[Docs] [txt|pdf|xml|html] [Tracker] [WG] [Email] [Nits]

Versions: 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 RFC 7182

Mobile Ad hoc Networking (MANET)                              U. Herberg
Internet-Draft                           Fujitsu Laboratories of America
Obsoletes: 6622 (if approved)                                 T. Clausen
Intended status: Standards Track                LIX, Ecole Polytechnique
Expires: September 23, 2013                                  C. Dearlove
                                                         BAE Systems ATC
                                                          March 22, 2013


          Integrity Check Value and Timestamp TLV Definitions
                  for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks (MANETs)
                    draft-ietf-manet-rfc6622-bis-00

Abstract

   This document extends and replaces RFC 6622.  It describes general
   and flexible TLVs for representing cryptographic Integrity Check
   Values (ICVs) (i.e., digital signatures or Message Authentication
   Codes (MACs)) as well as timestamps, using the generalized Mobile Ad
   Hoc Network (MANET) packet/message format defined in RFC 5444.  It
   defines two Packet TLVs, two Message TLVs, and two Address Block TLVs
   for affixing ICVs and timestamps to a packet, a message, and an
   address, respectively.

Status of This Memo

   This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the
   provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.

   Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
   Task Force (IETF).  Note that other groups may also distribute
   working documents as Internet-Drafts.  The list of current Internet-
   Drafts is at http://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/.

   Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
   and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any
   time.  It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
   material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."

   This Internet-Draft will expire on September 23, 2013.

Copyright Notice

   Copyright (c) 2013 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
   document authors.  All rights reserved.

   This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
   Provisions Relating to IETF Documents



Herberg, et al.        Expires September 23, 2013               [Page 1]

Internet-Draft      ICV and Timestamp TLVs for MANETs         March 2013


   (http://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of
   publication of this document.  Please review these documents
   carefully, as they describe your rights and restrictions with respect
   to this document.  Code Components extracted from this document must
   include Simplified BSD License text as described in Section 4.e of
   the Trust Legal Provisions and are provided without warranty as
   described in the Simplified BSD License.

Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  3
   2.  Terminology  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  3
   3.  Applicability Statement  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  3
   4.  Security Architecture  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  4
   5.  Overview and Functioning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  5
   6.  General ICV TLV Structure  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  6
   7.  General Timestamp TLV Structure  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  6
   8.  Packet TLVs  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  7
     8.1.  Packet ICV TLV . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  7
     8.2.  Packet TIMESTAMP TLV . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  7
   9.  Message TLVs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  7
     9.1.  Message ICV TLV  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  8
     9.2.  Message TIMESTAMP TLV  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  8
   10. Address Block TLVs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  8
     10.1. Address Block ICV TLV  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  8
     10.2. Address Block TIMESTAMP TLV  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  9
   11. ICV: Basic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  9
   12. ICV: Hash Function and Cryptographic Function  . . . . . . . .  9
     12.1. General ICV TLV Structure  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  9
       12.1.1.  Rationale . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
     12.2. Considerations for Calculating the ICV . . . . . . . . . . 11
       12.2.1.  Packet ICV TLV  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
       12.2.2.  Message ICV TLV . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
       12.2.3.  Address Block ICV TLV . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
     12.3. Example of a Message Including an ICV  . . . . . . . . . . 12
   13. IANA Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
     13.1. Expert Review: Evaluation Guidelines . . . . . . . . . . . 13
     13.2. Packet TLV Type Registrations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
     13.3. Message TLV Type Registrations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
     13.4. Address Block TLV Type Registrations . . . . . . . . . . . 15
     13.5. Hash Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
     13.6. Cryptographic Functions  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
   14. Security Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
   15. Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
   16. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
     16.1. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
     16.2. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20




Herberg, et al.        Expires September 23, 2013               [Page 2]

Internet-Draft      ICV and Timestamp TLVs for MANETs         March 2013


1.  Introduction

   This document, which extends and replaces [RFC6622], specifies:

   o  Two TLVs for carrying Integrity Check Values (ICVs) and timestamps
      in packets, messages, and address blocks as defined by [RFC5444].

   o  A generic framework for ICVs, accounting (for Message TLVs) for
      mutable message header fields (<msg-hop-limit> and
      <msg-hop-count>), where these fields are present in messages.

   This document retains the IANA registries, defined in [RFC6622], for
   recording code points for hash-functions, cryptographic functions,
   and ICV calculations.  This document requests additional allocations
   from these registries.

   Moreover, in Section 12, this document defines the following:

   o  A method for generating ICVs using a combination of a
      cryptographic function and a hash function.

2.  Terminology

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "NOT RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and
   "OPTIONAL" in this document are to be interpreted as described in
   [RFC2119].

   This document uses the terminology and notation defined in [RFC5444].
   In particular, the following TLV fields from [RFC5444] are used in
   this specification:

   <msg-hop-limit>  is the hop limit of a message, as specified in
      Section 5.2 of [RFC5444].

   <msg-hop-count>  is the hop count of a message, as specified in
      Section 5.2 of [RFC5444].

