-by-Hop acknowledgement,
           add a DSR Options header, as described in Section 8.1.2,
           and an Acknowledgement Request option, as described in
           Section 8.3.3.

        o  A DSR Options header SHOULD NOT be added to a packet, unless
           it is added to carry an Acknowledgement Request option, in
           which case:

            +  A Source Route option in the DSR Options header SHOULD
               NOT be added.

            +  If a Source Route option in the DSR Options header is
               added, the steps for sending packets along routes not
               yet established end-to-end MUST be followed in place of
               these.

            +  A Timeout option SHOULD NOT be added.



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            +  If a Timeout option is added, it MUST specify a timeout
               not greater than the timeout remaining for this flow in
               the Flow Table.

    -  If the route the node wishes to use for this packet has been
       established end-to-end and is the current default flow:

        o  If the IP TTL is not equal to the TTL specified in the Flow
           Table, the source MUST follow the steps for sending a packet
           along a non-default flow that has been established end-to-end
           in place of these steps.

        o  If the next hop requires a Hop-by-Hop acknowledgement,
           the sending node MUST add a DSR Options header and
           an Acknowledgement Request option, as described in
           Section 8.3.3.  The sending node MUST NOT add any additional
           options to this header.

        o  A DSR Options header SHOULD NOT be added, except as specified
           in the previous step.  If one is added in a way inconsistent
           with the previous step, the source MUST follow the steps
           for sending a packet along a non-default flow that has been
           established end-to-end in place of these steps.


8.6.2. Inserting a DSR Flow State Header

   A node originating a packet adds a DSR Flow State header to the
   packet, if necessary, to carry information needed by the routing
   protocol.  Only one DSR Flow State header may be in any packet.
   A DSR Flow State header is added to a packet by performing the
   following sequence of steps:

    -  Insert a DSR Flow State header after the IP header and any
       Hop-by-Hop Options header that may already be in the packet, but
       before any other header that may be present.

    -  Set the Next Header field of the DSR Flow State header to the
       Next Header field of the previous header (either an IP header or
       a Hop-by-Hop Options header).

    -  Set the Next Header field of the previous header to the Protocol
       number assigned to DSR Options headers.


8.6.3. Receiving a Packet

   This section describes processing only for packets that are sent to
   the processing node as the next-hop node; that is, when the MAC-layer




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   destination address is the MAC address of this node.  Otherwise, the
   process described in Sections 8.6.5 should be followed.

   The flow along which a packet is being sent is considered to be in
   the Flow Table if the triple (IP Source Address, IP Destination
   Address, Flow ID) has an unexpired entry in the Flow Table.

   When a node using DSR flow state receives a packet, it MUST follow
   the following steps for processing:

    -  If a DSR Flow State header is present, increment the Hop Count
       field.

    -  In addition, if a DSR Flow State header is present, then if the
       triple (IP Source Address, IP Destination Address, Flow ID) is
       in this node's Automatic Route Shortening Table and the packet
       is listed in the entry, then the node MAY send a gratuitous
       Route Reply as described in Section 4.4, subject to the rate
       limiting specified in Section 4.4.  This gratuitous Route Reply
       gives the route by which the packet originally reached this
       node.  Specifically, the node sending the gratuitous Route Reply
       constructs the route to return in the Route Reply as follows:

        o  Let k = (packet Hop Count) - (table Hop Count), where
           packet Hop Count is the value of the Hop Count field in this
           received packet, and table Hop Count is the Hop Count value
           stored for this packet in the corresponding entry in this
           node's Automatic Route Shortening Table.

        o  Copy the complete source route for this flow from the
           corresponding entry in the node's Flow Table.

        o  Remove from this route the k hops immediately preceding this
           node in the route, since these are the hops "skipped over"
           by the packet as recorded in the Automatic Route Shortening
           Table entry.

