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Versions: (draft-clausen-manet-olsrv2) 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 19 RFC 7181

Mobile Ad hoc Networking (MANET)                              T. Clausen
Internet-Draft                                  LIX, Ecole Polytechnique
Intended status: Standards Track                             C. Dearlove
Expires: April 16, 2012                                  BAE Systems ATC
                                                              P. Jacquet
                                                 Project Hipercom, INRIA
                                                        October 14, 2011


          The Optimized Link State Routing Protocol version 2
                       draft-ietf-manet-olsrv2-13

Abstract

   This document describes version 2 of the Optimized Link State Routing
   (OLSRv2) protocol for Mobile Ad hoc NETworks (MANETs).

Status of This Memo

   This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the
   provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.

   Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
   Task Force (IETF).  Note that other groups may also distribute
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   Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
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   time.  It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
   material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."

   This Internet-Draft will expire on April 16, 2012.

Copyright Notice

   Copyright (c) 2011 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
   document authors.  All rights reserved.

   This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
   Provisions Relating to IETF Documents
   (http://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of
   publication of this document.  Please review these documents
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   include Simplified BSD License text as described in Section 4.e of
   the Trust Legal Provisions and are provided without warranty as
   described in the Simplified BSD License.



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   This document may contain material from IETF Documents or IETF
   Contributions published or made publicly available before November
   10, 2008.  The person(s) controlling the copyright in some of this
   material may not have granted the IETF Trust the right to allow
   modifications of such material outside the IETF Standards Process.
   Without obtaining an adequate license from the person(s) controlling
   the copyright in such materials, this document may not be modified
   outside the IETF Standards Process, and derivative works of it may
   not be created outside the IETF Standards Process, except to format
   it for publication as an RFC or to translate it into languages other
   than English.

Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   6
   2.  Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   7
   3.  Applicability Statement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   9
   4.  Protocol Overview and Functioning . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  10
     4.1.  Overview  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  10
     4.2.  Routers and Interfaces  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  13
     4.3.  Information Base Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  14
       4.3.1.  Local Information Base  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  14
       4.3.2.  Interface Information Bases . . . . . . . . . . . . .  14
       4.3.3.  Neighbor Information Base . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  14
       4.3.4.  Topology Information Base . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  15
       4.3.5.  Received Message Information Base . . . . . . . . . .  16
     4.4.  Signaling Overview  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  16
     4.5.  Link Metrics  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  17
     4.6.  Routing Set Use . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  18
   5.  Protocol Parameters and Constants . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  19
     5.1.  Protocol and Port Numbers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  19
     5.2.  Multicast Address . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  19
     5.3.  Interface Parameters  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  19
       5.3.1.  Received Message Validity Time  . . . . . . . . . . .  20
     5.4.  Router Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  20
       5.4.1.  Local History Times . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  20
       5.4.2.  Link Metric Parameters  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  20
       5.4.3.  Message Intervals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  20
       5.4.4.  Advertised Information Validity Times . . . . . . . .  21
       5.4.5.  Processing and Forwarding Validity Times  . . . . . .  22
       5.4.6.  Jitter  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  22
       5.4.7.  Hop Limit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  23
       5.4.8.  Willingness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  23
     5.5.  Parameter Change Constraints  . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  24
     5.6.  Constants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  26
       5.6.1.  Link Metric Constants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  26
       5.6.2.  Willingness Constants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  26
   6.  Link Metric Values  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  27



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     6.1.  Link Metric Representation  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  27
     6.2.  Link Metric Compressed Form . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  27
   7.  Local Information Base  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  28
     7.1.  Originator Set  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  28
     7.2.  Local Attached Network Set  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  29
   8.  Interface Information Base  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  30
     8.1.  Link Set  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  30
     8.2.  2-Hop Set . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  30
   9.  Neighbor Information Base . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  31
   10. Topology Information Base . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  32
     10.1. Advertising Remote Router Set . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  32
     10.2. Router Topology Set . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  33
     10.3. Routable Address Topology Set . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  34
     10.4. Attached Network Set  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  34
     10.5. Routing Set . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  35
   11. Received Message Information Base . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  36
     11.1. Received Set  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  36
     11.2. Processed Set . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  36
     11.3. Forwarded Set . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  37
   12. Information Base Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  37
   13. Packets and Messages  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  39
     13.1. Messages  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  39
     13.2. Packets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  39
     13.3. TLVs  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  40
       13.3.1. Message TLVs  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  40
       13.3.2. Address Block TLVs  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  40
   14. Message Processing and Forwarding . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  42
     14.1. Actions when Receiving a Message  . . . . . . . . . . . .  43
     14.2. Message Considered for Processing . . . . . . . . . . . .  44
     14.3. Message Considered for Forwarding . . . . . . . . . . . .  45
   15. HELLO Messages  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  46
     15.1. HELLO Message Generation  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  47
     15.2. HELLO Message Transmission  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  48
     15.3. HELLO Message Processing  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  49
       15.3.1. HELLO Message Discarding  . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  49
       15.3.2. HELLO Message Usage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  50
   16. TC Messages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  53
     16.1. TC Message Generation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  53
     16.2. TC Message Transmission . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  55
     16.3. TC Message Processing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  56
       16.3.1. Invalid Message . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  56
       16.3.2. TC Message Processing Definitions . . . . . . . . . .  57
       16.3.3. Initial TC Message Processing . . . . . . . . . . . .  58
       16.3.4. Completing TC Message Processing  . . . . . . . . . .  61
   17. Information Base Changes  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  62
     17.1. Originator Address Changes  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  62
     17.2. Link State Changes  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  63
     17.3. Neighbor State Changes  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  63



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     17.4. Advertised Neighbor Changes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  64
     17.5. Advertising Remote Router Tuple Expires . . . . . . . . .  64
     17.6. Neighborhood Changes and MPR Updates  . . . . . . . . . .  65
     17.7. Routing Set Updates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  66
   18. Selecting MPRs  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  67
     18.1. Overview  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  68
     18.2. Neighbor Graph  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  68
     18.3. MPR Properties  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  69
     18.4. Flooding MPRs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  70
     18.5. Routing MPRs  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  72
     18.6. Calculating MPRs  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  73
   19. Routing Set Calculation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  73
     19.1. Network Topology Graph  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  74
     19.2. Populating the Routing Set  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  76
   20. Proposed Values for Parameters  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  77
     20.1. Local History Time Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  77
     20.2. Message Interval Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  77
     20.3. Advertised Information Validity Time Parameters . . . . .  77
     20.4. Received Message Validity Time Parameters . . . . . . . .  77
     20.5. Jitter Time Parameters  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  78
     20.6. Hop Limit Parameter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  78
     20.7. Willingness Parameter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  78
   21. Sequence Numbers  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  78
   22. Extensions  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  79
   23. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  79
     23.1. Confidentiality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  79
     23.2. Integrity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  80
     23.3. Interaction with External Routing Domains . . . . . . . .  81
   24. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  82
     24.1. Expert Review: Evaluation Guidelines  . . . . . . . . . .  82
     24.2. Message Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  82
     24.3. Message-Type-Specific TLV Type Registries . . . . . . . .  82
     24.4. Message TLV Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  83
     24.5. Address Block TLV Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  84
     24.6. NBR_ADDR_TYPE and MPR Values  . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  87
   25. Contributors  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  87
   26. Acknowledgments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  88
   27. References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  88
     27.1. Normative References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  88
     27.2. Informative References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  89
   Appendix A.  Example Algorithm for Calculating MPRs . . . . . . .  89
     A.1.  Additional Notation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  89
     A.2.  MPR Selection Algorithm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  90
   Appendix B.  Example Algorithm for Calculating the Routing Set  .  91
     B.1.  Local Interfaces and Neighbors  . . . . . . . . . . . . .  91
     B.2.  Add Neighbor Routers  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  92
     B.3.  Add Remote Routers  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  92
     B.4.  Add Neighbor Addresses  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  94



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     B.5.  Add Remote Routable Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  94
     B.6.  Add Attached Networks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  95
     B.7.  Add 2-Hop Neighbors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  95
   Appendix C.  TC Message Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  96
   Appendix D.  Constraints  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  98
   Appendix E.  Flow and Congestion Control  . . . . . . . . . . . . 103













































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1.  Introduction

   The Optimized Link State Routing protocol version 2 (OLSRv2) is an
   update to OLSR (version 1) as published in [RFC3626].  Compared to
   [RFC3626], OLSRv2 retains the same basic mechanisms and algorithms,
   enhanced by the ability to use a link metric other than hop count in
   the selection of shortest routes.  OLSRv2 also uses a more flexible
   and efficient signaling framework, and includes some simplification
   of the messages being exchanged.

   OLSRv2 is developed for mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs).  It operates
   as a table driven, proactive protocol, i.e., it exchanges topology
   information with other routers in the network regularly.  OLSRv2 is
   an optimization of the classical link state routing protocol.  Its
   key concept is that of MultiPoint Relays (MPRs).  Each router selects
   two sets of MPRs, each being a set of its neighbor routers that
   "cover" all of its symmetrically connected 2-hop neighbor routers.
   These two sets are of flooding MPRs and routing MPRs, and are used to
   achieve flooding reduction and topology reduction, respectively.

   Flooding reduction is achieved by control traffic being flooded
   through the network using hop by hop forwarding, but with a router
   only needing to forward control traffic that is first received
   directly from one of the routers that have selected it as a flooding
   MPR (its "flooding MPR selectors").  This mechanism, denoted "MPR
   flooding", provides an efficient mechanism for information
   distribution within the MANET by reducing the number of transmissions
   required.

   Topology reduction is achieved by assigning a special responsibility
   to routers selected as routing MPRs when declaring link state
   information.  A sufficient requirement for OLSRv2 to provide shortest
   routes to all destinations is that routers declare link state
   information for their routing MPR selectors, if any.  Routers that
   are not selected as routing MPRs need not send any link state
   information.  Based on this reduced link state information, routing
   MPRs are used as intermediate routers in multi-hop routes.

   Thus the use of MPRs allows reduction of the number and the size of
   link state messages, and in the amount of link state information
   maintained in each router.  When possible (in particular if using a
   hop count metric) the same routers may be picked as both flooding
   MPRs and routing MPRs.

   A router selects both routing and flooding MPRs from among its one
   hop neighbors connected by "symmetric", i.e., bidirectional, links.
   Therefore, selecting routes through routing MPRs avoids the problems
   associated with data packet transfer over unidirectional links (e.g.,



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   the problem of not getting link layer acknowledgments at each hop,
   for link layers employing this technique).

   OLSRv2 uses and extends the MANET NeighborHood Discovery Protocol
   (NHDP) defined in [RFC6130] and also uses the MANET generalized
   packet/message format [RFC5444] and the specifications in [RFC5497]
   and, optionally, [RFC5148].  These four other protocols and
   specifications were all originally created as part of OLSRv2, but
   have been specified separately for wider use.

   OLSRv2 makes no assumptions about the underlying link layer.  OLSRv2,
   through its use of [RFC6130], may use link layer information and
   notifications when available and applicable.  In addition OLSRv2 uses
   link metrics that may be derived from link layer or any other
   information.  OLSRv2 does not specify the physical meaning of link
   metrics, but specifies a means by which new types of link metrics may
   be specified in the future, but used by OLSRv2 without modification.

   OLSRv2, as OLSR [RFC3626], inherits its concept of forwarding and
   relaying from HIPERLAN (a MAC layer protocol) which is standardized
   by ETSI [HIPERLAN], [HIPERLAN2].

2.  Terminology

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "NOT RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and
   "OPTIONAL" in this document are to be interpreted as described in
   [RFC2119].

   All terms introduced in [RFC5444], including "packet", "Packet
   Header", "message", "Message Header", "Message Body", "Message Type",
   "message sequence number", "hop limit", "hop count", "Address Block",
   "TLV Block", "TLV", "Message TLV", "Address Block TLV", "type" (of
   TLV), "type extension" (of TLV), "value" (of TLV), "address",
   "address prefix", and "address object" are to be interpreted as
   described there.

   All terms introduced in [RFC6130], including "interface", "MANET
   interface", "network address", "link", "symmetric link", "1-hop
   neighbor", "symmetric 1-hop neighbor", "symmetric 2-hop neighbor",
   "constant", "interface parameter", "router parameter", "Information
   Base", and "HELLO message" are to be interpreted as described there.

   Additionally, this specification uses the following terminology:







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   Router:
      A MANET router which implements this protocol.

   OLSRv2 interface:
      A MANET interface running this protocol.

   Routable address:
      A network address which may be used as the destination of a data
      packet.  A router MUST be able to distinguish a routable address
      from a non-routable address by direct inspection of the network
      address, based on global scope address allocations by IANA and/or
      administrative configuration.  Broadcast, multicast and anycast
      addresses, and addresses which are limited in scope to less than
      the entire MANET, MUST NOT be considered as routable addresses.

   Originator address
      An address which is unique (within the MANET) to a router.  A
      router MUST select an originator address; it MAY choose one of its
      interface addresses as its originator address; it MAY select
      either a routable or non-routable address.  If it selects a
      routable address then this MUST be one which the router will
      accept as destination.  An originator address MUST NOT have a
      prefix length, except for when included in an Address Block where
      it MAY be associated with a prefix of maximum prefix length (e.g.,
      if the originator address is an IPv6 address, it MUST have either
      no prefix length, or have a prefix length of 128).

   Message originator address
      The originator address of the router which created a message, as
      deduced from that message by its recipient.  The message
      originator address will usually be included in the message as its
      <msg-orig-addr> element as defined in [RFC5444].  However an
      exceptional case in a HELLO message is also allowed by this
      specification, when a router only uses a single address.  For all
      messages used in this specification, including HELLO messages
      defined in [RFC6130], the recipient MUST be able to deduce an
      originator address.

   Willingness:
      A numerical value between WILL_NEVER and WILL_ALWAYS (both
      inclusive), that represents the router's willingness to be
      selected as an MPR.  A router has separate willingness values to
      be a flooding MPR and a routing MPR.

   Willing symmetric 1-hop neighbor
      A symmetric 1-hop neighbor of this router that has willingness not
      equal to WILL_NEVER.




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   Multipoint relay (MPR):
      A router, X, is an MPR for a router, Y, if router Y has indicated
      its selection of router X as an MPR in a recent HELLO message.
      Router X may be a flooding MPR for Y, if it is indicated to
      participate in the flooding process of messages received from
      router Y, or it may be a routing MPR for Y, if it is indicated to
      declare link-state information for the link from X to Y. It may
      also be both at the same time.

   MPR selector:
      A router, Y, is a flooding/routing MPR selector of router X if
      router Y has selected router X as a flooding/routing MPR.

   MPR flooding:
      The optimized MANET-wide information distribution mechanism,
      employed by this protocol, in which a message is relayed by only a
      reduced subset of the routers in the network.  MPR flooding is the
      mechanism by which flooding reduction is achieved.

   This document employs the same notational conventions as in [RFC5444]
   and [RFC6130].

3.  Applicability Statement

   This protocol:

   o  Is a proactive routing protocol for mobile ad hoc networks
      (MANETs) [RFC2501].

   o  Is designed to work in networks with a dynamic topology, and in
      which messages may be lost, such as due to collisions in wireless
      networks.

   o  Supports routers that each have one or more participating OLSRv2
      interfaces.  The set of a router's interfaces may change over
      time.  Each OLSRv2 interface may have one or more network
      addresses (which may have prefix lengths), and these may also be
      dynamically changing.

   o  Enables hop-by-hop routing, i.e., each router can use its local
      information provided by this protocol to route packets.

   o  Continuously maintains routes to all destinations in the network,
      i.e., routes are instantly available and data traffic is subject
      to no delays due to route discovery.  Consequently, no data
      traffic buffering is required.





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   o  Supports routers that have non-OLSRv2 interfaces which may be
      local to a router or that can serve as gateways towards other
      networks.

   o  Enables the use of bidirectional additive link metrics to use
      shortest distance routes (i.e., routes with smallest total of link
      metrics).  Incoming link metric values are to be determined by a
      process outside this specification.

   o  Is optimized for large and dense networks; the larger and more
      dense a network, the more optimization can be achieved by using
      MPRs, compared to the classic link state algorithm.

   o  Uses [RFC5444] as described in its "Intended Usage" appendix and
      by [RFC5498].

   o  Allows "external" and "internal" extensibility (adding new message
      types and adding information to existing messages) as enabled by
      [RFC5444].

   o  Is designed to work in a completely distributed manner, and does
      not depend on any central entity.

4.  Protocol Overview and Functioning

   The objectives of this protocol are for each router to,
   independently:

   o  Identify all destinations in the network.

   o  Identify a sufficient subset of links in the network, in order
      that shortest paths can be calculated to all available
      destinations.

   o  Provide a Routing Set, containing these shortest paths from this
      router to all destinations (routable addresses and local links).

4.1.  Overview

   These objectives are achieved, for each router, by:

   o  Using [RFC6130] to identify symmetric 1-hop neighbors and
      symmetric 2-hop neighbors.

   o  Extending [RFC6130] to allow the addition of directional link
      metrics to advertised links, and to indicate which link metric
      type is being used by that router.  Both incoming and outgoing
      link metrics may be reported, the latter determined by the



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      advertising router.

   o  Selecting flooding MPRs and routing MPRs from among its symmetric
      1-hop neighbors such that, for each set of MPRs all symmetric
      2-hop neighbors are reachable either directly or via at least one
      symmetric 1-hop neighbor, using a path of minimum total metric
      where appropriate.  An analysis and examples of MPR selection
      algorithms are given in [MPR]; a suggested algorithm,
      appropriately adapted for each set of MPRs, is included in this
      specification.  Note that it is not necessary for routers to use
      the same algorithm in order to interoperate in the same MANET, but
      these algorithms must each have the appropriate properties.

   o  Signaling its flooding MPR and routing MPR selections by extending
      [RFC6130] to report this information in outgoing HELLO messages,
      by the addition of MPR Address Block TLV(s) associated with the
      appropriate network addresses.

   o  Extracting its flooding MPR selectors and routing MPR selectors
      from received HELLO messages, using the included MPR Address Block
      TLV(s).

   o  Reporting its willingness to be a flooding MPR and to be a routing
      MPR in HELLO messages, by the addition of an MPR_WILLING Message
      TLV.  The router's flooding willingness indicates how willing it
      is to participate in MPR flooding and the router's routing
      willingness indicates how willing it is to be an intermediate node
      for routing, while still being able to be a routing source or
      destination even if unwilling to perform either function.

   o  Using the message format specified in [RFC5444], specifically
      defining a TC (Topology Control) Message Type, used to
      periodically signal links between routing MPR selectors and itself
      throughout the MANET.  This signaling includes suitable
      directional neighbor metrics (the best link metric in that
      direction between those routers).

   o  Allowing its TC messages, as well as HELLO messages, to be
      included in packets specified in [RFC5444], using the "manet" IP
      protocol or UDP port as specified in [RFC5498].

   o  Diffusing TC messages by using a flooding reduction mechanism,
      denoted "MPR flooding"; only the flooding MPRs of a router will
      retransmit messages received from (i.e., originated or last
      relayed by) that router.

   Note that the indicated extensions to [RFC6130] are of forms
   permitted by that specification.



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   This specification defines:

   o  The requirement to use [RFC6130], its parameters, constants, HELLO
      messages, and Information Bases, each as extended in this
      specification.

   o  Two new Information Bases: the Topology Information Base and the
      Received Message Information Base.

   o  TC messages, which are used for MANET wide signaling (using MPR
      flooding) of selected topology (link state) information.

   o  A requirement for each router to have an originator address to be
      included in, or deducible from, HELLO messages and TC messages.

   o  The specification of new Message TLVs and Address Block TLVs that
      are used in HELLO messages and TC messages, including for
      reporting link metrics and their usage, willingness to be an MPR,
      MPR selection, and content sequence number information.  Note that
      the generation of (incoming) link metric values is to be
      undertaken by a process outside this specification; this
      specification concerns only the distribution and use of those
      metrics.

   o  The generation of TC messages from the appropriate information in
      the Information Bases.

   o  The updating of the Topology Information Base according to
      received TC messages.

   o  The MPR flooding mechanism, including the inclusion of message
      originator address and sequence number to manage duplicate
      messages, using information recorded in the Received Message
      Information Base.

   o  The response to other events, such as the expiration of
      information in the Information Bases.

   This protocol inherits the stability of a link state algorithm, and
   has the advantage of having routes immediately available when needed,
   due to its proactive nature.

   This protocol only interacts with IP through routing table
   management, and the use of the sending IP address for IP datagrams
   containing OLSRv2 packets.






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4.2.  Routers and Interfaces

   In order for a router to participate in a MANET using this protocol
   it MUST have at least one, and possibly more, OLSRv2 interfaces.
   Each OLSRv2 interface:

   o  Is configured with one or more network addresses, as specified in
      [RFC6130].  These addresses MUST each be specific to this router,
      and MUST include any address that will be used as the sending
      address of any IP packet sent on this OLSRv2 interface.

   o  Has a number of interface parameters, adding to those specified in
      [RFC6130].

   o  Has an Interface Information Base, extending that specified in
      [RFC6130].

   o  Generates and processes HELLO messages according to [RFC6130],
      extended as specified in Section 15.

   In addition to a set of OLSRv2 interfaces as described above, each
   router:

   o  May have one or more non-OLSRv2 interfaces and/or local attached
      networks for which this router can accept packets.  All routable
      addresses for which the router is to accept packets MUST be used
      as an (OLSRv2 or non-OLSRv2) interface network address or as an
      address of a local attached network of the router.

   o  Has a number of router parameters, adding to those specified in
      [RFC6130].

   o  Has a Local Information Base, extending that specified in
      [RFC6130], including selection of an originator address and
      recording any locally attached networks.

   o  Has a Neighbor Information Base, extending that specified in
      [RFC6130] to record MPR selection and advertisement information.

   o  Has a Topology Information Base, recording information received in
      TC messages.

   o  Has a Received Message Information Base, recording information
      about received messages to ensure that each TC message is only
      processed once, and forwarded at most once on each OLSRv2
      interface, by a router.





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   o  Generates and processes TC messages.

4.3.  Information Base Overview

   Each router maintains the Information Bases described in the
   following sections.  These are used for describing the protocol in
   this specification.  An implementation of this protocol MAY maintain
   this information in the indicated form, or in any other organization
   which offers access to this information.  In particular, note that it
   is not necessary to remove Tuples from Sets at the exact time
   indicated, only to behave as if the Tuples were removed at that time.