   <length>  is the length of a TLV in octets, as specified in Section
      5.4.1 of [RFC5444].

3.  Applicability Statement

   MANET routing protocols using the format defined in [RFC5444] are
   accorded the ability to carry additional information in control
   messages and packets, through the inclusion of TLVs.  Information so
   included MAY be used by a MANET routing protocol, or by an extension
   of a MANET routing protocol, according to its specification.



Herberg, et al.        Expires September 23, 2013               [Page 3]

Internet-Draft      ICV and Timestamp TLVs for MANETs         March 2013


   This document specifies how to include an ICV for a packet, a
   message, and addresses in address blocks within a message, using such
   TLVs.  This document also specifies how to treat "mutable" fields,
   specifically the <msg-hop-count> and <msg-hop-limit> fields, if
   present in the message header when calculating ICVs, such that the
   resulting ICV can be correctly verified by any recipient.

   This document describes a generic framework for creating ICVs, and
   how to include these ICVs in TLVs.  In Section 12, an example method
   for calculating such ICVs is given, using a cryptographic function
   over the hash value of the content.

4.  Security Architecture

   Basic MANET routing protocol specifications are often "oblivious to
   security"; however, they have a clause allowing a control message to
   be rejected as "badly formed" or "insecure" prior to the message
   being processed or forwarded.  MANET routing protocols such as the
   Neighborhood Discovery Protocol (NHDP) [RFC6130] and the Optimized
   Link State Routing Protocol version 2 [OLSRv2] recognize external
   reasons (such as failure to verify an ICV) for rejecting a message
   that would be considered "invalid for processing".  This architecture
   is a result of the observation that with respect to security in
   MANETs, "one size rarely fits all" and that MANET routing protocol
   deployment domains have varying security requirements ranging from
   "unbreakable" to "virtually none".  The virtue of this approach is
   that MANET routing protocol specifications (and implementations) can
   remain "generic", with extensions providing proper security
   mechanisms specific to a deployment domain.

   The MANET routing protocol "security architecture", in which this
   specification situates itself, can therefore be summarized as
   follows:

   o  Security-oblivious MANET routing protocol specifications, with a
      clause allowing an extension to reject a message (prior to
      processing/forwarding) as "badly formed" or "insecure".

   o  MANET routing protocol security extensions, rejecting messages as
      "badly formed" or "insecure", as appropriate for a given security
      requirement specific to a deployment domain.

   o  Code points and an exchange format for information, necessary for
      specification of such MANET routing protocol security extensions.

   This document addresses the last of the issues listed above by
   specifying a common exchange format for cryptographic ICVs, making
   reservations from within the Packet TLV, Message TLV, and Address



Herberg, et al.        Expires September 23, 2013               [Page 4]

Internet-Draft      ICV and Timestamp TLVs for MANETs         March 2013


   Block TLV registries of [RFC5444], to be used (and shared) among
   MANET routing protocol security extensions.

   For the specific decomposition of an ICV into a cryptographic
   function over a hash value (specified in Section 12), this document
   reports the two IANA registries from [RFC6622] for code points for
   hash functions and cryptographic functions adhering to [RFC5444].

   With respect to [RFC5444], this document is:

   o  Intended to be used in the non-normative, but intended, mode of
      use described in Appendix B of [RFC5444].

   o  A specific example of the Security Considerations section of
      [RFC5444] (the authentication part).

5.  Overview and Functioning

   This document specifies a syntactical representation of security-
   related information for use with [RFC5444] addresses, messages, and
   packets, and also reports and updates IANA registrations (from
   [RFC6622]) of TLV types and type extension registries for these TLV
   types.

   Moreover, this document provides guidelines for how MANET routing
   protocols and MANET routing protocol extensions using this
   specification should treat ICV and Timestamp TLVs, and mutable fields
   in messages.  This specification does not represent a stand-alone
   protocol; MANET routing protocols and MANET routing protocol
   extensions, using this specification, MUST provide instructions as to
   how to handle packets, messages, and addresses with security
   information, associated as specified in this document.

   This document reports previously assigned TLV types (from [RFC6622])
   from the registries defined for Packet, Message, and Address Block
   TLVs in [RFC5444].  When a TLV type is assigned from one of these
   registries, a registry for type extensions for that TLV type is
   created by IANA.  This document reports and updates these type
   extension registries, in order to specify internal structure (and
   accompanying processing) of the <value> field of a TLV.

   For example, and as defined in this document, an ICV TLV with type
   extension = 0 specifies that the <value> field has no pre-defined
   internal structure but is simply a sequence of octets.  An ICV TLV
   with type extension = 1 specifies that the <value> field has a pre-
   defined internal structure and defines its interpretation.  An ICV
   TLV with type extension = 2 specifies a modified version of this
   definition.  (Specifically, with type extension = 1 or type extension



Herberg, et al.        Expires September 23, 2013               [Page 5]

Internet-Draft      ICV and Timestamp TLVs for MANETs         March 2013


   = 2, the <value> field contains the result of combining a
   cryptographic function and a hash function, calculated over the
   contents of the packet, message or address block, with sub-fields
   indicating which hash function and cryptographic function have been
   used; this is specified in Section 12.  The difference between the
   two type extensions is that the ICV TLV with type extension = 2 is
   calculated also over the source address of the IP datagram carrying
   the packet, message, or address block.)

