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Network Working Group                                      G. Bumgardner
Internet-Draft                                                     Cisco
Intended status: Standards Track                           June 12, 2012
Expires: December 14, 2012


                     Automatic Multicast Tunneling
                  draft-ietf-mboned-auto-multicast-14

Abstract

   This document describes Automatic Multicast Tunneling (AMT), a
   protocol for delivering multicast traffic from sources in a
   multicast-enabled network to receivers that lack multicast
   connectivity to the source network.  The protocol uses UDP
   encapsulation and unicast replication to provide this functionality.

   The AMT protocol is specifically designed to support rapid deployment
   by requiring minimal changes to existing network infrastructure.

Status of this Memo

   This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the
   provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.

   Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
   Task Force (IETF).  Note that other groups may also distribute
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   Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
   and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any
   time.  It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
   material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."

   This Internet-Draft will expire on December 14, 2012.

Copyright Notice

   Copyright (c) 2012 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
   document authors.  All rights reserved.

   This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
   Provisions Relating to IETF Documents
   (http://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of
   publication of this document.  Please review these documents
   carefully, as they describe your rights and restrictions with respect
   to this document.  Code Components extracted from this document must



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   include Simplified BSD License text as described in Section 4.e of
   the Trust Legal Provisions and are provided without warranty as
   described in the Simplified BSD License.

   This document may contain material from IETF Documents or IETF
   Contributions published or made publicly available before November
   10, 2008.  The person(s) controlling the copyright in some of this
   material may not have granted the IETF Trust the right to allow
   modifications of such material outside the IETF Standards Process.
   Without obtaining an adequate license from the person(s) controlling
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   than English.


Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  3
   2.  Applicability  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  4
   3.  Terminology  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  5
     3.1.  Requirements Notation  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  5
     3.2.  Definitions  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  5
     3.3.  Abbreviations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  6
   4.  Protocol Overview  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  8
     4.1.  General Architecture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  8
     4.2.  General Operation  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
   5.  Protocol Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
     5.1.  Protocol Messages  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
     5.2.  Gateway Operation  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
     5.3.  Relay Operation  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62
   6.  Security Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73
   7.  IANA Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76
     7.2.  IPv4 Address Prefix Allocation for IGMP Source
           Addresses  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76
   8.  Contributors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77
   9.  Acknowledgments  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78
   10. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79
     10.1. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79
     10.2. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79
   Appendix A.  Implementation Notes  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82
   Author's Address . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85








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1.  Introduction

   The advantages and benefits provided by multicast technologies are
   well known.  There are a number of application areas that are ideal
   candidates for the use of multicast, including media broadcasting,
   video conferencing, collaboration, real-time data feeds, data
   replication, and software updates.  Unfortunately, many of these
   applications lack multicast connectivity to networks that carry
   traffic generated by multicast sources.  The reasons for the lack of
   connectivity vary, but are primarily the result of service provider
   policies and network limitations.

   Automatic Multicast Tunneling (AMT) is a protocol that uses UDP-based
   encapsulation to overcome the aforementioned lack of multicast
   connectivity.  AMT enables sites, hosts or applications that do not
   have native multicast access to a network with multicast connectivity
   to a source, to request and receive SSM [RFC4607] and ASM [RFC1112]
   traffic from a network that does provide multicast connectivity to
   that source.
































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2.  Applicability

   This document describes a protocol that may be used to deliver
   multicast traffic from a multicast enabled network to sites that lack
   multicast connectivity to the source network.  This document does not
   describe any methods for sourcing multicast traffic from isolated
   sites as this topic is out of scope.

   AMT is not intended to be used as a substitute for native multicast,
   especially in conditions or environments requiring high traffic flow.
   AMT uses unicast replication to reach multiple receivers and the
   bandwidth cost for this replication will be higher than that required
   if the receivers were reachable via native multicast.






































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3.  Terminology

3.1.  Requirements Notation

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
   document are to be interpreted as described in [RFC2119].

3.2.  Definitions

   This document adopts the following definitions for use in describing
   the protocol:

   Downstream:
      A downstream interface or connection that faces away from the
      multicast distribution root or towards multicast receivers.

   Upstream:
      An upstream interface or connection that faces a multicast
      distribution root or source.

   Non-Broadcast Multi-Access (NMBA):
      A non-broadcast multiple-access (NBMA) network or interface is one
      to which multiple network nodes (hosts or routers) are attached,
      but where packets are transmitted directly from one node to
      another node over a virtual circuit or physical link.  NBMA
      networks do not support multicast or broadcast traffic - a node
      that sources multicast traffic must replicate the multicast
      packets for separate transmission to each node that has requested
      the multicast traffic.

   Multicast Receiver:
      An entity that requests and receives multicast traffic.  A
      receiver may be a router, host, application, or application
      component.  The method by which a receiver transmits group
      membership requests and receives multicast traffic varies
      according to receiver type.

   Group Membership Database:
      A group membership database describes the current multicast
      subscription/reception sate for an interface or system.

   Reception State:
      The multicast subscription state of a pseudo, virtual or physical
      network interface.  See group membership database.






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   Subscription:
      A group or state entry in a group membership database or reception
      state table.

   Group Membership Protocol:
      The term "group membership protocol" is used as a generic
      reference to the Internet Group Management (IGMP) ([RFC1112],
      [RFC2236], [RFC3376]) or Multicast Listener Discovery ([RFC2710],
      [RFC3810]) protocols.

   Multicast Protocol:
      The term "multicast protocol" is used as a generic reference to
      multicast routing protocols used to join or leave multicast
      distribution trees such as PIM-SM [RFC4601].

   Network Address Translation (NAT):
      Network Address Translation is the process of modifying the source
      IP address and port numbers carried by an IP packet while
      transiting a network node (See [RFC2663]).  Intervening NAT
      devices may change the source address and port carried by messages
      sent from an AMT gateway to an AMT relay, possibly producing
      changes in protocol state and behavior.

   Anycast:
      A network addressing and routing method in which packets from a
      single sender are routed to the topologically nearest node in a
      group of potential receivers all identified by the same
      destination address.  See [RFC4786].

3.3.  Abbreviations

      AMT - Automatic Multicast Tunneling Protocol.

      ASM - Any-Source Multicast.

      DoS - Denial-of-Service (attack) and DDoS for distributed-DoS.

      IGMP - Internet Group Management Protocol (v1, v2 and v3).

      IP - Internet Protocol (v4 and v6).

      MAC - Message Authentication Code (or Cookie).

      MLD - Multicast Listener Discovery protocol (v1 and v2).

      NAT - Network Address Translation (or translation node).





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      NBMA - Non-Broadcast Multi-Access (network, interface or mode)

      SSM - Source-Specific Multicast.

      PIM - Protocol Independent Multicast.














































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4.  Protocol Overview

   This section provides an informative description of the protocol.  A
   normative description of the protocol and implementation requirements
   may be found in section Section 5.

4.1.  General Architecture

  Isolated Site  |     Unicast Network    |  Native Multicast
                 |       (Internet)       |
                 |                        |
                 |                        |
                 |    Group Membership    |
      +-------+ ===========================> +-------+ Multicast +------+
      |Gateway|  |                        |  | Relay |<----//----|Source|
      +-------+ <=========================== +-------+           +------+
                 |     Multicast Data     |
                 |                        |
                 |                        |

                     Figure 1: Basic AMT Architecture

   The AMT protocol employs a client-server model in which a "gateway"
   sends requests to receive specific multicast traffic to a "relay"
   which responds by delivering the requested multicast traffic back to
   the gateway.

   Gateways are generally deployed within networks that lack multicast
   support or lack connectivity to a multicast-enabled network
   containing multicast sources of interest.

   Relays are deployed within multicast-enabled networks that contain,
   or have connectivity to, multicast sources.

4.1.1.  Relationship to IGMP and MLD Protocols

   AMT relies on the Internet Group Management (IGMP) [RFC3376] and
   Multicast Listener Discovery (MLD) [RFC3810] protocols to provide the
   functionality required to manage, communicate, and act on changes in
   multicast group membership.  A gateway or relay implementation does
   not necessarily require a fully-functional, conforming implementation
   of IGMP or MLD to adhere to this specification, but the protocol
   description that appears in this document assumes that this is the
   case.  The minimum functional and behavioral requirements for the
   IGMP and MLD protocols are described in Section 5.2.1 and
   Section 5.3.1.





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                  Gateway                         Relay

                    General _____         _____
        ___________  Query |     |       |     | Query  ___________
       |           |<------|     |       |     |<------|           |
       | Host Mode |       | AMT |       | AMT |       |Router Mode|
       | IGMP/MLD  |       |     |  UDP  |     |       | IGMP/MLD  |
       |___________|------>|     |<----->|     |------>|___________|
                    Report |     |       |     | Report
                Leave/Done |     |       |     | Leave/Done
                           |     |       |     |
       IP Multicast <------|     |       |     |<------ IP Multicast
                           |_____|       |_____|

               Multicast Reception State Managed By IGMP/MLD

   A gateway runs the host portion of the IGMP and MLD protocols to
   generate group membership updates that are sent via AMT messages to a
   relay.  A relay runs the router portion of the IGMP and MLD protocols
   to process the group membership updates to produce the required
   changes in multicast forwarding state.  A relay uses AMT messages to
   send incoming multicast IP datagrams to gateways according to their
   current group membership state.

   The primary function of AMT is to provide the handshaking,
   encapsulation and decapsulation required to transport the IGMP and
   MLD messages and multicast IP datagrams between the gateways and
   relays.  The IGMP and MLD messages that are exchanged between
   gateways and relays are encapsulated as complete IP datagrams within
   AMT control messages.  Multicast IP datagrams are replicated and
   encapsulated in AMT data messages.  All AMT messages are sent via
   unicast UDP/IP.

4.1.2.  Gateways

   The downstream side of a gateway services one or more receivers - the
   gateway accepts group membership requests from receivers and forwards
   requested multicast traffic back to those receivers.

   The upstream side of a gateway connects to relays.  A gateway sends
   encapsulated IGMP and MLD messages to a relay to indicate an interest
   in receiving specific multicast traffic.









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4.1.2.1.  Architecture

   Each gateway possesses a logical pseudo-interface:

      join/leave ---+                   +----------+
                    |                   |          |
                    V      IGMPv3/MLDv2 |          |
               +---------+ General Query|          |   AMT
               |IGMP/MLD |<-------------|   AMT    | Messages +------+
               |Host Mode|              | Gateway  |<-------->|UPD/IP|
               |Protocol |------------->|Pseudo I/F|          +------+
               +---------+   IGMP/MLD   |          |             ^
                              Report    |          |             |
                            Leave/Done  |          |             V
     IP Multicast <---------------------|          |           +---+
                                        +----------+           |I/F|
                                                               +---+

                  Figure 2: AMT Gateway Pseudo-Interface

   The pseudo-interface is conceptually a network interface on which the
   gateway executes the host portion of the IPv4/IGMP (v2 or v3) and
   IPv6/MLD (v1 or v2) protocols.  The multicast reception state of the
   pseudo-interface is manipulated using the IGMP or MLD service
   interface.  The IGMP and MLD host protocols produce IP datagrams
   containing group membership messages that the gateway will send to
   the relay.  The IGMP and MLD protocols also supply the retransmission
   and timing behavior required for protocol robustness.