4.3.1.  Local Information Base

   The Local Information Base is specified in [RFC6130], and contains a
   router's local configuration.  It is extended in this specification
   to also record an originator address, and to include a router's:

   o  Originator Set, containing addresses that were recently used as
      this router's originator address, and is used, together with the
      router's current originator address, to enable a router to
      recognize and discard control traffic which was originated by the
      router itself.

   o  Local Attached Network Set, containing network addresses of
      networks to which this router can act as a gateway, and advertises
      in its TC messages.

4.3.2.  Interface Information Bases

   The Interface Information Bases, one for each OLSRv2 interface, are
   specified in [RFC6130], and are extended to also record, in each Link
   Set, link metric values (incoming and outgoing) and flooding MPR
   selector information.

4.3.3.  Neighbor Information Base

   The Neighbor Information Base is specified in [RFC6130], and is
   extended to also record, in the Neighbor Tuple for each neighbor:

   o  Its originator address.

   o  Neighbor metric values, these being the minimum of the link metric
      values in the indicated direction for all symmetric 1-hop links
      with that neighbor.

   o  Its willingness to be a flooding MPR and to be a routing MPR.




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   o  Whether it has been selected by this router as a flooding MPR or
      as a routing MPR, and whether it is a routing MPR selector of this
      router.  (Whether it is a flooding MPR selector of this neighbor
      is recorded in the Interface Information Base.)

   o  Whether it is to be advertised in TC messages sent by this router.

4.3.4.  Topology Information Base

   The Topology Information Base in each router contains:

   o  An Advertising Remote Router Set, recording each other router from
      which TC messages have been received.  This is used in order to
      determine if a received TC message contains fresh or outdated
      information; a received TC message is ignored in the latter case.

   o  A Router Topology Set, recording links between routers in the
      MANET, as described by received TC messages.

   o  A Routable Address Topology Set, recording routable addresses in
      the MANET (available as packet destinations) and from which other
      router these routable addresses can be directly reached (i.e., in
      a single IP hop), as reported by received TC messages.

   o  An Attached Network Set, recording networks to which a remote
      router has advertised that it may act as a gateway.  These
      networks may be reached in one or more IP hops.

   o  A Routing Set, recording routes from this router to all available
      destinations.  The IP routing table is to be updated using this
      Routing Set. (A router MAY choose to use any or all destination
      network addresses in the Routing Set to update the IP routing
      table, this selection is outside the scope of this specification.)

   The purpose of the Topology Information Base is to record information
   used, in addition to that in the Local Information Base, the
   Interface Information Bases and the Neighbor Information Base, to
   construct the Routing Set (which is also included in the Topology
   Information Base).

   This specification describes the calculation of the Routing Set based
   on a Topology Graph constructed in two phases.  First, a "backbone"
   graph representing the routers in the MANET, and the connectivity
   between them, is constructed from the Local Information Base, the
   Neighbor Information Base and the Router Topology Set. Second, this
   graph is "decorated" with additional destination network addresses
   using the Local Information Base, the Routable Address Topology Set
   and the Attached Network Set.



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   The Topology Graph does not need to be recorded in the Topology
   Information Base, it can either be constructed as required when the
   Routing Set is to be changed, or need not be explicitly constructed
   (as illustrated in Appendix B).  An implementation MAY construct and
   retain the Topology Graph if preferred.

4.3.5.  Received Message Information Base

   The Received Message Information Base in each router contains:

   o  A Received Set for each OLSRv2 interface, describing TC messages
      received by this router on that OLSRv2 interface.

   o  A Processed Set, describing TC messages processed by this router.

   o  A Forwarded Set, describing TC messages forwarded by this router.

   The Received Message Information Base serves the MPR flooding
   mechanism by ensuring that received messages are forwarded at most
   once by a router, and also ensures that received messages are
   processed exactly once by a router.  The Received Messages
   Information Base MAY also record information about other message
   types that use the MPR flooding mechanism.

4.4.  Signaling Overview

   This protocol generates and processes HELLO messages according to
   [RFC6130], extended according to Section 15 of this specification to
   include an originator address, link metrics, and MPR selection
   information.

   This specification defines a single message type, the TC message.  TC
   messages are sent by their originating router proactively, at a
   regular interval.  This interval may be fixed, or may be dynamic, for
   example it may be backed off due to congestion or network stability.
   TC messages may also be sent as a response to a change in the router
   itself, or its advertised 1-hop neighborhood, for example on first
   being selected as a routing MPR.

   Because TC messages are sent periodically, this protocol is tolerant
   of unreliable transmissions of TC messages.  Message losses may occur
   more frequently in wireless networks due to collisions or other
   transmission problems.  This protocol may use "jitter", randomized
   adjustments to message transmission times, to reduce the incidence of
   collisions, as specified in [RFC5148].

   This protocol is tolerant of out of sequence delivery of TC messages
   due to in transit message reordering.  Each router maintains an



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   Advertised Neighbor Sequence Number (ANSN) that is incremented when
   its recorded neighbor information that is to be included in its TC
   messages changes.  This ANSN is included in the router's TC messages.
   The recipient of a TC message can used this included ANSN to identify
   which of the information it has received is most recent, even if
   messages have been reordered while in transit.  Only the most recent
   information received is used, older information received later is
   discarded.

   TC messages may be "complete" or "incomplete".  A complete TC message
   advertises all of the originating router's routing MPR selectors, it
   may also advertise other symmetric 1-hop neighbors.  Complete TC
   messages are generated periodically (and also, optionally, in
   response to neighborhood changes).  Incomplete TC messages may be
   used to report additions to advertised information, without repeating
   unchanged information.

   TC messages, and HELLO messages as extended by this specification,
   include an originator address for the router that created the
   message.  A TC message reports both the originator addresses and
   routable addresses of its advertised neighbors, distinguishing the
   two using an Address Block TLV (an address may be both routable and
   an originator address).  TC messages also report the originator's
   locally attached networks.

   TC messages are MPR flooded throughout the MANET.  A router
   retransmits a TC message received on an OLSRv2 interface if and only
   if the message did not originate at this router and has not been
   previously forwarded by this router, this is the first time the
   message has been received on this OLSRv2 interface, and the message
   is received from (i.e., originated from or was last relayed by) one
   of this router's flooding MPR selectors.

   Some TC messages may be MPR flooded over only part of the network,
   e.g., allowing a router to ensure that nearer routers are kept more
   up to date than distant routers, such as is used in Fisheye State
   Routing [FSR] and Fuzzy Sighted Link State routing [FSLS].  This is
   enabled using [RFC5497].

   TC messages include outgoing neighbor metrics that will be used in
   the selection of routes.

4.5.  Link Metrics

   OLSRv1 [RFC3626] created minimum hop routes to destinations.  However
   in many, if not most, circumstances, better routes (in terms of
   quality of service for end users) can be created by use of link
   metrics.



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   OLSRv2, as defined in this specification, allows links to have a
   metric (also known as a cost).  Link metrics as defined in OLSRv2 are
   additive, and the routes that are to be created are minimum length
   routes, where the length of a route is defined as the sum of the
   metrics of the links in that route.

   Link metrics are defined to be directional; the link metric from one
   router to another may be different from that on the reverse link.
   The link metric is assessed at the receiver, as on a (typically)
   wireless link, that is the better informed as to link information.
   Both incoming and outgoing link information is used by OLSRv2, the
   distinctions in the specification must be clearly followed.

   This specification also defines both incoming and outgoing neighbor
   metrics for each symmetric 1-hop neighbor, these being the minimum
   value of the link metrics in the same direction for all symmetric
   links with that neighbor.  Note that this means that all neighbor
   metric values are link metric values and that specification of, for
   example, link metric value encoding also includes neighbor metric
   values.

   This specification does not define the nature of the link metric.
   However this specification allows, through use of the type extension
   of a defined Address Block TLV, for link metrics with specific
   meanings to be defined and either allocated by IANA or privately
   used.  Each HELLO or TC message carrying link (or neighbor) metrics
   thus indicates which link metric information it is carrying, thus
   allowing routers to determine if they can interoperate.  If link
   metrics require additional signaling to determine their values,
   whether in HELLO messages or otherwise, then this is permitted but is
   outside the scope of this specification.

   Users are advised that they should carefully consider how to use link
   metrics.  In particular they should not simply default to use of all
   links with equal metrics (i.e. hop count) for routing without careful
   consideration of whether that is advisable or not.

4.6.  Routing Set Use

   The purpose of the Routing Set is to determine and record routes
   (local interface network address and next hop interface network
   address) to all possible routable addresses advertised by this
   protocol, as well as of all destinations that are local, i.e., within
   one hop, to the router (whether using routable addresses or not).
   Only symmetric links are used in such routes.

   It is intended that the Routing Set can be used for packet routing,
   by using its contents to update IP's routing tables.  That update,



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   and whether any Routing Tuples are not used in IP's routing table, is
   outside the scope of this specification.

   The signaling in this specification has been designed so that a
   "backbone" Topology Graph of routers, each identified by its
   originator address, with at most one direct connection between any
   pair of routers, can be constructed (from the Neighbor Set and the
   Router Topology Set) using a suitable minimum path length algorithm.
   This Topology Graph can, then, have other network addresses (routable
   or of symmetric 1-hop neighbors) added to it (using the Interface
   Information Bases, the Routable Address Topology Set and the Attached
   Network Set).

5.  Protocol Parameters and Constants

   The parameters and constants used in this specification are those
   defined in [RFC6130] plus those defined in this section.  The
   separation in [RFC6130] into interface parameters, router parameters
   and constants is also used in this specification.

   As for the parameters in [RFC6130], parameters defined in this
   specification MAY be changed dynamically by a router, and need not be
   the same on different routers, even in the same MANET, or, for
   interface parameters, on different interfaces of the same router.

5.1.  Protocol and Port Numbers

   This protocol specifies TC messages, which are included in packets as
   defined by [RFC5444].  These packets may be sent either using the
   "manet" protocol number or the "manet" UDP well-known port number, as
   specified in [RFC5498].

   TC messages and HELLO messages [RFC6130] SHOULD, in a given
   deployment of this protocol, both be using the same of either of IP
   or UDP, in order that it is possible to combine messages of both
   protocols into the same [RFC5444] packet for transmission.

5.2.  Multicast Address

   This protocol specifies TC messages, which are included in packets as
   defined by [RFC5444].  These packets MAY be transmitted using the
   link local multicast address "LL-MANET-Routers", as specified in
   [RFC5498].

5.3.  Interface Parameters






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5.3.1.  Received Message Validity Time

   The following parameter manages the validity time of recorded
   received message information:

   RX_HOLD_TIME:
      The period after receipt of a message by the appropriate OLSRv2
      interface of this router for which that information is recorded,
      in order that the message is recognized as having been previously
      received on this OLSRv2 interface.

   The following constraints apply to this parameter:

   o  RX_HOLD_TIME > 0

   o  RX_HOLD_TIME SHOULD be greater than the maximum difference in time
      that a message may take to traverse the MANET, taking into account
      any message forwarding jitter as well as propagation, queuing, and
      processing delays.

5.4.  Router Parameters

5.4.1.  Local History Times

   The following router parameter manages the time for which local
   information is retained:

   O_HOLD_TIME:
      The time for which a recently used and replaced originator address
      is used to recognize the router's own messages.

   The following constraint apply to this parameter:

   o  O_HOLD_TIME > 0

5.4.2.  Link Metric Parameters

   All routes found using this specification use a single link metric
   type that is specified by the router parameter LINK_METRIC_TYPE,
   which may take any value from 0 to 255, inclusive.

5.4.3.  Message Intervals

   The following parameters regulate TC message transmissions by a
   router.  TC messages are usually sent periodically, but MAY also be
   sent in response to changes in the router's Neighbor Set and/or Local
   Attached Network Set. In a highly dynamic network, and with a larger
   value of the parameter TC_INTERVAL and a smaller value of the



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   parameter TC_MIN_INTERVAL, TC messages may be transmitted more often
   in response to changes than periodically.  However because a router
   has no knowledge of, for example, routers remote to it (i.e., beyond
   two hops away) joining the network, TC messages MUST NOT be sent
   purely responsively.

   TC_INTERVAL:
      The maximum time between the transmission of two successive TC
      messages by this router.  When no TC messages are sent in response
      to local network changes (by design, or because the local network
      is not changing) then TC messages SHOULD be sent at a regular
      interval TC_INTERVAL, possibly modified by jitter as specified in
      [RFC5148].

   TC_MIN_INTERVAL:
      The minimum interval between transmission of two successive TC
      messages by this router.  (This minimum interval MAY be modified
      by jitter, as specified in [RFC5148].)

   The following constraints apply to these parameters:

   o  TC_INTERVAL > 0

   o  TC_MIN_INTERVAL >= 0

   o  TC_INTERVAL >= TC_MIN_INTERVAL

   o  If TLVs with Type = INTERVAL_TIME, as defined in [RFC5497], are
      included in TC messages, then TC_INTERVAL MUST be representable as
      described in [RFC5497].

5.4.4.  Advertised Information Validity Times

   The following parameters manage the validity time of information
   advertised in TC messages:

   T_HOLD_TIME:
      Used as the minimum value in the TLV with Type = VALIDITY_TIME
      included in all TC messages sent by this router.  If a single
      value of parameter TC_HOP_LIMIT (see Section 5.4.7) is used then
      this will be the only value in that TLV.

   A_HOLD_TIME:
      The period during which TC messages are sent after they no longer
      have any advertised information to report, but are sent in order
      to accelerate outdated information removal by other routers.

   The following constraints apply to these parameters:



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   o  T_HOLD_TIME > 0

   o  A_HOLD_TIME >= 0

   o  T_HOLD_TIME >= TC_INTERVAL

   o  If TC messages can be lost, then both T_HOLD_TIME and A_HOLD_TIME
      SHOULD be significantly greater than TC_INTERVAL; a value >= 3 x
      TC_INTERVAL is RECOMMENDED.

   o  T_HOLD_TIME MUST be representable as described in [RFC5497].

5.4.5.  Processing and Forwarding Validity Times

   The following parameters manage the processing and forwarding
   validity time of recorded message information:

   P_HOLD_TIME:
      The period after receipt of a message that is processed by this
      router for which that information is recorded, in order that the
      message is not processed again if received again.

   F_HOLD_TIME:
      The period after receipt of a message that is forwarded by this
      router for which that information is recorded, in order that the
      message is not forwarded again if received again.

   The following constraints apply to these parameters:

   o  P_HOLD_TIME > 0

   o  F_HOLD_TIME > 0

   o  Both of these parameters SHOULD be greater than the maximum
      difference in time that a message may take to traverse the MANET,
      taking into account any message forwarding jitter as well as
      propagation, queuing, and processing delays.

5.4.6.  Jitter

   If jitter, as defined in [RFC5148], is used then the governing jitter
   parameters are as follows:

   TP_MAXJITTER:
      Represents the value of MAXJITTER used in [RFC5148] for
      periodically generated TC messages sent by this router.





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   TT_MAXJITTER:
      Represents the value of MAXJITTER used in [RFC5148] for externally
      triggered TC messages sent by this router.

   F_MAXJITTER:
      Represents the default value of MAXJITTER used in [RFC5148] for
      messages forwarded by this router.  However before using
      F_MAXJITTER a router MAY attempt to deduce a more appropriate
      value of MAXJITTER, for example based on any TLVs with Type =
      INTERVAL_TIME or Type = VALIDITY_TIME contained in the message to
      be forwarded.

   For constraints on these parameters see [RFC5148].

5.4.7.  Hop Limit

   The parameter TC_HOP_LIMIT is the hop limit set in each TC message.
   TC_HOP_LIMIT MAY be a single fixed value, or MAY be different in TC
   messages sent by the same router.  However each other router, at any
   hop count distance, SHOULD see a regular pattern of TC messages in
   order that meaningful values of TLVs with Type = INTERVAL_TIME and
   Type = VALIDITY_TIME at each hop count distance can be included as
   defined in [RFC5497].  Thus the pattern of TC_HOP_LIMIT SHOULD be
   defined to have this property.  For example the repeating pattern
   (255 4 4) satisfies this property (having period TC_INTERVAL at hop
   counts up to 4, inclusive, and 3 x TC_INTERVAL at hop counts greater
   than 4), but the repeating pattern (255 255 4 4) does not satisfy
   this property because at hop counts greater than 4, message intervals
   are alternately TC_INTERVAL and 3 x TC_INTERVAL.

   The following constraints apply to this parameter:

   o  The maximum value of TC_HOP_LIMIT >= the network diameter in hops,
      a value of 255 is RECOMMENDED.  Note that if using a pattern of
      different values of TC_HOP_LIMIT as described above, then only the
      maximum value in the pattern is so constrained.

   o  All values of TC_HOP_LIMIT >= 2.

5.4.8.  Willingness

   Each router has two willingness parameters: WILL_FLOODING and
   WILL_ROUTING, each of which MUST be in the range WILL_NEVER to
   WILL_ALWAYS, inclusive.

   WILL_FLOODING represents the router's willingness to be selected as a
   flooding MPR and hence to participate in MPR flooding, in particular
   of TC messages.



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   WILL_ROUTING represents the router's willingness to be selected as a
   routing MPR and hence to be an intermediate router on routes.

   In either case, the higher the value, the greater the router's
   willingness to be a flooding or routing MPR, respectively.  If a
   router has a willingness value of WILL_NEVER (the lowest possible
   value) it does not perform the corresponding task.  A MANET using
   this protocol with too many routers having either willingness value
   equal to WILL_NEVER will not function; it MUST be ensured, by
   administrative or other means, that this does not happen.

   If a router has a willingness value equal to WILL_ALWAYS (the highest
   possible value) then it will always be selected as a flooding or
   routing MPR, respectively, by all symmetric 1-hop neighbors.

   A MANET in which all routers have WILL_FLOODING = WILL_ALWAYS, the
   flooding operation will effectively disable optimizations, and
   perform as blind flooding.

   A router, which has WILL_ROUTING = WILL_NEVER will not act as an
   intermediate router in the MANET.  Such a router can, act as a
   source, destination or gateway to another routing domain.

   Different routers MAY have different values for WILL_FLOODING and/or
   WILL_ROUTING.  A router that has both WILL_FLOODING = WILL_DEFAULT
   and WILL_ROUTING = WILL_DEFAULT need not include an MPR_WILLING TLV
   in its HELLO messages.

   The following constraints apply to these parameters:

   o  WILL_FLOODING >= WILL_NEVER

   o  WILL_FLOODING <= WILL_ALWAYS

   o  WILL_ROUTING >= WILL_NEVER

   o  WILL_ROUTING <= WILL_ALWAYS

5.5.  Parameter Change Constraints

   If protocol parameters are changed dynamically, then the constraints
   in this section apply.

   RX_HOLD_TIME

      *  If RX_HOLD_TIME for an OLSRv2 interface changes, then the
         expiry time for all Received Tuples for that OLSRv2 interface
         MAY be changed.



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   O_HOLD_TIME

      *  If O_HOLD_TIME for a router changes, then the expiry time for
         all Originator Tuples MAY be changed.

   TC_INTERVAL

      *  If the TC_INTERVAL for a router increases, then the next TC
         message generated by this router MUST be generated according to
         the previous, shorter, TC_INTERVAL.  Additional subsequent TC
         messages MAY be generated according to the previous, shorter,
         TC_INTERVAL.

      *  If the TC_INTERVAL for a router decreases, then the following
         TC messages from this router MUST be generated according to the
         current, shorter, TC_INTERVAL.

   P_HOLD_TIME

      *  If P_HOLD_TIME changes, then the expiry time for all Processed
         Tuples MAY be changed.

   F_HOLD_TIME

      *  If F_HOLD_TIME changes, then the expiry time for all Forwarded
         Tuples MAY be changed.

   TP_MAXJITTER

      *  If TP_MAXJITTER changes, then the periodic TC message schedule
         on this router MAY be changed immediately.

   TT_MAXJITTER

      *  If TT_MAXJITTER changes, then externally triggered TC messages
         on this router MAY be rescheduled.

   F_MAXJITTER

      *  If F_MAXJITTER changes, then TC messages waiting to be
         forwarded with a delay based on this parameter MAY be
         rescheduled.

   TC_HOP_LIMIT

      *  If TC_HOP_LIMIT changes, and the router uses multiple values
         after the change, then message intervals and validity times
         included in TC messages MUST be respected.  The simplest way to



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         do this is to start any new repeating pattern of TC_HOP_LIMIT
         values with its largest value.

   LINK_METRIC_TYPE

      *  If LINK_METRIC_TYPE changes then all link metric information
         recorded by the router is invalid.  The router MUST take the
         following actions, and all consequent actions described in
         Section 17 and [RFC6130].

         +  For each Link Tuple in any Link Set, either update
            L_in_metric (the value MAXIMUM_METRIC MAY be used) or remove
            the Link Tuple from the Link Set.

         +  For each Link Tuple that is not removed, set:

            -  L_out_metric := UNKNOWN_METRIC;

            -  L_SYM_time := expired;

            -  L_MPR_selector := false.

         +  Remove all Router Topology Tuples, Routable Address Topology
            Tuples, Attached Network Tuples and Routing Tuples from
            their respective protocol sets in the Topology Information
            Base.

5.6.  Constants

5.6.1.  Link Metric Constants

   The constant minimum, maximum and default metric values are defined
   by:

   o  MINIMUM_METRIC := 1

   o  MAXIMUM_METRIC := 16776960

   o  DEFAULT_METRIC := 256

   The symbolic value UNKNOWN_METRIC is defined in Section 6.1.

5.6.2.  Willingness Constants

   The constant minimum, maximum and default willingness values are
   defined by:





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   o  WILL_NEVER := 0

   o  WILL_ALWAYS := 15

   o  WILL_DEFAULT := 7

6.  Link Metric Values

   A router records a link metric value for each direction of a link of
   which it has knowledge.  These link metric values are used to create
   metrics for routes by the addition of link metric values.

6.1.  Link Metric Representation

   Link metrics are reported in messages using a compressed
   representation that occupies 12 bits, a 4 bit field and an 8 bit
   field.  The compressed representation represents positive integer
   values with a minimum value of 1 and a maximum value that is slightly
   smaller than the maximum 24 bit value.  Only those values that have
   exact representation in the compressed form are used.  Route metrics
   are the summation of no more then 255 link metric values, and can
   therefore be represented using no more than 32 bits.