    -  Process each of the DSR options within the DSR Options header in
       order:

        o  On receiving a Pad1 or PadN option, skip over the option

        o  On receiving a Route Request for which this node is the
           destination, remove the option and return a Route Reply as
           specified in Section 8.2.2.

        o  On receiving a broadcast Route Request that this node has not
           previously seen for which this node is not the destination,
           append this node's incoming interface address to the Route
           Request, continue propagating the Route Request as specified



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           in Section 8.2.2, send the payload, if any, to the network
           layer, and stop processing.

        o  On receiving a Route Request that this node has not
           previously seen for which this node is not the destination,
           discard the packet and stop processing.

        o  On receiving any Route Request, add appropriate links to the
           cache, as specified in Section 8.2.2.

        o  On receiving a Route Reply that this node is the Requester
           for, remove the Route Reply from the packet and process it as
           specified in Section 8.2.5.

        o  On receiving any Route Reply, add appropriate links to the
           cache, as specified in Section 8.2.5.

        o  On receiving any Route Error of type NODE_UNREACHABLE,
           remove appropriate links to the cache, as specified in
           Section 8.3.5.

        o  On receiving a Route Error of type NODE_UNREACHABLE that
           this node is the Error Destination Address of, remove the
           Route Error from the packet and process it as specified
           in Section 8.3.5.  It also MUST stop originating packets
           along any flows using the link from Error Source Address to
           Unreachable Node, and it MAY remove from its Flow Table any
           flows using the link from Error Source Address to Unreachable
           Node.

        o  On receiving a Route Error of type UNKNOWN_FLOW that this
           node is not the Error Destination Address of, the node checks
           if the Route Error corresponds to a flow in its Flow Table.
           If it does not, the node silently discards the Route Error;
           otherwise, it forwards the packet to the expected previous
           hop of the corresponding flow.  If Route Maintenance cannot
           confirm the reachability of the previous hop, the node checks
           if the network interface requires bidirectional links for
           operation.  If it does, the node silently discards the Error;
           otherwise, it sends the Error as if it were originating it,
           as described in Section 8.1.1.

        o  On receiving a Route Error of type UNKNOWN_FLOW that this
           node is the Error Destination Address of, remove the Route
           Error from the packet and mark the flow specified by the
           triple (Error Destination Address, Original IP Destination
           Address, Flow ID) as not having been established end-to-end.

        o  On receiving a Route Error of type DEFAULT_FLOW_UNKNOWN
           that this node is not the Error Destination Address of, the



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           node checks if the Route Error corresponds to a flow in
           its Default Flow Table.  If it does not, the node silently
           discards the Route Error; otherwise, it forwards the packet
           to the expected previous hop of the corresponding flow.
           If Route Maintenance cannot confirm the reachability of
           the previous hop, the node checks if the network interface
           requires bidirectional links for operation.  If it does,
           the node silently discards the Error; otherwise, it sends
           the Error as if it were originating it, as described in
           Section 8.1.1.

        o  On receiving a Route Error of type DEFAULT_FLOW_UNKNOWN that
           this node is the Error Destination Address of, remove the
           Route Error from the packet and mark the default flow between
           the Error Destination Address and the Original IP Destination
           Address as not having been established end-to-end.

        o  On receiving a Acknowledgement Request option, the receiving
           node removes the Acknowledgement Request option and replies
           to the previous hop with a Acknowledgement option.  If the
           previous hop cannot be determined, the Acknowledgement
           Request option is discarded, and processing continues.

        o  On receiving a Acknowledgement option, the receiving node
           removes the Acknowledgement option and processes it.

        o  On receiving any Acknowledgement option, add the appropriate
           link to the cache, as specified in Section 8.1.4

        o  On receiving any Source Route option, add appropriate links
           to the cache, as specified in Section 8.1.4.

        o  On receiving a Source Route option and either no DSR Flow
           State header is present, the flow this packet is being sent
           along is in the Flow Table, or no Timeout option preceded the
           Source Route option in this DSR Options header, process it
           as specified in Section 8.1.4.  Stop processing this packet
           unless the last address in the Source Route option is an
           address of this node.

        o  On receiving a Source Route option in a packet with a DSR
           Flow State header, and the Flow ID specified in the DSR Flow
           State header is not in the Flow Table, add the flow to the
           Flow Table, setting the Timeout value to a value not greater
           than the Timeout field of the Timeout option in this header.
           If no Timeout option preceded the Source Route option in this
           header, the flow MUST NOT be added to the Flow Table.