   All AMT encapsulation, decapsulation and relay interaction is assumed
   to occur within the pseudo-interface.

   A gateway host or application may create separate interfaces for
   IPv4/IGMP and IPv6/MLD.  A gateway host or application may also
   require additional pseudo-interfaces for each source or domain-
   specific relay address.

   Within this document, the term "gateway" may be used as a generic
   reference to an entity executing the gateway protocol, a gateway
   pseudo-interface, or a gateway device that has one or more interfaces
   connected to a unicast inter-network and one or more AMT gateway
   pseudo-interfaces.









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   The following diagram illustrates how an existing host IP stack
   implementation might be used to provide AMT gateway functionality to
   a multicast application:

           +-----------------------------------------------------+
           |Host                                                 |
           |    ______________________________________           |
           |   |                                      |          |
           |   |    ___________________________       |          |
           |   |   |                           |      |          |
           |   |   |                           v      |          |
           |   |   |        +-----------+  +--------------+      |
           |   |   |        |Application|  |  AMT Daemon  |      |
           |   |   |        +-----------+  +--------------+      |
           |   |   | join/leave |   ^ data        ^ AMT          |
           |   |   |            |   |             |              |
           |   |   |       +----|---|-------------|-+            |
           |   |   |       |  __|   |_________    | |            |
           |   |   |       | |                |   | |            |
           |   |   |       | |       Sockets  |   | |            |
           |   |   |       +-|------+-------+-|---|-+            |
           |   |   |       | | IGMP |  TCP  | |UDP| |            |
           |   |   |       +-|------+-------+-|---|-+            |
           |   |   |       | | ^       IP     |   | |            |
           |   |   |       | | |  ____________|   | |            |
           |   |   |       | | | |                | |            |
           |   |   |       +-|-|-|----------------|-+            |
           |   |   |         | | |                |              |
           |   |   | IP(IGMP)| | |IP(UDP(data))   |IP(UDP(AMT))  |
           |   |   |         v | |                v              |
           |   |   |     +-----------+          +---+            |
           |   |   |     |Virtual I/F|          |I/F|            |
           |   |   |     +-----------+          +---+            |
           |   |   |         |   ^                ^              |
           |   |   | IP(IGMP)|   |IP(UDP(data))   |              |
           |   |   |_________|   |IP(IGMP)        |              |
           |   |                 |                |              |
           |   |_________________|                |              |
           |                                      |              |
           +--------------------------------------|--------------+
                                                  v
                                              AMT Relay

                 Virtual Interface Implementation Example

   In this example, the host IP stack uses a virtual network interface
   to interact with a gateway pseudo-interface implementation.




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4.1.2.2.  Use-Cases

   Use-cases for gateway functionality include:

   IGMP/MLD Proxy
      An IGMP/MLD proxy that runs AMT on an upstream interface and
      router-mode IGMP/MLD on downstream interfaces to provide host
      access to multicast traffic via the IGMP and MLD protocols.

   Virtual Network Interface
      A virtual network interface or pseudo network device driver that
      runs AMT on a physical network interface to provide socket layer
      access to multicast traffic via the IGMP/MLD service interface
      provided by the host IP stack.

   Application
      An application or application component that implements and
      executes IGMP/MLD and AMT internally to gain access to multicast
      traffic.

4.1.3.  Relays

   The downstream side of a relay services gateways - the relay accepts
   encapsulated IGMP and MLD group membership messages from gateways and
   encapsulates and forwards the requested multicast traffic back to
   those gateways.

   The upstream side of a relay communicates with a native multicast
   infrastructure - the relay sends join and prune/leave requests
   towards multicast sources and accepts requested multicast traffic
   from those sources.




















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4.1.3.1.  Architecture

   Each relay possesses a logical pseudo-interface:

                                      +------------------------------+
                    +--------+        | Multicast Control Plane      |
                    |        |IGMP/MLD|                              |
                    |        | Query* | +------------+  +----------+ |
                    |        |<---//----|IGMPv3/MLDv2|  |          | |
             AMT    |        |        | |Router Mode |->|  PIM-SM  |<-->
  +------+ Messages | AMT    |----//--->|Protocol    |  |          | |
  |UDP/IP|<-------->| Relay  |IGMP/MLD| +------------+  +----------+ |
  +------+          | Pseudo | Report |      |               |       |
     ^              | I/F    | Leave/ +------|---------------|-------+
     |              |        |  Done         |               |
     |              |        |               v               |
     V              |        | IP        +-----------+       |
   +---+            |        | Multicast |Multicast  |<------+
   |I/F|            |        |<---//-----|Forwarding |
   +---+            +--------+           |Plane      |<--- IP Multicast
                                         +-----------+

   * Queries, if generated, are consumed by the pseudo-interface.

                 AMT Relay Pseudo-Interface (Router-Based)

   The pseudo-interface is conceptually a network interface on which the
   relay runs the router portion of the IPv4/IGMPv3 and IPv6/MLDv2
   protocols.  Relays do not send unsolicited IGMPv3/MLDv2 query
   messages to gateways so relays must consume or discard any local
   queries normally generated by IGMPv3 or MLDv2.

   A relay maintains group membership state for each gateway connected
   through the pseudo-interface as well as for the entire pseudo-
   interface (if multiple gateways are managed via a single interface).
   Multicast packets received on upstream interfaces on the relay are
   routed to the pseudo-interface where they are replicated,
   encapsulated and sent to interested gateways.  Changes in the pseudo-
   interface group membership state may trigger the transmission of
   multicast protocol requests upstream towards a given source or
   rendezvous point and cause changes in internal routing/forwarding
   state.

   The relay pseudo-interface is a architectural abstraction used to
   describe AMT protocol operation.  For the purposes of this document,
   the pseudo-interface is most easily viewed as an interface to a
   single gateway - encapsulation, decapsulation, and other AMT-specific
   processing occurs "within" the pseudo-interface while forwarding and



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   replication occur outside of it.

   An alternative view is to treat the pseudo-interface as a non-
   broadcast multi-access (NBMA) network interface whose link layer is
   the unicast-only network over which AMT messages are exchanged with
   gateways.  Individual gateways are conceptually treated as logical
   NBMA links on the interface.  In this architectural model, group
   membership tracking, replication and forwarding functions occur in
   the pseudo-interface.

   This document does not specify any particular architectural solution
   - a relay developer may choose to implement and distribute protocol
   functionality as required to take advantage of existing relay
   platform services and architecture.

   Within this document, the term "relay" may be used as a generic
   reference to an entity executing the relay protocol, a relay pseudo-
   interface, or a relay device that has one or more network interfaces
   with multicast connectivity to a native multicast infrastructure,
   zero or more interfaces connected to a unicast inter-network, and one
   or more relay pseudo-interfaces.

4.1.3.2.  Use-Cases

   Use-cases for relay functionality include:

   Multicast Router
      A multicast router that runs AMT on a downstream interface to
      provide gateway access to multicast traffic.  A "relay router"
      uses a multicast routing protocol (e.g.  PIM-SM RFC4601 [RFC4601])
      to construct a forwarding path for multicast traffic by sending
      join and prune messages to neighboring routers to join or leave
      multicast distribution trees for a given SSM source or ASM
      rendezvous point.

   IGMP/MLD Proxy Router
      An IGMP/MLD proxy that runs AMT on a downstream interface and
      host-mode IGMPv3/MLDv2 on a upstream interface.  This "relay
      proxy" sends group membership reports to a local, multicast-
      enabled router to join and leave specific SSM or ASM groups.

4.1.4.  Deployment

   The AMT protocol calls for a relay deployment model that uses anycast
   addressing [RFC1546][RFC4291] to pair gateways with relays.

   Under this approach, one or more relays advertise a route for the
   same IP address prefix.  To find a relay with which to communicate, a



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   gateway sends a message to an anycast IP address within that prefix.
   This message is routed to the topologically-nearest relay that has
   advertised the prefix.  The relay that receives the message responds
   by sending its unicast address back to the gateway.  The gateway uses
   this address as the destination address for any messages it
   subsequently sends to the relay.

   The use of anycast addressing provides the following benefits:

   o  Relays may be deployed at multiple locations within a single
      multicast-enabled network.  Relays might be installed "near"
      gateways to reduce bandwidth requirements, latency and limit the
      number of gateways that might be serviced by a single relay.

   o  Relays may be added or removed at any time thereby allowing staged
      deployment, scaling and hot-swapping - the relay discovery process
      will always return the nearest operational relay.

   o  Relays may take themselves offline when they exhaust resources
      required to service additional gateways.  Existing gateway
      connections may be preserved, but new gateway requests would be
      routed to the next-nearest relay.

4.1.4.1.  Public Versus Private

   Ideally, the AMT protocol would provide a universal solution for
   connecting receivers to multicast sources - that any gateway could be
   used to access any globally advertised multicast source via publicly-
   accessible, widely-deployed relays.  Unfortunately, today's Internet
   does not yet allow this, because many relays will lack native
   multicast access to sources even though they may be globally
   accessible via unicast.

   In these cases, a provider may deploy relays within their own source
   network to allow for multicast distribution within that network.
   Gateways that use these relays must use a provider-specific relay
   discovery mechanism or a private anycast address to obtain access to
   these relays.

4.1.5.  Discovery

   To execute the gateway portion of the protocol, a gateway requires a
   unicast IP address of an operational relay.  This address may be
   obtained using a number of methods - it may be statically assigned or
   dynamically chosen via some form of relay discovery process.

   As described in the previous section, the AMT protocol provides a
   relay discovery method that relies on anycast addressing.  Gateways



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   are not required to use AMT relay discovery, but all relay
   implementations must support it.

   The AMT protocol uses the following terminology when describing the
   discovery process:

   Relay Discovery Address Prefix:
      The anycast address prefix used to route discovery messages to a
      relay.

   Relay Discovery Address:
      The anycast destination address used when sending discovery
      messages.

   Relay Address:
      The unicast IP address obtained as a result of the discovery
      process.

4.1.5.1.  Relay Discovery Address Selection

   The selection of an anycast Relay Discovery Address may be source-
   dependent, as a relay located via relay discovery must have multicast
   connectivity to a desired source.