   Link and route metrics used in the Information Bases defined in this
   specification refer to the uncompressed values, and arithmetic
   involving them does likewise, and assumes full precision in the
   result.  (How an implementation records the values is not part of
   this specification, as long as it behaves as if recording
   uncompressed values.  An implementation can, for example, use 32 bit
   values for all link and route metrics.)

   In some cases a link metric value may be unknown.  This is indicated
   in this specification by the value UNKNOWN_METRIC.  An implementation
   may use any representation of UNKNOWN_METRIC as it is never included
   in messages or used in any computation.  (Possible values are zero,
   or any value greater than the maximum representable metric value.)

6.2.  Link Metric Compressed Form

   The 12-bit compressed form of a link metric uses a modified form of a
   representation with as 8-bit mantissa (denoted b) and a 4-bit
   exponent (denoted a).  Note that if represented as the 12 bit value
   256a+b then the ordering of those 12 bit values is identical to the
   ordering of the represented values.

   The value so represented is (257+b)2^a - 256, where ^ denotes
   exponentiation.  This has a minimum value (when a = 0 and b = 0) of
   MINIMUM_METRIC = 1 and a maximum value (when a = 15 and b = 255) of



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   MAXIMUM_METRIC = 2^24 - 256.

   An algorithm for computing a and b for the smallest representable
   value not less than a link metric value v such that MINIMUM_METRIC <=
   v <= MAXIMUM_METRIC is:

   1.  Find the smallest integer a such that v + 256 <= 2^(a + 9).

   2.  Set b := (v - 256(2^a - 1)) / (2^a) - 1, rounded up to the
       nearest integer.

   To allow for more efficient messages, a default link metric
   DEFAULT_METRIC is defined, which can be omitted from messages.  Note
   that this is not the same as the link metric value that should be
   used when this specification requires a link metric, but no
   information about a link, beyond that a HELLO message has been
   received using that link, is available.  In this case the link metric
   used SHOULD be MAXIMUM_METRIC.

7.  Local Information Base

   The Local Information Base, as defined for each router in [RFC6130],
   is extended by this protocol by:

   o  Recording the router's originator address.  The originator address
      MUST be unique to this router.  It MUST NOT be used by any other
      router as an originator address.  It MAY be included in any
      network address in any I_local_iface_addr_list of this router, it
      MUST NOT be included in any network address in any
      I_local_iface_addr_list of any other router.  It MAY be included
      in, but MUST NOT be equal to, the AL_net_addr in any Local
      Attached Network Tuple in this or any other router.

   o  The addition of an Originator Set, defined in Section 7.1, and a
      Local Attached Network Set, defined in Section 7.2.

   All routable addresses of the router for which it is to accept
   packets as destination MUST be included in the Local Interface Set or
   the Local Attached Network Set.

7.1.  Originator Set

   A router's Originator Set records addresses that were recently used
   as originator addresses by this router.  If a router's originator
   address is immutable then this set is always empty and MAY be
   omitted.  It consists of Originator Tuples:

      (O_orig_addr, O_time)



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   where:

      O_orig_addr is a recently used originator address; note that this
      does not include a prefix length;

      O_time specifies the time at which this Tuple expires and MUST be
      removed.

7.2.  Local Attached Network Set

   A router's Local Attached Network Set records its local non-OLSRv2
   interfaces via which it can act as gateways to other networks.  The
   Local Attached Network Set is not modified by this protocol.  This
   protocol MAY respond to changes to the Local Attached Network Set,
   which MUST reflect corresponding changes in the router's status.  It
   consists of Local Attached Network Tuples:

      (AL_net_addr, AL_dist, AL_metric)

   where:

      AL_net_addr is the network address of an attached network which
      can be reached via this router.  This SHOULD be a routable
      address.  It is constrained as described below.

      AL_dist is the number of hops to the network with network address
      AL_net_addr from this router.

      AL_metric is the metric of the link to the attached network with
      address AL_net_addr from this router;

   Attached networks local to this router only (i.e., not reachable
   except via this router) SHOULD be treated as local non-MANET
   interfaces, and added to the Local Interface Set, as specified in
   [RFC6130], rather than be added to the Local Attached Network Set.

   Because an attached network is not specific to the router, and may be
   outside the MANET, an attached network MAY also be attached to other
   routers.  Routing to an AL_net_addr will use maximum prefix length
   matching; consequently an AL_net_addr MAY include, but MUST NOT equal
   or be included in, any network address which is of any interface of
   any router (i.e., is included in any I_local_iface_addr_list) or
   equal any router's originator address.

   It is not the responsibility of this protocol to maintain routes from
   this router to networks recorded in the Local Attached Network Set.

   Local Attached Neighbor Tuples are removed from the Local Attached



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   Network Set only when the routers' local attached network
   configuration changes, i.e., they are not subject to timer-based
   expiration or changes due to received messages.

8.  Interface Information Base

   An Interface Information Base, as defined in [RFC6130], is maintained
   for each OLSRv2 interface.  Its Link Set and 2-Hop Set are modified
   by this protocol.

8.1.  Link Set

   The Link Set is modified by adding these additional elements to each
   Link Tuple:

      L_in_metric is the metric of the link from the OLSRv2 interface
      with addresses L_neighbor_iface_addr_list to this OLSRv2
      interface;

      L_out_metric is the metric of the link to the OLSRv2 interface
      with addresses L_neighbor_iface_addr_list from this OLSRv2
      interface;

      L_mpr_selector is a boolean flag, describing if this neighbor has
      selected this router as a flooding MPR, i.e., is a flooding MPR
      selector of this router.

   L_in_metric will be specified by a process that is external to this
   specification.  Any Link Tuple with L_status = HEARD or L_status =
   SYMMETRIC MUST have a specified value of L_in_metric.

   A Link Tuple created (but not updated) by [RFC6130] MUST set:

   o  L_in_metric := UNKNOWN_METRIC;

   o  L_out_metric := UNKNOWN_METRIC;

   o  L_mpr_selector := false.

8.2.  2-Hop Set

   The 2-Hop Set is modified by adding these additional elements to each
   2-Hop Tuple:

      N2_in_metric is the neighbor metric from the router with address
      N2_2hop_iface_addr to the router with OLSRv2 interface addresses
      N2_neighbor_iface_addr_list;




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      N2_out_metric is the neighbor metric to the router with address
      N2_2hop_iface_addr from the router with OLSRv2 interface addresses
      N2_neighbor_iface_addr_list.

   A 2-Hop Tuple created (but not updated) by [RFC6130] MUST set:

   o  N2_in_metric := UNKNOWN_METRIC;

   o  N2_out_metric := UNKNOWN_METRIC.

9.  Neighbor Information Base

   An Neighbor Information Base, as defined in [RFC6130], is maintained
   for each router.  It is modified by this protocol by adding these
   additional elements to each Neighbor Tuple in the Neighbor Set:

      N_orig_addr is the neighbor's originator address, which may be
      unknown.  Note that this originator address does not include a
      prefix length;

      N_in_metric is the neighbor metric of any link from this neighbor
      to this router, i.e., the minimum of all corresponding L_in_metric
      with L_status = SYMMETRIC, UNKNOWN_METRIC if there are no such
      Link Tuples;

      N_out_metric is the neighbor metric of any link from this router
      to this neighbor, i.e., the minimum of all corresponding
      L_out_metric with L_status = SYMMETRIC, UNKNOWN_METRIC if there
      are no such Link Tuples;

      N_will_flooding is the neighbor's willingness to be selected as a
      flooding MPR, in the range from WILL_NEVER to WILL_ALWAYS, both
      inclusive;

      N_will_routing is the neighbor's willingness to be selected as a
      routing MPR, in the range from WILL_NEVER to WILL_ALWAYS, both
      inclusive;

      N_flooding_mpr is a boolean flag, describing if this neighbor is
      selected as a flooding MPR by this router;

      N_routing_mpr is a boolean flag, describing if this neighbor is
      selected as a routing MPR by this router;

      N_mpr_selector is a boolean flag, describing if this neighbor has
      selected this router as a routing MPR, i.e., is a routing MPR
      selector of this router.




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      N_advertised is a boolean flag, describing if this router has
      elected to advertise a link to this neighbor in its TC messages.

   A Neighbor Tuple created (but not updated) by [RFC6130] MUST set:

   o  N_orig_addr := unknown;

   o  N_in_metric := UNKNOWN_METRIC;

   o  N_out_metric := UNKNOWN_METRIC;

   o  N_will_flooding := WILL_NEVER;

   o  N_will_routing := WILL_NEVER;

   o  N_routing_mpr := false;

   o  N_flooding_mpr := false;

   o  N_mpr_selector := false;

   o  N_advertised := false.

   The Neighbor Information Base also includes a variable, the
   Advertised Neighbor Sequence Number (ANSN), whose value is included
   in TC messages to indicate the freshness of the information
   transmitted.  The ANSN is incremented whenever advertised information
   (the originator and routable addresses included in Neighbor Tuples
   with N_advertised = true, and local attached networks recorded in the
   Local Attached Network Set in the Local Information Base) changes,
   including addition or removal of such information.

10.  Topology Information Base

   The Topology Information Base, defined for each router by this
   specification, stores information received in TC messages, in the
   Advertising Remote Router Set, the Router Topology Set, the Routable
   Address Topology Set and the Attached Network Set.

   Additionally, a Routing Set is maintained, derived from the
   information recorded in the Local Information Base, the Interface
   Information Bases, the Neighbor Information Base and the rest of the
   Topology Information Base.

10.1.  Advertising Remote Router Set

   A router's Advertising Remote Router Set records information
   describing each remote router in the network that transmits TC



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   messages, allowing outdated TC messages to be recognized and
   discarded.  It consists of Advertising Remote Router Tuples:

      (AR_orig_addr, AR_seq_number, AR_time)

   where:

      AR_orig_addr is the originator address of a received TC message,
      note that this does not include a prefix length;

      AR_seq_number is the greatest ANSN in any TC message received
      which originated from the router with originator address
      AR_orig_addr (i.e., which contributed to the information contained
      in this Tuple);

      AR_time is the time at which this Tuple expires and MUST be
      removed.

10.2.  Router Topology Set

   A router's Topology Set records topology information about the links
   between routers in the MANET.  It consists of Router Topology Tuples:

      (TR_from_orig_addr, TR_to_orig_addr, TR_seq_number, TR_metric,
       TR_time)

   where:

      TR_from_orig_addr is the originator address of a router which can
      reach the router with originator address TR_to_orig_addr in one
      hop, note that this does not include a prefix length;

      TR_to_orig_addr is the originator address of a router which can be
      reached by the router with originator address TR_to_orig_addr in
      one hop, note that this does not include a prefix length;

      TR_seq_number is the greatest ANSN in any TC message received
      which originated from the router with originator address
      TR_from_orig_addr (i.e., which contributed to the information
      contained in this Tuple);

      TR_metric is the neighbor metric from the router with originator
      address TR_from_orig_addr to the router with originator address
      TR_to_orig_addr;

      TR_time specifies the time at which this Tuple expires and MUST be
      removed.




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10.3.  Routable Address Topology Set

   A router's Routable Address Topology Set records topology information
   about the routable addresses within the MANET, and via which routers
   they may be reached.  It consists of Routable Address Topology
   Tuples:

      (TA_from_orig_addr, TA_dest_addr, TA_seq_number, TA_metric,
       TA_time)

   where:

      TA_from_orig_addr is the originator address of a router which can
      reach the router with routable address TA_dest_addr in one hop,
      note that this does not include a prefix length;

      TA_dest_addr is a routable address of a router which can be
      reached by the router with originator address TA_from_orig_addr in
      one hop;

      TA_seq_number is the greatest ANSN in any TC message received
      which originated from the router with originator address
      TA_from_orig_addr (i.e., which contributed to the information
      contained in this Tuple);

      TA_metric is the neighbor metric from the router with originator
      address TA_from_orig_addr to the router with OLSRv2 interface
      address TA_dest_addr;

      TA_time specifies the time at which this Tuple expires and MUST be
      removed.

10.4.  Attached Network Set

   A router's Attached Network Set records information about networks
   (which may be outside the MANET) attached to other routers and their
   routable addresses.  It consists of Attached Network Tuples:

      (AN_orig_addr, AN_net_addr, AN_seq_number, AN_dist, AN_metric,
       AN_time)

   where:

      AN_orig_addr is the originator address of a router which can act
      as gateway to the network with network address AN_net_addr, note
      that this does not include a prefix length;





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      AN_net_addr is the network address of an attached network, which
      may be reached via the router with originator address
      AN_orig_addr;

      AN_seq_number is the greatest ANSN in any TC message received
      which originated from the router with originator address
      AN_orig_addr (i.e., which contributed to the information contained
      in this Tuple);

      AN_dist is the number of hops to the network with network address
      AN_net_addr from the router with originator address AN_orig_addr;

      AN_metric is the metric of the link from the router with
      originator address AN_orig_addr to the attached network with
      address AN_net_addr;

      AN_time specifies the time at which this Tuple expires and MUST be
      removed.

10.5.  Routing Set

   A router's Routing Set records the first hop along a selected path to
   each destination for which any such path is known.  It consists of
   Routing Tuples:

      (R_dest_addr, R_next_iface_addr, R_local_iface_addr, R_dist,
       R_metric)

   where:

      R_dest_addr is the network address of the destination, either the
      network address of an interface of a destination router, or the
      network address of an attached network;

      R_next_iface_addr is the network address of the "next hop" on the
      selected path to the destination;

      R_local_iface_addr is the network address of the local OLSRv2
      interface over which a packet MUST be sent to reach the
      destination by the selected path.

      R_dist is the number of hops on the selected path to the
      destination;

      R_metric is the metric of the route to the destination with
      address R_dest_addr.

   The Routing Set for a router is derived from the contents of other



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   protocol sets of the router (the Link Sets, the Neighbor Set, the
   Router Topology Set, the Routable Address Topology Set, the Attached
   Network Set, and OPTIONALLY the 2-Hop Sets).  The Routing Set is
   updated (Routing Tuples added or removed, or the complete Routing Set
   recalculated) when routing paths are calculated, based on changes to
   these other protocol sets.  Routing Tuples are not subject to timer-
   based expiration.

11.  Received Message Information Base

   The Received Message Information Base, defined by this specification,
   records information required to ensure that a message is processed at
   most once and is forwarded at most once per OLSRv2 interface of a
   router, using MPR flooding.

11.1.  Received Set

   A router has a Received Set per OLSRv2 interface.  Each Received Set
   records the signatures of messages which have been received over that
   OLSRv2 interface.  Each consists of Received Tuples:

      (RX_type, RX_orig_addr, RX_seq_number, RX_time)

   where:

      RX_type is the received Message Type;

      RX_orig_addr is the originator address of the received message,
      note that this does not include a prefix length;

      RX_seq_number is the message sequence number of the received
      message;

      RX_time specifies the time at which this Tuple expires and MUST be
      removed.

11.2.  Processed Set

   A router has a single Processed Set which records signatures of
   messages which have been processed by the router.  It consists of
   Processed Tuples:

      (P_type, P_orig_addr, P_seq_number, P_time)

   where:

      P_type is the processed Message Type;




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      P_orig_addr is the originator address of the processed message,
      note that this does not include a prefix length;

      P_seq_number is the message sequence number of the processed
      message;

      P_time specifies the time at which this Tuple expires and MUST be
      removed.

11.3.  Forwarded Set

   A router has a single Forwarded Set which records signatures of
   messages which have been forwarded by the router.  It consists of
   Forwarded Tuples:

      (F_type, F_orig_addr, F_seq_number, F_time)

   where:

      F_type is the forwarded Message Type;

      F_orig_addr is the originator address of the forwarded message,
      note that this does not include a prefix length;

      F_seq_number is the message sequence number of the forwarded
      message;

      F_time specifies the time at which this Tuple expires and MUST be
      removed.

12.  Information Base Properties

   As part of this specification, in a number of cases there is a
   natural correspondence from a Protocol Tuple in one Protocol Set to a
   single Protocol Tuple in another Protocol Set, in the same or another
   Information Base.  The latter Protocol Tuple is referred to as
   "corresponding" to the former Protocol Tuple.

   Specific examples of corresponding Protocol Tuples include:

   o  There is a Local Interface Tuple corresponding to each Link Tuple,
      where the Link Tuple is in the Link Set for an OLSRv2 interface,
      and the Local Interface Tuple represents that OLSRv2 interface.

   o  There is a Neighbor Tuple corresponding to each Link Tuple which
      has L_HEARD_time not expired, such that N_neighbor_addr_list
      contains L_neighbor_iface_addr_list.




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   o  There is a Link Tuple (in the Link Set in the same Interface
      Information Base) corresponding to each 2-Hop Tuple such that
      L_neighbor_iface_addr_list = N2_neighbor_iface_addr_list.

   o  There is a Neighbor Tuple corresponding to each 2-Hop Tuple, such
      that N_neighbor_addr_list contains N2_neighbor_iface_addr_list.
      (This is the Neighbor Tuple corresponding to the Link Tuple that
      corresponds to the 2-Hop Tuple.)

   o  There is an Advertising Remote Router Tuple corresponding to each
      Router Topology Tuple such that AR_orig_addr = TR_from_orig_addr.

   o  There is an Advertising Remote Router Tuple corresponding to each
      Routable Address Topology Tuple such that AR_orig_addr =
      TA_from_orig_addr.

   o  There is an Advertising Remote Router Tuple corresponding to each
      Attached Network Tuple such that AR_orig_addr = AN_orig_addr.

   o  There is an Neighbor Tuple corresponding to each Routing Tuple
      such that N_neighbor_addr_list contains R_next_iface_addr.

   Addresses or network addresses with the following properties are
   considered as "fully owned" by a router when processing a received
   message:

   o  Equaling its originator address, OR;

   o  Equaling the O_orig_addr in an Originator Tuple, OR;

   o  Equaling or being a sub-range of the I_local_iface_addr_list in a
      Local Interface Tuple, OR;

   o  Equaling or being a sub-range of the IR_local_iface_addr in a
      Removed Interface Address Tuple, OR;

   o  Equaling an AL_net_addr in a Local Attached Network Tuple.

   Addresses or network addresses with the following properties are
   considered as "partially owned" (which may include being fully owned)
   by a router when processing a received message:

   o  Overlapping (equaling or containing) its originator address, OR;

   o  Overlapping (equaling or containing) the O_orig_addr in an
      Originator Tuple, OR;





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   o  Overlapping the I_local_iface_addr_list in a Local Interface
      Tuple, OR;

   o  Overlapping the IR_local_iface_addr in a Removed Interface Address
      Tuple, OR;

   o  Equaling or having as a sub-range an AL_net_addr in a Local
      Attached Network Tuple.

13.  Packets and Messages

   The packet and message format used by this protocol is defined in
   [RFC5444].  Except as otherwise noted, options defined in [RFC5444]
   may be freely used, in particular alternative formats defined by
   packet, message, Address Block and TLV flags.

   This section describes the usage of the packets and messages defined
   in [RFC5444] by this specification, and the TLVs defined by, and used
   in, this specification.

13.1.  Messages

   Routers using this protocol exchange information through messages.
   The message types used by this protocol are the HELLO message and the
   TC message.  The HELLO message is defined by [RFC6130] and extended
   by this specification, see Section 15.  The TC message is defined by
   this specification, see Section 16.

13.2.  Packets

   One or more messages sent by a router at the same time SHOULD be
   combined into a single packet, subject to any constraints on maximum
   packet size (such as derived from the MTU over a local single hop)
   that MAY be imposed.  These messages may have originated at the
   sending router, or have originated at another router and are being
   forwarded by the sending router.  Messages with different originating
   routers MAY be combined for transmission within the same packet.
   Messages from other protocols defined using [RFC5444], including but
   not limited to [RFC6130], MAY be combined for transmission within the
   same packet.  This specification does not define or use any contents
   of the Packet Header.

   Forwarded messages MAY be jittered as described in [RFC5148],
   including the observation that the forwarding jitter of all messages
   received in a single packet SHOULD be the same.  The value of
   MAXJITTER used in jittering a forwarded message MAY be based on
   information in that message (in particular any Message TLVs with Type
   = INTERVAL_TIME or Type = VALIDITY_TIME) or otherwise SHOULD be with



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   a maximum delay of F_MAXJITTER.  A router MAY modify the jitter
   applied to a message in order to more efficiently combine messages in
   packets, as long as the maximum jitter is not exceeded.

13.3.  TLVs

   This specification defines 2 Message TLVs and 4 Address Block TLVs.

   All references in this specification to TLVs that do not indicate a
   type extension, assume Type Extension = 0.  TLVs in processed
   messages with a type extension which is neither zero as so assumed,
   nor a specifically indicated non-zero type extension, are ignored.

13.3.1.  Message TLVs

   The MPR_WILLING TLV is used in HELLO messages.  A message MUST NOT
   contain more than one MPR_WILLING TLV.

   +-------------+--------------+--------------------------------------+
   |     Type    | Value Length | Value                                |
   +-------------+--------------+--------------------------------------+
   | MPR_WILLING |    1 octet   | Bits 0-3 encode the parameter        |
   |             |              | WILL_FLOODING; bits 4-7 encode the   |
   |             |              | parameter WILL_ROUTING.              |
   +-------------+--------------+--------------------------------------+

                    Table 1: MPR_WILLING TLV definition

   The CONT_SEQ_NUM TLV is used in TC messages. message MUST NOT contain
   more than one CONT_SEQ_NUM TLV.

   +--------------+--------------+-------------------------------------+
   |     Type     | Value Length | Value                               |
   +--------------+--------------+-------------------------------------+
   | CONT_SEQ_NUM |   2 octets   | The ANSN contained in the Neighbor  |
   |              |              | Information Base.                   |
   +--------------+--------------+-------------------------------------+

                   Table 2: CONT_SEQ_NUM TLV definition

13.3.2.  Address Block TLVs

   The LINK_METRIC TLV is used in HELLO messages and TC messages.  It
   MAY use any type extension; only LINK_METRIC TLVs with type extension
   equal to LINK_METRIC_TYPE will be used by this specification.  At
   most one link metric value of any given kind (link or neighbor) and
   direction may be associated with any address.




