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Versions: (draft-clausen-manet-olsrv2) 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 19 RFC 7181

Mobile Ad hoc Networking (MANET)                              T. Clausen
Internet-Draft                          LIX, Ecole Polytechnique, France
Intended status: Standards Track                             C. Dearlove
Expires: August 28, 2008                 BAE Systems Advanced Technology
                                                                  Centre
                                                              P. Jacquet
                                                 Project Hipercom, INRIA
                                                  The OLSRv2 Design Team
                                                     MANET Working Group
                                                       February 25, 2008


          The Optimized Link State Routing Protocol version 2
                       draft-ietf-manet-olsrv2-05

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   Copyright (C) The IETF Trust (2008).








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Abstract

   This document describes version 2 of the Optimized Link State Routing
   (OLSRv2) protocol for mobile ad hoc networks.  The protocol embodies
   an optimization of the classical link state algorithm tailored to the
   requirements of a mobile ad hoc network (MANET).

   The key optimization of OLSRv2 is that of multipoint relays,
   providing an efficient mechanism for network-wide broadcast of link
   state information (i.e. reducing the cost of performing a network-
   wide link state broadcast).  A secondary optimization is that OLSRv2
   employs partial link state information: each node maintains
   information about all destinations, but only a subset of links.
   Consequently, only selected nodes diffuse link state advertisements
   (thus reducing the number of network-wide link state broadcasts) and
   these advertisements contain only a subset of links (thus reducing
   the size of network-wide link state broadcasts).  The partial link
   state information thus obtained still allows each OLSRv2 node to at
   all times maintain optimal (in terms of number of hops) routes to all
   destinations in the network.

   OLSRv2 imposes minimum requirements on the network by not requiring
   sequenced or reliable transmission of control traffic.  Furthermore,
   the only interaction between OLSRv2 and the IP stack is routing table
   management.

   OLSRv2 is particularly suitable for large and dense networks as the
   technique of MPRs works well in this context.























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Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  6
   2.  Terminology  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  7
   3.  Applicability Statement  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  9
   4.  Protocol Overview and Functioning  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
   5.  Protocol Parameters and Constants  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
     5.1.  Local History Times  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
     5.2.  Message Intervals  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
     5.3.  Advertised Information Validity Times  . . . . . . . . . . 14
     5.4.  Received Message Validity Times  . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
     5.5.  Jitter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
     5.6.  Hop Limit Parameter  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
     5.7.  Willingness  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
     5.8.  Parameter Change Constraints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
   6.  Information Bases  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
     6.1.  Local Information Base . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
       6.1.1.  Originator Set . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
       6.1.2.  Local Attached Network Set . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
     6.2.  Node Information Base  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
     6.3.  Topology Information Base  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
       6.3.1.  Advertised Neighbor Set  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
       6.3.2.  Advertising Remote Node Set  . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
       6.3.3.  Topology Set . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
       6.3.4.  Attached Network Set . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
       6.3.5.  Routing Set  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
     6.4.  Processing and Forwarding Information Base . . . . . . . . 23
       6.4.1.  Received Set . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
       6.4.2.  Processed Set  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
       6.4.3.  Forwarded Set  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
       6.4.4.  Relay Set  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
   7.  Packet Processing and Message Forwarding . . . . . . . . . . . 26
     7.1.  Actions when Receiving an OLSRv2 Packet  . . . . . . . . . 26
     7.2.  Actions when Receiving an OLSRv2 Message . . . . . . . . . 26
     7.3.  Message Considered for Processing  . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
     7.4.  Message Considered for Forwarding  . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
   8.  Packets and Messages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
     8.1.  HELLO Messages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
       8.1.1.  HELLO Message TLVs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
       8.1.2.  HELLO Message Address Block TLVs . . . . . . . . . . . 32
     8.2.  TC Messages  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
       8.2.1.  TC Message TLVs  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
       8.2.2.  TC Message Address Block TLVs  . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
   9.  HELLO Message Generation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
     9.1.  HELLO Message: Transmission  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
   10. HELLO Message Processing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
     10.1. Updating Willingness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
     10.2. Updating MPR Selectors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36



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     10.3. Symmetric 1-Hop and 2-Hop Neighborhood Changes . . . . . . 36
   11. TC Message Generation  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
     11.1. TC Message: Transmission . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
   12. TC Message Processing  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
     12.1. Initial TC Message Processing  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
       12.1.1. Populating the Advertising Remote Node Set . . . . . . 42
       12.1.2. Populating the Topology Set  . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
       12.1.3. Populating the Attached Network Set  . . . . . . . . . 43
     12.2. Completing TC Message Processing . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
       12.2.1. Purging the Topology Set . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
       12.2.2. Purging the Attached Network Set . . . . . . . . . . . 44
   13. Information Base Changes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
   14. Selecting MPRs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
   15. Populating Derived Sets  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
     15.1. Populating the Relay Set . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
     15.2. Populating the Advertised Neighbor Set . . . . . . . . . . 48
   16. Routing Set Calculation  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
     16.1. Network Topology Graph . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
     16.2. Populating the Routing Set . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
     16.3. Routing Set Updates  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
   17. Proposed Values for Parameters and Constants . . . . . . . . . 52
     17.1. Local History Time Parameters  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
     17.2. Message Interval Parameters  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
     17.3. Advertised Information Validity Time Parameters  . . . . . 52
     17.4. Received Message Validity Time Parameters  . . . . . . . . 52
     17.5. Jitter Time Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
     17.6. Hop Limit Parameter  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
     17.7. Willingness Parameter and Constants  . . . . . . . . . . . 53
   18. Sequence Numbers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
   19. Security Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
     19.1. Confidentiality  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
     19.2. Integrity  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
     19.3. Interaction with External Routing Domains  . . . . . . . . 56
   20. IANA Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
     20.1. Message Types  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
     20.2. TLV Types  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
   21. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60
     21.1. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60
     21.2. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60
   Appendix A.  Node Configuration  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62
   Appendix B.  Example Algorithm for Calculating MPRs  . . . . . . . 63
     B.1.  Terminology  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
     B.2.  MPR Selection Algorithm for each OLSRv2 Interface  . . . . 64
   Appendix C.  Example Algorithm for Calculating the Routing Set . . 65
     C.1.  Add Local Symmetric Links  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65
     C.2.  Add Remote Symmetric Links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66
     C.3.  Add Attached Networks  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67
   Appendix D.  Example Message Layout  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68



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   Appendix E.  Constraints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70
   Appendix F.  Flow and Congestion Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74
   Appendix G.  Contributors  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75
   Appendix H.  Acknowledgements  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76
   Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77
   Intellectual Property and Copyright Statements . . . . . . . . . . 78













































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1.  Introduction

   The Optimized Link State Routing protocol version 2 (OLSRv2) is an
   update to OLSRv1 as published in RFC3626 [7].  Compared to RFC3626,
   OLSRv2 retains the same basic mechanisms and algorithms, while
   providing a more flexible signaling framework and some simplification
   of the messages being exchanged.  Also, OLSRv2 accommodates either
   IPv4 and IPv6 addresses in a compact manner.

   OLSRv2 is developed for mobile ad hoc networks.  It operates as a
   table driven, proactive protocol, i.e. it exchanges topology
   information with other nodes in the network regularly.  Each node
   selects a set of its neighbor nodes as "MultiPoint Relays" (MPRs).
   Control traffic may be flooded through the network using hop by hop
   forwarding, but where a node only needs to forward control traffic
   directly received from its MPR selectors (nodes which have selected
   it as an MPR).  This mechanism, denoted "MPR flooding", provides an
   efficient mechanism for global information exchange within the MANET
   by reducing the number of transmissions required.

   Nodes selected as MPRs also have a special responsibility when
   declaring link state information in the network.  A sufficient
   requirement for OLSRv2 to provide shortest (lowest hop count) path
   routes to all destinations is that nodes declare link state
   information for their MPR selectors, if any.  Additional available
   link state information may be transmitted, e.g. for redundancy.
   Thus, as well as being used to facilitate MPR flooding, use of MPRs
   allows the reduction of the number and size of link state messages,
   and MPRs are used as intermediate nodes in multi-hop routes.

   A node selects MPRs from among its one hop neighbors connected by
   "symmetric", i.e. bi-directional, links.  Therefore, selecting routes
   through MPRs automatically avoids the problems associated with data
   packet transfer over uni-directional links (such as the problem of
   not getting link layer acknowledgments at each hop, for link layers
   employing this technique).

   OLSRv2 is developed to work independently from other protocols.
   (Parts of OLSRv2 have been published separately as [1], [2], [3] and
   [4] for wider use.)  Likewise, OLSRv2 makes no assumptions about the
   underlying link layer.  However, OLSRv2 may use link layer
   information and notifications when available and applicable, as
   described in [4].

   OLSRv2, as OLSRv1, inherits its concept of forwarding and relaying
   from HIPERLAN (a MAC layer protocol) which is standardized by ETSI
   [9], [10].




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2.  Terminology

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
   document are to be interpreted as described in RFC2119 [5].

   MANET specific terminology is to be interpreted as described in [1]
   and [4].

   Additionally, this document uses the following terminology:

   Node  - A MANET router which implements the Optimized Link State
      Routing protocol version 2 as specified in this document.

   Willingness  - The willingness of a node is a nummerical value
      between WILL_NEVER and WILL_ALWAYS (both inclusive), which
      represents the nodes willingess to be selected as an MPR.  A node
      with willingness greater than WILL_NEVER is said to be a "willing
      node".

   OLSRv2 interface  - A MANET interface, running OLSRv2.  Note that all
      references to MANET interfaces in [4] refer to OLSRv2 interfaces
      when using [4] as part of OLSRv2.

   Symmetric strict 2-hop neighbor  - A symmetric 2-hop neighbor which
      is not a symmetric 1-hop neighbor and is not a 2-hop neighbor only
      through a symmetric 1-hop neighbor with willingness WILL_NEVER.  A
      node Z is a symmetric strict 2-hop neighbor of a node X if it is
      not a symmetric 1-hop neighbor of node X and if there is a node Y
      with willingness not equal to WILL_NEVER and such that there is a
      symmetric link from node X to node Y, and a symmetric link from
      node Y to node Z. A node Z is a symmetric strict 2-hop neighbor of
      a node X by an OLSRv2 interface I of node X if in addition the
      link from node X to node Y uses interface I.

   Symmetric strict 2-hop neighborhood  - The set of the symmetric
      strict 2-hop neighbors of a node.

   Multipoint relay (MPR)  - A node which is selected by its symmetric
      1-hop neighbor, node X, to "re-transmit" all the broadcast
      messages that it receives from node X, provided that the message
      is not a duplicate, and that the hop limit field of the message is
      greater than one.

   MPR selector  - A node which has selected its symmetric 1-hop
      neighbor, node X, as one of its MPRs is an MPR selector of node X.





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   MPR flooding  - The optimized global information exchange mechanism,
      employed by this protocol, in which a message is relayed by only a
      reduced subset of the nodes in the network.
















































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3.  Applicability Statement

   OLSRv2 is a proactive routing protocol for mobile ad hoc networks
   (MANETs) [12].  The larger and more dense a network, the more
   optimization can be achieved by using MPRs compared to the classic
   link state algorithm.  OLSRv2 enables hop-by-hop routing, i.e. each
   node using its local information provided by OLSRv2 to route packets.

   As OLSRv2 continuously maintains routes to all destinations in the
   network, the protocol is beneficial for traffic patterns where the
   traffic is random and sporadic between a large subset of nodes, and
   where the [source, destination] pairs are changing over time.  No
   additional control traffic need be generated in this case since
   routes are maintained for all known destinations at all times.  Also,
   since routes are maintained continuously, traffic is subject to no
   delays due to buffering or to route discovery.

   OLSRv2 supports nodes which have multiple interfaces which
   participate in the MANET using OLSRv2.  As described in [4], each
   OLSRv2 interface may have one or more network addresses (which may
   have prefix lengths).  OLSRv2, additionally, supports nodes which
   have non-OLSRv2 interfaces which may be local or can serve as
   gateways towards other networks.

   OLSRv2 uses the format specified in [1] for all messages and packets.
   OLSRv2 is thereby able to allow for extensions via "external" and
   "internal" extensibility.  External extensibility allows a protocol
   extension to specify and exchange new message types, which can be
   forwarded and delivered correctly even by nodes which do not support
   that extension.  Internal extensibility allows a protocol extension
   to define additional attributes to be carried embedded in the
   standard OLSRv2 control messages detailed in this specification (or
   any new message types defined by other protocol extensions) using the
   TLV mechanism specified in [1], while still allowing nodes not
   supporting that extension to forward messages including the extension
   and to process messages ignoring the extension.

   The OLSRv2 neighborhood discovery protocol using HELLO messages is
   specified in [4].  This neighborhood discovery protocol serves to
   ensure that each OLSRv2 node has available continuously updated
   Information Bases describing the node's 1-hop and symmetric 2-hop
   neighbors.  This neighborhood discovery protocol, which also uses
   [1], is extended in this document by the addition of MPR information.

   OLSRv2 does not make any assumption about node addresses, other than
   that each node is assumed to have at least one unique and routable IP
   address for each interface that it has which participates in the
   MANET.