   Other documents can request assignments for other type extensions; if
   they do so, they MUST specify their internal structure (if any) and
   interpretation.

6.  General ICV TLV Structure

   The value of the ICV TLV is:

      <value> := <ICV-value>

   where

   <ICV-value>  is a field, of <length> octets, which contains the
      information to be interpreted by the ICV verification process, as
      specified by the type extension.

   Note that this does not stipulate how to calculate the <ICV-value>
   nor the internal structure thereof, if any; such information MUST be
   specified by way of the type extension for the ICV TLV type.  See
   Section 13.  This document specifies three such type extensions --
   one for ICVs without pre-defined structures, and two for ICVs
   constructed combining a cryptographic function and a hash function.

7.  General Timestamp TLV Structure

   The value of the Timestamp TLV is:

      <value> := <time-value>

   where:

   <time-value>  is an unsigned integer field, of length <length>, which
      contains the timestamp.

      Note that this does not stipulate how to calculate the
      <time-value> nor the internal structure thereof, if any; such
      information MUST be specified by way of the type extension for the
      TIMESTAMP TLV type.  See Section 13.




Herberg, et al.        Expires September 23, 2013               [Page 6]

Internet-Draft      ICV and Timestamp TLVs for MANETs         March 2013


   A timestamp is essentially "freshness information".  As such, its
   setting and interpretation are to be determined by the MANET routing
   protocol, or MANET routing protocol extension, that uses the
   timestamp and can, for example, correspond to a UNIX timestamp, GPS
   timestamp, or a simple sequence number.

8.  Packet TLVs

   Two Packet TLVs are defined: one for including the cryptographic ICV
   of a packet and one for including the timestamp indicating the time
   at which the cryptographic ICV was calculated.

8.1.  Packet ICV TLV

   A Packet ICV TLV is an example of an ICV TLV as described in
   Section 6.

   The following considerations apply:

   o  Because packets as defined in [RFC5444] are never forwarded by
      routers, no special considerations are required regarding mutable
      fields (e.g., <msg-hop-count> and <msg-hop-limit>), if present
      within any messages in the packet, when calculating the ICV.

   o  Any Packet ICV TLVs already present in the Packet TLV block MUST
      be removed before calculating the ICV, and the Packet TLV block
      size MUST be recalculated accordingly.  Removed ICV TLVs MUST be
      restored after having calculated the ICV value.

   The rationale for removing any Packet ICV TLV already present prior
   to calculating the ICV is that several ICVs may be added to the same
   packet, e.g., using different ICV functions.

8.2.  Packet TIMESTAMP TLV

   A Packet TIMESTAMP TLV is an example of a Timestamp TLV as described
   in Section 7.  If a packet contains a TIMESTAMP TLV and an ICV TLV,
   the TIMESTAMP TLV SHOULD be added to the packet before any ICV TLV,
   in order that it be included in the calculation of the ICV.

9.  Message TLVs

   Two Message TLVs are defined: one for including the cryptographic ICV
   of a message and one for including the timestamp indicating the time
   at which the cryptographic ICV was calculated.






Herberg, et al.        Expires September 23, 2013               [Page 7]

Internet-Draft      ICV and Timestamp TLVs for MANETs         March 2013


9.1.  Message ICV TLV

   A Message ICV TLV is an example of an ICV TLV as described in
   Section 6.  When determining the <ICV-value> for a message, the
   following considerations MUST be applied:

   o  The fields <msg-hop-limit> and <msg-hop-count>, if present, MUST
      both be assumed to have the value 0 (zero) when calculating the
      ICV.

   o  Any Message ICV TLVs already present in the Message TLV block MUST
      be removed before calculating the ICV, and the message size as
      well as the Message TLV block size MUST be recalculated
      accordingly.  Removed ICV TLVs MUST be restored after having
      calculated the ICV value.

   The rationale for removing any Message ICV TLV already present prior
   to calculating the ICV is that several ICVs may be added to the same
   message, e.g., using different ICV functions.

9.2.  Message TIMESTAMP TLV

   A Message TIMESTAMP TLV is an example of a Timestamp TLV as described
   in Section 7.  If a message contains a TIMESTAMP TLV and an ICV TLV,
   the TIMESTAMP TLV SHOULD be added to the message before the ICV TLV,
   in order that it be included in the calculation of the ICV.

10.  Address Block TLVs

   Two Address Block TLVs are defined: one for associating a
   cryptographic ICV to an address and one for including the timestamp
   indicating the time at which the cryptographic ICV was calculated.