   Similarly, the selection of a unicast Relay address may be source-
   dependent, as a relay contacted by a gateway to supply multicast
   traffic must have native multicast connectivity to the traffic source

   Methods that might be used to perform source-specific or group-
   specific relay selection are highly implementation-dependent and are
   not further addressed by this document.  Possible approaches include
   the use of static lookup tables, DNS-based queries, or a provision of
   a service interface that accepts join requests on (S,G,relay-
   discovery-address) or (S,G,relay-address) tuples.

4.1.5.2.  IANA-Assigned Relay Discovery Address Prefix

   This document calls for IANA to allocate an anycast address prefix
   for use in advertising and discovering publicly accessible relays.

   A relay discovery address is constructed from the anycast address
   prefix by setting the low-order octet of the prefix address to 1 (for
   both IPv4 and IPv6).

   Public relays must advertise a route to the anycast address prefix
   and configure an interface to respond to the relay discovery address.

   The IANA address assignments are discussed in Section 7.



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4.2.  General Operation

4.2.1.  Message Sequences

   The AMT protocol defines the following messages for control and
   encapsulation.  These messages are exchanged as UDP/IP datagrams, one
   message per datagram.

   Relay Discovery:
      Sent by gateways to solicit a Relay Advertisement from any relay.
      Used to find a relay with which to communicate.

   Relay Advertisement:
      Sent by relays as a response to a Relay Discovery message.  Used
      to deliver a relay address to a gateway.

   Request:
      Sent by gateways to solicit a Membership Query message from a
      relay.

   Membership Query:
      Sent by relays as a response to a Request message.  Used to
      deliver an encapsulated IGMPv3 or MLDv2 query message to the
      gateway.

   Membership Update:
      Sent by gateways to deliver an encapsulated IGMP or MLD report/
      leave/done message to a relay.

   Multicast Data:
      Sent by relays to deliver an encapsulated IP multicast datagram or
      datagram fragment to a gateway.

   Teardown:
      Sent by gateways to stop the delivery of Multicast Data messages
      requested in an earlier Membership Update message.

   The following sections describe how these messages are exchanged to
   execute the protocol.












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4.2.1.1.  Relay Discovery Sequence

                       Gateway               Relay
                       -------               -----
                          :                    :
                          |                    |
                      [1] |Relay Discovery     |
                          |------------------->|
                          |                    |
                          | Relay Advertisement| [2]
                          |<-------------------|
                      [3] |                    |
                          :                    :

                       AMT Relay Discovery Sequence

   The following sequence describes how the Relay Discovery and Relay
   Advertisement messages are used to find a relay with which to
   communicate:

   1.  The gateway sends a Relay Discovery message containing a random
       nonce to the Relay Discovery Address.  If the Relay Discovery
       Address is an anycast address, the message is routed to
       topologically-nearest network node that advertises that address.

   2.  The node receiving the Relay Discovery message sends a Relay
       Advertisement message back to the source of the Relay Discovery
       message.  The message carries a copy of the nonce contained in
       the Relay Discovery message and the unicast IP address of a
       relay.

   3.  When the gateway receives the Relay Advertisement message it
       verifies that the nonce matches the one sent in the Relay
       Discovery message, and if it does, uses the relay address carried
       by the Relay Advertisement as the destination address for
       subsequent AMT messages.

   Note that the responder need not be a relay - the responder may
   obtain a relay address by some other means and return the result in
   the Relay Advertisement (i.e., the responder is a load-balancer or
   broker).

4.2.1.2.  Membership Update Sequence

   There exists a significant difference between normal IGMP and MLD
   behavior and that required by AMT.  An IGMP/MLD router acting as a
   querier normally transmits query messages on a network interface to
   construct and refresh group membership state for the connected



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   network.  These query messages are multicast to all IGMP/MLD enabled
   hosts on the network.  Each host responds by multicasting report
   messages that describe their current multicast reception state.

   However, AMT does not allow relays to send unsolicited query messages
   to gateways, as the set of active gateways may be unknown to the
   relay and potentially quite large.  Instead, AMT requires each
   gateway to periodically send a message to a relay to solicit a
   general-query response.  A gateway accomplishes this by sending a
   Request message to a relay.  The relay responds by sending Membership
   Query message back to the gateway.  The Membership Query message
   carries an encapsulated general query that is processed by the IGMP
   or MLD protocol implementation on the gateway to produce a
   membership/listener report.  Each time the gateway receives a
   Membership Query message it starts a timer whose expiration will
   trigger the start of a new Request->Membership Query message
   exchange.  This timer-driven sequence is used to mimic the
   transmission of a periodic general query by an IGMP/MLD router.  This
   query cycle may continue indefinitely once started by sending the
   initial Request message.

   A membership update occurs when an IGMP or MLD report, leave or done
   message is passed to the gateway pseudo-interface.  These messages
   may be produced as a result of the aforementioned general-query
   processing or as a result of receiver interaction with the IGMP/MLD
   service interface.  Each report is encapsulated and sent to the relay
   after the gateway has successfully established communication with the
   relay via a Request and Membership Query message exchange.  If a
   report is passed to the pseudo-interface before the gateway has
   received a Membership Query message from the relay, the gateway may
   discard the report or queue the report for delivery after a
   Membership Query is received.  Subsequent IGMP/MLD report/leave/done
   messages that are passed to the pseudo-interface are immediately
   encapsulated and transmitted to the relay.

















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          IGMP/MLD              Pseudo-I/F              Relay
          --------              ----------              -----
              :                     :                     :
              |                     |       Request       |
              |                    1|-------------------->|
              |                     |  Membership Query   |2
    Query     |                     |       Q(0,{})       |
    Timer     |         Start      3|<--------------------|
     (QT)<--------------------------|                     |
              |        Q(0,{})      |                     |
              |<--------------------|                     |
             4|         R({})       |  Membership Update  |
              |-------------------->|5       R({})        |
              |                     |====================>|6a
    Join(S,G) :                     :                     :
  ()--------->|7 R({G:ALLOW({S})})  |  Membership Update  |
              |-------------------->|8  R({G:ALLOW({S})}) |
              |                     |====================>|9a  Join(S,G)
              |                     |                     |---------->()
              :                     :                     :
              |         ------------|---------------------|------------
              |        |            |                     |            |
              |        |            |    Multicast Data   |  IP(S,G)   |
              |        |            |       IP(S,G)     10|<--------() |
              |        |  IP(S,G) 11|<====================|            |
              |        | ()<--------|                     |            |
              |        |            |                     |            |
              :         ------------:---------------------:------------
              |       Expired       |                     |
     (QT)-------------------------->|12      Request      |
              |                    1|-------------------->|
              |                     |  Membership Query   |2
              |                     |       Q(0,{})       |
              |        Start       3|<--------------------|
     (QT)<--------------------------|                     |
              |       Q(0,{})       |                     |
              |<--------------------|                     |
             4| R({G:INCLUDE({S})}) |  Membership Update  |
              |-------------------->|5 R({G:INCLUDE({S})})|
              |                     |====================>|6b
   Leave(S,G) :                     :                     :
  ()--------->|7 R({G:BLOCK({S})})  |  Membership Update  |
              |-------------------->|8  R({G:BLOCK({S})}) |
              |                     |====================>|9b Prune(S,G)
              |                     |                     |---------->()
              :                     :                     :

             Membership Update Sequence (IGMPv3/MLDv2 Example)



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   The following sequence describes how the Request, Membership Query,
   and Membership Update messages are used to report current group
   membership state or changes in group membership state:

   1.   A gateway sends a Request message to the relay that contains a
        random nonce and a flag indicating whether the relay should
        return an IGMPv3 or MLDv2 general query.

   2.   When the relay receives a Request message, it generates a
        message authentication code (MAC) by computing a hash value from
        a private secret and the nonce, source IP address, and source
        UDP port carried by the Request message.  The relay then sends a
        Membership Query message to the gateway that contains the
        request nonce, the MAC, and an IGMPv3 or MLDv2 general query.

   3.   When the gateway receives a Membership Query message, it
        verifies that the request nonce matches the one sent in the last
        Request, and if it does, the gateway saves the request nonce and
        MAC for use in sending subsequent Membership Update messages.
        The gateway starts a timer whose expiration will trigger the
        transmission of a new Request message and extracts the
        encapsulated general query message for processing by the IGMP or
        MLD protocol.  The query timer duration is specified by the
        relay in the QQIC field in the IGMPv3 or MLDv2 general query.

   4.   The gateway's IGMP or MLD protocol implementation processes the
        general query to produce a current-state report.

   5.   When an IGMP or MLD report is passed to the pseudo-interface,
        the gateway encapsulates the report in a Membership Update
        message and sends it to the relay.  The request nonce and MAC
        fields in the Membership Update are assigned the values from the
        last Membership Query message received for the corresponding
        group membership protocol (IGMPv3 or MLDv2).

   6.   When the relay receives a Membership Update message, it computes
        a MAC from a private secret and the request nonce, source IP
        address, and source UDP port carried by the message.  The relay
        accepts the Membership Update message if the received MAC
        matches the computed MAC, otherwise the message is ignored.  If
        the message is accepted, the relay may proceed to allocate,
        refresh, or modify tunnel state.  This includes making any group
        membership, routing and forwarding state changes and issuing any
        upstream protocol requests required to satisfy the state change.
        The diagram illustrates two scenarios:

        A.  The gateway has not previously reported any group
            subscriptions and the report does not contain any group



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            subscriptions, so the relay takes no action.

        B.  The gateway has previously reported a group subscription so
            the current-state report lists all current subscriptions.
            The relay responds by refreshing tunnel or group state and
            resetting any related timers.

   7.   A receiver indicates to the gateway that it wishes to join
        (allow) or leave (block) specific multicast traffic.  This
        request is typically made using some form IGMP/MLD service
        interface (as described in Section 2 of [RFC3376] or Section 3
        of [RFC3810]).  The IGMP/MLD protocol responds by generating an
        IGMP or MLD state-change message.

   8.   When an IGMP or MLD report/leave/done message is passed to the
        pseudo-interface, the gateway encapsulates the message in a
        Membership Update message and sends it to the relay.  The
        request nonce and MAC fields in the Membership Update are
        assigned the values from the last Membership Query message
        received for the corresponding group membership protocol (IGMP
        or MLD).

        The IGMP and MLD protocols may generate multiple messages to
        provide robustness against packet loss - each of these must be
        encapsulated in a new Membership Update message and sent to the
        relay.  The Querier Robustness Variable (QRV) field in the last
        IGMP/MLD query delivered to the IGMP/MLD protocol is typically
        used to specify the number of repetitions (i.e., the host adopts
        the QRV value as its own Robustness Variable value).