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           If the Flow ID is odd and larger than any unexpired, odd
           Flow IDs, it is set to be default in the Default Flow ID
           Table.

           Then process the Route option as specified in Section 8.1.4.
           Stop processing this packet unless the last address in the
           Source Route option is an address of this node.

        o  On receiving a Timeout option, check if this packet contains
           a DSR Flow State header.  If this packet does not contain a
           DSR Flow State header, discard the DSR option.  Otherwise,
           record the Timeout value in the option for future reference.
           The value recorded SHOULD be discarded when the node has
           finished processing this DSR Options header.  If the flow
           that this packet is being sent along is in the Flow Table, it
           MAY set the flow to time out no more than Timeout seconds in
           the future.

        o  On receiving a Destination and Flow ID option, if the
           IP Destination Address is not an address of this node,
           forward the packet according to the Flow ID, as described in
           Section 8.6.4, and stop processing this packet.

        o  On receiving a Destination and Flow ID option, if the IP
           Destination Address is an address of this node, set the
           IP Destination Address to the New IP Destination Address
           specified in the option, and set the Flow ID to the New
           Flow Identifier.  Then remove the DSR option from the packet
           and continue processing.

    -  If the IP Destination Address is an address of this node, remove
       the DSR Options header, if any, and pass the packet up the
       network stack and stop processing.

    -  If there is still a DSR Options header containing no options,
       remove the DSR Options header.

    -  If there is still a DSR Flow State header, forward the packet
       according to the Flow ID, as described in Section 8.6.4.

    -  If there is neither a DSR Options header nor a DSR Flow State
       header, but there is an entry in the Default Flow Table for the
       (IP Source Address, IP Destination Address) pair:

        o  If the IP TTL is not equal to the TTL expected in the Flow
           Table, insert a DSR Flow State header, setting Hop Count
           equal to the Hop Count of this node, and the Flow ID equal
           to the default Flow ID found in the table, and forward
           this packet according to the Flow ID, as described in
           Section 8.6.4.



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        o  Otherwise, follow the steps for forwarding the packet using
           Flow IDs described in Section 8.6.4, but taking the Flow ID
           to be the default Flow ID found in the table.

    -  If there is no DSR Options header, no DSR Flow State header, and
       no default flow can be found, the node returns a Route Error of
       type Default Flow Unknown to the IP Source Address, specifying
       the IP Destination Address as the Original IP Destination in the
       type-specific field.


8.6.4. Forwarding a Packet Using Flow IDs

   To forward a packet using Flow IDs, a node MUST follow the following
   sequence of steps:

    -  If the triple (IP Source Address, IP Destination Address,
       Flow ID) is not in the Flow Table, return a Route Error of type
       Unknown Flow.

    -  If a hop-by-hop acknowledgement is required for the next hop, the
       node MUST include an Acknowledegment Request option as specified
       in Section 8.3.3.  If no DSR Options header is in the packet for
       the Acknowledgement Request option to be attached to, it MUST be
       included, as described in Section 8.1.2, except that it MUST be
       added after the DSR Flow State header, if one is present.

    -  Attempt to transmit this packet to the next hop as specified in
       the Flow Table, performing Route Maintenance to detect broken
       routes.


8.6.5. Promiscuously Receiving a Packet

   This section describes processing only for packets that have MAC
   destinations other than the processing node.  Otherwise, the process
   described in Section 8.6.3 should be followed.

   When a node using DSR flow state promiscuously overhears a packet, it
   SHOULD follow the following steps for processing:

    -  If the packet contains a DSR Flow State header, and if the triple
       (IP Source Address, IP Destination Address, Flow ID) is in the
       Flow Table and the Hop Count is less than the Hop Count in the
       flow's entry, the node MAY retain the packet in the Automatic
       Route Shortening Table.  If it can be determined that this
       Flow ID has been recently used, it SHOULD retain the packet in
       the Automatic Route Shortening Table.