10.1.  Address Block ICV TLV

   An Address Block ICV TLV is an example of an ICV TLV as described in
   Section 6.  The ICV is calculated over the address, concatenated with
   any other values -- for example, any other Address Block TLV <value>
   fields -- associated with that address.  A MANET routing protocol or
   MANET routing protocol extension using Address Block ICV TLVs MUST
   specify how to include any such concatenated attribute of the address
   in the verification process of the ICV.  When determining the
   <ICV-value> for an address, the following consideration MUST be
   applied:

   o  If other TLV values are concatenated with the address for
      calculating the ICV, these TLVs MUST NOT be Address Block ICV TLVs
      already associated with the address.



Herberg, et al.        Expires September 23, 2013               [Page 8]

Internet-Draft      ICV and Timestamp TLVs for MANETs         March 2013


   The rationale for not concatenating the address with any ICV TLV
   values already associated with the address when calculating the ICV
   is that several ICVs may be added to the same address, e.g., using
   different ICV functions.

10.2.  Address Block TIMESTAMP TLV

   An Address Block TIMESTAMP TLV is an example of a Timestamp TLV as
   described in Section 7.  If both a TIMESTAMP TLV and an ICV TLV are
   associated with an address, the TIMESTAMP TLV <value> MUST be covered
   when calculating the value of the ICV to be contained in the ICV TLV
   value (i.e., concatenated with the associated address and any other
   values as described in Section 10.1).

11.  ICV: Basic

   The basic ICV, represented by way of an ICV TLV with type extension =
   0, is a simple bit-field containing the cryptographic ICV.  This
   assumes that the mechanism stipulating how ICVs are calculated and
   verified is established outside of this specification, e.g., by way
   of administrative configuration or external out-of-band signaling.
   Thus, the <ICV-value>, when using type extension = 0, is

      <ICV-value> := <ICV-data>

   where:

   <ICV-data>  is an unsigned integer field, of length <length>, which
      contains the cryptographic ICV.

12.  ICV: Hash Function and Cryptographic Function

   One common way of calculating an ICV is combining a cryptographic
   function and a hash function applied to the content.  This
   decomposition is specified in this section, using either type
   extension = 1 or type extension = 2, in the ICV TLVs.

12.1.  General ICV TLV Structure

   The following data structure allows representation of a cryptographic
   ICV, including specification of the appropriate hash function and
   cryptographic function used for calculating the ICV:

                   <ICV-value> := <hash-function>
                                  <cryptographic-function>
                                  <key-id-length>
                                  <key-id>
                                  <ICV-data>



Herberg, et al.        Expires September 23, 2013               [Page 9]

Internet-Draft      ICV and Timestamp TLVs for MANETs         March 2013


   where:

   <hash-function>  is an 8-bit unsigned integer field specifying the
      hash function.

   <cryptographic-function>  is an 8-bit unsigned integer field
      specifying the cryptographic function.

   <key-id-length>  is an 8-bit unsigned integer field specifying the
      length of the <key-id> field in number of octets.  The value 0x00
      is reserved for using a pre-installed, shared key.

   <key-id>  is a field specifying the key identifier of the key that
      was used to calculate the ICV of the message, which allows unique
      identification of different keys with the same originator.  It is
      the responsibility of each key originator to make sure that
      actively used keys that it issues have distinct key identifiers.
      If <key-id-length> equals 0x00, the <key-id> field is not
      contained in the TLV, and a pre-installed, shared key is used.

   <ICV-data>  is an unsigned integer field, whose length is
      <length> - 3 - <key-id-length>, and which contains the
      cryptographic ICV.

   The version of this TLV, specified in this section, assumes that,
   unless otherwise specified, calculating the ICV can be decomposed
   into:

      ICV-value = cryptographic-function(hash-function(content))

   In some cases a different combination of cryptographic function and
   hash function may be specified.  This is the case for the HMAC
   function, which is specified as defined in Section 13.6, which
   applies the hash function twice.

   The hash function and the cryptographic function correspond to the
   entries in two IANA registries, which are reported by this
   specification and are described in Section 13.

12.1.1.  Rationale

   The rationale for separating the hash function and the cryptographic
   function into two octets instead of having all combinations in a
   single octet -- possibly as a TLV type extension -- is that adding
   further hash functions or cryptographic functions in the future may
   lead to a non-contiguous number space.

   The rationale for not including a field that lists parameters of the



Herberg, et al.        Expires September 23, 2013              [Page 10]

Internet-Draft      ICV and Timestamp TLVs for MANETs         March 2013


   cryptographic ICV in the TLV is that, before being able to validate a
   cryptographic ICV, routers have to exchange or acquire keys (e.g.,
   public keys).  Any additional parameters can be provided together
   with the keys in that bootstrap process.  It is therefore not
   necessary, and would even entail an extra overhead, to transmit the
   parameters within every message.  One implicitly available parameter
   is the length of the ICV, which is <length> - 3 - <key-id-length>,
   and which depends on the choice of the cryptographic function.

12.2.  Considerations for Calculating the ICV

   The considerations listed in the following subsections MUST be
   applied when calculating the ICV for Packet, Message, and Address
   Block ICV TLVs, respectively.