   9.   When the relay receives a Membership Update message, it again
        computes a MAC from a private secret and the request nonce,
        source IP address, and source UDP port carried by the message.
        The relay accepts the Membership Update message if the received
        MAC matches the computed MAC, otherwise the message is ignored.
        If the message is accepted, the relay processes the encapsulated
        IGMP/MLD and allocates, modifies or deletes tunnel state
        accordingly.  This includes making any group membership, routing
        and forwarding state changes and issuing any upstream protocol
        requests required to satisfy the state change.  The diagram
        illustrates two scenarios:

        A.  The gateway wishes to add a group subscription.

        B.  The gateway wishes to delete a previously reported group
            subscription.





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   10.  Multicast datagrams transmitted from a source travel through the
        native multicast infrastructure to the relay.  When the relay
        receives a multicast IP datagram that carries a source and
        destination address for which a gateway has expressed an
        interest in receiving (via the Membership Update message), it
        encapsulates the datagram into a Multicast Data message and
        sends it to the gateway using the source IP address and UDP port
        carried by the Membership Update message as the destination
        address.

   11.  When the gateway receives a Multicast Data message, it extracts
        the multicast packet from the message and passes it on to the
        appropriate receivers.

   12.  When the query timer expires the gateway sends a new Request
        message to the relay to start a new membership update cycle.

   The MAC-based source-authentication mechanism described above
   provides a simple defense against malicious attempts to exhaust relay
   resources via source-address spoofing.  Flooding a relay with spoofed
   Request or Membership Update messages may consume computational
   resources and network bandwidth, but will not result in the
   allocation of state because the Request message is stateless and
   spoofed Membership Update messages will fail source-authentication
   and be rejected by the relay.

   A relay will only allocate new tunnel state if the IGMP/MLD report
   carried by the Membership Update message creates one or more group
   subscriptions.

   A relay deallocates tunnel state after one of the following events;
   the gateway sends a Membership Update message containing a report
   that results in the deletion of all remaining group subscriptions,
   the IGMP/MLD state expires (due to lack of refresh by the gateway),
   or the relay receives a valid Teardown message from the gateway.

   A gateway that accepts or reports group subscriptions for both IPv4
   and IPv6 addresses will send separate Request and Membership Update
   messages for each protocol (IPv4/IGMP and IPv6/MLD).

4.2.1.3.  Teardown Sequence

   A gateway sends a Teardown message to a relay to request that it stop
   delivering Multicast Data messages to a tunnel endpoint created by an
   earlier Membership Update message.  This message is intended to be
   used following a gateway address change (See Section 4.2.2.1) to stop
   the transmission of undeliverable or duplicate multicast data
   messages.  Support for the Teardown message is optional - gateways



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   are not required to send them and relays are not required to act upon
   them.

















































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                      Gateway                  Relay
                      -------                  -----
                         :        Request        :
                     [1] |           N           |
                         |---------------------->|
                         |    Membership Query   | [2]
                         |    N,MAC,gADDR,gPORT  |
                         |<======================|
                     [3] |   Membership Update   |
                         |   ({G:INCLUDE({S})})  |
                         |======================>|
                         |                       |
   ----------------------:-----------------------:----------------------
  |                      |                       |                      |
  |                      |    *Multicast Data    |   *IP Packet(S,G)    |
  |                      |      gADDR,gPORT      |<------------------() |
  |     *IP Packet(S,G)  |<======================|                      |
  | ()<------------------|                       |                      |
  |                      |                       |                      |
   ----------------------:-----------------------:----------------------
                         ~                       |
                         ~        Request        |
                     [4] |           N'          |
                         |---------------------->|
                         |   Membership Query    | [5]
                         | N',MAC',gADDR',gPORT' |
                         |<======================|
                     [6] |                       |
                         |       Teardown        |
                         |   N,MAC,gADDR,gPORT   |
                         |---------------------->|
                         |                       | [7]
                         |   Membership Update   |
                         |  ({G:INCLUDE({S})})   |
                         |======================>|
                         |                       |
   ----------------------:-----------------------:----------------------
  |                      |                       |                      |
  |                      |    *Multicast Data    |   *IP Packet(S,G)    |
  |                      |     gADDR',gPORT'     |<------------------() |
  |     *IP Packet (S,G) |<======================|                      |
  | ()<------------------|                       |                      |
  |                      |                       |                      |
   ----------------------:-----------------------:----------------------
                         |                       |
                         :                       :

        Figure 3: Teardown Message Sequence (IGMPv3/MLDv2 Example)



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   The following sequence describes how the Membership Query and
   Teardown message are used to detect an address change and stop the
   delivery of Multicast Data messages to an address:

   1.  A gateway sends a Request message containing a random nonce to
       the relay.

   2.  The relay sends a Membership Query message to the gateway that
       contains the source IP address (gADDR) and source UDP port
       (gPORT) values from the Request message.  These values will be
       used to identify the tunnel should one be created by a subsequent
       Membership Update message.

   3.  When the gateway receives a Membership Query message that carries
       the gateway address fields, it compares the gateway IP address
       and port number values with those received in the previous
       Membership Query (if any).  If these values do not match, this
       indicates that the Request message arrived at the relay carrying
       a different source address than the one sent previously.  At this
       point in the sequence, no change in source address or port has
       occurred.

   4.  The gateway sends a new Request message to the relay.  However,
       this Request message arrives at the relay carrying a different
       source address than that of the previous Request due to some
       change in network interface, address assignment, network topology
       or NAT mapping.

   5.  The relay again responds by sending a Membership Query message to
       the gateway that contains the new source IP address (gADDR') and
       source UDP port (gPORT') values from the Request message.

   6.  When the gateway receives the Membership Query message, it
       compares the gateway address and port number values against those
       returned in the previous Membership Query message.

   7.  If the reported address or port has changed, the gateway sends a
       Teardown message to the relay that contains the request nonce,
       MAC, gateway IP address and gateway port number returned in the
       earlier Membership Query message.  The gateway may send the
       Teardown message multiple times where the number of repetitions
       is governed by the Querier Robustness Variable (QRV) value
       contained in the IGMPv3/MLDv2 general query carried by the
       original Membership Query.  The gateway continues to process the
       new Membership Query message as usual.

   8.  When the relay receives a Teardown message, it computes a MAC
       from a private secret and the request nonce, gateway IP address,



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       and gateway port number carried by the Teardown message.  The
       relay accepts the Teardown message if the received MAC matches
       the computed MAC, otherwise the message is ignored.  If the
       message is accepted, the relay makes any group membership,
       routing and forwarding state changes required to stop the
       transmission of Multicast Data messages to that address.

4.2.1.4.  Timeout and Retransmission

   The AMT protocol does not establish any requirements regarding what
   actions a gateway should take if it fails to receive a response from
   a relay.  A gateway implementation may wait for an indefinite period
   of time to receive a response, may set a time limit on how long to
   wait for a response, may retransmit messages should the time limit be
   reached, may limit the number of retransmissions, or may simply
   report an error.

   For example, a gateway may retransmit a Request message if it fails
   to receive a Membership Query or expected Multicast Data messages
   within some time period.  If the gateway fails to receive any
   response to a Request after several retransmissions or within some
   maximum period of time, it may reenter the relay discovery phase in
   an attempt to find a new relay.  This topic is addressed in more
   detail in Section 5.2.

4.2.2.  Tunneling

   From the standpoint of a relay, an AMT "tunnel" is identified by the
   IP address and UDP port pair used as the destination address for
   sending encapsulated multicast IP datagrams to a gateway.  This
   address is referred here as the tunnel endpoint address.

   A gateway sends a Membership Update message to a relay to add or
   remove group subscriptions to a tunnel endpoint.  The tunnel endpoint
   is identified by the source IP address and source UDP port carried by
   the Membership Update message when it arrives at a relay (this
   address may differ from that carried by the message when it exited
   the gateway as a result of network address translation).

   The Membership Update messages sent by a single gateway host may
   originate from several source addresses or ports - each unique
   combination represents a unique tunnel endpoint.  A single gateway
   host may legitimately create and accept traffic on multiple tunnel
   endpoints, e.g., the gateway may use separate ports for the IPv4/IGMP
   and IPv6/MLD protocols.

   A tunnel is "created" when a gateway sends a Membership Update
   message containing an IGMP or MLD membership report that creates one



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   or more group subscriptions when none currently existed for that
   tunnel endpoint address.

   A tunnel ceases to exist when all group subscriptions for a tunnel
   endpoint are deleted.  This may occur as a result of the following
   events:

   o  The gateway sends an IGMP or MLD report, leave or done message to
      the relay that deletes the last group subscription linked to the
      tunnel endpoint.

   o  The gateway sends a Teardown message to the relay that causes it
      to delete any and all subscriptions bound to the tunnel endpoint.

   o  The relay stops receiving updates from the gateway until such time
      that per-group or per-tunnel timers expire, causing the relay to
      delete the subscriptions.

   The tunneling approach described above conceptually transforms a
   unicast-only inter-network into an NBMA link layer, over which
   multicast traffic may be delivered.  Each relay, plus the set of all
   gateways using the relay, together may be thought of as being on a
   separate logical NBMA link, where the "link layer" address is a
   UDP/IP address-port pair provided by the Membership Update message.

4.2.2.1.  Address Roaming

   As described above, each time a relay receives a Membership Update
   message from a new source address-port pair, the group subscriptions
   described by that message apply to the tunnel endpoint identified by
   that address.

   This can cause problems for a gateway if the address carried by the
   messages it sends to a relay changes unexpectedly.  These changes may
   cause the relay to transmit duplicate, undeliverable or unrequested
   traffic back towards the gateway or an intermediate device.  This may
   create congestion and have negative consequences for the gateway, its
   network, or multicast receivers, and in some cases, may also produce
   a significant amount of ICMP traffic directed back towards the relay
   by a NAT, router or gateway host.

   There are several scenarios in which the address carried by messages
   sent by a gateway may change without that gateway's knowledge, as for
   example, when:

   o  The message originates from a different interface on a gateway
      that possesses multiple interfaces.




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   o  The DHCP assignment for a gateway interface changes.

   o  The gateway roams to a different wireless network.

   o  The address mapping applied by an intervening network-translation-
      device (NAT) changes as a result of mapping expiration or routing
      changes in a multi-homed network.

   In the case where the address change occurs between the transmission
   of a Request message and subsequent Membership Update messages, the
   relay will simply ignore any Membership Update messages from the new
   address because MAC authentication will fail (see Section 4.2.1.2).
   The relay may continue to transmit previously requested traffic, but
   no duplication will occur, i.e., the possibility for the delivery of
   duplicate traffic does not arise until a Request message is received
   from the new address.