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    -  If the packet contains neither a DSR Flow State header nor a
       Source Route option, and a Default Flow ID can be found in
       the Default Flow Table for (IP Source Address, IP Destination
       Address), and the IP TTL is greater than the TTL in the table
       for the default flow, the node MAY retain the packet in the
       Automatic Route Shortening Table.  If it can be determined that
       this Flow ID has been used recently, the node SHOULD retain the
       packet in the Automatic Route Shortening Table.


8.6.6. Operation where the Layer below DSR Decreases
       the IP TTL Non-Uniformly

   Some nodes may use an IP tunnel as a DSR hop.  If different packets
   sent along this IP tunnel can take different routes, the reduction
   in IP TTL across this link may be different for different packets.
   This prevents the Automatic Route Shortening and Loop Detection
   functionality from working properly when used in conjunction with
   default routes.

   Nodes forwarding packets without a Source Route option onto a link
   with unpredictable TTL changes MUST ensure that a DSR Flow State
   header is present, indicating the correct Hop Count and Flow ID.


8.6.7. Salvage Interactions with DSR

   Nodes salvaging packets MUST remove the DSR Flow State header, if
   present.

   Any time this document refers to the Salvage field in the Source
   Route option, packets without a Source Route option are considered to
   have the value zero in the Salvage field.




















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9. Protocol Constants and Configuration Variables

   Any DSR implementation MUST support the following configuration
   variables and MUST support a mechanism enabling the value of these
   variables to be modified by system management.  The specific variable
   names are used for demonstration purposes only, and an implementation
   is not required to use these names for the configuration variables,
   so long as the external behavior of the implementation is consistent
   with that described in this document.

   For each configuration variable below, the default value is specified
   to simplify configuration.  In particular, the default values given
   below are chosen for a DSR network running over 2 Mbps IEEE 802.11
   network interfaces using the Distributed Coordination Function (DCF)
   MAC with RTS and CTS [13, 5].

       BroadcastJitter                     10   milliseconds

       RouteCacheTimeout                  300   seconds

       SendBufferTimeout                   30   seconds

       RequestTableSize                    64   nodes
       RequestTableIds                     16   identifiers
       MaxRequestRexmt                     16   retransmissions
       MaxRequestPeriod                    10   seconds
       RequestPeriod                      500   milliseconds
       NonpropRequestTimeout               30   milliseconds

       RexmtBufferSize                     50   packets

       MaintHoldoffTime                   250   milliseconds

       MaxMaintRexmt                        2   retransmissions

       TryPassiveAcks                       1   attempt
       PassiveAckTimeout                  100   milliseconds

       GratReplyHoldoff                     1   second

   In addition, the following protocol constant MUST be supported by any
   implementation of the DSR protocol:

       MAX_SALVAGE_COUNT                   15   salvages









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10. IANA Considerations

   This document specifies the DSR Options header, which requires an IP
   Protocol number.

   This document also specifies the DSR Flow State header, which
   requires an IP Protocol number.

   In addition, this document proposes use of the value "No Next Header"
   (originally defined for use in IPv6) within an IPv4 packet, to
   indicate that no further header follows a DSR Options header.

   Finally, this document introduces a number of DSR options for use in
   the DSR Options header, and additional new DSR options may be defined
   in the future.  Each of these options requires a unique Option Type
   value, with the most significant 3 bits (that is, Option Type & 0xE0)
   encoded as defined in Section 6.1.  It is necessary only that each
   Option Type value be unique, not that they be unique in the remaining
   5 bits of the value after these 3 most significant bits.


































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11. Security Considerations

   This document does not specifically address security concerns.  This
   document does assume that all nodes participating in the DSR protocol
   do so in good faith and without malicious intent to corrupt the
   routing ability of the network.

   Depending on the threat model, a number of different mechanisms can
   be used to secure DSR.  For example, in an environment where node
   compromise is unrealistic and where where all the nodes participating
   in the DSR protocol share a common goal that motivates their
   participation in the protocol, the communications between the nodes
   can be encrypted at the physical channel or link layer to prevent
   attack by outsiders.  Cryptographic approaches, such as that provided
   by Ariadne [12] or SRP [26], can resist stronger attacks.






