12.2.1.  Packet ICV TLV

   When determining the <ICV-value> for a packet, with type extension =
   1, the ICV is calculated over the fields <hash-function>,
   <cryptographic-function>, <key-id-length>, and -- if present --
   <key-id> (in that order), concatenated with the entire packet,
   including the packet header, all Packet TLVs (other than Packet ICV
   TLVs), and all included Messages and their message headers, in
   accordance with Section 8.1.  When determining the <ICV-value> for a
   packet, with type extension = 2, the same procedure is used, except
   that the source address of the IP datagram carrying the packet is
   also concatenated, in the first position, with the data used.

12.2.2.  Message ICV TLV

   When determining the <ICV-value> for a message, with type extension =
   1, the ICV is calculated over the fields <hash-function>,
   <cryptographic-function>, <key-id-length>, and -- if present --
   <key-id> (in that order), concatenated with the entire message.  The
   considerations in Section 9.1 MUST be applied.  When determining the
   <ICV-value> for a message, with type extension = 2, the same
   procedure is used, except that the source address of the IP datagram
   carrying the message is also concatenated, in the first position,
   with the data used.

12.2.3.  Address Block ICV TLV

   When determining the <ICV-value> for an address, block, with type
   extension = 2, the ICV is calculated over the fields <hash-function>,
   <cryptographic-function>, <key-id-length>, and -- if present --
   <key-id> (in that order), concatenated with the address, and
   concatenated with any other values -- for example, any other address
   block TLV <value> that is associated with that address.  A MANET



Herberg, et al.        Expires September 23, 2013              [Page 11]

Internet-Draft      ICV and Timestamp TLVs for MANETs         March 2013


   routing protocol or MANET routing protocol extension using Address
   Block ICV TLVs MUST specify how to include any such concatenated
   attribute of the address in the verification process of the ICV.  The
   considerations in Section 10.1 MUST be applied.  When determining the
   <ICV-value> for an address block, with type extension = 2, the same
   procedure is used, except that the source address of the IP datagram
   carrying the address block is also concatenated, in the first
   position, with the data used.

12.3.  Example of a Message Including an ICV

   The sample message depicted in Figure 1 is derived from Appendix D of
   [RFC5444].  The message contains an ICV Message TLV, with the value
   representing an ICV that is 16 octets long of the whole message, and
   a key identifier that is 4 octets long.  The type extension of the
   Message TLV is 1, for the specific decomposition of an ICV using a
   cryptographic function and a hash function, as specified in
   Section 12.

      0                   1                   2                   3
      0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     | PV=0 |  PF=8  |    Packet Sequence Number     | Message Type  |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     | MF=15 | MAL=3 |      Message Length = 44      | Msg Orig Addr |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |       Message Originator Address (cont)       |   Hop Limit   |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |   Hop Count   |    Message Sequence Number    | Msg TLV Block |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     | Length = 27   |     ICV       |  MTLVF = 144  |  MTLVExt = 1  |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |Value Len = 23 |   Hash Func   |  Crypto Func  |Key ID length=4|
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |                          Key Identifier                       |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |                          ICV Value                            |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |                          ICV Value (cont)                     |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |                          ICV Value (cont)                     |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |                          ICV Value (cont)                     |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

                    Figure 1: Example Message with ICV





Herberg, et al.        Expires September 23, 2013              [Page 12]

Internet-Draft      ICV and Timestamp TLVs for MANETs         March 2013


13.  IANA Considerations

   This specification reports the following, originally specified in
   [RFC6622]:

   o  Two Packet TLV types, which have been allocated from the 0-223
      range of the "Packet TLV Types" repository of [RFC5444], as
      specified in Table 1.

   o  Two Message TLV types, which have been allocated from the 0-127
      range of the "Message TLV Types" repository of [RFC5444], as
      specified in Table 2.

   o  Two Address Block TLV types, which have been allocated from the
      0-127 range of the "Address Block TLV Types" repository of
      [RFC5444], as specified in Table 3.

   This specification updates the following, created in [RFC6622]:

   o  A type extension registry for each of these TLV types with values
      as listed in Tables 1, 2, and 3.

   The following terms are used as defined in [BCP26]: "Namespace",
   "Registration", and "Designated Expert".

   The following policy is used as defined in [BCP26]: "Expert Review".

13.1.  Expert Review: Evaluation Guidelines

   For TLV type extensions registries where an Expert Review is
   required, the Designated Expert SHOULD take the same general
   recommendations into consideration as those specified by [RFC5444].

   For the Timestamp TLV, the same type extensions for all Packet,
   Message, and Address Block TLVs SHOULD be numbered identically.

13.2.  Packet TLV Type Registrations

   IANA has, in accordance with [RFC6622], made allocations from the
   "Packet TLV Types" namespace of [RFC5444] for the Packet TLVs
   specified in Table 1.  IANA are requested to modify this allocation
   (defining type extension = 2) as indicated.