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   +-------------+--------------+--------------------------------------+
   |     Type    | Value Length | Value                                |
   +-------------+--------------+--------------------------------------+
   | LINK_METRIC |   2 octets   | Bits 0-3 indicates kind(s) and       |
   |             |              | direction(s), Bits 4-7 indicate      |
   |             |              | exponent (a), Bits 8-15 indicate     |
   |             |              | mantissa (b)                         |
   +-------------+--------------+--------------------------------------+

                    Table 3: LINK_METRIC TLV definition

   The exponent and mantissa use the representation defined in
   Section 6.  Each bit of the types and directions sub-field, if set
   ('1') indicates that the link metric is of the indicated kind and
   direction.  Any combination of these bits MAY be used.

                   +-----+-----------------+-----------+
                   | Bit |       Kind      | Direction |
                   +-----+-----------------+-----------+
                   |  0  |   Link metric   | Incoming  |
                   |  1  |   Link metric   | Outgoing  |
                   |  2  | Neighbor metric | Incoming  |
                   |  3  | Neighbor metric | Outgoing  |
                   +-----+-----------------+-----------+

               Table 4: LINK_METRIC TLV types and directions

   The MPR TLV is used in HELLO messages, and indicates that an address
   with which it is associated is of a symmetric 1-hop neighbor that has
   been selected as an MPR.

   +------+--------------+---------------------------------------------+
   | Type | Value Length | Value                                       |
   +------+--------------+---------------------------------------------+
   |  MPR |    1 octet   | FLOODING indicates that the corresponding   |
   |      |              | address is of a neighbor selected as a      |
   |      |              | flooding MPR, ROUTING indicates that the    |
   |      |              | corresponding address is of a neighbor      |
   |      |              | selected as a routing MPR, FLOOD_ROUTE      |
   |      |              | indicates both                              |
   +------+--------------+---------------------------------------------+

                        Table 5: MPR TLV definition

   The NBR_ADDR_TYPE TLV is used in TC messages.






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   +---------------+--------------+------------------------------------+
   |      Type     | Value Length | Value                              |
   +---------------+--------------+------------------------------------+
   | NBR_ADDR_TYPE |    1 octet   | ORIGINATOR indicates that the      |
   |               |              | corresponding address (which MUST  |
   |               |              | have maximum prefix length) is an  |
   |               |              | originator address, ROUTABLE       |
   |               |              | indicates that the corresponding   |
   |               |              | network address is a routable      |
   |               |              | address of an interface,           |
   |               |              | ROUTABLE_ORIG indicates that the   |
   |               |              | corresponding address is both      |
   +---------------+--------------+------------------------------------+

                   Table 6: NBR_ADDR_TYPE TLV definition

   If an address is both an originator address and a routable address,
   then it may be associated with either one Address Block TLV with Type
   := NBR_ADDR_TYPE and Value := ROUTABLE_ORIG, or with two Address
   Block TLVs with Type:= NBR_ADDR_TYPE, one with Value := ORIGINATOR
   and one with Value := ROUTABLE.

   The GATEWAY TLV is used in TC messages.  At most one GATEWAY TLV may
   be associated with any address.

     +---------+--------------+-------------------------------------+
     |   Type  | Value Length | Value                               |
     +---------+--------------+-------------------------------------+
     | GATEWAY |    1 octet   | Number of hops to attached network. |
     +---------+--------------+-------------------------------------+

                      Table 7: GATEWAY TLV definition

   All address objects included in a TC message according to this
   specification MUST be associated either with at least one TLV with
   Type := NBR_ADDR_TYPE or with a TLV with Type := GATEWAY, but not
   both.  Any other address objects MAY be included in Address Blocks in
   a TC message, but are ignored by this specification.

14.  Message Processing and Forwarding

   This section describes the optimized flooding operation (MPR
   flooding) used when control messages, as instances of [RFC5444], are
   intended for MANET wide distribution.  This flooding mechanism
   defines when a received message is, or is not, processed and/or
   forwarded.

   This flooding mechanism is used by this protocol and MAY be used by



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   extensions to this protocol which define, and hence own, other
   message types, to manage processing and/or forwarding of these
   messages.  This specification contains elements (P_type, RX_type,
   F_type) required only for such usage.

   This flooding mechanism is always used for TC messages (see
   Section 16).  Received HELLO messages (see Section 15 are, unless
   invalid, always processed, and never forwarded by this flooding
   mechanism.  They thus do not need to be recorded in the Received
   Message Information Base.

   The processing selection and forwarding mechanisms are designed to
   only need to parse the Message Header in order to determine whether a
   message is to be processed and/or forwarded, and not to have to parse
   the Message Body even if the message is forwarded (but not
   processed).  An implementation MAY only parse the Message Body if
   necessary, or MAY always parse the Message Body and reject the
   message if it cannot be so parsed, or any other error is identified.

   An implementation MUST discard the message silently if it is unable
   to parse the Message Header or (if attempted) the Message Body, or if
   a message (other than a HELLO message) does not include a message
   sequence number.

14.1.  Actions when Receiving a Message

   On receiving a message of a type specified to be using this
   mechanism, which includes the TC messages defined in this
   specification, a router MUST perform the following:

   1.  If the router recognizes from the originator address of the
       message that the message is one which the receiving router itself
       originated (i.e., the message originator address is the
       originator address of this router, or is an O_orig_addr in an
       Originator Tuple) then the message MUST be silently discarded.

   2.  Otherwise:

       1.  If the message is of a type which may be processed, then the
           message is considered for processing according to
           Section 14.2.

       2.  If the message is of a type which may be forwarded, AND:

           +  <msg-hop-limit> is present and <msg-hop-limit> > 1, AND;

           +  <msg-hop-count> is not present or <msg-hop-count> < 255;




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           then the message is considered for forwarding according to
           Section 14.3.

14.2.  Message Considered for Processing

   If a message (the "current message") is considered for processing,
   then the following tasks MUST be performed:

   1.  If the sending address (i.e., the source address of the IP
       datagram containing the current message) does not match (taking
       into account any address prefix) a network address in an
       L_neighbor_iface_addr_list of a Link Tuple, with L_status =
       SYMMETRIC, in the Link Set for the OLSRv2 interface on which the
       current message was received (the "receiving interface") then
       processing the current message is OPTIONAL.  If the current
       message is not processed then the following steps are not carried
       out.

   2.  If a Processed Tuple exists with:

       *  P_type = the Message Type of the current message, AND;

       *  P_orig_addr = the originator address of the current message,
          AND;

       *  P_seq_number = the message sequence number of the current
          message;

       then the current message MUST NOT be processed.

   3.  Otherwise:

       1.  Create a Processed Tuple with:

           +  P_type := the Message Type of the current message;

           +  P_orig_addr := the originator address of the current
              message;

           +  P_seq_number := the sequence number of the current
              message;

           +  P_time := current time + P_HOLD_TIME.

       2.  Process the current message according to its Message Type.
           For a TC message this is as defined in Section 16.3.





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14.3.  Message Considered for Forwarding

   If a message (the "current message") is considered for forwarding,
   then the following tasks MUST be performed:

   1.  If the sending address (i.e., the source address of the IP
       datagram containing the current message) does not match (taking
       into account any address prefix) a network address in an
       L_neighbor_iface_addr_list of a Link Tuple, with L_status =
       SYMMETRIC, in the Link Set for the OLSRv2 interface on which the
       current message was received (the "receiving interface") then the
       current message MUST be silently discarded.

   2.  Otherwise:

       1.  If a Received Tuple exists in the Received Set for the
           receiving interface, with:

           +  RX_type = the Message Type of the current message, AND;

           +  RX_orig_addr = the originator address of the current
              message, AND;

           +  RX_seq_number = the sequence number of the current
              message;

           then the current message MUST be silently discarded.

       2.  Otherwise:

           1.  Create a Received Tuple in the Received Set for the
               receiving interface with:

               -  RX_type := the Message Type of the current message;

               -  RX_orig_addr := originator address of the current
                  message;

               -  RX_seq_number := sequence number of the current
                  message;

               -  RX_time := current time + RX_HOLD_TIME.

           2.  If a Forwarded Tuple exists with:

               -  F_type = the Message Type of the current message, AND;





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               -  F_orig_addr = the originator address of the current
                  message, AND;

               -  F_seq_number = the sequence number of the current
                  message.

               then the current message MUST be silently discarded.

           3.  Otherwise if the sending address matches (taking account
               of any address prefix) any network address in an
               L_neighbor_iface_addr_list of a Link Tuple in the Link
               Set for the receiving OLSRv2 interface that has L_status
               = SYMMETRIC and whose corresponding Neighbor Tuple has
               N_mpr_selector = true, then:

               1.  Create a Forwarded Tuple with:

                   o  F_type := the Message Type of the current message;

                   o  F_orig_addr := originator address of the current
                      message;

                   o  F_seq_number := sequence number of the current
                      message;

                   o  F_time := current time + F_HOLD_TIME.

               2.  The Message Header of the current message is modified
                   by:

                   o  if present, decrement <msg-hop-limit> in the
                      Message Header by 1, AND;

                   o  if present, increment <msg-hop-count> in the
                      Message Header by 1.

               3.  The message is transmitted over all OLSRv2
                   interfaces, as described in Section 13.

15.  HELLO Messages

   The HELLO message Message Type is owned by [RFC6130], and thus HELLO
   messages are generated, transmitted, received and processed by
   [RFC6130].  This protocol, as permitted by [RFC6130], also uses HELLO
   messages, including adding to HELLO message generation, and
   implementing additional processing based on received HELLO messages.
   HELLO messages are not forwarded by [RFC6130] or by this
   specification.



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15.1.  HELLO Message Generation

   A HELLO message is generated as defined in [RFC6130], extended by the
   following elements being added to the HELLO message by this
   specification before the HELLO message is sent over an OLSRv2
   interface:

   o  A message originator address, recording this router's originator
      address.  This MUST use a <msg-orig-addr> element, unless:

      *  The message specifies only a single local interface address
         (i.e., contains only one address object that is associated with
         an Address Block TLV with Type = LOCAL_IF, and which has no
         prefix length, or a maximum prefix length) which will then be
         interpreted as the message originator address, OR;

      *  The message does not include any local interface network
         addresses (i.e., has no address objects associated with an
         Address Block TLV with Type = LOCAL_IF), as permitted by the
         specification in [RFC6130] when the router that generated the
         HELLO message has only one interface address and will use that
         as the sending address of the IP datagram in which the HELLO
         message is contained.  In this case that address will be
         interpreted as the message originator address.

   o  A Message TLV with Type := MPR_WILLING MUST be included, unless
      both willingness values that it reports are equal to WILL_DEFAULT
      (in which case it MAY be included).

   o  The following cases associate Address Block TLVs with one or more
      addresses from a Link Tuple or a Neighbor Tuple if these are
      included in the HELLO message.  In each case the TLV MUST be
      associated with at least copy of one address from the relevant
      Tuple; the TLV MAY be associated with more such addresses
      (including a copy of that address object, possibly not itself
      associated with any other indicated TLVs, in the same or a
      different Address Block).  These additional TLVs MUST NOT be
      associated with any other addresses in a HELLO message that will
      be processed by [RFC6130].

      *  For each Link Tuple for which L_in_metric != UNKNOWN_METRIC,
         and for which one or more addresses in its
         L_neighbor_iface_addr_list are included as address objects with
         an associated Address Block TLV with Type = LINK_STATUS and
         Value = HEARD or Value = SYMMETRIC, at least one of these
         addresses MUST be associated with an Address Block TLV with
         Type := LINK_METRIC indicating an incoming link metric with
         value L_in_metric, unless this equals DEFAULT_METRIC.



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      *  For each Link Tuple for which L_out_metric != UNKNOWN_METRIC,
         and for which one or more addresses in its
         L_neighbor_iface_addr_list are included as address objects with
         an associated Address Block TLV with Type = LINK_STATUS and
         Value = SYMMETRIC, at least one of these addresses MUST be
         associated with an Address Block TLV with Type := LINK_METRIC
         indicating an outgoing link metric with value L_out_metric,
         unless this equals DEFAULT_METRIC.

      *  For each Neighbor Tuple for which N_symmetric = true, and for
         which one or more addresses in its N_neighbor_addr_list are
         included as address objects with an associated Address Block
         TLV with Type = LINK_STATUS or Type = OTHER_NEIGHB and Value =
         SYMMETRIC, at least one of these addresses MUST be associated
         with an Address Block TLV with Type := LINK_METRIC indicating
         an incoming neighbor metric with value N_in_metric, unless this
         equals DEFAULT_METRIC.

      *  For each Neighbor Tuple for which N_symmetric = true, and for
         which one or more addresses in its N_neighbor_addr_list are
         included as address objects with an associated Address Block
         TLV with Type = LINK_STATUS or Type = OTHER_NEIGHB and Value =
         SYMMETRIC, at least one of these addresses MUST be associated
         with an Address Block TLV with Type := LINK_METRIC indicating
         an outgoing neighbor metric with value N_out_metric, unless
         this equals DEFAULT_METRIC.

      *  For each Neighbor Tuple with N_flooding_mpr = true, and for
         which one or more network addresses in its N_neighbor_addr_list
         are included as address objects in the HELLO message with an
         associated Address Block TLV with Type = LINK_STATUS and Value
         = SYMMETRIC, at least one of these addresses MUST be associated
         with an Address Block TLV with Type := MPR and Value :=
         FLOODING or Value := FLOOD_ROUTE.

      *  For each Neighbor Tuple with N_routing_mpr = true, and for
         which one or more network addresses in its N_neighbor_addr_list
         are included as address objects in the HELLO message with an
         associated Address Block TLV with Type = LINK_STATUS and Value
         = SYMMETRIC, at least one of these addresses MUST be associated
         with an Address Block TLV with Type := MPR and Value := ROUTING
         or Value := FLOOD_ROUTE.

15.2.  HELLO Message Transmission

   HELLO messages are scheduled and transmitted by [RFC6130].  This
   protocol MAY require that an additional HELLO message is sent when
   either of the router's sets of MPRs changes, in addition to the cases



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   specified in [RFC6130], and subject to the same constraints.

15.3.  HELLO Message Processing

   When received on an OLSRv2 interface, HELLO messages are made
   available to this protocol in two ways, both as permitted by
   [RFC6130]:

   o  Such received HELLO messages MUST be made available to this
      protocol on reception, which allows them to be discarded before
      being processed by [RFC6130], for example if the information added
      to the HELLO message by this specification is inconsistent.

   o  Such received HELLO messages MUST be made available to OLSRv2
      after [RFC6130] has completed its processing thereof, unless
      discarded as malformed by [RFC6130], for processing by this
      specification.

15.3.1.  HELLO Message Discarding

   In addition to the reasons specified in [RFC6130] for discarding a
   HELLO message on reception, a HELLO message MUST be discarded before
   processing by [RFC6130] or this specification if it:

   o  Has more than one Message TLV with Type = MPR_WILLING.

   o  Has a message originator address, or a network address
      corresponding to an address object associated with an Address
      Block TLV with Type = LOCAL_IF, that is partially owned by this
      router.  (Some of these cases are already excluded by [RFC6130].)

   o  Includes any address object associated with an Address Block TLV
      with Type = LINK_STATUS or Type = OTHER_NEIGHB that overlaps the
      message's originator address.

   o  Contains any address that will be processed by [RFC6130] that is
      associated, using the same or different address objects, with two
      different values of link metric with the same kind and direction
      using a TLV with Type = LINK_METRIC and Type Extension =
      LINK_METRIC_TYPE.  This also applies to different addresses that
      are both of the OLSRv2 interface on which the HELLO message was
      received.

   o  Contains any address object associated with an Address Block TLV
      with Type = MPR that is not also associated with an Address Block
      TLV with Type = LINK_STATUS and Value = SYMMETRIC (including using
      a different copy of that address object, in the same or a
      different Address Block).



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15.3.2.  HELLO Message Usage

   HELLO messages are first processed as specified in [RFC6130].  That
   processing includes identifying (or creating) a Link Tuple and a
   Neighbor Tuple corresponding to the originator of the HELLO message
   (the "current Link Tuple" and the "current Neighbor Tuple").  After
   this, the following processing MUST also be performed:

   1.  If the HELLO message has a well-defined message originator
       address, i.e., has an <msg-orig-addr> element or has zero or one
       network addresses associated with a TLV with Type = LOCAL_IF:

       1.  Remove any Neighbor Tuple, other than the current Neighbor
           Tuple, with N_orig_addr = message originator address, taking
           any consequent action (including removing one or more Link
           Tuples) as specified in [RFC6130].

       2.  The current Link Tuple is then updated according to:

           1.  Update L_in_metric and L_out_metric as described in
               Section 15.3.2.1;

           2.  Update L_mpr_selector as described in Section 15.3.2.3.

       3.  The current Neighbor Tuple is then updated according to:

           1.  N_orig_addr := message originator address;

           2.  Update N_in_metric and N_out_metric as described in
               Section 15.3.2.1;

           3.  Update N_will_flooding and N_will_routing as described in
               Section 15.3.2.2;

           4.  Update N_mpr_selector as described in Section 15.3.2.3.

   2.  If there are any changes to the router's Information Bases, then
       perform the processing defined in Section 17.

15.3.2.1.  Updating Metrics

   For each address in a received HELLO message with an associated TLV
   with Type = LINK_STATUS and Value = HEARD or Value = SYMMETRIC, an
   incoming (to the message originator) link metric value is defined
   either using an associated TLV with Type = LINK_METRIC and Type
   Extension = LINK_METRIC_TYPE that indicates the appropriate kind
   (link) and direction (incoming) of metric, or as the value
   DEFAULT_METRIC.



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   For each address in a received HELLO message with an associated TLV
   with Type = LINK_STATUS and Value = SYMMETRIC, an outgoing (to the
   message originator) link metric value is defined either using an
   associated TLV with Type = LINK_METRIC and Type Extension =
   LINK_METRIC_TYPE that indicates the appropriate kind (link) and
   direction (outgoing) of metric, or as the value DEFAULT_METRIC.

   For each address in a received HELLO message with an associated TLV
   with Type = LINK_STATUS or Type = OTHER_NEIGHB and Value = SYMMETRIC,
   an incoming (to the message originator) neighbor metric value is
   defined either using an associated TLV with Type = LINK_METRIC and
   Type Extension = LINK_METRIC_TYPE that indicates the appropriate kind
   (neighbor) and direction (incoming) of metric, or as the value
   DEFAULT_METRIC.

   For each address in a received HELLO message with an associated TLV
   with Type = LINK_STATUS or Type = OTHER_NEIGHB and Value = SYMMETRIC,
   an outgoing (to the message originator) neighbor metric value is
   defined either using an associated TLV with Type = LINK_METRIC and
   Type Extension = LINK_METRIC_TYPE that indicates the appropriate kind
   (neighbor) and direction (outgoing) of metric, or as the value
   DEFAULT_METRIC.

   The link metric elements L_in_metric and L_out_metric in a Link Tuple
   are updated according to the following:

   o  For any Link Tuple, L_in_metric MAY be set to any representable
      value, by a process outside this specification, at any time.
      L_in_metric MUST be so set whenever L_status becomes equal to
      HEARD or SYMMETRIC (if no other value is available then the value
      MAXIMUM_METRIC SHOULD be used).  This MAY use information based on
      the receipt of a packet including a HELLO message that causes the
      creation or updating of that Link Tuple.

   o  When, as specified in [RFC6130], a Link Tuple is updated (possibly
      immediately after being created) due to the receipt of a HELLO
      message, if L_status = SYMMETRIC, then L_out_metric is set equal
      to the incoming link metric for any included address of the
      interface on which the HELLO message was received, ignoring any
      values equal to DEFAULT_METRIC unless there are only such values.
      (Note that the rules for discarding HELLO messages in
      Section 15.3.1 make this value unambiguous.)

   The neighbor metric elements N_in_metric and N_out_metric in a
   Neighbor Tuple are updated according to Section 17.3.

   The metric elements N2_in_metric and N2_out_metric in any 2-Hop Tuple
   updated as defined in [RFC6130] are updated to equal the incoming



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   neighbor metric and outgoing neighbor metric, respectively,
   associated with the corresponding N2_2hop_addr.

15.3.2.2.  Updating Willingness

   N_will_flooding and N_will_routing in the current Neighbor Tuple are
   updated as follows:

   1.  If the HELLO message contains a Message TLV with Type =
       MPR_WILLING then N_will_flooding := bits 0-3 of the value of that
       TLV, and N_will_routing := bits 4-7 of the value of that TLV
       (each in the range 0 to 15).

   2.  Otherwise, N_will_flooding := WILL_DEFAULT, and N_will_routing :=
       WILL_DEFAULT.

15.3.2.3.  Updating MPR Selector Status

   L_mpr_selector is updated as follows:

   1.  If a router finds an address object representing any of its local
       interface network addresses (i.e., those contained in the
       I_local_iface_addr_list of an OLSRv2 interface) with an
       associated Address Block TLV with Type = MPR and Value = FLOODING
       or Value = FLOOD_ROUTE in the HELLO message (indicating that the
       originating router has selected the receiving router as a
       flooding MPR) then, for the current Link Tuple:

       *  L_mpr_selector := true.

   2.  Otherwise (i.e., if no such address object and Address Block TLV
       was found) if a router finds an address object representing any
       of its local interface network addresses (i.e., those contained
       in the I_local_iface_addr_list of an OLSRv2 interface) with an
       associated Address Block TLV with Type = LINK_STATUS and Value =
       SYMMETRIC in the HELLO message, then for the current Link Tuple:

       *  L_mpr_selector := false.

   N_mpr_selector is updated as follows:

   1.  If a router finds an address object representing any of its local
       interface network addresses (i.e., those contained in the
       I_local_iface_addr_list of an OLSRv2 interface) with an
       associated Address Block TLV with Type = MPR and Value = ROUTING
       or Value = FLOOD_ROUTE in the HELLO message (indicating that the
       originating router has selected the receiving router as a routing
       MPR) then, for the current Neighbor Tuple:



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       *  N_mpr_selector := true;

       *  N_advertised := true.