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4.  Protocol Overview and Functioning

   OLSRv2 is a proactive routing protocol for mobile ad hoc networks.
   The protocol inherits the stability of a link state algorithm and has
   the advantage of having routes immediately available when needed due
   to its proactive nature.  OLSRv2 is an optimization of the classical
   link state protocol, tailored for mobile ad hoc networks.  The main
   tailoring and optimizations of OLSRv2 are:

   o  periodic, unacknowledged transmission of all control messages;

   o  MPR flooding for global link state information declaration;

   o  partial topology maintenance - each node knows only a subset of
      the links in the network, sufficient for a minimum hop route to
      all destinations.

   The MPR flooding and partial topology maintenance are based on the
   concept on MultiPoint Relays (MPRs), selected independently by nodes
   based on the symmetric 1-hop and 2-hop neighbor information
   maintained using [4].

   Using the message exchange format [1] and the neighborhood discovery
   protocol [4], OLSRv2 also contains the following main components:

   o  A TLV, to be included within the HELLO messages of [4], allowing a
      node to signal MPR selection.

   o  The optimized mechanism for global information exchange, denoted
      "MPR flooding".

   o  A specification of global signaling, denoted TC (Topology Control)
      messages.  TC messages in OLSRv2 serve to:

      *  inject link state information into the entire network;

      *  inject addresses of hosts and networks for which they may serve
         as a gateway into the entire network.

      TC messages are emitted periodically, thereby allowing nodes to
      continuously track global changes in the network.  Incomplete TC
      messages may be used to report additions to advertised information
      without repeating unchanged information.  Some TC messages may be
      MPR flooded over only part of the network, allowing a node to
      ensure that nearer nodes are kept more up to date than distant
      nodes, such as is used in Fisheye State Routing [13] and Fuzzy-
      sighted link-state routing [14].




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   Each node in the network selects a set of MPRs.  The MPRs of a node X
   may be any subset of the willing nodes in node X's symmetric 1-hop
   neighborhood such that every node in the symmetric strict 2-hop
   neighborhood of node X has a symmetric link to at least one of node
   X's MPRs.  The MPRs of a node may thus be said to "cover" the node's
   symmetric strict 2-hop neighborhood.  Each node also maintains
   information about the set of symmetric 1-hop neighbors that have
   selected it as an MPR, its MPR selectors.

   As long as the condition above is satisfied, any algorithm selecting
   MPRs is acceptable in terms of implementation interoperability.
   However if smaller sets of MPRs are selected then the greater the
   efficiency gains that are possible.  An analysis and examples of MPR
   selection algorithms is given in [11].

   A node may independently determine and advertise its willingness to
   be selected as an MPR.  A node may advertise that it always should be
   selected as an MPR or that it should never be selected as an MPR.  In
   the latter case, the node will neither relay control messages, nor
   will that node be included as an intermediate node in any routing
   table calculations.  Use of variable willingness is most effective in
   dense networks.

   In OLSRv2, actual efficiency gains are based on the sizes of each
   node's Relay Set, the set of symmetric 1-hop neighbors for which it
   is to relay broadcast traffic, and its Advertised Neighbor Set, the
   set of symmetric 1-hop neighbors for which it is to advertise link
   state information into the network in TC messages.  Each of these
   sets MUST contain all MPR selectors, and MAY contain additional
   nodes.  If the Advertised Neighbor Set is empty, TC messages are not
   generated by that node, unless needed for gateway reporting, or for a
   short period to accelerate the removal of unwanted links.

   OLSRv2 is designed to work in a completely distributed manner and
   does not depend on any central entity.  The protocol does not require
   reliable transmission of control messages: each node sends control
   messages periodically, and can therefore sustain a reasonable loss of
   some such messages.  Such losses may occur frequently in radio
   networks due to collisions or other transmission problems.  OLSRv2
   MAY use "jitter", randomized adjustments to message transmission
   times, to reduce the incidence of collisions [3].

   OLSRv2 does not require sequenced delivery of messages.  Each TC
   message contains a sequence number which is incremented for each
   message.  Thus the recipient of a TC message can, if required, easily
   identify which information is more recent - even if messages have
   been re-ordered while in transmission.




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   OLSRv2 does not require any changes to the format of IP packets, any
   existing IP stack can be used as is: OLSRv2 only interacts with
   routing table management.  OLSR sends its control messages as
   described in [1] and [4].















































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5.  Protocol Parameters and Constants

   The parameters and constants used in this specification are those
   defined in [4] plus those defined in this section.  The separation in
   [4] into interface parameters, node parameters and constants is also
   used in OLSRv2, however all but one (RX_HOLD_TIME) of the parameters
   added by OLSRv2 are node parameters.  They may be classified into the
   following categories:

   o  Local history times

   o  Message intervals

   o  Advertised information validity times

   o  Received message validity times

   o  Jitter times

   o  Hop limits

   o  Willingness

   In addition constants for particular cases of a node's willingness to
   be an MPR are defined.  These parameters and constants are detailed
   in the following sections.  As for the parameters in [4], parameters
   defined in this document may be changed dynamically by a node, and
   need not be the same on different nodes, or on different interfaces
   (for interface parameters).

5.1.  Local History Times

   The following parameter manages the time for which local information
   is retained:

   O_HOLD_TIME  - is used to define the time for which a recently used
      and replaced originator address is used to recognise the node's
      own messages.

   The following constraint applies to this parameter:

   o  O_HOLD_TIME >= 0

5.2.  Message Intervals

   The following interface parameters regulate TC message transmissions
   by a node.  TC messages are usually sent periodically, but MAY also
   be sent in response to changes in the node's Advertised Neighbor Set



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   and Local Attached Network Set. With a larger value of parameter
   TC_INTERVAL, and a smaller value of parameter TC_MIN_INTERVAL, TC
   messages may more often be transmitted in response to changes in a
   highly dynamic network.  However because a node has no knowledge of,
   for example, nodes remote to it joining the network, TC messages MUST
   NOT be sent purely responsively.

   TC_INTERVAL  - is the maximum time between the transmission of two
      successive TC messages by this node.  When no TC messages are sent
      in response to local network changes (by design, or because the
      local network is not changing) then TC messages SHOULD be sent at
      a regular interval TC_INTERVAL, possibly modified by jitter as
      specified in [3].

   TC_MIN_INTERVAL  - is the minimum interval between transmission of
      two successive TC messages by this node.  (This minimum interval
      MAY be modified by jitter, as specified in [3].)

   The following constraints apply to these parameters:

   o  TC_INTERVAL > 0

   o  TC_MIN_INTERVAL >= 0

   o  TC_INTERVAL >= TC_MIN_INTERVAL

   o  If INTERVAL_TIME TLVs as defined in [2] are included in TC
      messages, then TC_INTERVAL MUST be representable as described in
      [2].

5.3.  Advertised Information Validity Times

   The following parameters manage the validity time of information
   advertised in TC messages:

   T_HOLD_TIME  - is used to define the minimum value in the
      VALIDITY_TIME TLV included in all TC messages sent by this node.
      If a single value of parameter TC_HOP_LIMIT (see Section 5.6) is
      used then this will be the only value in that TLV.

   A_HOLD_TIME  - is the period during which TC messages are sent after
      they no longer have any advertised information to report, but are
      sent in order to accelerate outdated information removal by other
      nodes.

   The following constraints apply to these parameters:





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   o  T_HOLD_TIME > 0

   o  A_HOLD_TIME >= 0

   o  T_HOLD_TIME >= TC_INTERVAL

   o  If TC messages can be lost then both T_HOLD_TIME and A_HOLD_TIME
      SHOULD be significantly greater than TC_INTERVAL; a value >= 3*
      TC_INTERVAL is RECOMMENDED.

   o  T_HOLD_TIME MUST be representable as described in [2].

5.4.  Received Message Validity Times

   The following parameters manage the validity time of recorded
   received message information:

   RX_HOLD_TIME  - is an interface parameter, and is the period after
      receipt of a message by the appropriate OLSRv2 interface of this
      node for which that information is recorded, in order that the
      message is recognized as having been previously received on this
      OLSRv2 interface.

   P_HOLD_TIME  - is the period after receipt of a message which is
      processed by this node for which that information is recorded, in
      order that the message is not processed again if received again.

   F_HOLD_TIME  - is the period after receipt of a message which is
      forwarded by this node for which that information is recorded, in
      order that the message is not forwarded again if received again.

   The following constraints apply to these parameters:

   o  RX_HOLD_TIME > 0

   o  P_HOLD_TIME > 0

   o  F_HOLD_TIME > 0

   o  All of these parameters SHOULD be greater than the maximum
      difference in time that a message may take to traverse the MANET,
      taking into account any message forwarding jitter as well as
      propagation, queuing, and processing delays.








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5.5.  Jitter

   If jitter, as defined in [3], is used then these parameters are as
   follows:

   TP_MAXJITTER  - represents the value of MAXJITTER used in [3] for
      periodically generated TC messages sent by this node.

   TT_MAXJITTER  - represents the value of MAXJITTER used in [3] for
      externally triggered TC messages sent by this node.

   F_MAXJITTER  - represents the default value of MAXJITTER used in [3]
      for messages forwarded by this node.  However before using
      F_MAXJITTER a node MAY attempt to deduce a more appropriate value
      of MAXJITTER, for example based on any INTERVAL_TIME or
      VALIDITY_TIME TLVs contained in the message to be forwarded.

   For constraints on these parameters see [3].

5.6.  Hop Limit Parameter

   The parameter TC_HOP_LIMIT is the hop limit set in each TC message.
   TC_HOP_LIMIT MAY be a single fixed value, or MAY be different in TC
   messages sent by the same node.  However each other node SHOULD see a
   regular pattern of TC messages, in order that meaningful values of
   INTERVAL_TIME and VALIDITY_TIME TLVs at each hop count distance can
   be included as defined in [2].  Thus the pattern of TC_HOP_LIMIT
   SHOULD be defined to have this property.  For example the repeating
   pattern (255 4 4) satisfies this property (having period TC_INTERVAL
   at hop counts up to 4, inclusive, and 3 x TC_INTERVAL at hop counts
   greater than 4), but the repeating pattern (255 255 4 4) does not
   satisfy this property.

   The following constraints apply to this parameter:

   o  The maximum value of TC_HOP_LIMIT >= the network diameter in hops,
      a value of 255 is RECOMMENDED.

   o  All values of TC_HOP_LIMIT >= 2.

5.7.  Willingness

   Each node has a WILLINGNESS parameter, which MUST be in the range
   WILL_NEVER to WILL_ALWAYS, inclusive, and represents its willingness
   to be an MPR, and hence its willingness to forward messages and be an
   intermediate node on routes.  If a node has WILLINGNESS == WILL_NEVER
   it does not perform these tasks.  A MANET using OLSRv2 with too many
   nodes with WILLINGNESS == WILL_NEVER will not function; it MUST be



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   ensured, by administrative or other means, that this does not happen.

   Nodes MAY have different WILLINGNESS values; however the three
   constants WILL_NEVER, WILL_DEFAULT and WILL_ALWAYS MUST have the
   values defined in Section 5.7.  (Use of WILLINGNESS == WILL_DEFAULT
   allows a node to avoid including a WILLINGNESS TLV in its TC
   messages, use of WILLINGNESS == WILL_ALWAYS means that a node will
   always be selected as an MPR by all symmetric 1-hop neighbors.)

   The following constraints apply to this parameter:

   o  WILLINGNESS &gt=; WILL_NEVER

   o  WILLINGNESS &lt=; WILL_ALWAYS

5.8.  Parameter Change Constraints

   This section presents guidelines, applicable if protocol parameters
   are changed dynamically.

   TC_INTERVAL

      *  If the TC_INTERVAL for a node increases, then the next TC
         message generated by this node MUST be generated according to
         the previous, shorter, TC_INTERVAL.  Additional subsequent TC
         messages MAY be generated according to the previous, shorter,
         TC_INTERVAL.

      *  If the TC_INTERVAL for a node decreases, then the following TC
         messages from this node MUST be generated according to the
         current, shorter, TC_INTERVAL.

   RX_HOLD_TIME

      *  If RX_HOLD_TIME for an OLSRv2 interface changes, then RX_time
         for all Received Tuples for that OLSRv2 interface MAY be
         changed.

   P_HOLD_TIME

      *  If P_HOLD_TIME changes, then P_time for all Processed Tuples
         MAY be changed.

   F_HOLD_TIME

      *  If F_HOLD_TIME changes, then F_time for all Forwarded Tuples
         MAY be changed.




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   TP_MAXJITTER

      *  If TP_MAXJITTER changes, then the periodic TC message schedule
         on this node MAY be changed immediately.

   TT_MAXJITTER

      *  If TT_MAXJITTER changes, then externally triggered TC messages
         on this node MAY be rescheduled.

   F_MAXJITTER

      *  If F_MAXJITTER changes, then TC messages waiting to be
         forwarded with a delay based on this parameter MAY be
         rescheduled.

   TC_HOP_LIMIT

      *  If TC_HOP_LIMIT changes, and the node uses multiple values
         after the change, then message intervals and validity times
         included in TC messages MUST be respected.  The simplest way to
         do this is to start any new repeating pattern of TC_HOP_LIMIT
         values with its largest value.




























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6.  Information Bases

   Each node maintains the Information Bases described in the following
   sections.  These are used for describing the protocol in this
   document.  An implementation of this protocol MAY maintain this
   information in the indicated form, or in any other organization which
   offers access to this information.  Regardless of how information is
   organised, from the time at which a tuple is indicated to be expired,
   the information contained herein MUST be ignored in any further
   processing.