   The protocol provides a method for a gateway to detect an address
   change and explicitly request that the relay stop sending traffic to
   a previous address.  This process involves the Membership Query and
   Teardown messages and is described in Section 4.2.1.3.

4.2.2.2.  Network Address Translation

   The messages sent by a gateway to a relay may be subject to network
   address translation (NAT) - the source IP address and UDP port
   carried by an IP packet sent by the gateway may be modified multiple
   times before arriving at the relay.  In the most restrictive form of
   NAT, the NAT device will create a new mapping for each combination of
   source and destination IP address and UDP port.  In this case, bi-
   directional communication can only be conducted by sending outgoing
   packets to the source address and port carried by the last incoming
   packet.

       Membership Update                 Membership Update
       src: iADDR:iPORT                  src: eADDR:ePORT
       dst: rADDR:rPORT                  dst: rADDR:rPORT
                          +---------+
                          |   NAT   |
   +---------+           +-----------+          +---------+
   |         |---------->|           |--------->|         |
   | Gateway |           |  Mapping  |          |  Relay  |
   |         |<----------|           |<---------|         |
   +---------+           +-----------+          +---------+
                          |         |
                          +---------+
       Multicast Data                    Multicast Data
       src: rADDR:rPORT                  src: rADDR:rPORT



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       dst: iADDR:iPORT                  dst: eADDR:ePORT

                    Network Address Translation in AMT

   AMT provides automatic NAT traversal by using the source IP address
   and UDP port carried by the Membership Update message as received at
   the relay as the destination address for any Multicast Data messages
   the relay sends back as a result.

   The NAT mapping created by a Membership Update message will
   eventually expire unless it is refreshed by a passing message.  This
   refresh will occur each time the gateway performs the periodic update
   required to refresh group state within the relay (See
   Section 4.2.1.2).

4.2.2.3.  UDP Encapsulation

                Gateway                              Relay

           IP:IGMP                                       IP:IGMP
              |    AMT:IP:IGMP               AMT:IP:IGMP    |
              |         |                         |         |
              |         |   IP:UDP:AMT:IP:IGMP    |         |
    _______   |   ___   |   ______   |   ______   |   ___   |   _______
   |IGMP|IP|  v  |AMT|  v  |UDP|IP|  v  |IP|UDP|  v  |AMT|  v  |IP|IGMP|
   |    |  |     |   |     |   |  |     |  |   |     |   |     |  |    |
   |    |<------------------------------------------------------->|    |
   |____|  |     |   |     |   |  |     |  |   |     |   |     |  |____|
   |       |<--------------------------------------------------|       |
   |_______|  ^  |___|  ^  |___|__|  ^  |__|___|  ^  |___|  ^  |_______|
              |         |            |            |         |
             IP      AMT:IP    IP:UDP:AMT:IP    AMT:IP      IP

                             AMT Encapsulation

   The IGMP and MLD messages used in AMT are exchanged as complete IP
   datagrams.  These IP datagrams are encapsulated in AMT messages that
   are transmitted using UDP.  The same holds true for multicast traffic
   - each multicast IP datagram or datagram fragment that arrives at the
   relay is encapsulated in an AMT message and transmitted to one or
   more gateways via UDP.

   The IP protocol of the encapsulated packets need not match the IP
   protocol used to send the AMT messages.  AMT messages sent via IPv4
   may carry IPv6/MLD packets and AMT messages sent via IPv6 may carry
   IPv4/IGMP packets.

   The checksum field contained in the UDP header of the messages



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   requires special consideration.  Of primary concern is the cost of
   computing a checksum on each replicated multicast packet after it is
   encapsulated for delivery to a gateway.  Many routing/forwarding
   platforms do not possess the capability to compute checksums on UDP
   encapsulated packets as they may not have access to the entire
   datagram.

   To avoid placing an undue burden on the relay platform, the protocol
   specifically allows zero-valued UDP checksums on the multicast data
   messages.  This is not an issue in UDP over IPv4 as the UDP checksum
   field may be set to zero.  However, this is a problem for UDP over
   IPv6 as that protocol requires a valid, non-zero checksum in UDP
   datagrams [RFC2460].  Messages sent over IPv6 with a UDP checksum of
   zero may fail to reach the gateway.  This is a well known issue for
   UDP-based tunneling protocols that is described
   [I-D.ietf-6man-udpzero].  A recommended solution is described in
   [I-D.ietf-6man-udpchecksums].


































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5.  Protocol Description

   This section provides a normative description of the AMT protocol.

5.1.  Protocol Messages

   The AMT protocol defines seven message types for control and
   encapsulation.  These messages are assigned the following names and
   numeric identifiers:

                  +--------------+---------------------+
                  | Message Type | Message Name        |
                  +--------------+---------------------+
                  |       1      | Relay Discovery     |
                  |              |                     |
                  |       2      | Relay Advertisement |
                  |              |                     |
                  |       3      | Request             |
                  |              |                     |
                  |       4      | Membership Query    |
                  |              |                     |
                  |       5      | Membership Update   |
                  |              |                     |
                  |       6      | Multicast Data      |
                  |              |                     |
                  |       7      | Teardown            |
                  +--------------+---------------------+

   These messages are exchanged as IPv4 or IPv6 UDP datagrams.

5.1.1.  Relay Discovery

   A Relay Discovery message is used to solicit a response from a relay
   in the form of a Relay Advertisement message.

   The UDP/IP datagram containing this message MUST carry a valid, non-
   zero UDP checksum and carry the following IP address and UDP port
   values:

   Source IP Address -  The IP address of the gateway interface on which
      the gateway will listen for a relay response.  Note: The value of
      this field may be changed as a result of network address
      translation before arriving at the relay.

   Source UDP Port -  The UDP port number on which the gateway will
      listen for a relay response.  Note: The value of this field may be
      changed as a result of network address translation before arriving
      at the relay.



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   Destination IP Address -  An anycast or unicast IP address, i.e., the
      Relay Discovery Address advertised by a relay.

   Destination UDP Port -  The IANA-assigned AMT port number.


    0                   1                   2                   3
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |  V=0  |Type=1 |     Reserved                                  |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                        Discovery Nonce                        |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

                      Relay Discovery Message Format

5.1.1.1.  Version (V)

   The protocol version number for this message is 0.

5.1.1.2.  Type

   The type number for this message is 1.

5.1.1.3.  Reserved

   Reserved bits that MUST be set to zero by the gateway and ignored by
   the relay.

5.1.1.4.  Discovery Nonce

   A 32-bit random value generated by the gateway and echoed by the
   relay in a Relay Advertisement message.  This value is used by the
   gateway to correlate Relay Advertisement messages with Relay
   Discovery messages.  Discovery nonce generation is described in
   Section 5.2.3.4.5.

5.1.2.  Relay Advertisement

   The Relay Advertisement message is used to supply a gateway with a
   unicast IP address of a relay.  A relay sends this message to a
   gateway when it receives a Relay Discovery message from that gateway.

   The UDP/IP datagram containing this message MUST carry a valid, non-
   zero UDP checksum and carry the following IP address and UDP port
   values:





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   Source IP Address -  The destination IP address carried by the Relay
      Discovery message (i.e., the Relay Discovery Address advertised by
      the relay).

   Source UDP Port -  The destination UDP port carried by the Relay
      Discovery message (i.e., the IANA-assigned AMT port number).

   Destination IP Address -  The source IP address carried by the Relay
      Discovery message.  Note: The value of this field may be changed
      as a result of network address translation before arriving at the
      gateway.

   Destination UDP Port -  The source UDP port carried by the Relay
      Discovery message.  Note: The value of this field may be changed
      as a result of network address translation before arriving at the
      gateway.


    0                   1                   2                   3
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |  V=0  |Type=2 |                   Reserved                    |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                        Discovery Nonce                        |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                                                               |
   ~                  Relay Address (IPv4 or IPv6)                 ~
   |                                                               |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

                    Relay Advertisement Message Format

5.1.2.1.  Version (V)

   The protocol version number for this message is 0.

5.1.2.2.  Type

   The type number for this message is 2.

5.1.2.3.  Reserved

   Reserved bits that MUST be set to zero by the relay and ignored by
   the gateway.







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5.1.2.4.  Discovery Nonce

   A 32-bit value copied from the Discovery Nonce field
   (Section 5.1.1.4) contained in the Relay Discovery message.  The
   gateway uses this value to match a Relay Advertisement to a Relay
   Discovery message.

5.1.2.5.  Relay Address

   The unicast IPv4 or IPv6 address of the relay.  A gateway uses the
   length of the UDP datagram containing the Relay Advertisement message
   to determine the address family; i.e., length - 8 = 4 (IPv4) or 16
   (IPv6).  The relay returns an IP address for the protocol used to
   send the Relay Discovery message, i.e., an IPv4 relay address for an
   IPv4 discovery address or an IPv6 relay address for an IPv6 discovery
   address.

5.1.3.  Request

   A gateway sends a Request message to a relay to solicit a Membership
   Query response.

   The successful delivery of this message marks the start of the first
   stage in the three-way handshake used to create or update state
   within a relay.

   The UDP/IP datagram containing this message MUST carry a valid, non-
   zero UDP checksum and carry the following IP address and UDP port
   values:

   Source IP Address -  The IP address of the gateway interface on which
      the gateway will listen for a response from the relay.  Note: The
      value of this field may be changed as a result of network address
      translation before arriving at the relay.

   Source UDP Port -  The UDP port number on which the gateway will
      listen for a response from the relay.  Note: The value of this
      field may be changed as a result of network address translation
      before arriving at the relay.

   Destination IP Address -  The unicast IP address of the relay.

   Destination UDP Port -  The IANA-assigned AMT port number.








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    0                   1                   2                   3
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |  V=0  |Type=3 |   Reserved  |P|            Reserved           |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                         Request Nonce                         |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

                          Request Message Format

5.1.3.1.  Version (V)

   The protocol version number for this message is 0.

5.1.3.2.  Type

   The type number for this message is 3.

5.1.3.3.  Reserved

   Reserved bits that MUST be set to zero by the gateway and ignored by
   the relay.

5.1.3.4.  P Flag

   The "P" flag is set to indicate which group membership protocol the
   gateway wishes the relay to use in the Membership Query response:

   Value Meaning

     0   The relay MUST respond with a Membership Query message that
         contains an IPv4 packet carrying an IGMPv3 general query
         message.

     1   The relay MUST respond with a Membership Query message that
         contains an IPv6 packet carrying an MLDv2 general query
         message.

5.1.3.5.  Request Nonce

   A 32-bit random value generated by the gateway and echoed by the
   relay in a Membership Query message.  This value is used by the relay
   to compute the Response MAC value and is used by the gateway to
   correlate Membership Query messages with Request messages.  Request
   nonce generation is described in Section 5.2.3.5.6.