   2.  Otherwise (i.e., if no such address object and Address Block TLV
       was found) if a router finds an address object representing any
       of its local interface network addresses (i.e., those contained
       in the I_local_iface_addr_list of an OLSRv2 interface) with an
       associated Address Block TLV with Type = LINK_STATUS and Value =
       SYMMETRIC in the HELLO message, then for the current Neighbor
       Tuple:

       *  N_mpr_selector := false;

       *  The router MAY also set N_advertised := false.

16.  TC Messages

   This protocol defines, and hence owns, the TC message type (see
   Section 24).  Thus, as specified in [RFC5444], this protocol
   generates and transmits all TC messages, receives all TC messages and
   is responsible for determining whether and how each TC message is to
   be processed (updating the Topology Information Base) and/or
   forwarded, according to this specification.

16.1.  TC Message Generation

   A TC message is a message as defined in [RFC5444].  A generated TC
   message MUST contain the following elements as defined in [RFC5444]:

   o  A message originator address, recording this router's originator
      address.  This MUST use a <msg-orig-addr> element.

   o  <msg-seq-num> element containing the message sequence number.

   o  A <msg-hop-limit> element, containing TC_HOP_LIMIT.  A router MAY
      use the same or different values of TC_HOP_LIMIT in its TC
      messages, see Section 5.4.7.

   o  A <msg-hop-count> element, containing zero, if the message
      contains a TLV with either Type = VALIDITY_TIME or Type =
      INTERVAL_TIME (as specified in [RFC5497]) indicating more than one
      time value according to distance.  A TC message MAY contain such a
      <msg-hop-count> element even if it does not need to.

   o  A single Message TLV with Type := CONT_SEQ_NUM and Value := ANSN
      from the Neighbor Information Base.  If the TC message is complete
      then this Message TLV MUST have Type Extension := COMPLETE,



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      otherwise it MUST have Type Extension := INCOMPLETE.  (Exception:
      a TC message MAY omit such a Message TLV if the TC message does
      not include any address objects with an associated Address Block
      TLV with Type = NBR_ADDR_TYPE or Type = GATEWAY.)

   o  A single Message TLV with Type := VALIDITY_TIME, as specified in
      [RFC5497].  If all TC messages are sent with the same hop limit
      then this TLV MUST have a value encoding the period T_HOLD_TIME.
      If TC messages are sent with different hop limits (more than one
      value of TC_HOP_LIMIT) then this TLV MUST specify times that vary
      with the number of hops distance appropriate to the chosen pattern
      of TC message hop limits, as specified in [RFC5497]; these times
      SHOULD be appropriate multiples of T_HOLD_TIME.  The options
      included in [RFC5497] for representing zero and infinite times
      MUST NOT be used.

   o  If the TC message is complete, all network addresses which are the
      N_orig_addr of a Neighbor Tuple with N_advertised = true, MUST be
      represented by address objects in one or more Address Blocks.  If
      the TC message is incomplete then any such address objects MAY be
      included.  At least one copy of each such address object that is
      included MUST be associated with an Address Block TLV with Type :=
      NBR_ADDR_TYPE, and Value := ORIGINATOR, or with Value :=
      ROUTABLE_ORIG if that address object is also to be associated with
      Value = ROUTABLE.

   o  If the TC message is complete, all routable addresses which are in
      the N_neighbor_addr_list of a Neighbor Tuple with N_advertised =
      true MUST be represented by address objects in one or more Address
      Blocks.  If the TC message is incomplete then any such address
      objects MAY be included.  At least one copy of each such address
      object MUST be associated with an Address Block TLV with Type =
      NBR_ADDR_TYPE, and Value = ROUTABLE, or with Value = ROUTABLE_ORIG
      if also to be associated with Value = ORIGINATOR.  At least one
      copy of each such address object MUST be associated with an
      Address Block TLV with Type = LINK_METRIC and Type Extension =
      LINK_METRIC_TYPE indicating an outgoing neighbor metric with value
      equal to the corresponding N_out_metric, unless that value is
      DEFAULT_METRIC.

   o  If the TC message is complete, all network addresses which are the
      AL_net_addr of a Local Attached Network Tuple MUST be represented
      by address objects in one or more Address Blocks.  If the TC
      message is incomplete then any such address objects MAY be
      included.  At least one copy of each such address object MUST be
      associated with an Address Block TLV with Type := GATEWAY, and
      Value := AN_dist.  At least one copy of each such address object
      MUST be associated with an Address Block TLV with Type =



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      LINK_METRIC and Type Extension = LINK_METRIC_TYPE indicating an
      outgoing neighbor metric equal to the corresponding AL_metric,
      unless that value is DEFAULT_METRIC.

   A TC message MAY contain:

   o  A single Message TLV with Type := INTERVAL_TIME, as specified in
      [RFC5497].  If all TC messages are sent with the same hop limit
      then this TLV MUST have a value encoding the period TC_INTERVAL.
      If TC messages are sent with different hop limits, then this TLV
      MUST specify times that vary with the number of hops distance
      appropriate to the chosen pattern of TC message hop limits, as
      specified in [RFC5497]; these times SHOULD be appropriate
      multiples of TC_INTERVAL.  The options included in [RFC5497] for
      representing zero and infinite times MUST NOT be used.

16.2.  TC Message Transmission

   A router with one or more OLSRv2 interfaces, and with any Neighbor
   Tuples with N_advertised = true, or with a non-empty Local Attached
   Network Set MUST generate TC messages.  A router which does not have
   such information to advertise SHOULD also generate "empty" TC
   messages for a period A_HOLD_TIME after it last generated a non-empty
   TC message.

   Complete TC messages are generated and transmitted periodically on
   all OLSRv2 interfaces, with a default interval between two
   consecutive TC message transmissions by the same router of
   TC_INTERVAL.

   TC messages MAY be generated in response to a change in the
   information which they are to advertise, indicated by a change in the
   ANSN in the Neighbor Information Base.  In this case a router MAY
   send a complete TC message, and if so MAY re-start its TC message
   schedule.  Alternatively a router MAY send an incomplete TC message
   with at least the newly advertised network addresses (i.e., not
   previously, but now, an N_orig_addr or in an N_neighbor_addr_list in
   a Neighbor Tuple with N_advertised = true, or an AL_net_addr) in its
   Address Blocks, with associated Address Block TLV(s).  Note that a
   router cannot report removal of advertised content using an
   incomplete TC message.

   When sending a TC message in response to a change of advertised
   network addresses, a router MUST respect a minimum interval of
   TC_MIN_INTERVAL between generated TC messages.  Sending an incomplete
   TC message MUST NOT cause the interval between complete TC messages
   to be increased, and thus a router MUST NOT send an incomplete TC
   message if within TC_MIN_INTERVAL of the next scheduled complete TC



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   message.

   The generation of TC messages, whether scheduled or triggered by a
   change of contents, MAY be jittered as described in [RFC5148].  The
   values of MAXJITTER used SHOULD be:

   o  TP_MAXJITTER for periodic TC message generation;

   o  TT_MAXJITTER for responsive TC message generation.

16.3.  TC Message Processing

   On receiving a TC message, the receiving router MUST then follow the
   processing and forwarding procedure, defined in Section 14.

   If the message is considered for processing (Section 14.2), then a
   router MUST first check if the message is invalid for processing by
   this router, as defined in Section 16.3.1.  A router MAY make a
   similar check before considering a message for forwarding, it MUST
   make those aspects of the check that apply to elements in the Message
   Header.

   If the TC message is not invalid, then the TC message type specific
   processing, described in Section 16.3.2 MUST be applied.  This will
   update its appropriate Interface Information Base and its Router
   Information Base.  Following this, if there are any changes in these
   Information Bases, then the processing in Section 17 MUST be
   performed.

16.3.1.  Invalid Message

   A received TC message is invalid for processing by this router if the
   message:

   o  Has an address length specified in the Message Header that is not
      equal to the length of the addresses used by this router.

   o  Does not include a message originator address and a message
      sequence number.

   o  Does not include a hop count, and contains a multi-value TLV with
      Type = VALIDITY_TIME or Type = INTERVAL_TIME, as defined in
      [RFC5497].

   o  Does not have exactly one Message TLV with Type = VALIDITY_TIME.

   o  Has more than one Message TLV with Type = INTERVAL_TIME.




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   o  Does not have a Message TLV with Type = CONT_SEQ_NUM and Type
      Extension = COMPLETE or Type Extension = INCOMPLETE, and contains
      at least one address object associated with an Address Block TLV
      with Type = NBR_ADDR_TYPE or Type = GATEWAY.

   o  Has more than one Message TLV with Type = CONT_SEQ_NUM and Type
      Extension = COMPLETE or Type Extension = INCOMPLETE.

   o  Has a message originator address that is partially owned by this
      router.

   o  Includes any address object with a prefix length which is not
      maximal (equal to the address length, in bits), associated with an
      Address Block TLV with Type = NBR_ADDR_TYPE and Value = ORIGINATOR
      or Value = ROUTABLE_ORIG.

   o  Includes any address object that represents a non-routable
      address, associated with an Address Block TLV with Type =
      NBR_ADDR_TYPE and Value = ROUTABLE or Value = ROUTABLE_ORIG.

   o  Includes any address object associated with an Address Block TLV
      with Type = NBR_ADDR_TYPE or Type = GATEWAY that also represents
      the message's originator address.

   o  Includes any address object (including different copies of an
      address object, in the same or different Address Blocks) that is
      associated with an Address Block TLV with Type = NBR_ADDR_TYPE or
      Type = GATEWAY, that is also associated with more than one
      outgoing neighbor metric using a TLV with Type = LINK_METRIC and
      Type Extension = LINK_METRIC_TYPE.

   o  Associates any address object (including different copies of an
      address object, in the same or different Address Blocks) with more
      than one single hop count value using one or more Address Block
      TLV(s) with Type = GATEWAY.

   o  Associates any address object (including different copies of an
      address object, in the same or different Address Blocks) with
      Address Block TLVs with Type = NBR_ADDR_TYPE and Type = GATEWAY.

   A router MAY recognize additional reasons for identifying that a
   message is invalid.  An invalid message MUST be silently discarded,
   without updating the router's Information Bases.

16.3.2.  TC Message Processing Definitions

   When, according to Section 14.2, a TC message is to be "processed
   according to its type", this means that:



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   o  If the TC message contains a Message TLV with Type = CONT_SEQ_NUM
      and Type Extension = COMPLETE, then processing according to
      Section 16.3.3 and then according to Section 16.3.4 is carried
      out.

   o  If the TC message contains a Message TLV with Type = CONT_SEQ_NUM
      and Type Extension = INCOMPLETE, then only processing according to
      Section 16.3.3 is carried out.

   For the purposes of this section:

   o  "validity time" is calculated from a VALIDITY_TIME Message TLV in
      the TC message according to the specification in [RFC5497].  All
      information in the TC message has the same validity time.

   o  "received ANSN" is defined as being the value of a Message TLV
      with Type = CONT_SEQ_NUM.

   o  "associated metric value" is defined for any address in the TC
      message as being either the outgoing neighbor metric value
      indicated by a TLV with Type = LINK_METRIC and Type Extension =
      LINK_METRIC_TYPE that is associated with any address object in the
      TC message that is equal to that address, or as DEFAULT_METRIC
      otherwise.  (Note that the rules in Section 16.3.1 make this
      definition unambiguous.)

   o  Comparisons of sequence numbers are carried out as specified in
      Section 21.

16.3.3.  Initial TC Message Processing

   The TC message is processed as follows:

   1.  The Advertising Remote Router Set is updated according to
       Section 16.3.3.1.  If the TC message is indicated as discarded in
       that processing then the following steps are not carried out.

   2.  The Router Topology Set is updated according to Section 16.3.3.2.

   3.  The Routable Address Topology Set is updated according to
       Section 16.3.3.3.

   4.  The Attached Network Set is updated according to
       Section 16.3.3.4.







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16.3.3.1.  Populating the Advertising Remote Router Set

   The router MUST update its Advertising Remote Router Set as follows:

   1.  If there is an Advertising Remote Router Tuple with:

       *  AR_orig_addr = message originator address, AND;

       *  AR_seq_number > received ANSN,

       then the TC message MUST be discarded.

   2.  Otherwise:

       1.  If there is no Advertising Remote Router Tuple such that:

           +  AR_orig_addr = message originator address;

           then create an Advertising Remote Router Tuple with:

           +  AR_orig_addr := message originator address.

       2.  This Advertising Remote Router Tuple (existing or new) is
           then modified as follows:

           +  AR_seq_number := received ANSN;

           +  AR_time := current time + validity time.

16.3.3.2.  Populating the Router Topology Set

   The router MUST update its Router Topology Set as follows:

   1.  For each address (henceforth advertised address) corresponding to
       one or more address objects with an associated Address Block TLV
       with Type = NBR_ADDR_TYPE and Value = ORIGINATOR or Value =
       ROUTABLE_ORIG, and that is not partially owned by this router,
       perform the following processing:

       1.  If there is no Router Topology Tuple such that:

           +  TR_from_orig_addr = message originator address, AND;

           +  TR_to_orig_addr = advertised address,

           then create a new Router Topology Tuple with:





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           +  TR_from_orig_addr := message originator address;

           +  TR_to_orig_addr := advertised address.

       2.  This Router Topology Tuple (existing or new) is then modified
           as follows:

           +  TR_seq_number := received ANSN;

           +  TR_metric := associated link metric;

           +  TR_time := current time + validity time.

16.3.3.3.  Populating the Routable Address Topology Set

   The router MUST update its Routable Address Topology Set as follows:

   1.  For each network address (henceforth advertised address)
       corresponding to one or more address objects with an associated
       Address Block TLV with Type = NBR_ADDR_TYPE and Value = ROUTABLE
       or Value = ROUTABLE_ORIG, and that is not partially owned by this
       router, perform the following processing:

       1.  If there is no Routable Address Topology Tuple such that:

           +  TA_from_orig_addr = message originator address, AND;

           +  TA_dest_addr = advertised address,

           then create a new Routable Address Topology Tuple with:

           +  TA_from_orig_addr := message originator address;

           +  TA_dest_addr := advertised address.

       2.  This Routable Address Topology Tuple (existing or new) is
           then modified as follows:

           +  TA_seq_number := received ANSN;

           +  TA_metric := associated link metric;

           +  TA_time := current time + validity time.








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16.3.3.4.  Populating the Attached Network Set

   The router MUST update its Attached Network Set as follows:

   1.  For each network address (henceforth attached address)
       corresponding to one or more address objects with an associated
       Address Block TLV with Type = GATEWAY, and that is not fully
       owned by this router, perform the following processing:

       1.  If there is no Attached Network Tuple such that:

           +  AN_net_addr = attached address, AND;

           +  AN_orig_addr = message originator address,

           then create a new Attached Network Tuple with:

           +  AN_net_addr := attached address;

           +  AN_orig_addr := message originator address.

       2.  This Attached Network Tuple (existing or new) is then
           modified as follows:

           +  AN_seq_number := received ANSN;

           +  AN_dist := the Value of the associated GATEWAY TLV;

           +  AN_metric := associated link metric;

           +  AN_time := current time + validity time.

16.3.4.  Completing TC Message Processing

   The TC message is processed as follows:

   1.  The Router Topology Set is updated according to Section 16.3.4.1.

   2.  The Routable Address Topology Set is updated according to
       Section 16.3.4.2.

   3.  The Attached Network Set is updated according to
       Section 16.3.4.3.








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16.3.4.1.  Purging the Router Topology Set

   The Router Topology Set MUST be updated as follows:

   1.  Any Router Topology Tuples with:

       *  TR_from_orig_addr = message originator address, AND;

       *  TR_seq_number < received ANSN,

       MUST be removed.

16.3.4.2.  Purging the Routable Address Topology Set

   The Routable Address Topology Set MUST be updated as follows:

   1.  Any Routable Address Topology Tuples with:

       *  TA_from_orig_addr = message originator address, AND;

       *  TA_seq_number < received ANSN,

       MUST be removed.

16.3.4.3.  Purging the Attached Network Set

   The Attached Network Set MUST be updated as follows:

   1.  Any Attached Network Tuples with:

       *  AN_orig_addr = message originator address, AND;

       *  AN_seq_number < received ANSN,

       MUST be removed.

17.  Information Base Changes

   The changes described in the following sections MUST be carried out
   when any Information Base changes as indicated.

17.1.  Originator Address Changes

   If the router changes originator address, then:

   1.  If there is no Originator Tuple with:





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       *  O_orig_addr = old originator address

       then create an Originator Tuple with:

       *  O_orig_addr := old originator address

       The Originator Tuple (existing or new) with:

       *  O_orig_addr = new originator address

       is then modified as follows:

       *  O_time := current time + O_HOLD_TIME

17.2.  Link State Changes

   The consistency of a Link Tuple MUST be maintained according to the
   following rules, in addition to those in [RFC6130]:

   o  If L_status = HEARD or L_status = SYMMETRIC, then L_in_metric MUST
      be set (by a process outside this specification).

   o  If L_status != SYMMETRIC, then set L_mpr_selector := false.

   o  If L_out_metric = UNKNOWN_METRIC, then L_status MUST NOT equal
      SYMMETRIC; set L_SYM_time := expired if this would otherwise be
      the case.

17.3.  Neighbor State Changes

   The consistency of a Neighbor Tuple MUST be maintained according to
   the following rules, in addition to those in [RFC6130]:

   1.  If N_symmetric = true, then N_in_metric MUST equal the minimum
       value of all L_in_metric of corresponding Link Tuples with
       L_status = SYMMETRIC.

   2.  If N_symmetric = true, then N_out_metric MUST equal the minimum
       value of all L_out_metric of corresponding Link Tuples with
       L_status = SYMMETRIC.

   3.  If N_symmetric = false, then N_flooding_mpr, N_routing_mpr,
       N_mpr_selector and N_advertised MUST all be equal to false.

   4.  If N_mpr_selector = true, then N_advertised MUST be equal to
       true.





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   5.  If N_symmetric = true and N_mpr_selector = false, then a router
       MAY select N_advertised = true or N_advertised = false.  The more
       neighbors that are advertised, the larger TC messages become, but
       the more redundancy is available for routing.  A router SHOULD
       consider the nature of its network in making such a decision, and
       SHOULD avoid unnecessary changes in advertising status, which may
       result both in additional TC messages having to be sent by its
       neighbors, and in unnecessary changes to routing, which will have
       similar effects to other forms of topology changes in the MANET.

17.4.  Advertised Neighbor Changes

   The router MUST increment the ANSN in the Neighbor Information Base
   whenever:

   1.  Any Neighbor Tuple changes its N_advertised value, or any
       Neighbor Tuple with N_advertised = true is removed.

   2.  Any Neighbor Tuple with N_advertised = true changes its
       N_orig_addr, or has any routable address is added to or removed
       from N_neighbor_addr_list.

   3.  Any Neighbor Tuple with N_advertised = true has N_out_metric
       changed.

   4.  There is any change to the Local Attached Network Set.

17.5.  Advertising Remote Router Tuple Expires

   The Router Topology Set, the Routable Address Topology Set and the
   Attached Network Set MUST be changed when an Advertising Remote
   Router Tuple expires (AR_time is reached).  The following changes are
   required before the Advertising Remote Router Tuple is removed:

   1.  All Router Topology Tuples with:

       *  TR_from_orig_addr = AR_orig_addr of the Advertising Remote
          Router Tuple

       are removed.

   2.  All Routable Address Topology Tuples with:

       *  TA_from_orig_addr = AR_orig_addr of the Advertising Remote
          Router Tuple

       are removed.




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   3.  All Attached Network Tuples with:

       *  AN_orig_addr = AR_orig_addr of the Advertising Remote Router
          Tuple

       are removed.

17.6.  Neighborhood Changes and MPR Updates

   The sets of symmetric 1-hop neighbors selected as flooding MPRs and
   routing MPRs MUST satisfy the conditions defined in Section 18.  To
   ensure this:

   1.  The set of flooding MPRs of a router MUST be recalculated if:

       *  a Link Tuple is added with L_status = SYMMETRIC, OR;

       *  a Link Tuple with L_status = SYMMETRIC is removed, OR;

       *  a Link Tuple with L_status = SYMMETRIC changes to having
          L_status = HEARD or L_status = LOST, OR;

       *  a Link Tuple with L_status = HEARD or L_status = LOST changes
          to having L_status = SYMMETRIC, OR;

       *  the flooding MPR selection process uses metrics (see
          Section 18.4 and the L_out_metric of any Link Tuple with
          L_status = SYMMETRIC changes, OR;

       *  a 2-Hop Tuple is added or removed, OR;

       *  the N_will_flooding of a Neighbor Tuple with N_symmetric =
          true changes from WILL_NEVER to any other value, OR;

       *  the N_will_flooding of a Neighbor Tuple with N_flooding_mpr =
          true changes to WILL_NEVER from any other value, OR;

       *  the N_will_flooding of a Neighbor Tuple with N_symmetric =
          true and N_flooding_mpr = false changes to WILL_ALWAYS from
          any other value, OR;

       *  the flooding MPR selection process uses metrics (see
          Section 18.4 and the N2_out_metric of any 2-Hop Tuple changes.

   2.  Otherwise, the set of flooding MPRs of a router MAY be
       recalculated if the N_will_flooding of a Neighbor Tuple with
       N_symmetric = true changes in any other way; it SHOULD be
       recalculated if N_flooding_mpr = false and this is an increase in



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       N_will_flooding or if N_flooding_mpr = true and this is a
       decrease in N_will_flooding.

   3.  The set of routing MPRs of a router MUST be recalculated if:

       *  a Link Tuple is added with L_status = SYMMETRIC, OR;

       *  a Link Tuple with L_status = SYMMETRIC is removed, OR;

       *  a Link Tuple with L_status = SYMMETRIC changes to having
          L_status = HEARD or L_status = LOST, OR;

       *  a Link Tuple with L_status = HEARD or L_status = LOST changes
          to having L_status = SYMMETRIC, OR;

       *  a 2-Hop Tuple is added or removed, OR;

       *  the N_will_routing of a Neighbor Tuple with N_symmetric = true
          changes from WILL_NEVER to any other value, OR;

       *  the N_will_routing of a Neighbor Tuple with N_routing_mpr =
          true changes to WILL_NEVER from any other value, OR;

       *  the N_will_routing of a Neighbor Tuple with N_symmetric = true
          and N_routing_mpr = false changes to WILL_ALWAYS from any
          other value, OR;

       *  the N_in_metric of any Neighbor Tuple with N_symmetric
          changes, OR;

       *  the N2_in_metric of any 2-Hop Tuple changes.