   The purpose of OLSRv2 is to determine the Routing Set, which may be
   used to update IP's Routing Table, providing "next hop" routing
   information for IP datagrams.  OLSRv2 maintains the following
   Information Bases:

   Local Information Base  - as defined in [4], extended by the addition
      of a Local Attached Network Set, defined in Section 6.1.2.

   Interface Information Bases  - as defined in [4], one Interface
      Information Base for each OLSRv2 interface.

   Node Information Base  - as defined in [4], extended by the addition
      of three elements to each Neighbor Tuple, as defined in
      Section 6.2.

   Topology Information Base  - this information base is specific to
      OLSRv2, and is defined in Section 6.3.

   Processing and Forwarding Information Base  - this information base
      is specific to OLSRv2, and is defined in Section 6.4.

   All addresses, other than originator addresses, recorded in the
   Information Bases MUST all be recorded with prefix lengths, in order
   to allow comparison with addresses received in HELLO and TC messages.

   The ordering of sequence numbers, when considering which is the
   greater, is as defined in Section 18.

6.1.  Local Information Base

   The Local Information Base as defined in [4] is extended by the
   addition of an Originator Set, defined in Section 6.1.1, and a Local
   Attached Network Set, defined in Section 6.1.2.







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6.1.1.  Originator Set

   A node's Originator Set records addresses that were recently
   originator addresses.  If a node's originator address is immutable
   then this set is always empty and MAY be omitted.  It consists of
   Originator Tuples:

      (O_orig_addr, O_time)

   where:

   O_orig_addr  is a recently used originator address;

   O_time  specifies the time at which this Tuple expires and MUST be
      removed.

6.1.2.  Local Attached Network Set

   A node's Local Attached Network Set records its local non-OLSRv2
   interfaces that can act as gateways to other networks.  The Local
   Attached Network Set is not modified by this protocol.  This protocol
   MAY respond to changes to the Local Attached Network Set, which MUST
   reflect corresponding changes in the node's status.  It consists of
   Local Attached Network Tuples:

      (AL_net_addr, AL_dist)

   where:

   AL_net_addr  is the network address of an attached network which can
      be reached via this node.

   AL_dist  is the number of hops to the network with address
      AL_net_addr from this node.

   Attached networks local to this node SHOULD be treated as local non-
   MANET interfaces, and added to the Local Interface Set, as specified
   in [4], rather than being added to the Local Attached Network Set.

   An attached network MAY also be attached to other nodes.

   It is not the responsibility of OLSRv2 to maintain routes to networks
   recorded in the Local Attached Network Set.

6.2.  Node Information Base

   Each Neighbor Tuple in the Neighbor Set has these additional
   elements:



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   N_willingness  is the node's willingness to be selected as an MPR, in
      the range from WILL_NEVER to WILL_ALWAYS, both inclusive;

   N_mpr  is a boolean flag, describing if the neighbor is selected as
      an MPR by this node;

   N_mpr_selector  is a boolean flag, describing if this neighbor has
      selected this node as an MPR, i.e. is an MPR selector of this
      node.

6.3.  Topology Information Base

   The Topology Information Base stores information required for the
   generation and processing of TC messages, and received in TC
   messages.  The Advertised Neighbor Set contains interface addresses
   of symmetric 1-hop neighbors which are to be reported in TC messages.
   The Advertising Remote Node Set, the Topology Set and the Attached
   Network Set record information received in TC messages.

   Additionally, a Routing Set is maintained, derived from the
   information recorded in the Neighborhood Information Base, Topology
   Set, Attached Network Set and Advertising Remote Node Set.

6.3.1.  Advertised Neighbor Set

   A node's Advertised Neighbor Set contains interface addresses of
   symmetric 1-hop neighbors which are to be advertised through TC
   messages:

      {A_neighbor_iface_addr}

   In addition, an Advertised Neighbor Set Sequence Number (ANSN) is
   maintained.  Each time the Advertised Neighbor Set is updated, the
   ANSN MUST be incremented.  The ANSN MUST also be incremented if there
   is a change to the set of Local Attached Network Tuples that are to
   be advertised in the node's TC messages.

6.3.2.  Advertising Remote Node Set

   A node's Advertising Remote Node Set records information describing
   each remote node in the network that transmits TC messages.  It
   consists of Advertising Remote Node Tuples:

      (AR_orig_addr, AR_seq_number, AR_iface_addr_list, AR_time)

   where:





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   AR_orig_addr  is the originator address of a received TC message,
      note that this does not include a prefix length;

   AR_seq_number  is the greatest ANSN in any TC message received which
      originated from the node with originator address AR_orig_addr;

   AR_iface_addr_list  is the list of the interface addresses of the
      node with originator address AR_orig_addr;

   AR_time  is the time at which this Tuple expires and MUST be removed.

6.3.3.  Topology Set

   A node's Topology Set records topology information about the network.
   It consists of Topology Tuples:

      (T_dest_iface_addr, T_orig_addr, T_seq_number, T_time)

   where:

   T_dest_iface_addr  is an interface address of a destination node,
      which may be reached in one hop from the node with originator
      address T_orig_addr;

   T_orig_addr  is the originator address of a node which is the last
      hop on a path towards the node with interface address
      T_dest_iface_addr, note that this does not include a prefix
      length;

   T_seq_number  is the greatest received ANSN associated with the
      information contained in this Tuple;

   T_time  specifies the time at which this Tuple expires and MUST be
      removed.

6.3.4.  Attached Network Set

   A node's Attached Network Set records information about networks
   attached to other nodes.  It consists of Attached Network Tuples:

      (AN_net_addr, AN_orig_addr, AN_dist, AN_seq_number, AN_time)

   where:

   AN_net_addr  is the network address of an attached network, which may
      be reached via the node with originator address AN_orig_addr;





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   AN_orig_addr  is the originator address of a node which can act as
      gateway to the network with address AN_net_addr, note that this
      does not include a prefix length;

   AN_dist  is the number of hops to the network with address
      AN_net_addr from the node with originator address AN_orig_addr;

   AN_seq_number  is the greatest received ANSN associated with the
      information contained in this Tuple;

   AN_time  specifies the time at which this Tuple expires and MUST be
      removed.

6.3.5.  Routing Set

   A node's Routing Set records the selected path to each destination
   for which a route is known.  It consists of Routing Tuples:

      (R_dest_addr, R_next_iface_addr, R_dist, R_local_iface_addr)

   where:

   R_dest_addr  is the address of the destination, either the address of
      an interface of a destination node, or the network address of an
      attached network;

   R_next_iface_addr  is the OLSRv2 interface address of the "next hop"
      on the selected path to the destination;

   R_dist  is the number of hops on the selected path to the
      destination;

   R_local_iface_addr  is the address of the local OLSRv2 interface over
      which a packet MUST be sent to reach the destination by the
      selected path.

6.4.  Processing and Forwarding Information Base

   The Processing and Forwarding Information Base records information
   required to ensure that a message is processed at most once and is
   forwarded at most once per OLSRv2 interface of a node.

6.4.1.  Received Set

   A node has a Received Set per local OLSRv2 interface.  Each Received
   Set records the signatures of messages which have been received over
   that OLSRv2 interface.  Each consists of Received Tuples:




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      (RX_type, RX_orig_addr, RX_seq_number, RX_time)

   where:

   RX_type  is the received message type, or zero if the received
      message sequence number is not type-specific;

   RX_orig_addr  is the originator address of the received message;

   RX_seq_number  is the message sequence number of the received
      message;

   RX_time  specifies the time at which this Tuple expires and MUST be
      removed.

6.4.2.  Processed Set

   A node's Processed Set records signatures of messages which have been
   processed by the node.  It consists of Processed Tuples:

      (P_type, P_orig_addr, P_seq_number, P_time)

   where:

   P_type  is the processed message type, or zero if the processed
      message sequence number is not type-specific;

   P_orig_addr  is the originator address of the processed message;

   P_seq_number  is the message sequence number of the processed
      message;

   P_time  specifies the time at which this Tuple expires and MUST be
      removed.

6.4.3.  Forwarded Set

   A node's Forwarded Set records signatures of messages which have been
   processed by the node.  It consists of Forwarded Tuples:

      (F_type, F_orig_addr, F_seq_number, F_time)

   where:

   F_type  is the forwarded message type, or zero if the forwarded
      message sequence number is not type-specific;





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   F_orig_addr  is the originator address of the forwarded message;

   F_seq_number  is the message sequence number of the forwarded
      message;

   F_time  specifies the time at which this Tuple expires and MUST be
      removed.

6.4.4.  Relay Set

   A node has a Relay Set per local OLSRv2 interface.  Each Relay Set
   records the OLSRv2 interface addresses of symmetric 1-hop neighbors,
   such that the node is to forward messages received from those
   neighbors' OLSRv2 interfaces, on that local OLSRv2 interface, if not
   otherwise excluded from forwarding that message (e.g. by it having
   been previously forwarded):

      {RY_neighbor_iface_addr}

































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7.  Packet Processing and Message Forwarding

   On receiving a packet, as defined in [1], a node examines the packet
   header and each of the message headers.  If the message type is known
   to the node, the message is processed locally according to the
   specifications for that message type.  The message is also
   independently evaluated for forwarding.

7.1.  Actions when Receiving an OLSRv2 Packet

   On receiving a packet, a node MUST perform the following tasks:

   1.  The packet MAY be fully parsed on reception, or the packet and
       its messages MAY be parsed only as required.  (It is possible to
       parse the packet header, or determine its absence, without
       parsing any messages.  It is possible to divide the packet into
       messages without even fully parsing their headers.  It is
       possible to determine whether a message is to be forwarded, and
       to forward it, without parsing its body.  It is possible to
       determine whether a message is to be processed without parsing
       its body.)

   2.  If parsing fails at any point the relevant entity (packet or
       message) MUST be silently discarded, other parts of the packet
       (up to the whole packet) MAY be silently discarded.

   3.  Otherwise if the packet header is present and it contains a
       packet TLV block, then each TLV in it is processed according to
       its type if recognized, otherwise the TLV is ignored.

   4.  Otherwise each message in the packet, if any, is treated
       according to Section 7.2.

7.2.  Actions when Receiving an OLSRv2 Message

   A node MUST perform the following tasks for each received message:

   1.  If the message header cannot be correctly parsed according to the
       specification in [1], or if the node recognizes from the
       originator address of the message that the message is one which
       the receiving node itself originated (i.e. is the current
       originator address of the node, or is an O_orig_addr in an
       Originator Tuple) then the message MUST be silently discarded.

   2.  Otherwise:

       1.  If the message is a HELLO message, then the message is
           processed according to Section 10.



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       2.  Otherwise:

           1.  If the message is of a known type, including being a TC
               message, then the message is considered for processing
               according to Section 7.3, AND;

           2.  If for the message:

               -  <hop-limit> is present and <hop-limit> > 1, AND;

               -  <hop-count> is not present or <hop-count> < 255

               then the message is considered for forwarding according
               to Section 7.4.

7.3.  Message Considered for Processing

   If a message (the "current message") is considered for processing,
   then the following tasks MUST be performed:

   1.  If a Processed Tuple exists with:

       *  P_type == the message type of the current message, or 0 if the
          typedep bit in the message semantics octet in the message
          header of the current message is cleared ('0'), AND;

       *  P_orig_addr == the originator address of the current message,
          AND;

       *  P_seq_number == the message sequence number of the current
          message;

       then the current message MUST NOT be processed.

   2.  Otherwise:

       1.  Create a Processed Tuple with:

           +  P_type = the message type of the current message, or 0 if
              the typedep bit in the message semantics octet in the
              message header of the current message is cleared ('0');

           +  P_orig_addr = the originator address of the current
              message;

           +  P_seq_number = the sequence number of the current message;





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           +  P_time = current time + P_HOLD_TIME.

       2.  Process the current message according to its type.

7.4.  Message Considered for Forwarding

   If a message is considered for forwarding, and it is either of a
   message type defined in this document (i.e. is a TC message) or of an
   unknown message type, then it MUST use the following algorithm.  A
   message of a message type not defined in this document MAY, in an
   extension to this protocol, specify the use of this, or another
   algorithm.  (Such an other algorithm MAY use the Received Set for the
   receiving interface, it SHOULD use the Forwarded Set similarly to the
   following algorithm.)

   If a message (the "current message") is considered for forwarding
   according to this algorithm, the following tasks MUST be performed:

   1.  If the sending interface address (the source address of the IP
       datagram containing the current message) does not match (taking
       into account any address prefix of) an OLSRv2 interface address
       in an L_neighbor_iface_addr_list of a Link Tuple, with L_status
       == SYMMETRIC, in the Link Set for the OLSRv2 interface on which
       the current message was received (the "receiving interface") then
       the current message MUST be silently discarded.

   2.  Otherwise:

       1.  If a Received Tuple exists in the Received Set for the
           receiving interface, with:

           +  RX_type == the message type of the current message, or 0
              if the typedep bit in the message semantics octet in the
              message header of the current message is cleared ('0'),
              AND;

           +  RX_orig_addr == the originator address of the current
              message, AND;

           +  RX_seq_number == the sequence number of the current
              message;

           then the current message MUST be silently discarded.