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Appendix A. Link-MaxLife Cache Description

   As guidance to implementors of DSR, the description below outlines
   the operation of a possible implementation of a Route Cache for DSR
   that has been shown to outperform other other caches studied in
   detailed simulations.  Use of this design for the Route Cache is
   recommended in implementations of DSR.

   This cache, called "Link-MaxLife" [10], is a link cache, in that each
   individual link (hop) in the routes returned in Route Reply packets
   (or otherwise learned from the header of overhead packets) is added
   to a unified graph data structure of this node's current view of the
   network topology, as described in Section 4.1.  To search for a route
   in this cache to some destination node, the sending node uses a graph
   search algorithm, such as the well-known Dijkstra's shortest-path
   algorithm, to find the current best path through the graph to the
   destination node.

   The Link-MaxLife form of link cache is adaptive in that each link in
   the cache has a timeout that is determined dynamically by the caching
   node according to its observed past behavior of the two nodes at the
   ends of the link; in addition, when selecting a route for a packet
   being sent to some destination, among cached routes of equal length
   (number of hops) to that destination, Link-MaxLife selects the route
   with the longest expected lifetime (highest minimum timeout of any
   link in the route).

   Specifically, in Link-MaxLife, a link's timeout in the Route Cache
   is chosen according to a "Stability Table" maintained by the caching
   node.  Each entry in a node's Stability Table records the address of
   another node and a factor representing the perceived "stability" of
   this node.  The stability of each other node in a node's Stability
   Table is initialized to InitStability.  When a link from the Route
   Cache is used in routing a packet originated or salvaged by that
   node, the stability metric for each of the two endpoint nodes of that
   link is incremented by the amount of time since that link was last
   used, multiplied by StabilityIncrFactor (StabilityIncrFactor >= 1);
   when a link is observed to break and the link is thus removed
   from the Route Cache, the stability metric for each of the two
   endpoint nodes of that link is multiplied by StabilityDecrFactor
   (StabilityDecrFactor < 1).

   When a node adds a new link to its Route Cache, the node assigns a
   lifetime for that link in the Cache equal to the stability of the
   less "stable" of the two endpoint nodes for the link, except that a
   link is not allowed to be given a lifetime less than MinLifetime.
   When a link is used in a route chosen for a packet originated or
   salvaged by this node, the link's lifetime is set to be at least
   UseExtends into the future; if the lifetime of that link in the




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   Route Cache is already further into the future, the lifetime remains
   unchanged.

   When a node using Link-MaxLife selects a route from its Route Cache
   for a packet being originated or salvaged by this node, it selects
   the shortest-length route that has the longest expected lifetime
   (highest minimum timeout of any link in the route), as opposed to
   simply selecting an arbitrary route of shortest length.

   The following configuration variables are used in the description
   of Link-MaxLife above.  The specific variable names are used for
   demonstration purposes only, and an implementation is not required
   to use these names for these configuration variables.  For each
   configuration variable below, the default value is specified to
   simplify configuration.  In particular, the default values given
   below are chosen for a DSR network where nodes move at relative
   velocities between 12 and 25 seconds per transmission radius.

       InitStability                       25   seconds
       StabilityIncrFactor                  4
       StabilityDecrFactor                  2

       MinLifetime                          1   second
       UseExtends                         120   seconds





























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Appendix B. Location of DSR in the ISO Network Reference Model

   When designing DSR, we had to determine at what layer within
   the protocol hierarchy to implement ad hoc network routing.  We
   considered two different options:  routing at the link layer (ISO
   layer 2) and routing at the network layer (ISO layer 3).  Originally,
   we opted to route at the link layer for several reasons:

    -  Pragmatically, running the DSR protocol at the link layer
       maximizes the number of mobile nodes that can participate in
       ad hoc networks.  For example, the protocol can route equally
       well between IPv4 [30], IPv6 [7], and IPX [35] nodes.

    -  Historically [15, 16], DSR grew from our contemplation of
       a multi-hop propagating version of the Internet's Address
       Resolution Protocol (ARP) [28], as well as from the routing
       mechanism used in IEEE 802 source routing bridges [27].  These
       are layer 2 protocols.