Herberg, et al.        Expires September 23, 2013              [Page 13]

Internet-Draft      ICV and Timestamp TLVs for MANETs         March 2013


   +-----------+------+-----------+------------------------------------+
   |    Name   | Type |    Type   |             Description            |
   |           |      | Extension |                                    |
   +-----------+------+-----------+------------------------------------+
   |    ICV    |   5  |     0     |           ICV of a packet          |
   |           |      |    1-2    |     ICV, using a cryptographic     |
   |           |      |           |  function and a hash function, as  |
   |           |      |           |   specified in Section 12 of this  |
   |           |      |           |              document              |
   |           |      |   3-251   |      Unassigned; Expert Review     |
   |           |      |  252-255  |          Experimental Use          |
   | TIMESTAMP |   6  |     0     |   Unsigned timestamp of arbitrary  |
   |           |      |           |   length, given by the TLV Length  |
   |           |      |           | field.  The MANET routing protocol |
   |           |      |           |   has to define how to interpret   |
   |           |      |           |           this timestamp           |
   |           |      |     1     |    Unsigned 32-bit timestamp, as   |
   |           |      |           |   specified in [IEEE 1003.1-2008   |
   |           |      |           |              (POSIX)]              |
   |           |      |     2     |  NTP timestamp format, as defined  |
   |           |      |           |            in [RFC5905]            |
   |           |      |     3     |    Signed timestamp of arbitrary   |
   |           |      |           | length with no constraints such as |
   |           |      |           |  monotonicity.  In particular, it  |
   |           |      |           |   may represent any random value   |
   |           |      |   4-251   |      Unassigned; Expert Review     |
   |           |      |  252-255  |          Experimental Use          |
   +-----------+------+-----------+------------------------------------+

                         Table 1: Packet TLV Types

   More than one ICV Packet TLV with the same type extension MAY be
   included in a packet if these represent different ICV calculations
   (e.g., with type extension 1 or 2 and different cryptographic
   function and/or hash function).  ICV Packet TLVs that carry what is
   declared to be the same information MUST NOT be included in the same
   packet.

13.3.  Message TLV Type Registrations

   IANA has, in accordance with [RFC6622], made allocations from the
   "Message TLV Types" namespace of [RFC5444] for the Message TLVs
   specified in Table 2.  IANA are requested to modify this allocation
   (defining type extension = 2) as indicated.







Herberg, et al.        Expires September 23, 2013              [Page 14]

Internet-Draft      ICV and Timestamp TLVs for MANETs         March 2013


   +-----------+------+-----------+------------------------------------+
   |    Name   | Type |    Type   |             Description            |
   |           |      | Extension |                                    |
   +-----------+------+-----------+------------------------------------+
   |    ICV    |   5  |     0     |          ICV of a message          |
   |           |      |    1-2    |     ICV, using a cryptographic     |
   |           |      |           |  function and a hash function, as  |
   |           |      |           |   specified in Section 12 of this  |
   |           |      |           |              document              |
   |           |      |   3-251   |      Unassigned; Expert Review     |
   |           |      |  252-255  |          Experimental Use          |
   | TIMESTAMP |   6  |     0     |   Unsigned timestamp of arbitrary  |
   |           |      |           |   length, given by the TLV Length  |
   |           |      |           |               field.               |
   |           |      |     1     |    Unsigned 32-bit timestamp, as   |
   |           |      |           |   specified in [IEEE 1003.1-2008   |
   |           |      |           |              (POSIX)]              |
   |           |      |     2     |  NTP timestamp format, as defined  |
   |           |      |           |            in [RFC5905]            |
   |           |      |     3     |    Signed timestamp of arbitrary   |
   |           |      |           | length with no constraints such as |
   |           |      |           |  monotonicity.  In particular, it  |
   |           |      |           |   may represent any random value   |
   |           |      |   4-251   |      Unassigned; Expert Review     |
   |           |      |  252-255  |          Experimental Use          |
   +-----------+------+-----------+------------------------------------+

                        Table 2: Message TLV Types

   More than one ICV Message TLV with the same type extension MAY be
   included in a message if these represent different ICV calculations
   (e.g., with type extension 1 or 2 and different cryptographic
   function and/or hash function).  ICV Message TLVs that carry what is
   declared to be the same information MUST NOT be included in the same
   message.

13.4.  Address Block TLV Type Registrations

   IANA has, in accordance with [RFC6622], made allocations from the
   "Address Block TLV Types" namespace of [RFC5444] for the Packet TLVs
   specified in Table 3.  IANA are requested to modify this allocation
   (defining type extension = 2) as indicated.









Herberg, et al.        Expires September 23, 2013              [Page 15]