       2.  Otherwise:

           1.  Create a Received Tuple in the Received Set for the
               receiving interface with:



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               -  RX_type = the message type of the current message, or
                  0 if the typedep bit in the message semantics octet in
                  the message header of the current message is cleared
                  ('0');

               -  RX_orig_addr = originator address of the current
                  message;

               -  RX_seq_number = sequence number of the current
                  message;

               -  RX_time = current time + RX_HOLD_TIME.

           2.  If a Forwarded Tuple exists with:

               -  F_type == the message type of the current message, or
                  0 if the typedep bit in the message semantics octet in
                  the message header of the current message is cleared
                  ('0');

               -  F_orig_addr == the originator address of the current
                  message, AND;

               -  F_seq_number == the sequence number of the current
                  message.

               then the current message MUST be silently discarded.

           3.  Otherwise if the sending interface address matches
               (taking account of any address prefix of) an
               RY_neighbor_iface_addr in the Relay Set for the receiving
               interface, then:

               1.  Create a Forwarded Tuple with:

                   o  F_type = the message type of the current message,
                      or 0 if the typedep bit in the message semantics
                      octet in the message header of the current message
                      is cleared ('0');

                   o  F_orig_addr = originator address of the current
                      message;

                   o  F_seq_number = sequence number of the current
                      message;

                   o  F_time = current time + F_HOLD_TIME.




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               2.  The message header of the current message is modified
                   by:

                   o  decrement <hop-limit> in the message header by 1;

                   o  increment <hop-count> in the message header by 1.

               3.  For each OLSRv2 interface of the node, include the
                   message in a packet to be transmitted on that OLSRv2
                   interface, as described in Section 8.  This packet
                   may contain other forwarded messages and/or messages
                   generated by this node.  Forwarded messages may be
                   jittered as described in [3].  The value of MAXJITTER
                   used in jittering a forwarded message MAY be based on
                   information in that message (in particular any
                   INTERVAL_TIME or VALIDITY_TIME TLVs in that message)
                   or otherwise SHOULD be with maximum delay of
                   F_MAXJITTER.  A node MAY reduce the jitter applied to
                   a message in order to more efficiently combine
                   messages in packets.































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8.  Packets and Messages

   Nodes using OLSRv2 exchange information through messages.  One or
   more messages sent by a node at the same time SHOULD be combined into
   a single packet.  These messages may have originated at the sending
   node, or have originated at another node and are forwarded by the
   sending node.  Messages with different originating nodes MAY be
   combined in the same packet.  Messages from other protocols defined
   using [1] MAY be combined in the same packet.

   The packet and message format used by OLSRv2 is defined in [1],
   where:

   o  OLSRv2 packets MAY include packet TLVs, however OLSRv2 itself does
      not specify any packet TLVs.

   o  All references in this specification to TLVs that do not indicate
      a type extension, assume Type Extension == 0.  TLVs in processed
      messages with a non-zero type extension, or with a type extension
      which is not specifically indicated, as appropriate, are ignored.

   Other options defined in [1] may be freely used, in particular any
   other values of <pkt-semantics>, <msg-semantics>, <addr-semantics> or
   <tlv-semantics> consistent with their specifications.

   The remainder of this section defines, within the framework of [1],
   message types and TLVs specific to OLSRv2.

8.1.  HELLO Messages

   A HELLO message in OLSRv2 is generated as specified in [4].
   Additionally, an OLSRv2 node:

   o  MUST include TLV(s) with Type == MPR associated with all OLSRv2
      interface addresses included in the HELLO message with a TLV with
      Type == LINK_STATUS and Value == SYMMETRIC if that address is also
      included in Neighbor Tuple with N_mpr == true.  (If there is more
      than one copy of such an address in the HELLO message, then this
      applies to the specific copy of the address with which the
      LINK_STATUS TLV is associated.)

   o  MUST NOT include any TLVs with Type == MPR associated with any
      other addresses.

   o  MAY include a message TLV with Type == WILLINGNESS, indicating the
      node's willingness to be selected as an MPR.





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8.1.1.  HELLO Message TLVs

   In a HELLO message, a node MAY include a WILLINGNESS message TLV as
   specified in Table 1.  A node MUST NOT include more than one
   WILLINGNESS message TLV.

   +-------------+--------+--------------------------------------------+
   |     Name    |  Value | Value                                      |
   |             | Length |                                            |
   +-------------+--------+--------------------------------------------+
   | WILLINGNESS | 8 bits | The node's willingness to be selected as   |
   |             |        | MPR; unused bits (based on the maximum     |
   |             |        | willingness value WILL_ALWAYS) are         |
   |             |        | RESERVED and SHOULD be set to zero.        |
   +-------------+--------+--------------------------------------------+

                                  Table 1

   A node's willingness to be selected as MPR ranges from WILL_NEVER
   (indicating that a node MUST NOT be selected as MPR by any node) to
   WILL_ALWAYS (indicating that a node MUST always be selected as MPR).

   If a node does not advertise a Willingness TLV in HELLO messages,
   then the node MUST be assumed to have a willingness of WILL_DEFAULT.

8.1.2.  HELLO Message Address Block TLVs

   In a HELLO message, a node MAY include MPR address block TLV(s) as
   specified in Table 2.

                      +------+--------------+-------+
                      | Name | Value Length | Value |
                      +------+--------------+-------+
                      |  MPR |    0 bits    | None. |
                      +------+--------------+-------+

                                  Table 2

8.2.  TC Messages

   A TC message MUST contain:

   o  <msg-orig-addr>, <msg-seq-num> and <msg-hop-limit> elements in its
      message header, as specified in [1].

   o  A <msg-hop-count> element in its message header if the message
      contsins either a VALIDITY_TIME or an INTERVAL_TIME TLV indicating
      more than one time value according to distance.



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   o  A single message TLV with Type == CONT_SEQ_NUM, and Type Extension
      == COMPLETE or Type Extension == INCOMPLETE, as specified in
      Section 8.2.1.

   o  A message TLV with Type == VALIDITY_TIME, as specified in [2].
      The options included in [2] for representing zero and infinite
      times MUST NOT be used.

   o  All of the node's interface addresses.  These MUST be included in
      the message's address blocks, unless:

      *  the node has a single interface, with a single interface
         address with maximum prefix length, and

      *  that address is the node's originator address.

      In this exceptional case, the address will be included as the
      message's originator address.

   o  TLV(s) with Type == LOCAL_IF and Value == UNSPEC_IF associated
      with all of the node's interface addresses.

   o  A complete TC message MUST include all addresses in the Advertised
      Address Set and selected addresses in the Local Attached Network
      Set, the latter (only) with associated GATEWAY address block
      TLV(s), as specified in Section 8.2.2.

   A TC message SHOULD have the mistypedep bit of <msg-semantics>, as
   defined in [1] cleared ('0').

   A TC message MAY contain:

   o  A message TLV with Type == INTERVAL_TIME, as specified in [2].
      The options included in [2] for representing zero and infinite
      times MUST NOT be used.

8.2.1.  TC Message TLVs

   In a TC message, a node MUST include a single CONT_SEQ_NUM message
   TLV, as specified in Table 3, and with Type Extension == COMPLETE or
   Type Extension == INCOMPLETE.










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   +--------------+------------+---------------------------------------+
   |     Name     |    Value   | Value                                 |
   |              |   Length   |                                       |
   +--------------+------------+---------------------------------------+
   | CONT_SEQ_NUM |   8 bits   | The ANSN contained in the Advertised  |
   |              |            | Neighbor Set.                         |
   +--------------+------------+---------------------------------------+

                                  Table 3

8.2.2.  TC Message Address Block TLVs

   In a TC message, a node MAY include GATEWAY address block TLV(s) as
   specified in Table 4.

     +---------+--------------+-------------------------------------+
     |   Name  | Value Length | Value                               |
     +---------+--------------+-------------------------------------+
     | GATEWAY |    8 bits    | Number of hops to attached network. |
     +---------+--------------+-------------------------------------+

                                  Table 4





























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9.  HELLO Message Generation

   An OLSRv2 HELLO message is composed as defined in [4], with the
   following additions:

   o  A message TLV with Type == WILLINGNESS and Value == the node's
      willingness to act as an MPR, MAY be included.

   o  For each address which is included in the message with an
      associated TLV with Type == LINK_STATUS and Value == SYMMETRIC,
      and is of an MPR (i.e. the address is in the
      N_neighbor_iface_addr_list of a Neighbor Tuple with N_mpr ==
      true), an address block TLV with Type == MPR MUST be included;
      this TLV MUST be associated with the same copy of the address as
      is the TLV with Type == LINK_STATUS.

   o  For each address which is included in the message and is not
      associated with a TLV with Type == LINK_STATUS and Value ==
      SYMMETRIC, or is not of an MPR (i.e. the address is not in the
      N_neighbor_iface_addr_list of a Neighbor Tuple with N_mpr ==
      true), an address block TLV with Type == MPR MUST NOT be
      associated with this address.

9.1.  HELLO Message: Transmission

   HELLO messages are included in packets as specified in [1].  These
   packets may contain other messages, including TC messages.
























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10.  HELLO Message Processing

   Subsequent to the processing of HELLO messages, as specified in [4],
   the node MUST identify the Neighbor Tuple which was created or
   updated by the processing specified in [4] (the "current Neighbor
   Tuple") and update N_willingness as described in Section 10.1 and
   N_mpr_selector as described in Section 10.2.

10.1.  Updating Willingness

   N_willingness in the current Neighbor Tuple is updated as follows:

   1.  if the HELLO message contains a message TLV with Type ==
       WILLINGNESS then N_willingness is set to the value of that TLV;

   2.  otherwise, N_willingness is set to WILL_DEFAULT.

10.2.  Updating MPR Selectors

   N_mpr_selector is updated as follows:

   1.  If a node finds one of its local OLSRv2 interface addresses with
       an associated TLV with Type == MPR in the HELLO message
       (indicating that the originator node has selected the receiving
       node as an MPR), then N_mpr_selector in the current Neighbor
       Tuple is set true.

   2.  Otherwise, if a node finds one of its own interface addresses
       with an associated TLV with Type == LINK_STATUS and Value ==
       SYMMETRIC in the HELLO message, then N_mpr_selector in the
       current Neighbor Tuple is set false.

10.3.  Symmetric 1-Hop and 2-Hop Neighborhood Changes

   A node MUST also perform the following:

   1.  If N_symmetric of a Neighbor Tuple changes from true to false,
       then N_mpr_selector of that Neighbor Tuple MUST be set false.

   2.  The set of MPRs of a node MUST be recalculated if:

       *  a Link Tuple is added with L_status == SYMMETRIC, OR;

       *  a Link Tuple with L_status == SYMMETRIC is removed, OR;

       *  a Link Tuple with L_status == SYMMETRIC changes to having
          L_status == HEARD or L_status == LOST, OR;




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       *  a Link Tuple with L_status == HEARD or L_status == LOST
          changes to having L_status == SYMMETRIC, OR;

       *  a 2-Hop Tuple is added or removed, OR;

       *  the N_willingness of a Neighbor Tuple with N_symmetric == true
          changes from WILL_NEVER to any other value, OR;

       *  the N_willingness of a Neighbor Tuple with N_symmetric == true
          and N_mpr == true changes to WILL_NEVER from any other value,
          OR;

       *  the N_willingness of a Neighbor Tuple with N_symmetric == true
          and N_mpr == false changes to WILL_ALWAYS from any other
          value.

   3.  Otherwise the set of MPRs of a node MAY be recalculated if the
       N_willingness of a Neighbor Tuple with N_symmetric == true
       changes in any other way; it SHOULD be recalculated if N_mpr ==
       false and this is an increase in N_willingness or if N_mpr ==
       true and this is a decrease in N_willingness.

   If the set of MPRs of a node is recalculated, this MUST be as
   described in Section 14.  Before that calculation the N_mpr of all
   Neighbor Tuples are set false, after that calculation the N_mpr of
   all Neighbor Tuples representing symmetric 1-hop neighbors which are
   chosen as MPRs, are set true.

   A node MAY recognize the previous set of MPRs in the calculation of a
   new set of MPRs in order to minimise unnecessary changes to this set.

   An additional HELLO message MAY be sent when the node's set of MPRs
   changes, in addition to the cases specified in [4], and subject to
   the same constraints.

















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11.  TC Message Generation

   A node with one or more OLSRv2 interfaces, and with a non-empty
   Advertised Neighbor Set or a non-empty Local Attached Network Set
   MUST generate TC messages.  A node with an empty Advertised Neighbor
   Set and and empty Local Attached Network Set SHOULD also generate
   "empty" TC messages for a period A_HOLD_TIME after it last generated
   a non-empty TC message.  TC messages (non-empty and empty) are
   generated according to the following:

   1.  The message hop count, if included, MUST be set to zero.

   2.  The message hop limit MUST be set to a value greater than 1.  A
       node MAY:

       *  use the same hop limit TC_HOP_LIMIT in all TC messages, this
          MUST be at least equal to the network diameter in hops; OR

       *  use different values of the hop limit TC_HOP_LIMIT in TC
          messages, this MUST regularly include messages with hop limit
          as defined above, other, lower, hop limits SHOULD use a
          regular pattern with a regular message interval at any given
          number of hops distance.