    -  Technically, we designed DSR to be simple enough that it could
       be implemented directly in the firmware inside wireless network
       interface cards [15, 16], well below the layer 3 software within
       a mobile node.  We see great potential in this for DSR running
       inside a cloud of mobile nodes around a fixed base station,
       where DSR would act to transparently extend the coverage range
       to these nodes.  Mobile nodes that would otherwise be unable
       to communicate with the base station due to factors such as
       distance, fading, or local interference sources could then reach
       the base station through their peers.

   Ultimately, however, we decided to specify and to implement [22]
   DSR as a layer 3 protocol, since this is the only layer at which we
   could realistically support nodes with multiple network interfaces of
   different types forming an ad hoc network.



















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Appendix C. Implementation and Evaluation Status

   The initial design of the DSR protocol, including DSR's basic Route
   Discovery and Route Maintenance mechanisms, was first published in
   December 1994 [15], with significant additional design details and
   initial simulation results published in early 1996 [16].

   The DSR protocol has been extensively studied since then through
   additional detailed simulations.  In particular, we have implemented
   DSR in the ns-2 network simulator [25, 5] and performed extensive
   simulations of DSR using ns-2 (e.g., [5, 21]).  We have also
   conducted evaluations of the different caching strategies in this
   document [10].

   We have also implemented the DSR protocol under the FreeBSD 2.2.7
   operating system running on Intel x86 platforms.  FreeBSD [9] is
   based on a variety of free software, including 4.4 BSD Lite from the
   University of California, Berkeley.  For the environments in which
   we used it, this implementation is functionally equivalent to the
   version of the DSR protocol specified in this document.

   During the 7 months from August 1998 to February 1999, we designed
   and implemented a full-scale physical testbed to enable the
   evaluation of ad hoc network performance in the field, in an actively
   mobile ad hoc network under realistic communication workloads.  The
   last week of February and the first week of March of 1999 included
   demonstrations of this testbed to a number of our sponsors and
   partners, including Lucent Technologies, Bell Atlantic, and DARPA.
   A complete description of the testbed is available as a Technical
   Report [22].

   We have since ported this implementation of DSR to FreeBSD 3.3, and
   we have also added a preliminary version of Quality of Service (QoS)
   support for DSR.  A demonstration of this modified version of DSR was
   presented in July 2000.  These QoS features are not included in this
   document, and will be added later in a separate document on top of
   the base protocol specified here.

   DSR has also been implemented under Linux by Alex Song at the
   University of Queensland, Australia [34].  This implementation
   supports the Intel x86 PC platform and the Compaq iPAQ.

   The Network and Telecommunications Research Group at Trinity College
   Dublin have implemented a version of DSR on Windows CE.

   Microsoft Research has implemented a version of DSR on Windows XP,
   and has used it in testbeds of over 15 nodes.  Several machines use
   this implementation as their primary means of accessing the Internet.





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   Several other independent groups have also used DSR as a platform for
   their own research, or and as a basis of comparison between ad hoc
   network routing protocols.

   A preliminary version of the optional DSR flow state extension was
   implemented in FreeBSD 3.3.  A demonstration of this modified version
   of DSR was presented in July 2000.  The DSR flow state extension has
   also been extensively evaluated using simulation [11].













































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Changes from Previous Version of the Draft

   This appendix briefly lists some of the major changes in this
   draft relative to the previous version of this same draft,
   draft-ietf-manet-dsr-07.txt:

    -  Integrated the specification of the DSR flow state extension into
       the main DSR draft.  Previously, these had been specified in a
       separate draft.

    -  Included processing directions for unknown Option Types.

    -  Changed the name of the DSR header to DSR Options header, to
       clarify it as a separate header type from the DSR Flow State
       header.

    -  Slightly changed the format of the DSR Options header and the DSR
       Flow State header to allow the same IP protocol number to be used
       for both.  The new Flow State Header (F) bit in the two headers
       indicates which type of header is being used (the bit is clear in
       a DSR Options header and set in a DSR Flow State header).
































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Acknowledgements

   The protocol described in this document has been designed and
   developed within the Monarch Project, a research project at Rice
   University (previously at Carnegie Mellon University) that is
   developing adaptive networking protocols and protocol interfaces to
   allow truly seamless wireless and mobile node networking [17, 33].