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5.1.4.  Membership Query

   A relay sends a Membership Query message to a gateway to solicit a
   Membership Update response, but only after receiving a Request
   message from the gateway.

   The successful delivery of this message to a gateway marks the start
   of the second-stage in the three-way handshake used to create or
   update tunnel state within a relay.

   The UDP/IP datagram containing this message MUST carry a valid, non-
   zero UDP checksum and carry the following IP address and UDP port
   values:

   Source IP Address -  The destination IP address carried by the
      Request message (i.e., the unicast IP address of the relay).

   Source UDP Port -  The destination UDP port carried by the Request
      message (i.e., the IANA-assigned AMT port number).

   Destination IP Address -  The source IP address carried by the
      Request message.  Note: The value of this field may be changed as
      a result of network address translation before arriving at the
      gateway.

   Destination UDP Port -  The source UDP port carried by the Request
      message.  Note: The value of this field may be changed as a result
      of network address translation before arriving at the gateway.























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    0                   1                   2                   3
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |  V=0  |Type=4 | Reserved  |L|G|         Response MAC          |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+                               +
   |                                                               |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                         Request Nonce                         |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                                                               |
   |               Encapsulated General Query Message              |
   ~                 IPv4:IGMPv3(Membership Query)                 ~
   |                  IPv6:MLDv2(Listener Query)                   |
   |                                                               |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |     Gateway Port Number       |                               |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+                               +
   |                                                               |
   +                                                               +
   |                Gateway IP Address (IPv4 or IPv6)              |
   +                                                               +
   |                                                               |
   +                               +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                               |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

                      Membership Query Message Format

5.1.4.1.  Version (V)

   The protocol version number for this message is 0.

5.1.4.2.  Type

   The type number for this message is 4.

5.1.4.3.  Reserved

   Reserved bits that MUST be set to zero by the relay and ignored by
   the gateway.

5.1.4.4.  Limit (L) Flag

   A 1-bit flag set to 1 to indicate that the relay is NOT accepting
   Membership Update messages from new gateway tunnel endpoints and that
   it will ignore any that are.  A value of 0 has no special
   significance - the relay may or may not be accepting Membership
   Update messages from new gateway tunnel endpoints.  A gateway checks



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   this flag before attempting to create new group subscription state on
   the relay to determine whether it should restart relay discovery.  A
   gateway that has already created group subscriptions on the relay may
   ignore this flag.  Support for this flag is RECOMMENDED.

5.1.4.5.  Gateway Address (G) Flag

   A 1-bit flag set to 0 to indicate that the message does NOT carry the
   Gateway Port and Gateway IP Address fields, and 1 to indicate that it
   does.  A relay implementation that supports the optional teardown
   procedure (See Section 5.3.3.5) SHOULD set this flag and the Gateway
   Address field values.  If a relay sets this flag, it MUST also
   include the Gateway Address fields in the message.  A gateway
   implementation that does not support the optional teardown procedure
   (See Section 5.2.3.7) MAY ignore this flag and the Gateway Address
   fields if they are present.

5.1.4.6.  Response MAC

   A 48-bit source authentication hash generated by the relay as
   described in Section 5.3.5.  The gateway echoes this value in
   subsequent Membership Update messages to allow the relay to verify
   that the sender of a Membership Update message was the intended
   receiver of a Membership Query sent by the relay.

5.1.4.7.  Request Nonce

   A 32-bit value copied from the Request Nonce field (Section 5.1.3.5)
   carried by a Request message.  The relay will have included this
   value in the Response MAC hash computation.  The gateway echoes this
   value in subsequent Membership Update messages.  The gateway also
   uses this value to match a Membership Query to a Request message.

5.1.4.8.  Encapsulated General Query Message

   An IP-encapsulated IGMP or MLD message generated by the relay.  This
   field will contain one of the following IP datagrams:

      IPv4:IGMPv3 Membership Query

      IPv6:MLDv2 Listener Query

   The source address carried by the query message should be set as
   described in Section 5.3.3.3.

   The Querier's Query Interval Code (QQIC) field in the general query
   is used by a relay to specify the time offset a gateway should use to
   schedule a new three-way handshake to refresh the group membership



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   state within the relay (current time + Query Interval).

   The Querier's Robustness Variable (QRV) field in the general query is
   used by a relay to specify the number of times a gateway should
   retransmit unsolicited membership reports, encapsulated within
   Membership Update messages, and optionally, the number of times to
   send a Teardown message.

5.1.4.9.  Gateway Address Fields

   The Gateway Port Number and Gateway Address fields are present in the
   Membership Query message if, and only if, the "G" flag is set.

   A gateway need not parse the encapsulated IP datagram to determine
   the position of these fields within the UDP datagram containing the
   Membership Query message - if the G-flag is set, the gateway may
   simply subtract the total length of the fields (18 bytes) from the
   total length of the UDP datagram to obtain the offset.

5.1.4.9.1.  Gateway Port Number

   A 16-bit UDP port containing a UDP port value.

   The Relay sets this field to the value of the UDP source port of the
   Request message that triggered the Query message.

5.1.4.9.2.  Gateway IP Address

   A 16-byte IP address that, when combined with the value contained in
   the Gateway Port Number field, forms the gateway endpoint address
   that the relay will use to identify the tunnel instance, if any,
   created by a subsequent Membership Update message.  This field may
   contain an IPv6 address or an IPv4 address stored as an IPv4-
   compatible IPv6 address, where the IPv4 address is prefixed with 96
   bits set to zero (See [RFC4291]).  This address must match that used
   by the relay to compute the value stored in the Response MAC field.

5.1.5.  Membership Update

   A gateway sends a Membership Update message to a relay to report a
   change in group membership state, or to report the current group
   membership state in response to receiving a Membership Query message.
   The gateway encapsulates the IGMP or MLD message as an IP datagram
   within a Membership Update message and sends it to the relay, where
   it may (see below) be decapsulated and processed by the relay to
   update group membership and forwarding state.

   A gateway cannot send a Membership Update message until a receives a



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   Membership Query from a relay because the gateway must copy the
   Request Nonce and Response MAC values carried by a Membership Query
   into any subsequent Membership Update messages it sends back to that
   relay.  These values are used by the relay to verify that the sender
   of the Membership Update message was the recipient of the Membership
   Query message from which these values were copied.

   The successful delivery of this message to the relay marks the start
   of the final stage in the three-way handshake.  This stage concludes
   when the relay successfully verifies that sender of the Membership
   Update message was the recipient of a Membership Query message sent
   earlier.  At this point, the relay may proceed to process the
   encapsulated IGMP or MLD message to create or update group membership
   and forwarding state on behalf of the gateway.

   The UDP/IP datagram containing this message MUST carry a valid, non-
   zero UDP checksum and carry the following IP address and UDP port
   values:

   Source IP Address -  The IP address of the gateway interface on which
      the gateway will listen for Multicast Data messages from the
      relay.  The address must be the same address used to send the
      initial Request message or the message will be ignored.  Note: The
      value of this field may be changed as a result of network address
      translation before arriving at the relay.

   Source UDP Port -  The UDP port number on which the gateway will
      listen for Multicast Data messages from the relay.  This port must
      be the same port used to send the initial Request message or the
      message will be ignored.  Note: The value of this field may be
      changed as a result of network address translation before arriving
      at the relay.

   Destination IP Address -  The unicast IP address of the relay.

   Destination UDP Port -  The IANA-assigned AMT UDP port number.















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    0                   1                   2                   3
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |  V=0  |Type=5 |  Reserved     |        Response MAC           |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+                               +
   |                                                               |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                         Request Nonce                         |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                                                               |
   |         Encapsulated Group Membership Update Message          |
   ~           IPv4:IGMP(Membership Report|Leave Group)            ~
   |            IPv6:MLD(Listener Report|Listener Done)            |
   |                                                               |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

                     Membership Update Message Format

5.1.5.1.  Version (V)

   The protocol version number for this message is 0.

5.1.5.2.  Type

   The type number for this message is 5.

5.1.5.3.  Reserved

   Reserved bits that MUST be set to zero by the gateway and ignored by
   the relay.

5.1.5.4.  Response MAC

   A 48-bit value copied from the Response MAC field (Section 5.1.4.6)
   in a Membership Query message.  Used by the relay to perform source
   authentication.

5.1.5.5.  Request Nonce

   A 32-bit value copied from the Request Nonce field in a Request or
   Membership Query message.  Used by the relay to perform source
   authentication.

5.1.5.6.  Encapsulated Group Membership Update Message

   An IP-encapsulated IGMP or MLD message produced by the host-mode IGMP
   or MLD protocol running on a gateway pseudo-interface.  This field
   will contain of one of the following IP datagrams:



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      IPv4:IGMPv2 Membership Report

      IPv4:IGMPv2 Leave Group

      IPv4:IGMPv3 Membership Report

      IPv6:MLDv1 Multicast Listener Report

      IPv6:MLDv1 Multicast Listener Done

      IPv6:MLDv2 Multicast Listener Report

   The source address carried by the message should be set as described
   in Section 5.2.1.

5.1.6.  Multicast Data

   A relay sends a Multicast Data message to deliver an multicast IP
   datagram or datagram fragment to a gateway.

   The checksum field in the UDP header of this message MAY contain a
   value of zero when sent over IPv4 but SHOULD, if possible, contain a
   valid, non-zero value when sent over IPv6 (See Section 4.2.2.3).

   The UDP/IP datagram containing this message MUST carry the following
   IP address and UDP port values:

   Source IP Address -  The unicast IP address of the relay.

   Source UDP Port -  The IANA-assigned AMT port number.

   Destination IP Address -  A tunnel endpoint IP address, i.e., the
      source IP address carried by the Membership Update message sent by
      a gateway to indicate an interest in receiving the multicast
      packet.  Note: The value of this field may be changed as a result
      of network address translation before arriving at the gateway.

   Destination UDP Port -  A tunnel endpoint UDP port, i.e., the source
      UDP port carried by the Membership Update message sent by a
      gateway to indicate an interest in receiving the multicast packet.
      Note: The value of this field may be changed as a result of
      network address translation before arriving at the gateway.









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    0                   1                   2                   3
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |  V=0  |Type=6 |    Reserved   |                               |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+                               +
   |                                                               |
   ~                     IP Multicast Packet                       ~
   |                                                               |
   +                - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -+
   |               :               :               :               :
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

                       Multicast Data Message Format

5.1.6.1.  Version (V)

   The protocol version number for this message is 0.

5.1.6.2.  Type

   The type number for this message is 6.

5.1.6.3.  Reserved

   Bits that MUST be set to zero by the relay and ignored by the
   gateway.

5.1.6.4.  IP Multicast Data

   A complete IPv4 or IPv6 multicast datagram or datagram fragment.