   3.  The message MUST contain a message TLV with Type == CONT_SEQ_NUM
       and Value == ANSN from the Advertised Neighbor Set. If the TC
       message is complete then this message TLV MUST have Type
       Extension == COMPLETE, otherwise it MUST have Type Extension ==
       INCOMPLETE.

   4.  The message MUST contain a message TLV with Type ==
       VALIDITY_TIME, as specified in [2].  If all TC messages are sent
       with the same hop limit then this TLV MUST have Value ==
       T_HOLD_TIME.  If TC messages are sent with different hop limits
       (more than one value of TC_HOP_LIMIT) then this TLV MUST specify
       times which vary with the number of hops distance appropriate to
       the chosen pattern of TC message hop limits, as specified in [2],
       these times SHOULD be appropriate multiples of T_HOLD_TIME.

   5.  The message MAY contain a message TLV with Type == INTERVAL_TIME,
       as specified in [2].  If all TC messages are sent with the same
       hop limit then this TLV MUST have Value == TC_INTERVAL.  If TC
       messages are sent with different hop limits, then this TLV MUST
       specify times which vary with the number of hops distance
       appropriate to the chosen pattern of TC message hop limits, as
       specified in [2], these times SHOULD be appropriate multiples of
       TC_INTERVAL.




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   6.  Unless the node has a single interface, with a single interface
       address with maximum prefix length, and that address is the
       node's originator address, the message MUST contain all of the
       node's interface addresses (i.e. all addresses in an
       I_local_iface_addr_list) in its address blocks.

   7.  All addresses of the node's interfaces included in an address
       block MUST be associated with a TLV with Type == LOCAL_IF and
       Value == UNSPEC_IF.

   8.  The message MUST include in its address blocks:

       1.  A_neighbor_iface_addr from each Advertised Neighbor Tuple;

       2.  AL_net_addr from each Local Attached Neighbor Tuple, each
           associated with a TLV with Type == GATEWAY and Value ==
           AL_dist.

11.1.  TC Message: Transmission

   Complete TC messages are generated and transmitted periodically on
   all OLSRv2 interfaces, with a default interval between two
   consecutive TC transmissions by the same node of TC_INTERVAL.

   TC messages MAY be generated in response to a change of contents,
   indicated by a change in ANSN.  In this case a node MAY send a
   complete TC message, and if so MAY re-start its TC message schedule.
   Alternatively a node MAY send an incomplete TC message with only new
   content in its address blocks.  Note that a node cannot report
   removal of advertised content using an incomplete TC message.

   When sending a TC message in response to a change of contents, a node
   must respect a minimum interval of TC_MIN_INTERVAL between generated
   TC messages.  Sending an incomplete TC message MUST NOT cause the
   interval between complete TC messages to be increased, and thus a
   node MUST NOT send an incomplete TC message if within TC_MIN_INTERVAL
   of the next scheduled complete TC message.

   The generation of TC messages, whether scheduled or triggered by a
   change of contents MAY be jittered as described in [3].  The values
   of MAXJITTER used SHOULD be:

   o  TP_MAXJITTER for periodic TC message generation;

   o  TT_MAXJITTER for triggered TC message generation.

   TC messages are included in packets as specified in [1].  These
   packets MAY contain other messages, including HELLO messages and TC



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   messages with different originator addresses.  TC messages are
   forwarded according to the specification in Section 7.4.

















































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12.  TC Message Processing

   When according to Section 7.3 a TC message is to be processed
   according to its type, this means that:

   o  If any address associated with a TLV with Type == LOCAL_IF is one
      of the receiving node's current or recently used interface
      addresses (i.e. is in any I_local_iface_addr_list in the Local
      Interface Set or is equal to any IR_local_iface_addr in the
      Removed Interface Address Set), then the TC message MUST be
      discarded.

   o  If the TC message does not contain exactly one message TLV with
      Type == CONT_SEQ_NUM and Type Extension == COMPLETE or Type
      Extension == INCOMPLETE, then the TC message MUST be discarded.

   o  If the TC message contains a message TLV with Type == CONT_SEQ_NUM
      and Type Extension == COMPLETE, then processing according to
      Section 12.1 and then according to Section 12.2 is carried out.

   o  If the TC message contains a message TLV with Type == CONT_SEQ_NUM
      and Type Extension == INCOMPLETE, then only processing according
      to Section 12.1 is carried out.

12.1.  Initial TC Message Processing

   For the purposes of this section:

   o  "originator address" refers to the originator address in the TC
      message header.

   o  "validity time" is calculated from the VALIDITY_TIME message TLV
      in the TC message according to the specification in [2].  All
      information in the TC message has the same validity time.

   o  "ANSN" is defined as being the value of the message TLV with Type
      == CONT_SEQ_NUM.

   o  "sending address list" refers to the list of addresses in all
      address blocks which have associated TLV with Type == LOCAL_IF and
      Value == UNSPEC_IF.  If the sending address list is otherwise
      empty, then the message's originator address is added to the
      sending address list, with maximum prefix length.

   o  Comparisons of sequence numbers are carried out as specified in
      Section 18.

   The TC message is processed as follows:



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   1.  The Advertising Remote Node Set is updated according to
       Section 12.1.1; if the TC message is indicated as discarded in
       that processing then the following steps are not carried out.

   2.  The Topology Set is updated according to Section 12.1.2.

   3.  The Attached Network Set is updated according to Section 12.1.3.

12.1.1.  Populating the Advertising Remote Node Set

   The node MUST update its Advertising Remote Node Set as follows:

   1.  If there is an Advertising Remote Node Tuple with:

       *  AR_orig_addr == originator address; AND

       *  AR_seq_number > ANSN

       then the TC message MUST be discarded.

   2.  Otherwise:

       1.  If there is no Advertising Remote Node Tuple such that:

           +  AR_orig_addr == originator address;

           then create an Advertising Remote Node Tuple with:

           +  AR_orig_addr = originator address.

       2.  This Advertising Remote Node Tuple (existing or new, the
           "current tuple") is then modified as follows:

           +  AR_seq_number = ANSN;

           +  AR_time = current time + validity time.

           +  AR_iface_addr_list = sending address list

       3.  For each other Advertising Remote Node Tuple (with a
           different AR_orig_addr, the "other tuple") whose
           AR_iface_addr_list contains any address in the
           AR_iface_addr_list of the current tuple:

           1.  remove all Topology Tuples with T_orig_addr ==
               AR_orig_addr of the other tuple;





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           2.  remove all Attached Network Tuples with AN_orig_addr ==
               AR_orig_addr of the other tuple;

           3.  remove the other tuple.

12.1.2.  Populating the Topology Set

   The node MUST update its Topology Set as follows:

   1.  For each address (henceforth advertised address) in an address
       block which does not have an associated TLV with Type ==
       LOCAL_IF, or an associated TLV with Type == GATEWAY:

       1.  If there is no Topology Tuple such that:

           +  T_dest_iface_addr == advertised address; AND

           +  T_orig_addr == originator address

           then create a new Topology Tuple with:

           +  T_dest_iface_addr = advertised address;

           +  T_orig_addr = originator address.

       2.  This Topology Tuple (existing or new) is then modified as
           follows:

           +  T_seq_number = ANSN;

           +  T_time = current time + validity time.

12.1.3.  Populating the Attached Network Set

   The node MUST update its Attached Network Set as follows:

   1.  For each address (henceforth network address) in an address block
       which does not have an associated TLV with Type == LOCAL_IF, and
       does have an associated TLV with Type == GATEWAY:

       1.  If there is no Attached Network Tuple such that:

           +  AN_net_addr == network address; AND

           +  AN_orig_addr == originator address

           then create a new Attached Network Tuple with:




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           +  AN_net_addr = network address;

           +  AN_orig_addr = originator address

       2.  This Attached Network Tuple (existing or new) is then
           modified as follows:

           +  AN_dist = the value of the associated GATEWAY TLV;

           +  AN_seq_number = ANSN;

           +  AN_time = current time + validity time.

12.2.  Completing TC Message Processing

   The TC message is processed as follows:

   1.  The Topology Set is updated according to Section 12.2.1.

   2.  The Attached Network Set is updated according to Section 12.2.2.

12.2.1.  Purging the Topology Set

   The Topology Set MUST be updated as follows:

   Any Topology Tuples with:

   o  T_orig_addr == originator address; AND

   o  T_seq_number < ANSN

   MUST be removed.

12.2.2.  Purging the Attached Network Set

   The Attached Network Set MUST be updated as follows:

   1.  Any Attached Network Tuples with:

       *  AN_orig_addr == originator address; AND

       *  AN_seq_number < ANSN

       MUST be removed.







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13.  Information Base Changes

   The Originator Set in the Local Information Base MUST be updated when
   the node changes originator address.  If there is no Originator Tuple
   with:

   o  O_orig_addr == old originator address

   then create an Originator Tuple with:

   o  O_orig_addr = old originator address

   This Originator Tuple (existing or new) is then modified as follows:

   o  O_time = current time + O_HOLD_TIME

   The Topology Information Base MUST be changed when an Advertising
   Remote Node Tuple expires (AR_time is reached).  The following
   changes are required before the Advertising Remote Node Tuple is
   removed:

   1.  All Topology Tuples with:

       *  T_orig_addr == AR_orig_addr of the Advertising Remote Node
          Tuple

       are removed.

   2.  All Attached Network Tuples with:

       *  AN_orig_addr == AR_orig_addr of the Advertising Remote Node
          Tuple

       are removed.

















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14.  Selecting MPRs

   Each node MUST select, from among its symmetric 1-hop neighbors, a
   subset of nodes as MPRs.  MPRs are used to flood control messages
   from a node into the network, while reducing the number of
   retransmissions that will occur in a region.  Thus, the concept of
   MPR flooding is an optimization of a classical flooding mechanism.
   MPRs MAY also be used to reduce the shared topology information in
   the network.  Consequently, while it is not essential that the set of
   MPRs is minimal, keeping the number of MPRs small ensures that the
   overhead of OLSRv2 is kept at a minimum.

   A node MUST select MPRs for each of its OLSRv2 interfaces, but then
   forms the union of those sets as its single set of MPRs.  This union
   MUST include all symmetric 1-hop neighbors with willingness
   WILL_ALWAYS.  Only this overall set of MPRs is relevant and recorded,
   the MPR relationship is one of nodes, not interfaces.  Nodes MAY
   select their MPRs by any process which satisfies the conditions which
   follow.  Nodes can freely interoperate whether they use the same or
   different MPR selection algorithms.

   For each OLSRv2 interface a node MUST select a set of MPRs which have
   the property that none of them have willingness WILL_NEVER, and that
   if the node successfully sends a message on that OLSRv2 interface,
   and that message is then successfully forwarded by all of the
   selected MPRs, that all symmetric strict 2-hop neighbors of the node
   by that OLSRv2 interface will receive that message on a symmetric
   link.

   Note that it is always possible to select a valid set of MPRs, the
   set of all symmetric 1-hop neighbors of a node which do not have
   willingness WILL_NEVER is a (maximal) valid set of MPRs.  A node
   SHOULD NOT select a symmetric 1-hop neighbor with willingness not
   equal to WILL_ALWAYS as an MPR if there are no symmetric strict 2-hop
   neighbors with a symmetric link to that symmetric 1-hop neighbor.
   Thus a node with no symmetric 1-hop neighbors with willingness
   WILL_ALWAYS and no symmetric strict 2-hop neighbors SHOULD NOT select
   any MPRs.

   A node MAY select its MPRs for each OLSRv2 interface independently,
   or it MAY coordinate its MPR selections across its OLSRv2 interfaces,
   as long as the required condition is satisfied for each OLSRv2
   interface.  Each node MAY select its MPRs independently from the MPR
   selection by other nodes, or it MAY, for example, give preference to
   nodes that either are, or are not, already selected as MPRs by other
   nodes.

   The set of MPRs for each OLSRv2 interface can be selected using



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   information from the Link Set and 2-Hop Set of that OLSRv2 interface,
   and the Neighbor Set of the node (specifically the N_willingness
   elements).  The selection of MPRs (overall, not per OLSRv2 interface)
   is recorded in the Neighbor Set of the node (using the N_mpr
   elements).  A selected MPR MUST be in the node's symmetric 1-hop
   neighborhood (i.e. the corresponding N_symmetric == true) and MUST
   NOT have the corresponding N_willingness == WILL_NEVER.

   A node MUST recalculate its MPRs whenever the currently selected set
   of MPRs does not still satisfy the required conditions.  It MAY
   recalculate its MPRs if the current set of MPRs is still valid, but
   could be more efficient.  It is sufficient to recalculate a node's
   MPRs when there is a change to any of the node's Link Sets affecting
   the symmetry of any link (addition or removal of a Link Tuple with
   L_status == SYMMETRIC, or change of any L_status to or from
   SYMMETRIC), any change to any of the node's 2-Hop Sets, or a change
   of the N_willingness (to or from WILL_NEVER or to WILL_ALWAYS is
   sufficient) of any Neighbor Tuple with N_symmetric == true.

   An algorithm that creates a set of MPRs that satisfies the required
   conditions is given in Appendix B.






























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15.  Populating Derived Sets

   The Relay Sets and the Advertised Neighbor Set of a node are denoted
   derived sets, since updates to these sets are not directly a function
   of message exchanges, but rather are derived from updates to other
   sets, in particular to the MPR selector status of other nodes
   recorded in the Neighbor Set.