Internet-Draft      ICV and Timestamp TLVs for MANETs         March 2013


   +-----------+------+-----------+------------------------------------+
   |    Name   | Type |    Type   |             Description            |
   |           |      | Extension |                                    |
   +-----------+------+-----------+------------------------------------+
   |    ICV    |   5  |     0     |     ICV of an object (e.g., an     |
   |           |      |           |              address)              |
   |           |      |    1-2    |     ICV, using a cryptographic     |
   |           |      |           |  function and a hash function, as  |
   |           |      |           |   specified in Section 12 of this  |
   |           |      |           |              document              |
   |           |      |   3-251   |      Unassigned; Expert Review     |
   |           |      |  252-255  |          Experimental Use          |
   | TIMESTAMP |   6  |     0     |   Unsigned timestamp of arbitrary  |
   |           |      |           |   length, given by the TLV Length  |
   |           |      |           |                field               |
   |           |      |     1     |    Unsigned 32-bit timestamp, as   |
   |           |      |           |   specified in [IEEE 1003.1-2008   |
   |           |      |           |              (POSIX)]              |
   |           |      |     2     |  NTP timestamp format, as defined  |
   |           |      |           |            in [RFC5905]            |
   |           |      |     3     |    Signed timestamp of arbitrary   |
   |           |      |           | length with no constraints such as |
   |           |      |           |  monotonicity.  In particular, it  |
   |           |      |           |   may represent any random value   |
   |           |      |   4-251   |      Unassigned; Expert Review     |
   |           |      |  252-255  |          Experimental Use          |
   +-----------+------+-----------+------------------------------------+

                     Table 3: Address Block TLV Types

   More than one ICV Address Block TLV with the same type extension MAY
   be associated with an Address Block if these represent different ICV
   calculations (e.g., with type extension 1 or 2 and different
   cryptographic function and/or hash function).  ICV Address Block TLVs
   that carry what is declared to be the same information MUST NOT be
   associated with the same Address Block.

13.5.  Hash Functions

   IANA has, in accordance with [RFC6622], created a new registry for
   hash functions that can be used when creating an ICV, as specified in
   Section 12 of this document.  The initial assignments and allocation
   policies are specified in Table 4.  This registry is unchanged by
   this specification.







Herberg, et al.        Expires September 23, 2013              [Page 16]

Internet-Draft      ICV and Timestamp TLVs for MANETs         March 2013


   +-------------+-----------+-----------------------------------------+
   |     Hash    | Algorithm |               Description               |
   |   Function  |           |                                         |
   |    Value    |           |                                         |
   +-------------+-----------+-----------------------------------------+
   |      0      |    none   | The "identity function": The hash value |
   |             |           |    of an object is the object itself    |
   |      1      |    SHA1   |            [NIST-FIPS-180-2]            |
   |      2      |   SHA224  |         [NIST-FIPS-180-2-change]        |
   |      3      |   SHA256  |            [NIST-FIPS-180-2]            |
   |      4      |   SHA384  |            [NIST-FIPS-180-2]            |
   |      5      |   SHA512  |            [NIST-FIPS-180-2]            |
   |    6-251    |           |        Unassigned; Expert Review        |
   |   252-255   |           |             Experimental Use            |
   +-------------+-----------+-----------------------------------------+

                      Table 4: Hash Function Registry

13.6.  Cryptographic Functions

   IANA has, in accordance with [RFC6622], created a new registry for
   the cryptographic functions, as specified in Section 12 of this
   document.  Initial assignments and allocation policies are specified
   in Table 5.  This registry is unchanged by this specification.

   +----------------+-----------+--------------------------------------+
   |  Cryptographic | Algorithm |              Description             |
   | Function Value |           |                                      |
   +----------------+-----------+--------------------------------------+
   |        0       |    none   |  The "identity function": The value  |
   |                |           |   of an encrypted hash is the hash   |
   |                |           |                itself                |
   |        1       |    RSA    |               [RFC3447]              |
   |        2       |    DSA    |           [NIST-FIPS-186-3]          |
   |        3       |    HMAC   |               [RFC2104]              |
   |        4       |    3DES   |           [NIST-SP-800-67]           |
   |        5       |    AES    |            [NIST-FIPS-197]           |
   |        6       |   ECDSA   |           [ANSI-X9-62-2005]          |
   |      7-251     |           |       Unassigned; Expert Review      |
   |     252-255    |           |           Experimental Use           |
   +----------------+-----------+--------------------------------------+

                 Table 5: Cryptographic Function Registry








Herberg, et al.        Expires September 23, 2013              [Page 17]

Internet-Draft      ICV and Timestamp TLVs for MANETs         March 2013


14.  Security Considerations

   This document does not specify a protocol.  It provides a syntactical
   component for cryptographic ICVs of messages and packets, as defined
   in [RFC5444].  It can be used to address security issues of a MANET
   routing protocol or MANET routing protocol extension.  As such, it
   has the same security considerations as [RFC5444].

   In addition, a MANET routing protocol or MANET routing protocol
   extension that uses this specification MUST specify how to use the
   framework, and the TLVs presented in this document.  In addition, the
   protection that the MANET routing protocol or MANET routing protocol
   extensions attain by using this framework MUST be described.

   As an example, a MANET routing protocol that uses this component to
   reject "badly formed" or "insecure" messages if a control message
   does not contain a valid ICV SHOULD indicate the security assumption
   that if the ICV is valid, the message is considered valid.  It also
   SHOULD indicate the security issues that are counteracted by this
   measure (e.g., link or identity spoofing) as well as the issues that
   are not counteracted (e.g., compromised keys).

15.  Acknowledgements

   The authors would like to thank Bo Berry (Cisco), Alan Cullen (BAE
   Systems), Justin Dean (NRL), Paul Lambert (Marvell), Jerome Milan
   (Ecole Polytechnique), and Henning Rogge (FGAN) for their
   constructive comments on [RFC6622].