   4.  Otherwise, the set of routing MPRs of a router MAY be
       recalculated if the N_will_routing of a Neighbor Tuple with
       N_symmetric = true changes in any other way; it SHOULD be
       recalculated if N_routing_mpr = false and this is an increase in
       N_will_routing or if N_routing_mpr = true and this is a decrease
       in N_will_routing.

   If either set of MPRs of a router is recalculated, this MUST be as
   described in Section 18.

17.7.  Routing Set Updates

   The Routing Set MUST be updated, as described in Section 19, when
   changes in the Local Information Base, the Neighborhood Information
   Base or the Topology Information Base indicate a change (including of
   any potentially used outgoing neighbor metric values) of the known



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   symmetric links and/or attached networks in the MANET, hence changing
   the Topology Graph.  It is sufficient to consider only changes which
   affect at least one of:

   o  The Local Interface Set, if the change removes any network address
      in an I_local_iface_addr_list.  In this case, unless the OLSRv2
      interface is removed, it may not be necessary to do more than
      replace such network addresses, if used, by an alternative network
      address from the same I_local_iface_addr_list.

   o  The Local Attached Set, if the change removes any AL_net_addr
      which is also an AN_net_addr.  In this case it may not be
      necessary to do more than add Routing Tuples with R_dest_addr
      equal to that AN_net_addr.

   o  The Link Set of any OLSRv2 interface, considering only Link Tuples
      which have, or just had, L_status = SYMMETRIC (including removal
      of such Link Tuples).

   o  The Neighbor Set of the router, considering only Neighbor Tuples
      that have, or just had, N_symmetric = true, and do not have
      N_orig_addr = unknown.

   o  The 2-Hop Set of any OLSRv2 interface, if used in the creation of
      the Routing Set.

   o  The Router Topology Set of the router.

   o  The Routable Address Topology Set of the router.

   o  The Attached Network Set of the router.

18.  Selecting MPRs

   Each router MUST select, from among its willing symmetric 1-hop
   neighbors, two subsets of these routers, as flooding and routing
   MPRs.  This selection is recorded in the router's Neighbor Set, and
   reported in the router's HELLO messages.  Routers MAY select their
   MPRs by any process that satisfies the conditions which follow, which
   may, but need not, use the organization of the data described.
   Routers can freely interoperate whether they use the same or
   different MPR selection algorithms.

   Only flooding MPRs forward control messages flooded through the
   MANET, thus effecting a flooding reduction, an optimization of the
   flooding mechanism, known as MPR flooding.  Routing MPRs are used to
   effect a topology reduction in the MANET.  (If no such reduction is
   required then a router can select all of its relevant neighbors as



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   routing MPRs.)  Consequently, while it is not essential that these
   two sets of MPRs are minimal, keeping the numbers of MPRs small
   ensures that the overhead of this protocol is kept to a minimum.

18.1.  Overview

   MPRs are selected according to the following steps, defined in the
   following sections:

   o  A form of data structure known as a Neighbor Graph is defined.

   o  The properties of an MPR Set derived from a Neighbor Graph are
      defined.  Any algorithm that creates an MPR Set that satisfies
      these properties is a valid MPR selection algorithm.  An example
      algorithm that creates such an MPR Set is given in Appendix A.

   o  How to create a Neighbor Graph for each interface based on the
      corresponding Interface Information Base is defined, and how to
      combine the resulting MPR Sets to determine the router's flooding
      MPRs and record those in the router's Neighbor Set.

   o  How to create a single Neighbor Graph based on all Interface
      Information Bases and the Neighbor Information Base is defined,
      and how to record the resulting MPR Set as the router's routing
      MPRs in the router's Neighbor Set.

   o  A specification as to when MPRs MUST be calculated is given.

   When a router selects its MPRs it MAY consider any other
   characteristics of its neighbors that it is aware of.  In particular
   it SHOULD consider the willingness of the neighbor, as recorded by
   the corresponding N_will_flooding or N_will_routing value, as
   appropriate, preferring neighbors with higher values.  (Note that
   willingness values equal to WILL_NEVER and WILL_ALWAYS are always
   considered, as described.)  However a router MAY consider other
   characteristics to have a greater significance.

   Each router MAY select its flooding and routing MPRs independently
   from each other, or coordinate its selections.  A router MAY make its
   MPR selections independently of the MPR selection by other routers,
   or it MAY, for example, give preference to routers that either are,
   or are not, already selected as MPRs by other routers.

18.2.  Neighbor Graph

   A Neighbor Graph is a structure defined here as consisting of sets N1
   and N2 and some associated metric and willingness values.  Elements
   of set N1 represent willing symmetric 1-hop neighbors, and elements



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   of set N2 represent addresses of a symmetric 2-hop neighbor.

   A Neighbor Graph has the following properties:

   o  It contains two disjoint sets N1 and N2.

   o  For each element x in N1 there is an associated willingness value
      W(x) such that WILL_NEVER < W(x) <= WILL_ALWAYS.

   o  For each element x in N1 there is an associated metric d1(x) > 0.

   o  For some elements y in N2 there is an associated metric d1(y) > 0.
      (Other elements y in N2 have undefined d1(y), this may be
      considered to be infinite.)

   o  For each element x in N1 there is a subset N2(x) of elements of
      N2; this subset may be empty.  For each x in N1 and each y in
      N2(x) there is an associated metric d2(x,y) > 0.  (For other x in
      N1 and y in N2, d2(x,y) is undefined, and may be considered
      infinite.)

   o  N2 is equal to the union of all the N2(x) for all x in N1, i.e.
      for each y in N2 there is at least one x in N1 such that y is in
      N2(x).

   It is convenient to also define:

   o  For each y in N2 the set N1(y) that contains x in N1 if and only
      if y is in N2(x).  From the final property above, N1(y) is not
      empty.

   o  For each x in N1 and y in N2, if d2(x,y) is defined then d(x,y) :=
      d1(x)+d2(x,y), otherwise d(x,y) is not defined.  (Thus d(x,y) is
      defined if y is in N2(x), or equivalently if x is in N1(y).)

   o  For any subset S of N1, and for each y in N2, the metric d(y,S) is
      the minimum value of d1(y), if defined, and of all d(x,y) for x in
      N1(y) and in S. If there are no such metrics to take the minimum
      value of, then d(y,S) is undefined (may be considered to be
      infinite).  From the final property above, d(y,N1) is defined for
      all y.

18.3.  MPR Properties

   Given a Neighbor Graph as defined in Section 18.2. an MPR Set for
   that Neighbor Graph is a subset M of the set N1 that satisfies the
   following properties:




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   o  If x in N1 has W(x) = WILL_ALWAYS then x is in M.

   o  For any y in N2 that does not have a defined d1(y), there is at
      least one element in M that is also in N1(y).  This is equivalent
      to the requirement that d(y,M) is defined.

   o  For any y in N2, d(y,M) = d(y,N1).

   These two properties correspond first to that the MPR Set consists of
   a set of symmetric 1-hop neighbors that cover all the symmetric 2-hop
   neighbors, and second that they do so retaining a minimum distance
   route (1-hop, if present, or 2-hop) to each symmetric 2-hop neighbor.

   Note that if M is an MPR Set, then so is any subset of N1 that
   contains M, and also that N1 is always an MPR Set. An MPR Set may be
   empty, but cannot be empty if N2 contains any elements y that do not
   have a defined d1(y).

18.4.  Flooding MPRs

   Whenever flooding MPRs are to be calculated, an implementation MUST
   determine and record a set of flooding MPRs that is equivalent to one
   calculated as described in this section.

   The calculation of flooding MPRs need not use link metrics, or
   equivalently may use link metrics with a fixed value, here taken to
   be 1.  Routers MAY make individual decisions as to whether to use
   link metrics for the calculation of flooding MPRs.  A router MUST use
   the same approach to the choice of whether to use link metrics for
   all links, i.e. in the cases indicated by a or b, the same choice
   MUST be made in each case.

   For each OLSRv2 interface (the "current interface") define a Neighbor
   Graph as defined in Section 18.2 according to the following:

   o  Define a reachable Link Tuple to be a Link Tuple in the Link Set
      for the current interface with L_status = SYMMETRIC.

   o  Define an allowed Link Tuple to be a reachable Link Tuple whose
      corresponding Neighbor Tuple has N_will_flooding > WILL_NEVER.

   o  Define an allowed 2-Hop Tuple to be a 2-Hop Tuple in the 2-Hop Set
      for the current interface for which there is an allowed Link Tuple
      with L_neighbor_iface_addr_list = N2_neighbor_iface_addr_list.

   o  Define an element of N1 for each allowed Link Tuple.  This then
      defines the corresponding Link Tuple for each element of N1 and
      the corresponding Neighbor Tuple for each element of N1, being the



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      Neighbor Tuple corresponding to that Link Tuple.

   o  For each element x in N1, define W(x) := N_will_flooding of the
      corresponding Neighbor Tuple.

   o  For each element x in N1, define d1(x) as either:

      A.  L_out_metric of the corresponding Link Tuple, OR;

      B.  1.

   o  Define an element of N2 for each network address that is the
      N2_2hop_addr of one or more allowed 2-Hop Tuples.  This then
      defines the corresponding address for each element of N2.

   o  For each element y in N2, if the corresponding address is in the
      N_neighbor_addr_list of a Neighbor Tuple that corresponds to one
      or more reachable Link Tuples, then define d1(y) as either:

      A.  the minimum value of the L_out_metric of those Link Tuples,
          OR;

      B.  1.

      Otherwise d1(y) is not defined.  In the latter case, where d1(y) :
      =1, all such y in N2 may instead be removed from N2.

   o  For each element x in N1, define N2(x) as the set of elements y in
      N2 whose corresponding address is the N2_2hop_addr of an allowed
      2-Hop Tuple that has N2_neighbor_iface_addr_list =
      L_neighbor_iface_addr_list of the Link Tuple corresponding to x.
      For all such x and y, define d2(x,y) as either:

      A.  N2_out_metric of that 2-Hop Tuple;

      B.  1.

   It is up to the implementer to decide how to label each element of N1
   or N2.  For example an element of N1 may be labeled with one or more
   addresses from the corresponding L_neighbor_iface_addr_list, or with
   a pointer or reference to the corresponding Link Tuple.

   Using these Neighbor Graphs, flooding MPRs are selected and recorded
   by:

   o  For each OLSRv2 interface, determine an MPR Set as specified in
      Section 18.3.




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   o  A Neighbor Tuple represents a flooding MPR and has N_flooding_mpr
      := true (otherwise N_flooding_mpr := false) if and only if that
      Neighbor Tuple corresponds to an element in an MPR Set created for
      any interface as described above.  That is, the overall set of
      flooding MPRs is the union of the sets of flooding MPRs for all
      OLSRv2 interfaces.

   A router MAY select its flooding MPRs for each OLSRv2 interface
   independently, or it MAY coordinate its MPR selections across its
   OLSRv2 interfaces, as long as the required condition is satisfied for
   each OLSRv2 interface.  One such coordinated approach is to process
   the OLSRv2 interfaces sequentially, and for each OLSRv2 interface
   start with flooding MPRs selected (and not removable) if the neighbor
   has been already selected as an MPR for an OLSRv2 interface that has
   already been processed.  The algorithm specified in Appendix A can be
   used in this way.

18.5.  Routing MPRs

   Whenever routing MPRs are to be calculated, an implementation MUST
   determine and record a set of routing MPRs that is equivalent to one
   calculated as described in this section.

   Define a single Neighbor Graph as defined in Section 18.2 according
   to the following:

   o  Define a reachable Neighbor Tuple to be a Neighbor Tuple with
      N_symmetric = true.

   o  Define an allowed Neighbor Tuple to be a reachable Neighbor Tuple
      with N_will_routing > WILL_NEVER.

   o  Define an allowed 2-Hop Tuple to be a 2-Hop Tuple in the 2-Hop Set
      for any OLSRv2 interface for which there is an allowed Neighbor
      Tuple with N_neighbor_addr_list containing
      N2_neighbor_iface_addr_list.

   o  Define an element of N1 for each allowed Neighbor Tuple.  This
      then defines the corresponding Neighbor Tuple for each element of
      N1.

   o  For each element x in N1, define W(x) := N_will_routing of the
      corresponding Neighbor Tuple.

   o  For each element x in N1, define d1(x) := N_in_metric of the
      corresponding Neighbor Tuple.





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   o  Define an element of N2 for each network address that is the
      N2_2hop_addr of one or more allowed 2-Hop Tuples.  This then
      defines the corresponding address for each element of N2.

   o  For each element y in N2, if the corresponding address is in the
      N_neighbor_addr_list of a reachable Neighbor Tuple, then define
      d1(y) to be the N_in_metric of that Neighbor Tuple, otherwise
      d1(y) is not defined.

   o  For each element x in N1, define N2(x) as the set of elements y in
      N2 whose corresponding address is the N2_2hop_addr of an allowed
      2-Hop Tuple that has N2_neighbor_iface_addr_list contained in
      N_neighbor_addr_list of the Neighbor Tuple corresponding to x.
      For all such x and y, define d2(x,y) := N2_out_metric of that
      2-Hop Tuple.

   It is up to the implementer to decide how to label each element of N1
   or N2.  For example an element of N1 may be labeled with one or more
   addresses from the corresponding N_neighbor_addr_list, or with a
   pointer or reference to the corresponding Neighbor Tuple.

   Using these Neighbor Graphs, routing MPRs are selected and recorded
   by:

   o  Determine an MPR Set as specified in Section 18.3

   o  A Neighbor Tuple represents a routing MPR and has N_routing_mpr :=
      true (otherwise N_routing_mpr := false) if and only if that
      Neighbor Tuple corresponds to an element in the MPR Set created as
      described above.

18.6.  Calculating MPRs

   A router MUST recalculate each of its sets of MPRs whenever the
   currently selected set of MPRs does not still satisfy the required
   conditions.  It MAY recalculate its MPRs if the current set of MPRs
   is still valid, but could be more efficient.  Sufficient conditions
   to recalculate a router's sets of MPRs are given in Section 17.6.

19.  Routing Set Calculation

   The Routing Set of a router is populated with Routing Tuples that
   represent paths from that router to all destinations in the network.
   These paths are calculated based on the Network Topology Graph, which
   is constructed from information in the Information Bases, obtained
   via HELLO and TC message exchange.

   Changes to the Routing Set do not require any messages to be



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   transmitted.  The state of the Routing Set SHOULD, however, be
   reflected in IP's routing table by adding and removing entries from
   IP's routing table as appropriate.  Only appropriate Routing Tuples
   (in particular only those that represent local links or paths to
   routable addresses) need be reflected in IP's routing table.

19.1.  Network Topology Graph

   The Network Topology Graph is formed from information from the
   router's Local Interface Set, Link Sets, Neighbor Set, Router
   Topology Set, Routable Address Topology Set and Attached Network Set.
   The Network Topology Graph MAY also use information from the router's
   2-Hop Sets.  The Network Topology Graph forms the router's
   topological view of the network in form of a directed graph.  Each
   edge in that graph has a metric value.  The Network Topology Graph
   has a "backbone" (within which minimum total metric routes will be
   constructed) containing the following edges:

   o  Edges X -> Y for all possible Y, and one X per Y, such that:

      *  Y is the N_orig_addr of a Neighbor Tuple, AND;

      *  N_orig_addr is not unknown;

      *  X is in the I_local_iface_addr_list of a Local Interface Tuple,
         AND;

      *  There is a Link Tuple with L_status = SYMMETRIC such that this
         Neighbor Tuple and this Local Interface Tuple correspond to it.
         A network address from L_neighbor_iface_addr_list will be
         denoted R in this case.

      It SHOULD be preferred, where possible, to select R = S and X from
      the Local Interface Tuple corresponding to the Link Tuple from
      which R was selected.  The metric such an edge is the
      corresponding N_out_metric.

   o  All edges W -> U such that:

      *  W is the TR_from_orig_addr of a Router Topology Tuple, AND;

      *  U is the TR_to_orig_addr of the same Router Topology Tuple.

      The metric of such an edge is the corresponding TR_metric.

   The Network Topology Graph is further "decorated" with the following
   edges.  If a network address S, V, Z or T equals a network address Y
   or W, then the edge terminating in the network address S, V, Z or T



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   MUST NOT be used in any path.

   o  Edges X -> S for all possible S, and one X per S, such that:

      *  S is in the N_neighbor_addr_list of a Neighbor Tuple, AND;

      *  X is in the I_local_iface_addr_list of a Local Interface Tuple,
         AND;

      *  There is a Link Tuple with L_status = SYMMETRIC such that this
         Neighbor Tuple and this Local Interface Tuple correspond to it.
         A network address from L_neighbor_iface_addr_list will be
         denoted R in this case.

      It SHOULD be preferred, where possible, to select R = S and X from
      the Local Interface Tuple corresponding to the Link Tuple from
      which R was selected.  The metric of such an edge is the
      corresponding N_out_metric.

   o  All edges W -> V such that:

      *  W is the TA_from_orig_addr of a Routable Address Topology
         Tuple, AND;

      *  V is the TA_dest_addr of the same Routable Address Topology
         Tuple.

      The metric for such an edge is the corresponding TA_metric.

   o  All edges W -> T such that:

      *  W is the AN_orig_addr of an Attached Network Tuple, AND;

      *  T is the AN_net_addr of the same Attached Network Tuple.

      The metric for such an edge is the corresponding AN_metric.

   o  OPTIONALLY, all edges Y -> Z such that:

      *  Z is a routable address and is the N2_2hop_addr of a 2-Hop
         Tuple, AND;

      *  Y is the N_orig_addr of the corresponding Neighbor Tuple, AND;

      *  This Neighbor Tuple has N_will_routing not equal to WILL_NEVER.

      A path terminating with such an edge SHOULD NOT be used in
      preference to any other path.  The metric for such an edge is the



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      corresponding N2_out_metric.

   Any part of the Topology Graph which is not connected to a local
   network address X is not used.  Only one selection X SHOULD be made
   from each I_local_iface_addr_list, and only one selection R SHOULD be
   made from any L_neighbor_iface_addr_list.  All edges have a hop count
   of 1, except edges W -> T that have a hop count of the corresponding
   value of AN_dist.

19.2.  Populating the Routing Set

   The Routing Set MUST contain the shortest paths for all destinations
   from all local OLSRv2 interfaces using the Network Topology Graph.
   This calculation MAY use any algorithm, including any means of
   choosing between paths of equal total metric.  (In the case of two
   paths of equal total metric but differing hop counts, the path with
   the lower hop count SHOULD be used.)

   Using the notation of Section 19.1, initially "backbone" paths using
   only edges X -> Y and W -> U need be constructed (using a minimum
   distance algorithm).  Then paths using only a final edge of the other
   types may be added.  These MUST NOT replace backbone paths with the
   same destination (and paths terminating in an edge Y -> Z SHOULD NOT
   replace paths with any other form of terminating edge).

   Each path will correspond to a Routing Tuple.  These will be of two
   types.  The first type will represent single edge paths, of type X ->
   S or X -> Y, by:

   o  R_local_iface_addr := X;

   o  R_next_iface_addr := R;

   o  R_dest_addr := S or Y;

   o  R_dist := 1;

   o  R_metric := edge metric.

   where R is as defined in Section 19.1 for these types of edges.

   The second type will represent a multiple edge path, which will
   always have first edge of type X -> Y, and will have final edge of
   type W -> U, W -> V, W -> T or Y -> Z. The Routing Tuple will be:

   o  R_local_iface_addr := X;





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   o  R_next_iface_addr := Y;

   o  R_dest_addr := U, V, T or Z;

   o  R_dist := the total hop count of all edges in the path;

   o  R_metric := the total metric of all edges in the path.

   Finally, Routing Tuples of the second type whose R_dest_addr is not
   routable MAY be discarded.

   An example algorithm for calculating the Routing Set of a router is
   given in Appendix B.

20.  Proposed Values for Parameters

   This protocol uses all parameters defined in [RFC6130] and additional
   parameters and defined in this specification.  All but one
   (RX_HOLD_TIME) of these additional parameters are router parameters
   as defined in [RFC6130].  The proposed values of the additional
   parameters defined in the following sections are appropriate to the
   case where all parameters (including those defined in [RFC6130]) have
   a single value.  Proposed values for parameters defined in [RFC6130]
   are given in that specification.

20.1.  Local History Time Parameters

   o  O_HOLD_TIME := 30 seconds

20.2.  Message Interval Parameters

   o  TC_INTERVAL := 5 seconds

   o  TC_MIN_INTERVAL := TC_INTERVAL/4

20.3.  Advertised Information Validity Time Parameters

   o  T_HOLD_TIME := 3 x TC_INTERVAL

   o  A_HOLD_TIME := T_HOLD_TIME

20.4.  Received Message Validity Time Parameters

   o  RX_HOLD_TIME := 30 seconds

   o  P_HOLD_TIME := 30 seconds





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   o  F_HOLD_TIME := 30 seconds

20.5.  Jitter Time Parameters

   o  TP_MAXJITTER := HP_MAXJITTER

   o  TT_MAXJITTER := HT_MAXJITTER

   o  F_MAXJITTER := TT_MAXJITTER

20.6.  Hop Limit Parameter

   o  TC_HOP_LIMIT := 255

20.7.  Willingness Parameter

   o  WILLINGNESS := WILL_DEFAULT

21.  Sequence Numbers

   Sequence numbers are used in this specification for the purpose of
   discarding "old" information, i.e., messages received out of order.
   However with a limited number of bits for representing sequence
   numbers, wrap-around (that the sequence number is incremented from
   the maximum possible value to zero) will occur.  To prevent this from
   interfering with the operation of this protocol, the following MUST
   be observed when determining the ordering of sequence numbers.

   The term MAXVALUE designates in the following one more than the
   largest possible value for a sequence number.  For a 16 bit sequence
   number (as are those defined in this specification) MAXVALUE is
   65536.

   The sequence number S1 is said to be "greater than" the sequence
   number S2 if:

   o  S1 > S2 AND S1 - S2 < MAXVALUE/2 OR

   o  S2 > S1 AND S2 - S1 > MAXVALUE/2

   When sequence numbers S1 and S2 differ by MAXVALUE/2 their ordering
   cannot be determined.  In this case, which should not occur, either
   ordering may be assumed.