15.1.  Populating the Relay Set

   The Relay Set for an OLSRv2 interface contains the set of OLSRv2
   interface addresses of those symmetric 1-hop neighbors for which this
   OLSRv2 interface is to relay broadcast traffic.  This set MUST
   contain only addresses of OLSRv2 interfaces with which this OLSRv2
   interface has a symmetric link.  This set MUST include all such
   addresses of all such OLSRv2 interfaces of nodes which are MPR
   selectors of this node.  The Relay Set for an OLSRv2 interface of
   this node is thus created by:

   1.  For each Link Tuple in the Link Set for this OLSRv2 interface
       with L_status == SYMMETRIC, and the corresponding Neighbor Tuple
       with N_neighbor_iface_addr_list containing
       L_neighbor_iface_addr_list:

       1.  All addresses from L_neighbor_iface_addr_list MUST be
           included in the Relay Set of this OLSRv2 interface if
           N_mpr_selector == true, and otherwise MAY be so included.

15.2.  Populating the Advertised Neighbor Set

   The Advertised Neighbor Set of a node contains all interface
   addresses of those symmetric 1-hop neighbors to which the node
   advertises a link in its TC messages.  This set MUST include all
   addresses in all MPR selector of this node.  The Advertised Neighbor
   Set for this node is thus created by:

   1.  For each Neighbor Tuple with N_symmetric == true:

       1.  All addresses from N_neighbor_iface_addr_list MUST be
           included in the Advertised Neighbor Set if N_mpr_selector ==
           true, and otherwise MAY be so included.

   Whenever address(es) are added to or removed from the Advertised
   Neighbor Set, its ANSN MUST be incremented.







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16.  Routing Set Calculation

   The Routing Set of a node is populated with Routing Tuples that
   represent paths from that node to all destinations in the network.
   These paths are calculated based on the Network Topology Graph, which
   is constructed from information in the Information Bases, obtained
   via HELLO and TC message exchange.

16.1.  Network Topology Graph

   The Network Topology Graph is formed from information taken from the
   node's Link Sets, Neighbor Set, Topology Set and Attached Network
   Set. The Network Topology Graph SHOULD also use information taken
   from the node's 2-Hop Sets.  The Network Topology Graph forms that
   node's topological view of the network in form of a directed graph,
   containing the following arcs:

   o  Local symmetric links - all arcs X -> Y such that:

      *  X is an address in the I_local_iface_addr_list of a Local
         Interface Tuple of this node, AND;

      *  Y is an address in the L_neighbor_iface_addr_list of a Link
         Tuple in the corresponding (to the OLSRv2 interface of that
         I_local_iface_addr_list) Link Set which has L_status ==
         SYMMETRIC.

   o  2-hop symmetric links - all arcs Y -> Z such that:

      *  Y is an address in the L_neighbor_iface_addr_list of a Link
         Tuple, in any of the node's Link Sets, which has L_status ==
         SYMMETRIC, AND;

      *  the Neighbor Tuple with Y in its N_neighbor_iface_addr_list has
         N_willingness not equal to WILL_NEVER, AND;

      *  Z is the N2_2hop_iface_addr of a 2-Hop Tuple in the 2-Hop Set
         corresponding to the OLSRv2 interface of the chosen Link Set.

   o  Advertised symmetric links - all arcs U -> V such that there
      exists a Topology Tuple and a corresponding Advertising Remote
      Node Tuple (i.e. with AR_orig_addr == T_orig_addr) with:

      *  U is in the AR_iface_addr_list of the Advertising Remote Node
         Tuple, AND;

      *  V is the T_dest_iface_addr of the Topology Tuple.




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   o  Symmetric 1-hop neighbor addresses - all arcs Y -> W such that:

      *  Y is, and W is not, an address in the
         L_neighbor_iface_addr_list of a Link Tuple, in any of the
         node's Link Sets, which has L_status == SYMMETRIC, AND;

      *  W and Y are included in the same N_neighbor_iface_addr_list
         (i.e. the one in the Neighbor Tuple whose
         N_neighbor_iface_addr_list contains the
         L_neighbor_iface_addr_list that includes Y).

   o  Attached network addresses - all arcs U -> T such that there
      exists an Attached Network Tuple and a corresponding Advertising
      Remote Node Tuple (i.e. with AR_orig_addr == AN_orig_addr) with:

      *  U is in the AR_iface_addr_list of the Advertising Remote Node
         Tuple, AND;

      *  T is the AN_net_addr of the Attached Network Tuple.

   All links in the first three cases above have a hop count of one, the
   symmetric 1-hop neighbor addresses have a hop count of zero, and the
   attached network addresses have a hop count given by the appropriate
   value of AN_dist.

16.2.  Populating the Routing Set

   The Routing Set MUST contain the shortest paths for all destinations
   from all local OLSRv2 interfaces using the Network Topology Graph.
   This calculation MAY use any algorithm, including any means of
   choosing between paths of equal length.

   Using the notation of Section 16.1, each path will have as its first
   arc a local symmetric link X -> Y. There will be a path for each
   terminating Y, Z, V, W and T which can be connected to local OLSRv2
   interface address X using the indicated arcs.  The corresponding
   Routing Tuple for this path will have:

   o  R_dest_addr = the terminating Y, Z, V, W or T;

   o  R_next_iface_addr = the first arc's Y;

   o  R_dist = the total hop count of the path;

   o  R_local_iface_addr = the first arc's X.

   An example algorithm for calculating the Routing Set of a node is
   given in Appendix C.



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16.3.  Routing Set Updates

   The Routing Set MUST be updated when changes in the Neighborhood
   Information Base or the Topology Information Base indicate a change
   of the known symmetric links and/or attached networks in the MANET.
   It is sufficient to consider only changes which affect at least one
   of:

   o  The Link Set of any OLSRv2 interface, and to consider only Link
      Tuples which have, or just had, L_status == SYMMETRIC (including
      removal of such Link Tuples).

   o  The Neighbor Set of the node, and to consider only Neighbor Tuples
      that have, or just had, N_symmetric == true.

   o  The 2-Hop Set of any OLSRv2 interface.

   o  The Advertising Remote Node Set of the node.

   o  The Topology Set of the node.

   o  The Attached Network Set of the node.

   Updates to the Routing Set do not generate or trigger any messages to
   be transmitted.  The state of the Routing Set SHOULD, however, be
   reflected in the IP routing table by adding and removing entries from
   the IP routing table as appropriate.
























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17.  Proposed Values for Parameters and Constants

   OLSRv2 uses all parameters and constants defined in [4] and
   additional parameters and constants defined in this document.  All
   but one (RX_HOLD_TIME) of these additional parameters are node
   parameters as defined in [4].  These proposed values of the
   additional parameters are appropriate to the case where all
   parameters (including those defined in [4]) have a single value.
   Proposed values for parameters defined in [4] are given in that
   document.

17.1.  Local History Time Parameters

   o  O_HOLD_TIME = 30 seconds

17.2.  Message Interval Parameters

   o  TC_INTERVAL = 5 seconds

   o  TC_MIN_INTERVAL = TC_INTERVAL/4

17.3.  Advertised Information Validity Time Parameters

   o  T_HOLD_TIME = 3 x TC_INTERVAL

   o  A_HOLD_TIME = T_HOLD_TIME

17.4.  Received Message Validity Time Parameters

   o  RX_HOLD_TIME = 30 seconds

   o  P_HOLD_TIME = 30 seconds

   o  F_HOLD_TIME = 30 seconds

17.5.  Jitter Time Parameters

   o  TP_MAXJITTER = HP_MAXJITTER

   o  TT_MAXJITTER = HT_MAXJITTER

   o  F_MAXJITTER = TT_MAXJITTER

17.6.  Hop Limit Parameter

   o  TC_HOP_LIMIT = 255





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17.7.  Willingness Parameter and Constants

   o  WILLINGNESS = WILL_DEFAULT

   o  WILL_NEVER = 0

   o  WILL_DEFAULT = 3

   o  WILL_ALWAYS = 7










































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18.  Sequence Numbers

   Sequence numbers are used in OLSRv2 with the purpose of discarding
   "old" information, i.e. messages received out of order.  However with
   a limited number of bits for representing sequence numbers, wrap-
   around (that the sequence number is incremented from the maximum
   possible value to zero) will occur.  To prevent this from interfering
   with the operation of OLSRv2, the following MUST be observed when
   determining the ordering of sequence numbers.

   The term MAXVALUE designates in the following one more than the
   largest possible value for a sequence number.  For a 16 bit sequence
   number (as are those defined in this specification) MAXVALUE is
   65536.

   The sequence number S1 is said to be "greater than" the sequence
   number S2 if:

   o  S1 > S2 AND S1 - S2 < MAXVALUE/2 OR

   o  S2 > S1 AND S2 - S1 > MAXVALUE/2

   When sequence numbers S1 and S2 differ by MAXVALUE/2 their ordering
   cannot be determined.  In this case, which should not occur, either
   ordering may be assumed.

   Thus when comparing two messages, it is possible - even in the
   presence of wrap-around - to determine which message contains the
   most recent information.






















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19.  Security Considerations

   Currently, OLSRv2 does not specify any special security measures.  As
   a proactive routing protocol, OLSRv2 makes a target for various
   attacks.  The various possible vulnerabilities are discussed in this
   section.

19.1.  Confidentiality

   Being a proactive protocol, OLSRv2 periodically MPR floods
   topological information to all nodes in the network.  Hence, if used
   in an unprotected wireless network, the network topology is revealed
   to anyone who listens to OLSRv2 control messages.

   In situations where the confidentiality of the network topology is of
   importance, regular cryptographic techniques, such as exchange of
   OLSRv2 control traffic messages encrypted by PGP [8] or encrypted by
   some shared secret key, can be applied to ensure that control traffic
   can be read and interpreted by only those authorized to do so.

19.2.  Integrity

   In OLSRv2, each node is injecting topological information into the
   network through transmitting HELLO messages and, for some nodes, TC
   messages.  If some nodes for some reason, malicious or malfunction,
   inject invalid control traffic, network integrity may be compromised.
   Therefore, message authentication is recommended.

   Different such situations may occur, for instance:

   1.  a node generates TC messages, advertising links to non-neighbor
       nodes;

   2.  a node generates TC messages, pretending to be another node;

   3.  a node generates HELLO messages, advertising non-neighbor nodes;

   4.  a node generates HELLO messages, pretending to be another node;

   5.  a node forwards altered control messages;

   6.  a node does not forward control messages;

   7.  a node does not select multipoint relays correctly;

   8.  a node forwards broadcast control messages unaltered, but does
       not forward unicast data traffic;




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   9.  a node "replays" previously recorded control traffic from another
       node.

   Authentication of the originator node for control messages (for
   situations 2, 4 and 5) and on the individual links announced in the
   control messages (for situations 1 and 3) may be used as a
   countermeasure.  However to prevent nodes from repeating old (and
   correctly authenticated) information (situation 9) temporal
   information is required, allowing a node to positively identify such
   delayed messages.

   In general, digital signatures and other required security
   information may be transmitted as a separate OLSRv2 message type, or
   signatures and security information may be transmitted within the
   OLSRv2 HELLO and TC messages, using the TLV mechanism.  Either option
   permits that "secured" and "unsecured" nodes can coexist in the same
   network, if desired,

   Specifically, the authenticity of entire OLSRv2 control packets can
   be established through employing IPsec authentication headers,
   whereas authenticity of individual links (situations 1 and 3) require
   additional security information to be distributed.

   An important consideration is that all control messages in OLSRv2 are
   transmitted either to all nodes in the neighborhood (HELLO messages)
   or broadcast to all nodes in the network (TC messages).

   For example, a control message in OLSRv2 is always a point-to-
   multipoint transmission.  It is therefore important that the
   authentication mechanism employed permits that any receiving node can
   validate the authenticity of a message.  As an analogy, given a block
   of text, signed by a PGP private key, then anyone with the
   corresponding public key can verify the authenticity of the text.

19.3.  Interaction with External Routing Domains

   OLSRv2 does, through the use of TC messages, provide a basic
   mechanism for injecting external routing information to the OLSRv2
   domain.  Appendix A also specifies that routing information can be
   extracted from the topology table or the routing table of OLSRv2 and,
   potentially, injected into an external domain if the routing protocol
   governing that domain permits.

   Other than as described in Appendix A, when operating nodes
   connecting OLSRv2 to an external routing domain, care MUST be taken
   not to allow potentially insecure and untrustworthy information to be
   injected from the OLSRv2 domain to external routing domains.  Care
   MUST be taken to validate the correctness of information prior to it



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   being injected as to avoid polluting routing tables with invalid
   information.

   A recommended way of extending connectivity from an existing routing
   domain to an OLSRv2 routed MANET is to assign an IP prefix (under the
   authority of the nodes/gateways connecting the MANET with the exiting
   routing domain) exclusively to the OLSRv2 MANET area, and to
   configure the gateways statically to advertise routes to that IP
   sequence to nodes in the existing routing domain.










































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20.  IANA Considerations

20.1.  Message Types

   OLSRv2 defines one message type, which must be allocated from the
   "Assigned Message Types" repository of [1].

          +------+-------+-------------------------------------+
          | Name | Value | Description                         |
          +------+-------+-------------------------------------+
          |  TC  |  TBD1 | Topology Control (global signaling) |
          +------+-------+-------------------------------------+

                                  Table 5

20.2.  TLV Types

   OLSRv2 defines two message TLV types, which must be allocated from
   the "Assigned message TLV Types" repository of [1].