   The authors would like to acknowledge the substantial contributions
   of Josh Broch in helping to design, simulate, and implement the DSR
   protocol.  We thank him for his contributions to earlier versions of
   this document.

   We would also like to acknowledge the assistance of Robert V. Barron
   at Carnegie Mellon University.  Bob ported our DSR implementation
   from FreeBSD 2.2.7 into FreeBSD 3.3.

   Many valuable suggestions came from participants in the IETF process.
   We would particularly like to acknowledge Fred Baker, who provided
   extensive feedback on a previous version of this document, as well as
   the working group chairs, for their suggestions of previous versions
   of the document.































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References

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    [2] Vaduvur Bharghavan, Alan Demers, Scott Shenker, and Lixia
        Zhang.  MACAW: A Media Access Protocol for Wireless LAN's.  In
        Proceedings of the ACM SIGCOMM '94 Conference, pages 212--225,
        August 1994.

    [3] Robert T. Braden, editor.  Requirements for Internet
        Hosts---Communication Layers.  RFC 1122, October 1989.

    [4] Scott Bradner.  Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
        Requirement Levels.  RFC 2119, March 1997.

    [5] Josh Broch, David A. Maltz, David B. Johnson, Yih-Chun Hu,
        and Jorjeta Jetcheva.  A Performance Comparison of Multi-Hop
        Wireless Ad Hoc Network Routing Protocols.  In Proceedings of
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    [6] David D. Clark.  The Design Philosophy of the DARPA Internet
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    [7] Stephen E. Deering and Robert M. Hinden.  Internet Protocol
        Version 6 (IPv6) Specification.  RFC 2460, December 1998.

    [8] Ralph Droms.  Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol.  RFC 2131,
        March 1997.

    [9] The FreeBSD Project.  Project web page available at
        http://www.freebsd.org/.

   [10] Yih-Chun Hu and David B. Johnson.  Caching Strategies in
        On-Demand Routing Protocols for Wireless Ad Hoc Networks.  In
        Proceedings of the Sixth Annual ACM International Conference on
        Mobile Computing and Networking, August 2000.

   [11] Yih-Chun Hu and David B. Johnson.  Implicit Source Routing
        in On-Demand Ad Hoc Network Routing.  In Proceedings of the
        Second Symposium on Mobile Ad Hoc Networking and Computing
        (MobiHoc 2001), pages 1--10, October 2001.

   [12] Yih-Chun Hu, Adrian Perrig, and David B. Johnson.  Ariadne:
        A Secure On-Demand Routing Protocol for Ad Hoc Networks.  In
        Proceedings of the Eighth Annual International Conference on
        Mobile Computing and Networking (MobiCom 2002), pages 12--23,
        September 2002.



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   [13] IEEE Computer Society LAN MAN Standards Committee.  Wireless
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        Specifications, IEEE Std 802.11-1997.  The Institute of
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   [14] Per Johansson, Tony Larsson, Nicklas Hedman, Bartosz Mielczarek,
        and Mikael Degermark.  Scenario-based Performance Analysis of
        Routing Protocols for Mobile Ad-hoc Networks.  In Proceedings
        of the Fifth Annual ACM/IEEE International Conference on Mobile
        Computing and Networking, pages 195--206, August 1999.

   [15] David B. Johnson.  Routing in Ad Hoc Networks of Mobile Hosts.
        In Proceedings of the IEEE Workshop on Mobile Computing Systems
        and Applications, pages 158--163, December 1994.

   [16] David B. Johnson and David A. Maltz.  Dynamic Source Routing in
        Ad Hoc Wireless Networks.  In Mobile Computing, edited by Tomasz
        Imielinski and Hank Korth, chapter 5, pages 153--181. Kluwer
        Academic Publishers, 1996.

   [17] David B. Johnson and David A. Maltz.  Protocols for Adaptive
        Wireless and Mobile Networking.  IEEE Personal Communications,
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   [18] John Jubin and Janet D. Tornow.  The DARPA Packet Radio Network
        Protocols.  Proceedings of the IEEE, 75(1):21--32, January 1987.