   Thus when comparing two messages, it is possible - even in the
   presence of wrap-around - to determine which message contains the
   most recent information.




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22.  Extensions

   An extension to this protocol will need to interact with this
   specification, and possibly also with [RFC6130].  This protocol is
   designed to permit such interactions, in particular:

   o  Through accessing, and possibly extending, the information in the
      Information Bases.  All updates to the elements specified in this
      specification are subject to the constraints specified in
      [RFC6130] and Appendix D.

   o  Through accessing an outgoing message prior to it being
      transmitted over any OLSRv2 interface, and to add information to
      it as specified in [RFC5444].  This MAY include Message TLVs
      and/or network addresses with associated Address Block TLVs.
      (Network addresses without new associated TLVs SHOULD NOT be added
      to messages.)  This may, for example, be to allow a security
      protocol, as suggested in Section 23, to add a TLV containing a
      cryptographic signature to the message.

   o  Through accessing an incoming message, and potentially discarding
      it prior to processing by this protocol.  This may, for example,
      allow a security protocol as suggested in Section 23 to perform
      verification of message signatures and prevent processing and/or
      forwarding of unverifiable messages by this protocol.

   o  Through accessing an incoming message after it has been completely
      processed by this protocol.  This may, in particular, allow a
      protocol which has added information, by way of inclusion of
      appropriate TLVs, or of network addresses associated with new
      TLVs, access to such information after appropriate updates have
      been recorded in the Information Bases in this protocol.

   o  Through requesting that a message be generated at a specific time.
      In that case, message generation MUST still respect the
      constraints in [RFC6130] and Section 5.4.3.

23.  Security Considerations

   Currently, this protocol does not specify any special security
   measures.  As a proactive routing protocol, this protocol is a
   potential target for various attacks.  Various possible
   vulnerabilities are discussed in this section.

23.1.  Confidentiality

   This protocol periodically MPR floods topological information to all
   routers in the network.  Hence, if used in an unprotected wireless



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   network, the network topology is revealed to anyone who listens to
   the control messages.

   In situations where the confidentiality of the network topology is of
   importance, regular cryptographic techniques, such as exchange of
   OLSRv2 control traffic messages encrypted by PGP [RFC4880] or
   encrypted by some shared secret key, can be applied to ensure that
   control traffic can be read and interpreted by only those authorized
   to do so.

23.2.  Integrity

   Each router is injecting topological information into the network
   through transmitting HELLO messages and, for some routers, TC
   messages.  If some routers for some reason, malicious or malfunction,
   inject invalid control traffic, network integrity may be compromised.
   Therefore, message authentication is recommended.

   Different such situations may occur, for instance:

   1.  a router generates TC messages, advertising links to non-neighbor
       routers;

   2.  a router generates TC messages, pretending to be another router;

   3.  a router generates HELLO messages, advertising non-neighbor
       routers;

   4.  a router generates HELLO messages, pretending to be another
       router;

   5.  a router forwards altered control messages;

   6.  a router does not forward control messages;

   7.  a router does not select multipoint relays correctly;

   8.  a router forwards broadcast control messages unaltered, but does
       not forward unicast data traffic;

   9.  a router "replays" previously recorded control traffic from
       another router.

   Authentication of the originator router for control messages (for
   situations 2, 4 and 5) and on the individual links announced in the
   control messages (for situations 1 and 3) may be used as a
   countermeasure.  However to prevent routers from repeating old (and
   correctly authenticated) information (situation 9) temporal



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   information is required, allowing a router to positively identify
   such delayed messages.

   In general, digital signatures and other required security
   information may be transmitted as a separate Message Type, or
   signatures and security information may be transmitted within the
   HELLO and TC messages, using the TLV mechanism.  Either option
   permits that "secured" and "unsecured" routers can coexist in the
   same network, if desired,

   Specifically, the authenticity of entire control packets can be
   established through employing IPsec authentication headers, whereas
   authenticity of individual links (situations 1 and 3) require
   additional security information to be distributed.

   An important consideration is that all control messages are
   transmitted either to all routers in the neighborhood (HELLO
   messages) or broadcast to all routers in the network (TC messages).

   For example, a control message in this protocol is always a point-to-
   multipoint transmission.  It is therefore important that the
   authentication mechanism employed permits that any receiving router
   can validate the authenticity of a message.  As an analogy, given a
   block of text, signed by a PGP private key, then anyone with the
   corresponding public key can verify the authenticity of the text.

23.3.  Interaction with External Routing Domains

   This protocol does, through the use of TC messages, provide a basic
   mechanism for injecting external routing information to this
   protocol's domain.  Routing information can be extracted from the
   protocol's Information Bases, in particular the Routing Set, of this
   protocol and, potentially, injected into an external domain, if the
   routing protocol governing that domain permits this.

   When operating routers connecting a MANET using this protocol to an
   external routing domain, care MUST be taken not to allow potentially
   insecure and untrustworthy information to be injected from this
   domain to external routing domains.  Care MUST also be taken to
   validate the correctness of information prior to it being injected as
   to avoid polluting routing tables with invalid information.

   A recommended way of extending connectivity from an existing routing
   domain to a MANET routed using this protocol is to assign an IP
   prefix (under the authority of the routers/gateways connecting the
   MANET with the exiting routing domain) exclusively to that MANET
   area, and to statically configure the gateways to advertise routes
   for that IP sequence to routers in the existing routing domain.



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24.  IANA Considerations

   This specification defines one Message Type, which must be allocated
   from the "Message Types" repository of [RFC5444], two Message TLV
   Types, which must be allocated from the "Message TLV Types"
   repository of [RFC5444], and four Address Block TLV Types, which must
   be allocated from the "Address Block TLV Types" repository of
   [RFC5444].

24.1.  Expert Review: Evaluation Guidelines

   For the registries where an Expert Review is required, the designated
   expert SHOULD take the same general recommendations into
   consideration as are specified by [RFC5444].

24.2.  Message Types

   This specification defines one Message Type, to be allocated from the
   0-223 range of the "Message Types" namespace defined in [RFC5444], as
   specified in Table 8.

          +------+----------------------------------------------+
          | Type | Description                                  |
          +------+----------------------------------------------+
          | TBD1 | TC : Topology Control (MANET-wide signaling) |
          +------+----------------------------------------------+

                     Table 8: Message Type assignment

24.3.  Message-Type-Specific TLV Type Registries

   IANA is requested to create a registry for Message-Type-specific
   Message TLVs for TC messages, in accordance with Section 6.2.1 of
   [RFC5444], and with initial assignments and allocation policies as
   specified in Table 9.

               +---------+-------------+-------------------+
               |   Type  | Description | Allocation Policy |
               +---------+-------------+-------------------+
               | 128-223 | Unassigned  | Expert Review     |
               +---------+-------------+-------------------+

            Table 9: TC Message-Type-specific Message TLV Types

   IANA is requested to create a registry for Message-Type-specific
   Address Block TLVs for TC messages, in accordance with Section 6.2.1
   of [RFC5444], and with initial assignments and allocation policies as
   specified in Table 10.



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               +---------+-------------+-------------------+
               |   Type  | Description | Allocation Policy |
               +---------+-------------+-------------------+
               | 128-223 | Unassigned  | Expert Review     |
               +---------+-------------+-------------------+

        Table 10: TC Message-Type-specific Address Block TLV Types

24.4.  Message TLV Types

   This specification defines two Message TLV Types, which must be
   allocated from the "Message TLV Types" namespace defined in
   [RFC5444].  IANA is requested to make allocations in the 0-127 range
   for these types.  This will create two new Type Extension registries
   with assignments as specified in Table 11 and Table 12.
   Specifications of these TLVs are in Section 13.3.1.  Each of these
   TLVs MUST NOT be included more than once in a Message TLV Block.

   +-------------+------+-----------+---------------------+------------+
   |     Name    | Type |    Type   | Description         | Allocation |
   |             |      | Extension |                     | Policy     |
   +-------------+------+-----------+---------------------+------------+
   | MPR_WILLING | TBD2 |     0     | Bits 0-3 specify    |            |
   |             |      |           | the originating     |            |
   |             |      |           | router's            |            |
   |             |      |           | willingness to act  |            |
   |             |      |           | as a flooding MPR;  |            |
   |             |      |           | bits 4-7 specify    |            |
   |             |      |           | the originating     |            |
   |             |      |           | router's            |            |
   |             |      |           | willingness to act  |            |
   |             |      |           | as a routing MPR    |            |
   | MPR_WILLING | TBD2 |   1-255   | Unassigned          | Expert     |
   |             |      |           |                     | Review     |
   +-------------+------+-----------+---------------------+------------+

            Table 11: Message TLV Type assignment: MPR_WILLING














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   +--------------+------+-----------+--------------------+------------+
   |     Name     | Type |    Type   | Description        | Allocation |
   |              |      | Extension |                    | Policy     |
   +--------------+------+-----------+--------------------+------------+
   | CONT_SEQ_NUM | TBD3 |     0     | COMPLETE :         |            |
   |              |      |           | Specifies a        |            |
   |              |      |           | content sequence   |            |
   |              |      |           | number for this    |            |
   |              |      |           | complete message   |            |
   | CONT_SEQ_NUM | TBD3 |     1     | INCOMPLETE :       |            |
   |              |      |           | Specifies a        |            |
   |              |      |           | content sequence   |            |
   |              |      |           | number for this    |            |
   |              |      |           | incomplete message |            |
   | CONT_SEQ_NUM | TBD3 |   2-255   | Unassigned         | Expert     |
   |              |      |           |                    | Review     |
   +--------------+------+-----------+--------------------+------------+

            Table 12: Message TLV Type assignment: CONT_SEQ_NUM

   Type extensions indicated as Expert Review SHOULD be allocated as
   described in [RFC5444], based on Expert Review as defined in
   [RFC5226].

24.5.  Address Block TLV Types

   This specification defines four Address Block TLV Types, which must
   be allocated from the "Address Block TLV Types" namespace defined in
   [RFC5444].  IANA are requested to make allocations in the 8-127 range
   for these types.  This will create four new Type Extension registries
   with assignments as specified in Table 13, Table 14, Table 15 and
   Table 16.  Specifications of these TLVs are in Section 13.3.2.

   +-------------+------+-----------+-------------------+--------------+
   |     Name    | Type |    Type   | Description       | Allocation   |
   |             |      | Extension |                   | Policy       |
   +-------------+------+-----------+-------------------+--------------+
   | LINK_METRIC | TBD4 |     0     | Link metric       |              |
   |             |      |           | meaning assigned  |              |
   |             |      |           | by administrative |              |
   |             |      |           | action            |              |
   | LINK_METRIC | TBD4 |   1-223   | Unassigned        | Expert       |
   |             |      |           |                   | Review       |
   | LINK_METRIC | TBD4 |  224-255  | Unassigned        | Experimental |
   |             |      |           |                   | Use          |
   +-------------+------+-----------+-------------------+--------------+

         Table 13: Address Block TLV Type assignment: LINK_METRIC



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   All LINK_METRIC TLVs, whatever their type extension, MUST use their
   value field to encode the kind and value (in the interval
   MINIMUM_METRIC, to MAXIMUM_METRIC, inclusive) of a link metric as
   specified in Section 6 and Section 13.3.2.  An assignment of a
   LINK_METRIC TLV type extension MUST specify the physical meaning, and
   mapping of that physical meaning to the representable values in the
   indicated interval, of the link metric.

   +------+------+-----------+----------------------------+------------+
   | Name | Type |    Type   | Description                | Allocation |
   |      |      | Extension |                            | Policy     |
   +------+------+-----------+----------------------------+------------+
   |  MPR | TBD5 |     0     | Specifies that a given     |            |
   |      |      |           | network address is of a    |            |
   |      |      |           | router selected as a       |            |
   |      |      |           | flooding MPR (FLOODING =   |            |
   |      |      |           | 1), that a given network   |            |
   |      |      |           | address is of a router     |            |
   |      |      |           | selected as a routing MPR  |            |
   |      |      |           | (ROUTING = 2), or both     |            |
   |      |      |           | (FLOOD_ROUTE = 3)          |            |
   |  MPR | TBD5 |   1-255   | Unassigned                 | Expert     |
   |      |      |           |                            | Review     |
   +------+------+-----------+----------------------------+------------+

             Table 14: Address Block TLV Type assignment: MPR

























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   +---------------+------+-----------+-------------------+------------+
   |      Name     | Type |    Type   | Description       | Allocation |
   |               |      | Extension |                   | Policy     |
   +---------------+------+-----------+-------------------+------------+
   | NBR_ADDR_TYPE | TBD6 |     0     | Specifies that a  |            |
   |               |      |           | given network     |            |
   |               |      |           | address is of a   |            |
   |               |      |           | neighbor reached  |            |
   |               |      |           | via the           |            |
   |               |      |           | originating       |            |
   |               |      |           | router, if it is  |            |
   |               |      |           | an originator     |            |
   |               |      |           | address           |            |
   |               |      |           | (ORIGINATOR = 1), |            |
   |               |      |           | is a routable     |            |
   |               |      |           | address (ROUTABLE |            |
   |               |      |           | = 2), or if it is |            |
   |               |      |           | both              |            |
   |               |      |           | (ROUTABLE_ORIG =  |            |
   |               |      |           | 3)                |            |
   | NBR_ADDR_TYPE | TBD6 |   1-255   | Unassigned        | Expert     |
   |               |      |           |                   | Review     |
   +---------------+------+-----------+-------------------+------------+

        Table 15: Address Block TLV Type assignment: NBR_ADDR_TYPE

   +---------+------+-----------+-------------------------+------------+
   |   Name  | Type |    Type   | Description             | Allocation |
   |         |      | extension |                         | Policy     |
   +---------+------+-----------+-------------------------+------------+
   | GATEWAY | TBD7 |     0     | Specifies that a given  |            |
   |         |      |           | network address is      |            |
   |         |      |           | reached via a gateway   |            |
   |         |      |           | on the originating      |            |
   |         |      |           | router, with value      |            |
   |         |      |           | equal to the number of  |            |
   |         |      |           | hops                    |            |
   | GATEWAY | TBD7 |   1-255   |                         | Expert     |
   |         |      |           |                         | Review     |
   +---------+------+-----------+-------------------------+------------+

           Table 16: Address Block TLV Type assignment: GATEWAY

   Type extensions indicated as Expert Review SHOULD be allocated as
   described in [RFC5444], based on Expert Review as defined in
   [RFC5226].





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24.6.  NBR_ADDR_TYPE and MPR Values

   Note: This section does not require any IANA action, as the required
   information is included in the descriptions of the MPR and
   NBR_ADDR_TYPE Address Block TLVs allocated in Section 24.5.  This
   information is recorded here for clarity, and for use elsewhere in
   this specification.

   The Values which the MPR Address Block TLV can use are the following:

   o  FLOODING := 1;

   o  ROUTING := 2;

   o  FLOOD_ROUTE := 3.

   The Values which the NBR_ADDR_TYPE Address Block TLV can use are the
   following:

   o  ORIGINATOR := 1;

   o  ROUTABLE := 2;

   o  ROUTABLE_ORIG := 3.

25.  Contributors

   This specification is the result of the joint efforts of the
   following contributors -- listed alphabetically.

   o  Cedric Adjih, INRIA, France, <Cedric.Adjih@inria.fr>

   o  Emmanuel Baccelli, INRIA , France, <Emmanuel.Baccelli@inria.fr>

   o  Thomas Heide Clausen, LIX, France, <T.Clausen@computer.org>

   o  Justin Dean, NRL, USA, <jdean@itd.nrl.navy.mil>

   o  Christopher Dearlove, BAE Systems, UK,
      <chris.dearlove@baesystems.com>

   o  Satoh Hiroki, Hitachi SDL, Japan, <hiroki.satoh.yj@hitachi.com>

   o  Philippe Jacquet, INRIA, France, <Philippe.Jacquet@inria.fr>

   o  Monden Kazuya, Hitachi SDL, Japan, <kazuya.monden.vw@hitachi.com>





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   o  Kenichi Mase, Niigata University, Japan, <mase@ie.niigata-u.ac.jp>

   o  Ryuji Wakikawa, Toyota, Japan, <ryuji@sfc.wide.ad.jp>

26.  Acknowledgments

   The authors would like to acknowledge the team behind OLSRv1,
   specified in RFC3626, including Anis Laouiti (INT, Paris), Pascale
   Minet (INRIA, France), Laurent Viennot (INRIA, France), and Amir
   Qayyum (M.A. Jinnah University, Islamabad) for their contributions.

   The authors would like to gratefully acknowledge the following people
   for intense technical discussions, early reviews and comments on the
   specification and its components (listed alphabetically): Khaldoun Al
   Agha (LRI), Teco Boot (Infinity Networks), Song-Yean Cho (LIX), Alan
   Cullen (BAE Systems), Ulrich Herberg (Fujitsu), Louise Lamont (CRC),
   Li Li (CRC), Joe Macker (NRL), Richard Ogier (SRI), Charles E.
   Perkins (WiChorus), Henning Rogge (FGAN), and the entire IETF MANET
   working group.

27.  References

27.1.  Normative References

   [RFC2119]    Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
                Requirement Levels", RFC 2119, BCP 14, March 1997.

   [RFC5148]    Clausen, T., Dearlove, C., and B. Adamson, "Jitter
                Considerations in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks (MANETs)",
                RFC 5148, February 2008.

   [RFC5226]    Narten, T. and H. Alvestrand, "Guidelines for Writing an
                IANA Considerations Section in RFCs", RFC 5226, BCP 26,
                May 2008.

   [RFC5444]    Clausen, T., Dean, J., Dearlove, C., and C. Adjih,
                "Generalized Mobile Ad Hoc Network (MANET) Packet/
                Message Format", RFC 5444, February 2009.

   [RFC5497]    Clausen, T. and C. Dearlove, "Representing Multi-Value
                Time in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks (MANETs)", RFC 5497,
                March 2009.

   [RFC5498]    Chakeres, I., "IANA Allocations for Mobile Ad Hoc
                Network (MANET) Protocols", RFC 5498, March 2009.

   [RFC6130]    Clausen, T., Dean, J., and C. Dearlove, "Mobile Ad Hoc
                Network (MANET) Neighborhood Discovery Protocol (NHDP)",



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                RFC 6130, April 2011.

27.2.  Informative References

   [RFC2501]    Macker, J. and S. Corson, "Mobile Ad hoc Networking
                (MANET):  Routing Protocol Performance Issues and
                Evaluation Considerations", RFC 2501, January 1999.

   [RFC3626]    Clausen, T. and P. Jacquet, "The Optimized Link State
                Routing Protocol", RFC 3626, October 2003.

   [RFC4880]    Callas, J., Donnerhacke, L., Finney, H., and R. Thayer,
                "OpenPGP message format", RFC 4880, November 2007.

   [HIPERLAN]   ETSI, "ETSI STC-RES10 Committee. Radio equipment and
                systems: HIPERLAN type 1, functional specifications ETS
                300-652", June 1996.

   [HIPERLAN2]  Jacquet, P., Minet, P., Muhlethaler, P., and N.
                Rivierre, "Increasing reliability in cable free radio
                LANs: Low level forwarding in HIPERLAN.", 1996.

   [MPR]        Qayyum, A., Viennot, L., and A. Laouiti, "Multipoint
                relaying: An efficient technique for flooding in mobile
                wireless networks.", 2001.

   [FSR]        Pei, G., Gerla, M., and T. Chen, "Fisheye state routing
                in mobile ad hoc networks", 2000.

   [FSLS]       Santivanez, C., Ramanathan, R., and I. Stavrakakis,
                "Making link-state routing scale for ad hoc networks",
                2000.

Appendix A.  Example Algorithm for Calculating MPRs

   The following specifies an algorithm which MAY be used to select an
   MPR Set given a Neighbor Graph, as defined in Section 18.2 and
   Section 18.3.

   This algorithm selects an MPR Set M that is a subset of the set N1
   that is part of the Neighbor Graph.  This algorithm assumes that a
   subset I of N1 is pre-selected as MPRs, i.e., that M will contain I.

A.1.  Additional Notation

   The following additional notation, in addition to that in
   Section 18.2 will be used by this algorithm:




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   N:
      A subset of N2, consisting of those elements y in N2 such that
      either d1(y) is not defined, or there is at least one x in N1 such
      that d(x,y) is defined and d(x,y) < d1(y).

   D(x):
      For an element x in N1, the number of elements y in N for which
      d(x,y) is defined and has minimal value among the d(z,y) for all z
      in N1.

   R(x,M):
      For an element x in N1, the number of elements y in N for which
      d(x,y) is defined, has minimal value among the d(z,y) for all z in
      N1, and no such minimal values have z in M. (Note that, denoting
      the empty set by 0, D(x) = R(x,0).)

A.2.  MPR Selection Algorithm

   To create the MPR Set M, starting with M := I:

   1.  Add all elements x in N1 that have W(x) = WILL_ALWAYS.

   2.  For each element y in N for which there is only one element x in
       N1 such that d2(x,y) is defined, add that element x to M.

   3.  While there exists any element x in N1 with R(x,M) > 0:

       1.  Select an element x in N1 with R(x,M) > 0 in the following
           order of priority:

           +  greatest W(x), THEN;

           +  greatest R(x,M), THEN;

           +  greatest D(x), THEN;

           +  any choice, which MAY be based on other criteria (for
              example a router MAY choose to prefer a neighbor as an MPR
              if that neighbor has already selected the router as an MPR
              of the same type, MAY prefer a neighbor based on
              information freshness, or MAY prefer a neighbor based on
              length of time previously selected as an MPR) or MAY be
              random.

   4.  OPTIONALLY, consider each element x in M, but not in I, in turn
       and if x can be removed from M while still leaving it satisfying
       the definition of an MPR Set, then remove that element x from M.
       Elements MAY be considered in any order, e.g. in order of



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       increasing W(x).

Appendix B.  Example Algorithm for Calculating the Routing Set

   The following procedure is given as an example for calculating the
   Routing Set using a variation of Dijkstra's algorithm.  First all
   Routing Tuples are removed, and then, using the selections and
   definitions in Appendix B.1, the procedures in the following sections
   (each considered a "stage" of the processing) are applied in turn.