   +--------------+------+----------------+----------------------------+
   |     Name     | Type | Type extension | Description                |
   +--------------+------+----------------+----------------------------+
   |  WILLINGNESS | TBD2 |        0       | Specifies the originating  |
   |              |      |                | node's willingness to act  |
   |              |      |                | as a relay and to partake  |
   |              |      |                | in network formation       |
   |              |      |                |                            |
   |              |      |      1-255     | RESERVED                   |
   |              |      |                |                            |
   | CONT_SEQ_NUM | TBD3 |  0 (COMPLETE)  | Specifies a content        |
   |              |      |                | sequence number for this   |
   |              |      |                | complete message           |
   |              |      |                |                            |
   |              |      | 1 (INCOMPLETE) | Specifies a content        |
   |              |      |                | sequence number for this   |
   |              |      |                | incomplete message         |
   |              |      |                |                            |
   |              |      |      2-255     | RESERVED                   |
   +--------------+------+----------------+----------------------------+

                                  Table 6

   Type extensions indicated as RESERVED may be allocated by standards
   action, as specified in [6].

   OLSRv2 defines two Address Block TLV types, which must be allocated
   from the "Assigned address block TLV Types" repository of [1].



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   +---------+------+-----------+--------------------------------------+
   |   Name  | Type |    Type   | Description                          |
   |         |      | extension |                                      |
   +---------+------+-----------+--------------------------------------+
   |   MPR   | TBD4 |     0     | Specifies that a given address is of |
   |         |      |           | a node selected as an MPR            |
   |         |      |           |                                      |
   |         |      |   1-255   | RESERVED                             |
   |         |      |           |                                      |
   | GATEWAY | TBD5 |     0     | Specifies that a given address is    |
   |         |      |           | reached via a gateway on the         |
   |         |      |           | originating node                     |
   |         |      |           |                                      |
   |         |      |   1-255   | RESERVED                             |
   +---------+------+-----------+--------------------------------------+

                                  Table 7

   Type extensions indicated as RESERVED may be allocated by standards
   action, as specified in [6].































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21.  References

21.1.  Normative References

   [1]   Clausen, T., Dean, J., Dearlove, C., and C. Adjih, "Generalized
         MANET Packet/Message Format", work in
         progress draft-ietf-manet-packetbb-11.txt, November 2007.

   [2]   Clausen, T. and C. Dearlove, "Representing multi-value time in
         MANETs", Work In Progress draft-ietf-manet-timetlv-04.txt,
         November 2007.

   [3]   Clausen, T., Dearlove, C., and B. Adamson, "Jitter
         considerations in MANETs", Work In
         Progress draft-ietf-manet-jitter-04.txt, December 2007.

   [4]   Clausen, T., Dean, J., and C. Dearlove, "MANET Neighborhood
         Discovery Protocol (NHDP)", work in
         progress draft-ietf-manet-nhdp-05.txt, December 2007.

   [5]   Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate Requirement
         Levels", RFC 2119, BCP 14, March 1997.

   [6]   Narten, T. and H. Alvestrand, "Guidelines for Writing an IANA
         Considerations Section in RFCs", RFC 2434, BCP 26,
         October 1998.

21.2.  Informative References

   [7]   Clausen, T. and P. Jacquet, "The Optimized Link State Routing
         Protocol", RFC 3626, October 2003.

   [8]   Callas, J., Donnerhacke, L., Finney, H., and R. Thayer,
         "OpenPGP message format", RFC 4880, November 2007.

   [9]   ETSI, "ETSI STC-RES10 Committee. Radio equipment and systems:
         HIPERLAN type 1, functional specifications ETS 300-652",
         June 1996.

   [10]  Jacquet, P., Minet, P., Muhlethaler, P., and N. Rivierre,
         "Increasing reliability in cable free radio LANs: Low level
         forwarding in HIPERLAN.", 1996.

   [11]  Qayyum, A., Viennot, L., and A. Laouiti, "Multipoint relaying:
         An efficient technique for flooding in mobile wireless
         networks.", 2001.

   [12]  Macker, J. and S. Corson, "Mobile Ad hoc Networking (MANET):



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         Routing Protocol Performance Issues and Evaluation
         Considerations", RFC 2501, January 1999.

   [13]  Pei, G., Gerla, M., and T. Chen, "Fisheye state routing in
         mobile ad hoc networks", 2000.

   [14]  Santivanez, C., Ramanathan, R., and I. Stavrakakis, "Making
         link-state routing scale for ad hoc networks", 2000.











































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Appendix A.  Node Configuration

   OLSRv2 does not make any assumption about node addresses, other than
   that each node is assumed to have at least one unique and routable IP
   address for each interface that it has which participates in the
   MANET.

   When applicable, a recommended way of connecting an OLSRv2 network to
   an existing IP routing domain is to assign an IP prefix (under the
   authority of the nodes/gateways connecting the MANET with the routing
   domain) exclusively to the OLSRv2 area, and to configure the gateways
   statically to advertise routes to that IP sequence to nodes in the
   existing routing domain.






































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Appendix B.  Example Algorithm for Calculating MPRs

   The following specifies an algorithm which MAY be used to select
   MPRs.  MPRs are calculated per OLSRv2 interface, but then a single
   set of MPRs is formed from the union of the MPRs for all OLSRv2
   interfaces.  A node's MPRs are recorded using the element N_mpr in
   Neighbor Tuples.

   If using this algorithm then the following steps MUST be executed in
   order for a node to select its MPRs:

   1.  Set N_mpr = false in all Neighbor Tuples;

   2.  For each Neighbor Tuple with N_symmetric == true and
       N_willingness == WILL_ALWAYS, set N_mpr = true;

   3.  For each OLSRv2 interface of the node, use the algorithm in
       Appendix B.2.  Note that this sets N_mpr = true for some Neighbor
       Tuples, these nodes are already selected as MPRs when using the
       algorithm for following OLSRv2 interfaces.

   4.  OPTIONALLY, consider each selected MPR in turn, and if the set of
       selected MPRs without that node still satisfies the necessary
       conditions, for all OLSRv2 interfaces, then that node MAY be
       removed from the set of MPRs.  This process MAY be repeated until
       no MPRs are removed.  Nodes MAY be considered in order of
       increasing N_willingness.

   Symmetric 1-hop neighbor nodes with N_willingness == WILL_NEVER MUST
   NOT be selected as MPRs, and MUST be ignored in the following
   algorithm, as MUST be symmetric 2-hop neighbor nodes which are also
   symmetric 1-hop neighbor nodes (i.e. when considering 2-Hop Tuples,
   ignore any 2-Hop Tuples whose N2_2hop_iface_addr is in the
   N_neighbor_iface_addr_list of any Neighbor Tuple, or whose
   N2_neighbor_iface_addr_list is included in the
   N_neighbor_iface_addr_list of any Neighbor Tuple with N_willingness
   == WILL_NEVER).

B.1.  Terminology

   The following terminology will be used when selecting MPRs for the
   OLSRv2 interface I:

   N(I)  - The set of symmetric 1-hop neighbors which have a symmetric
      link to I.






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   N2(I)  - The set of addresses of interfaces of a node with a
      symmetric link to a node in N(I) (i.e. the set of
      N2_2hop_iface_addr in 2-Hop Tuples in the 2-Hop Set for OLSRv2
      interface I).

   Connected to I via Y  - An address A in N2(I) is connected to I via a
      node Y in N(I) if A is an address of an interface of a symmetric
      1-hop neighbor of Y (i.e.  A is the N2_2hop_iface_addr in a 2-Hop
      Tuple in the 2-Hop Set for OLSRv2 interface I, and whose
      N2_neighbor_iface_addr_list is contained in the set of interface
      addresses of Y).

   D(Y, I)  - For a node Y in N(I), the number of addresses in N2(I)
      which are connected to I via Y.

   R(Y, I):  - For a node Y in N(I), the number of addresses in N2(I)
      which are connected to I via Y, but are not connected to I via any
      node which has already been selected as an MPR.

B.2.  MPR Selection Algorithm for each OLSRv2 Interface

   When selecting MPRs for the OLSRv2 interface I:

   1.  For each address A in N2(I) for which there is only one node Y in
       N(I) such that A is connected to I via Y, select that node Y as
       an MPR (i.e. set N_mpr = true in the Neighbor Tuple corresponding
       to Y).

   2.  While there exists any node Y in N(I) with R(Y, I) > 0:

       1.  Select a node Y in N(I) with R(Y, I) > 0 in the following
           order of priority:

           +  greatest N_willingness in the Neighbor Tuple corresponding
              to Y, THEN;

           +  greatest R(Y, I), THEN;

           +  greatest D(Y, I), THEN;

           +  N_mpr_selector is equal to true, if possible, THEN;

           +  any choice.

       2.  Select Y as an MPR (i.e. set N_mpr = true in the Neighbor
           Tuple corresponding to Y).





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Appendix C.  Example Algorithm for Calculating the Routing Set

   The following procedure is given as an example for calculating the
   Routing Set using a variation of Dijkstra's algorithm.  First all
   Routing Tuples are removed, and then the procedures in the following
   sections are applied in turn.

C.1.  Add Local Symmetric Links

   1.  For each Local Interface Tuple in the Local Interface Set:

       1.  For each address A in I_local_iface_addr_list:

           1.  For each Link Tuple in the Link Set for this local
               interface, with L_status == SYMMETRIC:

               1.  For each address, B, in that Link Tuple's
                   L_neighbor_iface_addr_list, add a new Routing Tuple
                   with:

                   o  R_dest_addr = B;

                   o  R_next_iface_addr = B;

                   o  R_dist = 1;

                   o  R_local_iface_addr = A.

   2.  For each Neighbor Tuple, for which there is an address B in
       N_neighbor_iface_addr_list, for which there is a Routing Tuple
       (the "previous Routing Tuple") with R_dest_addr == B:

       1.  For each address C in N_neighbor_iface_addr_list for which
           there is no Routing Tuple with R_dest_addr == C, add a
           Routing Tuple with:

           +  R_dest_addr = C;

           +  R_next_iface_addr = B;

           +  R_dist = 1;

           +  R_local_iface_addr = R_local_iface_addr of the previous
              Routing Tuple.







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C.2.  Add Remote Symmetric Links

   The following procedure, which adds Routing Tuples for destination
   nodes h+1 hops away, MUST be executed for each value of h, starting
   with h = 1 and incrementing by 1 for each iteration.  The execution
   MUST stop if no new Routing Tuples are added in an iteration.

   1.  For each Topology Tuple, if:

       *  T_dest_iface_addr is not equal to R_dest_addr of any Routing
          Tuple, AND;

       *  for the Advertising Remote Node Tuple with AR_orig_addr ==
          T_orig_addr, there is an address in the AR_iface_addr_list
          which is equal to the R_dest_addr of a Routing Tuple (the
          "previous Routing Tuple") whose R_dist == h

       then add a new Routing Tuple, with:

       *  R_dest_addr = T_dest_iface_addr;

       *  R_next_iface_addr = R_next_iface_addr of the previous Routing
          Tuple;

       *  R_dist = h+1;

       *  R_local_iface_addr = R_local_iface_addr of the previous
          Routing Tuple.

       More than one Topology Tuple may be usable to select the next hop
       R_next_iface_addr for reaching the address R_dest_addr.  Ties
       should be broken such that nodes with greater willingness are
       preferred, and between nodes of equal willingness, MPR selectors
       are preferred over non-MPR selectors.

   2.  After the above iteration has completed, if h == 1, for each
       2-Hop Neighbor Tuple where:

       *  N2_2hop_iface_addr is not equal to R_dest_addr of any Routing
          Tuple, AND;

       *  The Neighbor Tuple whose N_neighbor_iface_addr_list contains
          N2_neighbor_iface_addr_list has N_willingness not equal to
          WILL_NEVER

       select a Routing Tuple (the "previous Routing Tuple") whose
       R_dest_addr is contained in N2_neighbor_iface_addr_list, and add
       a new Routing Tuple with:



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       *  R_dest_addr = N2_2hop_iface_addr;

       *  R_next_iface_addr = R_next_iface_addr of the previous Routing
          Tuple;

       *  R_dist = 2;

       *  R_local_iface_addr = R_local_iface_addr of the previous
          Routing Tuple.

       More than one 2-Hop Neighbor Tuple may be usable to select the
       next hop R_next_iface_addr for reaching the address R_dest_addr.
       Ties should be broken such that nodes with greater willingness
       are preferred, and between nodes of equal willingness, MPR
       selectors are preferred over non-MPR selectors.

C.3.  Add Attached Networks

   1.  For each Attached Network Tuple, if for the Advertising Remote
       Node Tuple with AR_orig_addr == AN_orig_addr, there is an address
       in the AR_iface_addr_list which is equal to the R_dest_addr of a
       Routing Tuple (the "previous Routing Tuple"), then:

       1.  If there is no Routing Tuple with R_dest_addr == AN_net_addr,
           then add a new Routing Tuple with:

           +  R_dest_addr = AN_net_addr;

           +  R_next_iface_addr = R_next_iface_addr of the previous
              Routing Tuple;

           +  R_dist = (R_dist of the previous Routing Tuple) + AN_dist;

           +  R_local_iface_addr = R_local_iface_addr of the previous
              Routing Tuple.