   The authors also appreciate the detailed reviews of [RFC6622] from
   the Area Directors, in particular Stewart Bryant (Cisco), Stephen
   Farrell (Trinity College Dublin), and Robert Sparks (Tekelec), as
   well as Donald Eastlake (Huawei) from the Security Directorate.

16.  References

16.1.  Normative References

   [BCP26]                     Narten, T. and H. Alvestrand, "Guidelines
                               for Writing an IANA Considerations
                               Section in RFCs", BCP 26, RFC 5226,
                               May 2008.

   [RFC2119]                   Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs
                               to Indicate Requirement Levels", BCP 14,
                               RFC 2119, March 1997.

   [RFC5444]                   Clausen, T., Dearlove, C., Dean, J., and



Herberg, et al.        Expires September 23, 2013              [Page 18]

Internet-Draft      ICV and Timestamp TLVs for MANETs         March 2013


                               C. Adjih, "Generalized Mobile Ad Hoc
                               Network (MANET) Packet/Message Format",
                               RFC 5444, February 2009.

   [RFC5905]                   Mills, D., Martin, J., Ed., Burbank, J.,
                               and W. Kasch, "Network Time Protocol
                               Version 4: Protocol and Algorithms
                               Specification", RFC 5905, June 2010.

   [RFC3447]                   Jonsson, J. and B. Kaliski, "Public-Key
                               Cryptography Standards (PKCS) #1: RSA
                               Cryptography Specifications Version 2.1",
                               RFC 3447, February 2003.

   [RFC2104]                   Krawczyk, H., Bellare, M., and R.
                               Canetti, "HMAC: Keyed-Hashing for Message
                               Authentication", RFC 2104, February 1997.

   [NIST-FIPS-197]             National Institute of Standards and
                               Technology, "Specification for the
                               Advanced Encryption Standard (AES)",
                               FIPS 197, November 2001.

   [NIST-FIPS-186-3]           National Institute of Standards and
                               Technology, "Digital Signature Standard
                               (DSS)", FIPS 186-3, June 2009.

   [ANSI-X9-62-2005]           American National Standards Institute,
                               "Public Key Cryptography for the
                               Financial Services Industry: The Elliptic
                               Curve Digital Signature Algorithm
                               (ECDSA)", ANSI X9.62-2005, November 2005.

   [NIST-SP-800-67]            National Institute of Standards and
                               Technology, "Recommendation for the
                               Triple Data Encryption Algorithm
                               (TDEA) Block Cipher", Special
                               Publication 800-67, May 2004.

   [NIST-FIPS-180-2]           National Institute of Standards and
                               Technology, "Specifications for the
                               Secure Hash Standard", FIPS 180-2,
                               August 2002.

   [NIST-FIPS-180-2-change]    National Institute of Standards and
                               Technology, "Federal Information
                               Processing Standards Publication 180-2 (+
                               Change Notice to include SHA-224)",



Herberg, et al.        Expires September 23, 2013              [Page 19]

Internet-Draft      ICV and Timestamp TLVs for MANETs         March 2013


                               FIPS 180-2, August 2002.

   [IEEE 1003.1-2008 (POSIX)]  IEEE Computer Society, "1003.1-2008
                               Standard for Information Technology -
                               Portable Operating System Interface
                               (POSIX) Base Specifications, Issue 7",
                               December 2008.

16.2.  Informative References

   [RFC6130]                   Clausen, T., Dearlove, C., and J. Dean,
                               "Mobile Ad Hoc Network (MANET)
                               Neighborhood Discovery Protocol (NHDP)",
                               RFC 6130, April 2011.

   [RFC6622]                   Herberg, U. and T. Clausen, "Integrity
                               Check Value and Timestamp TLV Definitions
                               for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks (MANETs)",
                               RFC 6622, May 2012.

   [OLSRv2]                    Clausen, T., Dearlove, C., Jacquet, P.,
                               and U. Herberg, "The Optimized Link State
                               Routing Protocol version 2", Work
                               in Progress, March 2012.

Authors' Addresses

   Ulrich Herberg
   Fujitsu Laboratories of America
   1240 E. Arques Ave.
   Sunnyvale, CA  94085
   USA

   EMail: ulrich@herberg.name
   URI:   http://www.herberg.name/


   Thomas Heide Clausen
   LIX, Ecole Polytechnique
   91128 Palaiseau Cedex
   France

   Phone: +33 6 6058 9349
   EMail: T.Clausen@computer.org
   URI:   http://www.thomasclausen.org/






Herberg, et al.        Expires September 23, 2013              [Page 20]

Internet-Draft      ICV and Timestamp TLVs for MANETs         March 2013


   Christopher Dearlove
   BAE Systems ATC

   Phone: +44 1245 242194
   EMail: chris.dearlove@baesystems.com
   URI:   http://www.baesystems.com/













































Herberg, et al.        Expires September 23, 2013              [Page 21]


Html markup produced by rfcmarkup 1.109, available from https://tools.ietf.org/tools/rfcmarkup/