B.1.  Local Interfaces and Neighbors

   The following selections and definitions are made:

   1.  For each Local Interface Tuple, select a network address from its
       I_local_iface_addr_list, this is defined as the selected address
       for this Local Interface Tuple.

   2.  For each Link Tuple, the selected address of its corresponding
       Local Interface Tuple is defined as the selected local address
       for this Local Interface Tuple.

   3.  For each Neighbor Tuple with N_symmetric = true, select a Link
       Tuple with L_status = SYMMETRIC for which this is the
       corresponding Neighbor Tuple and has L_out_metric = N_out_metric.
       This is defined as the selected Link Tuple for this Neighbor
       Tuple.

   4.  For each network address (N_orig_addr or in N_neighbor_addr_list,
       the "neighbor address") from a Neighbor Tuple with N_symmetric =
       true, select a Link Tuple (the "selected Link Tuple") from those
       for which this is the corresponding Neighbor Tuple, have L_status
       = SYMMETRIC, and have L_out_metric = N_out_metric, by:

       1.  If there is such a Link Tuple whose
           L_neighbor_iface_addr_list contains the neighbor address,
           select that Link Tuple.

       2.  Otherwise select the selected Link Tuple for this Neighbor
           Tuple.

       Then for this neighbor address:

       3.  The selected local address is defined as the selected local
           address for the selected Link Tuple.

       4.  The selected link address is defined as an address from the
           L_neighbor_iface_addr_list of the selected Link Tuple, if



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           possible equal to this neighbor address.

   5.  Routing Tuple preference is decided by preference for minimum
       R_dist, then for minimum R_dist, and then for preference for
       corresponding Neighbor Tuples in this order:

       *  For greater N_will_routing.

       *  For N_mpr_selector = true over N_mpr_selector = false.

       Note that preferred Routing Tuples SHOULD be used.  Routing
       Tuples with minimum R_metric MUST be used, this is specified
       outside the definition of preference.  An implementation MAY
       modify this definition of preference (including for minimum
       R_dist) without otherwise affecting this algorithm.

B.2.  Add Neighbor Routers

   The following procedure is executed once.

   1.  For each Neighbor Tuple with N_symmetric = true, add a Routing
       Tuple with:

       *  R_dest_addr := N_orig_addr;

       *  R_next_iface_addr := selected link address for N_orig_addr;

       *  R_local_iface_addr := selected local address for N_orig_addr;

       *  R_metric := N_out_metric;

       *  R_dist := 1.

B.3.  Add Remote Routers

   The following procedure is executed once.

   1.  Add a label that may be "used" or "unused" to each Routing Tuple,
       with all initial values equal to unused.  (Note that this label
       is only required during this algorithm.)

   2.  If there are no unused Routing Tuples then this stage is
       complete, otherwise repeat the following until that is the case.

       1.  Find the unused Routing Tuple with minimum R_metric (if more
           than one, pick any) and denote it the "current Routing
           Tuple".




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       2.  Mark the current Routing Tuple as used.

       3.  For each Router Topology Tuple, with:

           +  TR_from_orig_addr = R_dest_addr of the current Routing
              Tuple.

           2.  Define:

               -  new_metric := R_metric of the current Routing Tuple +
                  TR_metric;

               -  new_dist := R_dist of the current Routing Tuple + 1.

           3.  If there is no Routing Tuple with R_dest_addr =
               TR_to_orig_addr, then create an unused Routing Tuple
               with:

               -  R_dest_addr := TR_to_orig_addr;

               -  R_next_iface_addr := R_next_iface_addr of the current
                  Routing Tuple;

               -  R_local_iface_addr := R_local_iface_addr of the
                  current Routing Tuple;

               -  R_metric := new_metric;

               -  R_dist := new_dist.

           4.  Otherwise, if there is an unused Routing Tuple with
               R_dest_addr = TR_to_orig_addr, and either new_metric <
               R_metric or (new_metric = R_metric and the updated
               Routing Tuple would be preferred) then update this
               Routing Tuple to have:

               -  R_next_iface_addr := R_next_iface_addr of the current
                  Routing Tuple;

               -  R_local_iface_addr := R_local_iface_addr of the
                  current Routing Tuple;

               -  R_metric := new_metric;

               -  R_dist := new_dist.






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B.4.  Add Neighbor Addresses

   The following procedure is executed once.

   1.  For each Neighbor Tuple with N_symmetric = true:

       1.  For each network address (the "neighbor address") in
           N_neighbor_addr_list, if the neighbor address is not equal to
           the R_dest_addr of any Routing Tuple, then add a new Routing
           Tuple, with:

           +  R_dest_addr := neighbor address;

           +  R_next_iface_addr := selected link address for the
              neighbor address;

           +  R_local_iface_addr := selected local address for the
              neighbor address;

           +  R_metric := N_out_metric;

           +  R_dist := 1.

B.5.  Add Remote Routable Addresses

   The following procedure is executed once.

   1.  For each Routable Address Topology Tuple, if:

       *  TA_dest_addr is not equal to the R_dest_addr of any Routing
          Tuple added in an earlier stage, AND;

       *  TA_from_orig_addr is equal to the R_dest_addr of a Routing
          Tuple (the "previous Routing Tuple"),

       then add a new Routing Tuple, with:

       *  R_dest_addr := TA_dest_addr;

       *  R_next_iface_addr := R_next_iface_addr of the previous Routing
          Tuple;

       *  R_local_iface_addr := R_local_iface_addr of the previous
          Routing Tuple;

       *  R_metric := R_metric of the previous Routing Tuple +
          TA_metric.




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       *  R_dist := R_dist of the previous Routing Tuple + 1.

       There may be more than one Routing Tuple that may be added for an
       R_dest_addr in this stage.  If so, then, for each such
       R_dest_addr, a Routing Tuple with minimum R_metric MUST be
       selected, otherwise a Routing Tuple which is preferred SHOULD be
       added.

B.6.  Add Attached Networks

   The following procedure is executed once.

   1.  For each Attached Network Tuple, if:

       *  AN_net_addr is not equal to the R_dest_addr of any Routing
          Tuple added in an earlier stage, AND;

       *  AN_orig_addr is equal to the R_dest_addr of a Routing Tuple
          (the "previous Routing Tuple),

       then add a new Routing Tuple, with:

       *  R_dest_addr := AN_net_addr;

       *  R_next_iface_addr := R_next_iface_addr of the previous Routing
          Tuple;

       *  R_local_iface_addr := R_local_iface_addr of the previous
          Routing Tuple;

       *  R_metric := R_metric of the previous Routing Tuple +
          AN_metric;

       *  R_dist := R_dist of the previous Routing Tuple + AN_dist.

       There may be more than one Routing Tuple that may be added for an
       R_dest_addr in this stage.  If so, then, for each such
       R_dest_addr, a Routing Tuple with minimum R_metric MUST be
       selected, otherwise a Routing Tuple which is preferred SHOULD be
       added.

B.7.  Add 2-Hop Neighbors

   The following procedure is executed once.

   1.  For each 2-Hop Tuple, if:





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       *  N2_2hop_addr is a routable address, AND;

       *  N2_2hop_addr is not equal to the R_dest_addr of any Routing
          Tuple added in an earlier stage, AND;

       *  the Routing Tuple with R_dest_addr = N_orig_addr of the
          corresponding Neighbor Tuple (the "previous Routing Tuple")
          has R_dist = 1,

       then add a new Routing Tuple, with:

       *  R_dest_addr := N2_2hop_addr;

       *  R_next_iface_addr := R_next_iface_addr of the previous Routing
          Tuple;

       *  R_local_iface_addr := R_local_iface_addr of the previous
          Routing Tuple;

       *  R_metric := R_metric of the previous Routing Tuple +
          N_out_metric of the corresponding Neighbor Tuple;

       *  R_dist := 2.

       There may be more than one Routing Tuple that may be added for an
       R_dest_addr in this stage.  If so, then, for each such
       R_dest_addr, a Routing Tuple with minimum R_metric MUST be
       selected, otherwise a Routing Tuple which is preferred SHOULD be
       added.

Appendix C.  TC Message Example

   TC messages are instances of [RFC5444] messages.  This specification
   requires that TC messages contains <msg-hop-limit> and <msg-orig-
   addr> fields.  It supports TC messages with any combination of
   remaining message header options and address encodings, enabled by
   [RFC5444] that convey the required information.  As a consequence,
   there is no single way to represent how all TC messages look.  This
   appendix illustrates a TC message, the exact values and content
   included are explained in the following text.

   The TC message's four bit Message Flags (MF) field has value 15
   indicating that the message header contains originator address, hop
   limit, hop count, and message sequence number fields.  Its four bit
   Message Address Length (MAL) field has value 3, indicating addresses
   in the message have a length of four octets, here being IPv4
   addresses.  The overall message length is 71 octets.




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   The message has a Message TLV Block with content length 13 octets
   containing three TLVs.  The first two TLVs are validity and interval
   times for the message.  The third TLV is the content sequence number
   TLV used to carry the 2 octet ANSN, and (with default type extension
   zero, i.e., COMPLETE) indicating that the TC message is complete.
   Each TLV uses a TLV with Flags octet (MTLVF) value 16, indicating
   that it has a Value, but no type extension or start and stop indexes.
   The first two TLVs have a Value Length of 1 octet, the last has a
   Value Length of 2 octets.

   The message has two Address Blocks.  (This is not necessary, the
   information could be conveyed using a single Address Block, the use
   of two Address Blocks, which is also allowed, is illustrative only.)
   The first Address Block contains 3 addresses, with Flags octet
   (ATLVF) value 128, hence with a Head section (with length 2 octets),
   but no Tail section, and hence with Mid sections with length two
   octets.  The following TLV Block (content length 13 octets) contains
   two TLVs.  The first TLV is a NBR_ADDR_TYPE TLV with Flags octet
   (ATLVF) value 16, indicating a single Value but no indexes.  Thus all
   three addresses are associated with the Value (with Value Length 1
   octet) ROUTABLE_ORIG, i.e., they are originator addresses of
   advertised neighbors that are also routable addresses.  The second
   TLV is a LINK_STATUS TLV with Flags octet (ATLVF) value 20,
   indicating a Value for each address, i.e. as the total Value Length
   is 6 octets, each address is associated with a Value with length two
   octets.  These Value fields are each shown as having four bits
   indicating that they are outgoing neighbor metric values, and as
   having twelve bits that represent the metric value (the first four
   bits being the exponent, the remaining twelve bits the mantissa).

   The second Address Block contains 1 address, with Flags octet (ATLVF)
   176, indicating that there is a Head section (with length 2 octets),
   that the Tail section (with length 2 octets) consists of zero valued
   octets (not included), and that there is a single prefix length,
   which is 16.  The network address is thus Head.0.0/16.  The following
   TLV Block (content length 8 octets) includes two TLVs.  The first has
   a Flags octet (ATLVF) of 16, again indicating that no indexes are
   needed, but that a Value (with Value Length 1 octet) is present,
   indicating the address distance as a number of hops.  The second TLV
   is another LINK_METRIC TLV, as in the first Address TLV Block except
   with a Flags octet (ATLVF) value 16, indicating that a single Value
   is present.









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      0                   1                   2                   3
      0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |      TC       | MF=15 | MAL=3 |      Message Length = 71      |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |                      Originator Address                       |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |   Hop Limit   |   Hop Count   |    Message Sequence Number    |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     | Message TLV Block Length = 13 | VALIDITY_TIME |  MTLVF = 16   |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     | Value Len = 1 | Value (Time)  | INTERVAL_TIME |  MTLVF = 16   |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     | Value Len = 1 | Value (Time)  | CONT_SEQ_NUM  |  MTLVF = 16   |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     | Value Len = 2 |         Value (ANSN)          | Num Addrs = 3 |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |   ABF = 128   | Head Len = 2  |             Head              |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |              Mid              |              Mid              |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |              Mid              | Address TLV Block Length = 13 |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     | NBR_ADDR_TYPE |  ATLVF = 16   | Value Len = 1 | ROUTABLE_ORIG |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |  LINK_METRIC  |  ATLVF = 20   | Value Len = 6 |0|0|0|1|Metric |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     | Metric (cont) |0|0|0|1|        Metric         |0|0|0|1|Metric |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     | Metric (cont) | Num Addrs = 1 |   ABF = 176   | Head Len = 2  |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |             Head              | Tail Len = 2  | Pref Len = 16 |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     | Address TLV Block Length = 9  |    GATEWAY    |  ATLVF = 16   |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     | Value Len = 1 | Value (Hops)  |  LINK_METRIC  |  ATLVF = 16   |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     | Value Len = 2 |0|0|0|1|        Metric         |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

Appendix D.  Constraints

   Any process which updates the Local Information Base, the
   Neighborhood Information Base or the Topology Information Base MUST
   ensure that all constraints specified in this appendix are
   maintained, as well as those specified in [RFC6130].

   In each Originator Tuple:



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   o  O_orig_addr MUST NOT equal any other O_orig_addr.

   o  O_orig_addr MUST NOT equal this router's originator address.

   In each Local Attached Network Tuple:

   o  AL_net_addr MUST NOT equal any other AL_net_addr.

   o  AL_net_addr MUST NOT equal or be a sub-range of any network
      address in the I_local_iface_addr_list of any Local Interface
      Tuple.

   o  AL_net_addr MUST NOT equal this router's originator address, or
      equal the O_orig_addr in any Originator Tuple.

   o  AL_dist MUST NOT be less than zero.

   In each Link Tuple:

   o  L_neighbor_iface_addr_list MUST NOT contain any network address
      that AL_net_addr of any Local Attached Network Tuple equals or is
      a sub-range of.

   o  If L_status = HEARD or L_status = SYMMETRIC then L_in_metric !=
      UNKNOWN_METRIC.

   o  If L_status = SYMMETRIC then L_in_metric != UNKNOWN_METRIC.

   o  if L_in_metric != UNKNOWN_METRIC then L_in_metric MUST be
      representable in the defined compressed form.

   o  if L_out_metric != UNKNOWN_METRIC then L_out_metric MUST be
      representable in the defined compressed form.

   o  If L_mpr_selector = true, then L_status = SYMMETRIC.

   In each Neighbor Tuple:

   o  N_orig_addr MUST NOT be changed to unknown.

   o  N_orig_addr MUST NOT equal this router's originator address, or
      equal O_orig_addr in any Originator Tuple.

   o  N_orig_addr MUST NOT equal the AL_net_addr in any Local Attached
      Network Tuple.

   o  If N_orig_addr != unknown, then N_orig_addr MUST NOT equal the
      N_orig_addr in any other Neighbor Tuple.



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   o  N_neighbor_addr_list MUST NOT contain any network address which
      includes this router's originator address, the O_orig_addr in any
      Originator Tuple, or equal or have as a sub-range the AL_net_addr
      in any Local Attached Network Tuple.

   o  If N_orig_addr = unknown, then N_will_flooding = WILL_NEVER,
      N_will_routing = WILL_NEVER, N_flooding_mpr, N_routing_mpr =
      false, N_mpr_selector = false, and N_advertised = false.

   o  N_in_metric MUST equal the minimum value of the L_in_metric values
      of all corresponding Link Tuples, if any, otherwise N_in_metric =
      UNKNOWN_METRIC.

   o  N_out_metric MUST equal the minimum value of the L_out_metric
      values of all corresponding Link Tuples, if any, otherwise
      N_out_metric = UNKNOWN_METRIC.

   o  N_will_flooding and N_will_routing MUST be in the range from
      WILL_NEVER to WILL_ALWAYS, inclusive.

   o  If N_flooding_mpr = true, then N_symmetric MUST be true and
      N_will_flooding MUST NOT equal WILL_NEVER.

   o  If N_routing_mpr = true, then N_symmetric MUST be true and
      N_will_routing MUST NOT equal WILL_NEVER.

   o  If N_symmetric = true and N_flooding_mpr = false, then
      N_will_flooding MUST NOT equal WILL_ALWAYS.

   o  If N_symmetric = true and N_routing_mpr = false, then
      N_will_routing MUST NOT equal WILL_ALWAYS.

   o  If N_mpr_selector = true, then N_advertised MUST be true.

   o  If N_advertised = true, then N_symmetric MUST be true.

   In each Lost Neighbor Tuple:

   o  NL_neighbor_addr MUST NOT include this router's originator
      address, the O_orig_addr in any Originator Tuple, or equal or have
      as a sub-range the AL_net_addr in any Local Attached Network
      Tuple.

   In each 2-Hop Tuple:

   o  N2_2hop_addr MUST NOT equal this router's originator address,
      equal the O_orig_addr in any Originator Tuple, or equal or have as
      a sub-range the AL_net_addr in any Local Attached Network Tuple



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   o  N2_in_metric and N2_out_metric MUST be representable in the
      defined compressed form.

   In each Advertising Remote Router Tuple:

   o  AR_orig_addr MUST NOT be in any network address in the
      I_local_iface_addr_list in any Local Interface Tuple or be in the
      IR_local_iface_addr in any Removed Interface Address Tuple.

   o  AR_orig_addr MUST NOT equal this router's originator address or
      equal the O_orig_addr in any Originator Tuple.

   o  AR_orig_addr MUST NOT be in the AL_net_addr in any Local Attached
      Network Tuple.

   o  AR_orig_addr MUST NOT equal the AR_orig_addr in any other
      Advertising Remote Router Tuple.

   In each Router Topology Tuple:

   o  There MUST be an Advertising Remote Router Tuple with AR_orig_addr
      = TR_from_orig_addr.

   o  TR_to_orig_addr MUST NOT be in any network address in the
      I_local_iface_addr_list in any Local Interface Tuple or be in the
      IR_local_iface_addr in any Removed Interface Address Tuple.

   o  TR_to_orig_addr MUST NOT equal this router's originator address or
      equal the O_orig_addr in any Originator Tuple.

   o  TR_to_orig_addr MUST NOT be in the AL_net_addr in any Local
      Attached Network Tuple.

   o  The ordered pair (TR_from_orig_addr, TR_to_orig_addr) MUST NOT
      equal the corresponding pair for any other Router Topology Tuple.

   o  TR_seq_number MUST NOT be greater than AR_seq_number in the
      Advertising Remote Router Tuple with AR_orig_addr =
      TR_from_orig_addr.

   o  TR_metric MUST be representable in the defined compressed form.

   In each Routable Address Topology Tuple:

   o  There MUST be an Advertising Remote Router Tuple with AR_orig_addr
      = TA_from_orig_addr.





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   o  TA_dest_addr MUST be routable.

   o  TA_dest_addr MUST NOT overlap any network address in the
      I_local_iface_addr_list in any Local Interface Tuple or overlap
      the IR_local_iface_addr in any Removed Interface Address Tuple.

   o  TA_dest_addr MUST NOT include this router's originator address or
      include the O_orig_addr in any Originator Tuple.

   o  TA_dest_addr MUST NOT equal or have as a sub-range the AL_net_addr
      in any Local Attached Network Tuple.

   o  The ordered pair (TA_from_orig_addr, TA_dest_addr) MUST NOT equal
      the corresponding pair for any other Attached Network Tuple.

   o  TA_seq_number MUST NOT be greater than AR_seq_number in the
      Advertising Remote Router Tuple with AR_orig_addr =
      TA_from_orig_addr.

   o  TA_metric MUST be representable in the defined compressed form.

   In each Attached Network Tuple:

   o  There MUST be an Advertising Remote Router Tuple with AR_orig_addr
      = AN_orig_addr.

   o  AN_net_addr MUST NOT equal or be a sub-range of any network
      address in the I_local_iface_addr_list in any Local Interface
      Tuple or be a sub-range of the IR_local_iface_addr in any Removed
      Interface Address Tuple.

   o  AN_net_addr MUST NOT equal this router's originator address or
      equal the O_orig_addr in any Originator Tuple.

   o  AN_net_addr MUST NOT equal the AL_net_addr in any Local Attached
      Network Tuple.

   o  The ordered pair (AN_orig_addr, AN_net_addr) MUST NOT equal the
      corresponding pair for any other Attached Network Tuple.

   o  AN_seq_number MUST NOT be greater than AR_seq_number in the
      Advertising Remote Router Tuple with AR_orig_addr = AN_orig_addr.

   o  AN_dist MUST NOT be less than zero.

   o  AN_metric MUST be representable in the defined compressed form.





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Appendix E.  Flow and Congestion Control

   Due to its proactive nature, this protocol has a natural control over
   the flow of its control traffic.  Routers transmit control messages
   at predetermined rates specified and bounded by message intervals.

   This protocol employs [RFC6130] for local signaling, embedding MPR
   selection advertisement through a simple Address Block TLV, and
   router willingness advertisement (if any) as a single Message TLV.
   Local signaling, therefore, shares the characteristics and
   constraints of [RFC6130].

   Furthermore, the use of MPRs can greatly reduce the signaling
   overhead from link state information dissemination in two ways,
   attaining both flooding reduction and topology reduction.  First,
   using MPR flooding, the cost of distributing link state information
   throughout the network is reduced, as compared to when using classic
   flooding, since only MPRs need to forward link state declaration
   messages.  Second, the amount of link state information for a router
   to declare is reduced to need only contain that router's MPR
   selectors.  This reduces the size of a link state declaration as
   compared to declaring full link state information.  In particular
   some routers may not need to declare any such information.  In dense
   networks, the reduction of control traffic can be of several orders
   of magnitude compared to routing protocols using classical flooding
   [MPR].  This feature naturally provides more bandwidth for useful
   data traffic and pushes further the frontier of congestion.

   Since the control traffic is continuous and periodic, it keeps the
   quality of the links used in routing more stable.  However, using
   some options, some control messages (HELLO messages or TC messages)
   may be intentionally sent in advance of their deadline in order to
   increase the responsiveness of the protocol to topology changes.
   This may cause a small, temporary, and local increase of control
   traffic, however this is at all times bounded by the use of minimum
   message intervals.

Authors' Addresses

   Thomas Heide Clausen
   LIX, Ecole Polytechnique

   Phone: +33 6 6058 9349
   EMail: T.Clausen@computer.org
   URI:   http://www.ThomasClausen.org/






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   Christopher Dearlove
   BAE Systems ATC

   Phone: +44 1245 242194
   EMail: chris.dearlove@baesystems.com
   URI:   http://www.baesystems.com/


   Philippe Jacquet
   Project Hipercom, INRIA

   Phone: +33 1 3963 5263
   EMail: philippe.jacquet@inria.fr






































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