       2.  Otherwise if the Routing Tuple with R_dest_addr ==
           AN_net_addr (the "current Routing Tuple") has R_dist >
           (R_dist of the previous Routing Tuple) + AN_dist, then modify
           the current Routing Tuple by:

           +  R_next_iface_addr = R_next_iface_addr of the previous
              Routing Tuple;

           +  R_dist = (R_dist of the previous Routing Tuple) + AN_dist;

           +  R_local_iface_addr = R_local_iface_addr of the previous
              Routing Tuple.



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Appendix D.  Example Message Layout

   An example TC message, using IPv4 (four octet) addresses, is as
   follows.  The overall message length is 65 octets.

   The message has a message TLV block with content length 13 octets
   containing three TLVs.  The first two TLVs are validity and interval
   times for the message.  The third TLV is the content sequence number
   TLV used to carry the 2 octet ANSN, and (with default type extension
   zero, i.e.  COMPLETE) indicating that the TC message is complete.
   Each TLV uses a TLV with semantics value 8, indicating no type
   extension or start and stop indexes are included.  The first two TLVs
   have a value length of 1 octet, the last has a value length of 2
   octets.

   The message has two address blocks.  The first address block contains
   6 addresses (with semantics octet 2, hence no tail section, head
   length 2 octets, and hence mid sections with length two octets).  The
   following TLV block (content length 6 octets) contains a single
   LOCAL_IF TLV (semantics value 0) indicating that the first three
   addresses (indexes 0 to 2) are associated with the value (length 1
   octet) UNSPEC_IF, i.e. they are the originating node's local
   interface addresses.  The remaining three addresses have no
   associated TLV, they are the interface addresses of advertised
   neighbors.

   The second address block contains 1 address, with semantics octet 12
   indicating that the tail section, length 2 octets, consists of zero
   valued octets (not included), and that there is a single prefix
   length, 16.  The network address is thus Head.0.0/16.  The following
   TLV block (content length 8 octets) includes one TLV that indicates
   that the originating node is a gateway to this network, at a given
   number of hops distance (value length 1 octet).  The TLV semantics
   value of 8 indicates that no indexes are needed.

















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      0                   1                   2                   3
      0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |      TC       |0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0|0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1|
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |                      Originator Address                       |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |   Hop Limit   |   Hop Count   |    Message Sequence Number    |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 1| VALIDITY_TIME |0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0|
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1|     Value     | INTERVAL_TIME |0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0|
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1|     Value     | CONT_SEQ_NUM  |0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0|
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0|         Value (ANSN)          |0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0|
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0|0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0|             Head              |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |              Mid              |              Mid              |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |              Mid              |              Mid              |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |              Mid              |              Mid              |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0|   LOCAL_IF    |0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0|
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0|0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0|0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1|   UNSPEC_IF   |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1|0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0|0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0|     Head      |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |  Head (cont)  |0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0|0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0|0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0|
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0|    GATEWAY    |0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0|0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1|
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |  Number Hops  |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+














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Appendix E.  Constraints

   Any process which updates the Local Information Base, the
   Neighborhood Information Base or the Topology Information Base MUST
   ensure that all constraints specified in this appendix are
   maintained, as well as those specified in [4].

   In each Originator Tuple:

   o  O_orig_addr MUST NOT equal any other O_orig_addr.

   o  O_orig_addr MUST NOT equal this node's originator address.

   In each Local Attached Network Tuple:

   o  AL_net_addr MUST NOT equal any other AL_net_addr.

   o  AL_net_addr MUST NOT be in the I_local_iface_addr_list of any
      Local Interface Tuple or be equal to the IR_local_iface_addr of
      any Removed Interface Address Tuple.

   o  AL_dist MUST NOT be less than zero.

   In each Link Tuple:

   o  L_neighbor_iface_addr_list MUST NOT contain the AL_net_addr of any
      Local Attached Network Tuple.

   o  If L_status == SYMMETRIC and the Neighbor Tuple whose
      N_neighbor_iface_addr_list contains L_neighbor_iface_addr_list has
      N_mpr_selector == true, then, for each address in this
      L_neighbor_iface_addr_list, there MUST be an equal
      RY_neighbor_iface_addr in the Relay Set associated with the same
      OLSRv2 interface.

   In each Neighbor Tuple:

   o  N_neighbor_iface_addr_list MUST NOT contain the AL_net_addr of any
      Local Attached Network Tuple.

   o  If N_willingness MUST be in the range from WILL_NEVER to
      WILL_ALWAYS, inclusive.

   o  If N_mpr == true, then N_symmetric MUST be true and N_willingness
      MUST NOT equal WILL_NEVER.

   o  If N_symmetric == true and N_mpr == false, then N_willingness MUST
      NOT equal WILL_ALWAYS.



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   o  If N_mpr_selector == true, then N_symmetric MUST be true.

   o  If N_mpr_selector == true, then, for each address in this
      N_neighbor_iface_addr_list, there MUST be an equal
      A_neighbor_iface_addr in the Advertised Neighbor Set.

   In each Lost Neighbor Tuple:

   o  NL_neighbor_iface_addr MUST NOT equal the AL_net_addr of any Local
      Attached Network Tuple.

   In each 2-Hop Tuple:

   o  N2_2hop_iface_addr MUST NOT equal the AL_net_addr of any Local
      Attached Network Tuple.

   In each Received Tuple:

   o  RX_orig_addr MUST NOT equal this node's originator address or any
      O_orig_addr.

   o  Each ordered triple (RX_type, RX_orig_addr, RX_seq_number) MUST
      NOT equal the corresponding triple in any other Received Tuple in
      the same Received Set.

   In each Processed Tuple:

   o  P_orig_addr MUST NOT equal this node's originator address or any
      O_orig_addr.

   o  Each ordered triple (P_type, P_orig_addr, P_seq_number) MUST NOT
      equal the corresponding triple in any other Processed Tuple.

   In each Forwarded Tuple:

   o  F_orig_addr MUST NOT equal this node's originator address or any
      O_orig_addr.

   o  Each ordered triple (F_type, F_orig_addr, F_seq_number) MUST NOT
      equal the corresponding triple in any other Forwarded Tuple.

   In each Relay Tuple:

   o  RY_neighbor_iface_addr MUST NOT equal the RY_neighbor_iface_addr
      in any other Relay Tuple in the same Relay Set.

   o  RY_neighbor_iface_addr MUST be in the L_neighbor_iface_addr_list
      of a Link Tuple with L_status == SYMMETRIC.



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   In each Advertised Neighbor Tuple:

   o  A_neighbor_iface_addr MUST NOT equal the A_neighbor_iface_addr of
      any other Advertised Neighbor Tuple.

   o  A_neighbor_iface_addr MUST be in the N_neighbor_iface_addr_list of
      a Neighbor Tuple with N_symmetric == true.

   In each Advertising Remote Node Tuple:

   o  AR_orig_addr MUST NOT equal this node's originator address or any
      O_orig_addr.

   o  AR_orig_addr MUST NOT equal the AR_orig_addr in any other ANSN
      History Tuple.

   o  AR_iface_addr_list MUST NOT be empty.

   o  AR_iface_addr_list MUST NOT contain any duplicated addresses.

   o  AR_iface_addr_list MUST NOT contain any address which is in the
      I_local_iface_addr_list of any Local Interface Tuple or be equal
      to the IR_local_iface_addr of any Removed Interface Address Tuple.

   o  AR_iface_addr_list MUST NOT contain any address which is the
      AL_net_addr of any Local Attached Network Tuple.

   In each Topology Tuple:

   o  T_dest_iface_addr MUST NOT be in the I_local_iface_addr_list of
      any Local Interface Tuple or be equal to the IR_local_iface_addr
      of any Removed Interface Address Tuple.

   o  T_dest_iface_addr MUST NOT equal the AL_net_addr of any Local
      Attached Network Tuple.

   o  There MUST be an Advertising Remote Node Tuple with AR_orig_addr
      == T_orig_addr.

   o  T_dest_iface_addr MUST NOT be in the AR_iface_addr_list of the
      Advertising Remote Node Tuple with AR_orig_addr == T_orig_addr.

   o  T_seq_number MUST NOT be greater than AR_seq_number of the
      Advertising Remote Node Tuple with AR_orig_addr == T_orig_addr.

   o  The ordered pair (T_dest_iface_addr, T_orig_addr) MUST NOT equal
      the corresponding pair in any other Topology Tuple.




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   In each Attached Network Tuple:

   o  AN_net_addr MUST NOT be in the I_local_iface_addr_list of any
      Local Interface Tuple or be equal to the IR_local_iface_addr of
      any Removed Interface Address Tuple.

   o  AN_net_addr MUST NOT equal the AL_net_addr of any Local Attached
      Network Tuple.

   o  There MUST be an Advertising Remote Node Tuple with AR_orig_addr
      == AN_orig_addr.

   o  AN_seq_number MUST NOT be greater than AR_seq_number of the
      Advertising Remote Node Tuple with AR_orig_addr == AN_orig_addr.

   o  AN_dist MUST NOT be less than zero.

   o  The ordered pair (AN_net_addr, AN_orig_addr) MUST NOT equal the
      corresponding pair in any other Attached Network Tuple.
































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Appendix F.  Flow and Congestion Control

   Due to its proactive nature, the OLSRv2 protocol has a natural
   control over the flow of its control traffic.  Nodes transmit control
   messages at predetermined rates specified and bounded by message
   intervals.

   OLSRv2 employs [4] for local signaling, embedding MPR selection
   advertisement through a simple address block TLV, and node
   willingness advertisement (if any) as a single message TLV.  OLSRv2
   local signaling, therefore, shares the characteristics and
   constraints of [4].

   Furthermore, MPR flooding greatly reduces global signaling overhead
   from global link state declaration in two ways.  First, the amount of
   link state information for a node to declare is reduced to only
   contain that node's MPR selectors.  This reduces the size of a link
   state declaration as compared to declaring full link state
   information.  In particular some nodes may not need to declare any
   such information.  Second, using MPR flooding, the cost of declaring
   link state information throughout the network is greatly reduced, as
   compared to when using classic flooding, since only MPRs need to
   forward link state declaration messages.  In dense networks, the
   reduction of control traffic can be of several orders of magnitude
   compared to routing protocols using classical flooding [11].  This
   feature naturally provides more bandwidth for useful data traffic and
   pushes further the frontier of congestion.

   Since the control traffic is continuous and periodic, it keeps the
   quality of the links used in routing more stable.  However, using
   certain OLSRv2 options, some control messages (HELLO messages or TC
   messages) may be intentionally sent in advance of their deadline in
   order to increase the responsiveness of the protocol to topology
   changes.  This may cause a small, temporary, and local increase of
   control traffic, however this is at all times bounded by the use of
   minimum message intervals.















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Appendix G.  Contributors

   This specification is the result of the joint efforts of the
   following contributors -- listed alphabetically.

   o  Cedric Adjih, INRIA, France, <Cedric.Adjih@inria.fr>

   o  Emmanuel Baccelli, INRIA , France, <Emmanuel.Baccelli@inria.fr>

   o  Thomas Heide Clausen, LIX, France, <T.Clausen@computer.org>

   o  Justin Dean, NRL, USA, <jdean@itd.nrl.navy.mil>

   o  Christopher Dearlove, BAE Systems, UK,
      <chris.dearlove@baesystems.com>

   o  Satoh Hiroki, Hitachi SDL, Japan, <hiroki.satoh.yj@hitachi.com>

   o  Philippe Jacquet, INRIA, France, <Philippe.Jacquet@inria.fr>

   o  Monden Kazuya, Hitachi SDL, Japan, <kazuya.monden.vw@hitachi.com>

   o  Kenichi Mase, Niigata University, Japan, <mase@ie.niigata-u.ac.jp>

   o  Ryuji Wakikawa, KEIO University, Japan, <ryuji@sfc.wide.ad.jp>


























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Appendix H.  Acknowledgements

   The authors would like to acknowledge the team behind OLSRv1,
   specified in RFC3626, including Anis Laouiti (INT, Paris), Pascale
   Minet (INRIA, France), Laurent Viennot (INRIA, France), and Amir
   Qayyum (M.A. Jinnah University, Islamabad) for their contributions.

   The authors would like to gratefully acknowledge the following people
   for intense technical discussions, early reviews and comments on the
   specification and its components: Li Li (CRC), Louise Lamont (CRC),
   Joe Macker (NRL), Alan Cullen (BAE Systems), Khaldoun Al Agha (LRI),
   Richard Ogier (SRI), Song-Yean Cho (LIX), Shubhranshu Singh (Samsung
   AIT), Charles E. Perkins, and the entire IETF MANET working group.






































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Authors' Addresses

   Thomas Heide Clausen
   LIX, Ecole Polytechnique, France

   Phone: +33 6 6058 9349
   Email: thomas@thomasclausen.org
   URI:   http://www.ThomasClausen.org/


   Christopher Dearlove
   BAE Systems Advanced Technology Centre

   Phone: +44 1245 242194
   Email: chris.dearlove@baesystems.com
   URI:   http://www.baesystems.com/


   Philippe Jacquet
   Project Hipercom, INRIA

   Phone: +33 1 3963 5263
   Email: philippe.jacquet@inria.fr


   The OLSRv2 Design Team
   MANET Working Group
























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Full Copyright Statement

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