5.1.7.  Teardown

   A gateway sends a Teardown message to a relay to request that it stop
   sending Multicast Data messages to a tunnel endpoint created by an
   earlier Membership Update message.  A gateway sends this message when
   it detects that a Request message sent to the relay carries an
   address that differs from that carried by a previous Request message.
   The gateway uses the Gateway IP Address and Gateway Port Number
   Fields in the Membership Query message to detect these address
   changes.

   To provide backwards compatibility with early implementations of the
   AMT protocol, support for this message and associated procedures is
   considered OPTIONAL - gateways are not required to send this message
   and relays are not required to act upon it.

   The UDP/IP datagram containing this message MUST carry a valid, non-



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   zero UDP checksum and carry the following IP address and UDP port
   values:

   Source IP Address -  The IP address of the gateway interface used to
      send the message.  This address may differ from that used to send
      earlier messages.  Note: The value of this field may be changed as
      a result of network address translation before arriving at the
      relay.

   Source UDP Port -  The UDP port number.  This port number may differ
      from that used to send earlier messages.  Note: The value of this
      field may be changed as a result of network address translation
      before arriving at the relay.

   Destination IP Address -  The unicast IP address of the relay.

   Destination UDP Port -  The IANA-assigned AMT port number.

    0                   1                   2                   3
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |  V=0  |Type=7 |  Reserved     |         Response MAC          |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+                               +
   |                                                               |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                         Request Nonce                         |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |     Gateway Port Number       |                               |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+                               +
   |                                                               |
   +                                                               +
   |              Gateway IP Address (IPv4 or IPv6)                |
   +                                                               +
   |                                                               |
   +                               +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                               |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

                    Membership Teardown Message Format

5.1.7.1.  Version (V)

   The protocol version number for this message is 0.

5.1.7.2.  Type

   The type number for this message is 7.




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5.1.7.3.  Reserved

   Reserved bits that MUST be set to zero by the gateway and ignored by
   the relay.

5.1.7.4.  Response MAC

   A 48-bit value copied from the Response MAC field (Section 5.1.4.6)
   in the last Membership Query message the relay sent to the gateway
   endpoint address of the tunnel to be torn down.  The gateway endpoint
   address is provided by the Gateway IP Address and Gateway Port Number
   fields carried by the Membership Query message.  The relay validates
   the Teardown message by comparing this value with one computed from
   the Request Nonce, Gateway Port Number and Gateway IP Address fields
   (just as it does in the Membership Update message).

5.1.7.5.  Request Nonce

   A 32-bit value copied from the Request Nonce field (Section 5.1.4.7)
   in the last Membership Query message the relay sent to the gateway
   endpoint address of the tunnel to be torn down.  The gateway endpoint
   address is provided by the Gateway IP Address and Gateway Port Number
   fields carried by the Membership Query message.  This value must
   match that used by the relay to compute the value stored in the
   Response MAC field.

5.1.7.6.  Gateway Port Number

   A 16-bit UDP port number that, when combined with the value contained
   in the Gateway IP Address field, forms the tunnel endpoint address
   that the relay will use to identify the tunnel instance to tear down.
   The relay provides this value to the gateway using the Gateway Port
   Number field (Section 5.1.4.9.1) in a Membership Query message.  This
   port number must match that used by the relay to compute the value
   stored in the Response MAC field.

5.1.7.7.  Gateway IP Address

   A 16-byte IP address that, when combined with the value contained in
   the Gateway Port Number field, forms the tunnel endpoint address that
   the relay will used to identify the tunnel instance to tear down.
   The relay provides this value to the gateway using the Gateway IP
   Address field (Section 5.1.4.9.2) in a Membership Query message.
   This field may contain an IPv6 address or an IPv4 address stored as
   an IPv4-compatible IPv6 address, where the IPv4 address is prefixed
   with 96 bits set to zero (See [RFC4291]).  This address must match
   that used by the relay to compute the value stored in the Response
   MAC field.



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5.2.  Gateway Operation

   The following sections describe gateway implementation requirements.
   A non-normative discussion of gateway operation may be found in
   Section 4.2.

5.2.1.  IP/IGMP/MLD Protocol Requirements

   Gateway operation requires a subset of host mode IPv4/IGMP and IPv6/
   MLD functionality to provide group membership tracking, general query
   processing, and report generation.  A gateway MAY use IGMPv2 (ASM),
   IGMPv3 (ASM and SSM), MLDv1 (ASM) or MLDv2 (ASM and SSM).

   An application with embedded gateway functionality must provide its
   own implementation of this subset of the IPv4/IGMP and IPv6/MLD
   protocols.  The service interface used to manipulate group membership
   state need not match that described in the IGMP and MLD
   specifications, but the actions taken as a result SHOULD be similar
   to those described in Section 5.1 of [RFC3376] and Section 6.1 of
   [RFC3810].  The gateway application will likely need to implement
   many of the same functions as a host IP stack, including checksum
   verification, dispatching, datagram filtering and forwarding, and IP
   encapsulation/decapsulation.

   The IP-encapsulated IGMP messages generated by the gateway IPv4/IGMP
   implementation MUST conform to the description found in Section 4 of
   [RFC3376].  These datagrams MUST possess the IP headers, header
   options and header values called for in [RFC3376], with the following
   exception; the source IP address for an IGMP report datagram MAY be
   set to the "unspecified" address (all octets are zero ) but SHOULD be
   set to an address in the address range specifically assigned by IANA
   for use in the IGMP messages sent from a gateway to a relay (i.e.
   154.7.1.2 through 154.7.1.254 as described in Section 7).  This
   exception is made because the gateway pseudo-interface might not
   possess an assigned address, and even if such an address exists, that
   address would not be a valid link-local source address on any relay
   interface.  The rationale for using the aforementioned source
   addresses is primarily one of convenience - a relay will accept an
   IGMP report carried by a Membership Update message regardless of the
   source address it carries.  See Section 5.3.1.

   The IP-encapsulated MLD messages generated by the gateway IPv6/MLD
   implementation MUST conform to the description found in Section 5 of
   [RFC3810].  These datagrams MUST possess the IP headers, header
   options and header values called for in [RFC3810], with the following
   exception; the source IP address for an MLD report datagram MAY be
   set to the "unspecified" address (all octets are zero ) but SHOULD be
   set to an IPv6 link-local address in the range FE80::/64 excluding



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   FE80::1 and FE80::2.  This exception is made because the gateway
   pseudo-interface might not possess a valid IPv6 address.  As with
   IGMP, a relay will accept an MLD report carried by a Membership
   Update message regardless of the source address it carries.  See
   Section 5.3.1.

   The gateway IGMP/MLD implementation SHOULD retransmit unsolicited
   membership state-change reports and merge new state change reports
   with pending reports as described in Section 5.1 of [RFC3376] and
   Section 6.1 of [RFC3810].  The number of retransmissions is specified
   by the relay in the Querier's Robustness Variable (QRV) field in the
   last general query forwarded by the pseudo-interface.

   The gateway IGMP/MLD implementation SHOULD handle general query
   messages as described in Section 5.2 of [RFC3376] and Section 6.2 of
   [RFC3810], but MAY ignore the Max Resp Code field value and generate
   a current state report without any delay.

   An IPv4 gateway implementation MUST accept IPv4 datagrams that carry
   the general query variant of the IGMPv3 Membership Query message, as
   described in Section 4 of [RFC3376].  The gateway MUST accept the
   IGMP datagram regardless of the IP source address carried by that
   datagram.

   An IPv6 gateway implementation MUST accept IPv6 datagrams that carry
   the general query variant of the MLDv2 Multicast Listener Query
   message, as described in Section 5 of [RFC3810].  The gateway MUST
   accept the MLD datagram regardless of the IP source address carried
   by that datagram.

5.2.2.  Pseudo-Interface Configuration

   A gateway host may possess or create multiple gateway pseudo-
   interfaces, each with a unique configuration that describes a binding
   to a specific IP protocol, relay address, relay discovery address or
   upstream network interface.

5.2.2.1.  Relay Discovery Address

   If a gateway implementation uses AMT relay discovery to obtain a
   relay address, it must first be supplied with a relay discovery
   address.  The relay discovery address may be an anycast or unicast
   address.  A gateway implementation may rely on a static address
   assignment or some form of dynamic address discovery.  This
   specification does not require that a gateway implementation use any
   particular method to obtain a relay discovery address - an
   implementation may employ any method that returns a suitable relay
   discovery address.



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5.2.2.2.  Relay Address

   Before a gateway implementation can execute the AMT protocol to
   request and receive multicast traffic, it must be supplied with a
   unicast relay address.  A gateway implementation may rely on static
   address assignment or support some form of dynamic address discovery.
   This specification does not require the use of any particular method
   to obtain a relay address - an implementation may employ any method
   that returns a suitable relay address.

5.2.2.3.  Upstream Interface Selection

   A gateway host that possesses multiple network interfaces or
   addresses may allow for an explicit selection of the interface to use
   when communicating with a relay.  The selection might be made to
   satisfy connectivity, tunneling or IP protocol requirements.

5.2.2.4.  Optional Retransmission Parameters

   A gateway implementation that supports retransmission MAY require the
   following information:

   Discovery Timeout
      Initial time to wait for a response to a Relay Discovery message.

   Maximum Relay Discovery Retransmission Count
      Maximum number of Relay Discovery retransmissions to allow before
      terminating relay discovery and reporting an error.

   Request Timeout
      Initial time to wait for a response to a Request message.

   Maximum Request Retransmission Count
      Maximum number of Request retransmissions to allow before
      abandoning a relay and restarting relay discovery or reporting an
      error.

   Maximum Retries Count For "Destination Unreachable"
      The maximum number of times a gateway should attempt to send the
      same Request or Membership Update message after receiving an ICMP
      "Destination Unreachable".

5.2.3.  Gateway Service

   In the following descriptions, a gateway pseudo interface is treated
   as a passive entity managed by a gateway service.  The gateway
   pseudo-interface provides the state and the gateway service provides
   the processing.  The term "gateway" is used when describing service



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   behavior with respect to a single pseudo-interface.

5.2.3.1.  Startup

   When a gateway pseudo-interface is started, the gateway service
   begins listening for AMT messages sent to the UDP endpoint(s)
   associated with the pseudo-interface and for any locally-generated
   IGMP/MLD messages passed to the pseudo-interface.  The handling of
   these messages is described below.

   When the pseudo-interface is enabled, the gateway service MAY:

   o  Optionally execute the relay discovery procedure described in
      Section 5.2.3.4.

   o  Optionally execute the membership query procedure described in
      Section 5.2.3.5 to start the periodic membership update cycle.