   [19] Phil Karn.  MACA---A New Channel Access Method for Packet Radio.
        In ARRL/CRRL Amateur Radio 9th Computer Networking Conference,
        pages 134--140, September 1990.

   [20] Gregory S. Lauer.  Packet-Radio Routing.  In Routing in
        Communications Networks, edited by Martha E. Steenstrup,
        chapter 11, pages 351--396. Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs,
        New Jersey, 1995.

   [21] David A. Maltz, Josh Broch, Jorjeta Jetcheva, and David B.
        Johnson.  The Effects of On-Demand Behavior in Routing Protocols
        for Multi-Hop Wireless Ad Hoc Networks.  IEEE Journal on
        Selected Areas of Communications, 17(8):1439--1453, August 1999.

   [22] David A. Maltz, Josh Broch, and David B. Johnson.  Experiences
        Designing and Building a Multi-Hop Wireless Ad Hoc Network
        Testbed.  Technical Report CMU-CS-99-116, School of Computer
        Science, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania,
        March 1999.

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        Lessons From a Full-Scale Multi-Hop Wireless Ad Hoc Network




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        Testbed.  In Proceedings of the IEEE Wireless Communications and
        Networking Conference, September 2000.

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        a Full-Scale MultiHop Wireless Ad Hoc Network Testbed.  IEEE
        Personal Communications, 8(1):8--15, February 2001.

   [25] The Network Simulator -- ns-2.  Project web page available at
        http://www.isi.edu/nsnam/ns/.

   [26] Panagiotis Papadimitratos and Zygmunt J. Haas.  Secure Routing
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   [28] David C. Plummer.  An Ethernet Address Resolution Protocol:
        Or Converting Network Protocol Addresses to 48.bit Ethernet
        Addresses for Transmission on Ethernet Hardware.  RFC 826,
        November 1982.

   [29] J. B. Postel, editor.  Internet Control Message Protocol.
        RFC 792, September 1981.

   [30] J. B. Postel, editor.  Internet Protocol.  RFC 791, September
        1981.

   [31] J. B. Postel, editor.  Transmission Control Protocol.  RFC 793,
        September 1981.

   [32] Joyce K. Reynolds and Jon Postel.  Assigned Numbers.  RFC 1700,
        October 1994.  See also http://www.iana.org/numbers.html.

   [33] Rice University Monarch Project.  Monarch Project Home Page.
        Available at http://www.monarch.cs.rice.edu/.

   [34] Alex Song.  picoNet II: A Wireless Ad Hoc Network for Mobile
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   [36] Gary R. Wright and W. Richard Stevens.  TCP/IP Illustrated,
        Volume 2:  The Implementation.  Addison-Wesley, Reading,
        Massachusetts, 1995.


















































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Chair's Address

   The MANET Working Group can be contacted via its current chairs:


   M. Scott Corson                        Phone: +1 908 947-7033
   Flarion Technologies, Inc.             Email: corson@flarion.com
   Bedminster One
   135 Route 202/206 South
   Bedminster, NJ  07921
   USA


   Joseph Macker                          Phone: +1 202 767-2001
   Information Technology Division        Email: macker@itd.nrl.navy.mil
   Naval Research Laboratory
   Washington, DC  20375
   USA



































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Authors' Addresses

   Questions about this document can also be directed to the authors:


   David B. Johnson                       Phone: +1 713 348-3063
   Rice University                        Fax:   +1 713 348-5930
   Computer Science Department, MS 132    Email: dbj@cs.rice.edu
   6100 Main Street
   Houston, TX 77005-1892
   USA


   David A. Maltz                         Phone: +1 412 268-5329
   Carnegie Mellon University             Fax:   +1 412 268-5576
   Computer Science Department            Email: dmaltz@cs.cmu.edu
   5000 Forbes Avenue
   Pittsburgh, PA 15213
   USA


   Yih-Chun Hu                            Phone: +1 412 268-3075
   Rice University                        Fax:   +1 412 268-5576
   Computer Science Department, MS 132    Email: yihchun@cs.cmu.edu
   6100 Main Street
   Houston, TX 77005-1892
   USA


























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