5.2.3.2.  Handling AMT Messages

   A gateway MUST ignore any datagram it receives that cannot be
   interpreted as a Relay Advertisement, Membership Query, or Multicast
   Data message.  The handling of Relay Advertisement, Membership Query,
   and Multicast Data messages is addressed in the sections that follow.

   While listening for AMT messages, a gateway may be notified that an
   ICMP Destination Unreachable message was received as a result of an
   AMT message transmission.  Handling of ICMP Destination Unreachable
   messages is described in Section 5.2.3.9.

5.2.3.3.  Handling Multicast Data Messages

   A gateway may receive Multicast Data messages after it sends a
   Membership Update message to a relay that adds a group subscription.
   The gateway may continue to receive Multicast Data messages long
   after the gateway sends a Membership Update message that deletes
   existing group subscriptions.  The gateway MUST be prepared to
   receive these messages at any time, but MAY ignore them or discard
   their contents if the gateway no longer has any interest in receiving
   the multicast datagrams contained within them.

   A gateway MUST ignore a Multicast Data message if it fails to satisfy
   any of the following requirements:

   o  The source IP address and UDP port carried by the Multicast Data
      message MUST be equal to the destination IP address and UDP port
      carried by the matching Membership Update message (i.e., the
      current relay address).



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   o  The destination address carried by the encapsulated IP datagram
      MUST fall within the multicast address allocation assigned to the
      relevant IP protocol, i.e., 224.0.0.0/4 for IPv4 and FF00::/8 for
      IPv6.

   The gateway extracts the encapsulated IP datagram and forwards it to
   the local IP protocol implementation for checksum verification,
   fragmented datagram reassembly, source and group filtering, and
   transport-layer protocol processing.

   Because AMT uses UDP encapsulation to deliver multicast datagrams to
   gateways, it qualifies as a tunneling protocol subject to the
   limitations described in [I-D.ietf-6man-udpzero].  If supported, a
   gateway SHOULD employ the solution described in
   [I-D.ietf-6man-udpchecksums] to ensure that the local IP stack does
   not discard IPv6 datagrams with zero checksums.  If Multicast Data
   message datagrams are processed directly within the gateway (instead
   of the host IP stack), the gateway MUST NOT discard any of these
   datagrams because they carry a UDP checksum of zero.

5.2.3.4.  Relay Discovery Procedure

   This section describes gateway requirements related to the relay
   discovery message sequence described in Section 4.2.1.1.

5.2.3.4.1.  Starting Relay Discovery

   A gateway may start or restart the relay discovery procedure in
   response to the following events:

   o  When a gateway pseudo-interface is started (enabled).

   o  When the gateway wishes to report a group subscription when none
      currently exist.

   o  Before sending the next Request message in a membership update
      cycle, i.e., each time the query timer expires (see below).

   o  After the gateway fails to receive a response to a Request
      message.

   o  After the gateway receives a Membership Query message with the
      L-flag set to 1.








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5.2.3.4.2.  Sending a Relay Discovery Message

   A gateway sends a Relay Discovery message to a relay to start the
   relay discovery process.

   The gateway MUST send the Relay Discovery message using the current
   Relay Discovery Address and IANA-assigned UDP port number as the
   destination.  The Discovery Nonce value in the Relay Discovery
   message MUST be computed as described in Section 5.2.3.4.5.

   The gateway MUST save a copy of Relay Discovery message or save the
   Discovery Nonce value for possible retransmission and verification of
   a Relay Advertisement response.

   When a gateway sends a Relay Discovery message, it may be notified
   that an ICMP Destination Unreachable message was received as a result
   of an earlier AMT message transmission.  Handling of ICMP Destination
   Unreachable messages is described in Section 5.2.3.9.

5.2.3.4.3.  Waiting for a Relay Advertisement Message

   A gateway MAY retransmit a Relay Discovery message if it does not
   receive a matching Relay Advertisement message within some timeout
   period.  If the gateway retransmits the message multiple times, the
   timeout period SHOULD be adjusted to provide an random exponential
   back-off.  The RECOMMENDED timeout is a random value in the range
   [initial_timeout, MIN(initial_timeout * 2^retry_count,
   maximum_timeout)], with a RECOMMENDED initial_timeout of 1 second and
   a RECOMMENDED maximum_timeout of 120 seconds (which is the
   recommended minimum NAT mapping timeout described in [RFC4787]).

5.2.3.4.4.  Handling a Relay Advertisement Message

   When a gateway receives a Relay Advertisement message it must first
   determine whether it should accept or ignore the message.  A gateway
   MUST ignore a Relay Advertisement message if it fails to satisfy any
   of the following requirements:

   o  The gateway MUST be waiting for a Relay Advertisement message.

   o  The Discovery Nonce value contained in the Relay Advertisement
      message MUST equal to the Discovery Nonce value contained in the
      Relay Discovery message.

   o  The source IP address and UDP port of the Relay Advertisement
      message MUST equal to the destination IP address and UDP port of
      the matching Relay Discovery message.




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   Once a gateway receives a Relay Advertisement response to a Relay
   Discovery message, it SHOULD ignore any other Relay Advertisements
   that arrive on the AMT interface until it sends a new Relay Discovery
   message.

   If a gateway executes the relay discovery procedure at the start of
   each membership update cycle and the relay address returned in the
   latest Relay Advertisement message differs from the address returned
   in a previous Relay Advertisement message, then the gateway SHOULD
   send a Teardown message (if supported) to the old relay address,
   using information from the last Membership Query message received
   from that relay, as described in Section 5.2.3.7.  This behavior is
   illustrated in the following diagram.






































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                     Gateway              Relay-1
                     -------              -------
                        :                    :
     Query      Expired |                    |
     Timer (QT)-------->|                    |
                        |  Relay Discovery   |
                        |------------------->|
                        |                    |
                        | Relay Advertisement|
                        |<-------------------|
                        |                    |
                        |      Request       |
                        |------------------->|
                        |                    |
                        |  Membership Query  |
                        |<===================|
                  Start |                    |
           (QT)<--------| Membership Update  |
                        |===================>|
                        |                    |
                        ~                    ~             Relay-2
                Expired |                    |             -------
           (QT)-------->|                    |                :
                        |  Relay Discovery   |                |
                        |------------------------------------>|
                        |                    |                |
                        | Relay Advertisement|                |
                        |<------------------------------------|
                        |                    |                |
                        |     Teardown       |                |
                        |------------------->|                |
                        |                    |                |
                        |      Request       |                |
                        |------------------------------------>|
                        |                    |                |
                        |  Membership Query  |                |
                        |<====================================|
                  Start |                    |                |
           (QT)<--------| Membership Update  |                |
                        |====================================>|
                        |                    |                |
                        :                    :                :

                    Teardown After Relay Address Change







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5.2.3.4.5.  Discovery Nonce Generation

   The discovery nonce MUST be a random, non-zero, 32-bit value, and if
   possible, SHOULD be computed using a cryptographically secure pseudo
   random number generator.  A new nonce SHOULD be generated each time
   the gateway restarts the relay discovery process.  The same nonce
   SHOULD be used when retransmitting a Relay Discovery message.

5.2.3.5.  Membership Query Procedure

   This section describes gateway requirements related to the membership
   update message sequence described in Section 4.2.1.2.

5.2.3.5.1.  Starting the Membership Update Cycle

   A gateway may send a Request message to start a membership update
   cycle (following the optional relay discovery procedure) in response
   to the following events:

   o  When the gateway pseudo-interface is activated.

   o  When the gateway wishes to report a group subscription when none
      currently exist.

   Starting the membership update cycle when a gateway pseudo-interface
   is started provides several benefits:

   o  Better performance by allowing state-change reports to be sent as
      they are generated, thus minimizing the time to join.

   o  More robustness by relying on unsolicited state-change reports to
      update group membership state rather than the current-state
      reports generated by the membership update cycle.  Unsolicited
      state-change reports are typically retransmitted multiple times
      while current-state reports are not.

   o  Simplified implementation by eliminating any need to queue IGMP/
      MLD messages for delivery after a Membership Query is received,
      since the IGMP/MLD state-change messages may be sent as they are
      generated.

   However, this approach places an additional load on relays as a
   gateway will send periodic requests even when it has no multicast
   subscriptions.  To reduce load on a relay, a gateway SHOULD only send
   a Membership Update message while it has active group subscriptions.
   A relay will still need to compute a Response MAC for each Request,
   but will not be required to recompute it a second time to
   authenticate a Membership Update message that contains no



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   subscriptions.

5.2.3.5.2.  Sending a Request Message

   A gateway sends a Request message to a relay to solicit a Membership
   Query response and start the membership update cycle.

   A gateway constructs a Request message containing a Request Nonce
   value computed as described in Section 5.2.3.5.6.  The gateway MUST
   set the "P" flag in the Request message to identify the protocol the
   gateway wishes the relay to use for the general query response.

   A gateway MUST send a Request message using the current Relay Address
   and IANA-assigned AMT port number as the destination.

   A gateway MUST save a copy of the Request message or save the Request
   Nonce and P-flag values for possible retransmission and verification
   of a Membership Query response.

   When a gateway sends a Request message, it may be notified that an
   ICMP Destination Unreachable message was received as a result of an
   earlier AMT message transmission.  Handling of ICMP Destination
   Unreachable messages is described in Section 5.2.3.9.

5.2.3.5.3.  Waiting for a Membership Query Message

   A gateway MAY retransmit a Request message if it does not receive a
   matching Membership Query message within some timeout period.  If the
   gateway retransmits the message multiple times, the timeout period
   SHOULD be adjusted to provide an random exponential back-off.  The
   RECOMMENDED timeout is a random value in the range [initial_timeout,
   MIN(initial_timeout * 2^retry_count, maximum_timeout)], with a
   RECOMMENDED initial_timeout of 1 second and a RECOMMENDED
   maximum_timeout of 120 seconds (which is the recommended minimum NAT
   mapping timeout described in [RFC4787]).

   If a gateway that uses relay discovery does not receive a Membership
   Query within a specified time period or after a specified number of
   retries, the gateway SHOULD stop waiting for a Membership Query
   message and restart relay discovery to locate another relay.

5.2.3.5.4.  Handling a Membership Query Message

   When a gateway receives a Membership Query message it must first
   determine whether it should accept or ignore the message.  A gateway
   MUST ignore a Membership Query message, or the encapsulated IP
   datagram within it, if the message fails to satisfy any of the
   following requirements:



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   o  The gateway MUST be waiting for a Membership Query message.

   o  The Request Nonce value contained in the Membership Query MUST
      equal the Request Nonce value contained in the Request message.

   o  The source IP address and UDP port of the Membership Query MUST
      equal the destination IP address and UDP port of the matching
      Request message (i.e., the current relay address).

   o  The encapsulated IP datagram MUST carry an IGMPv3 or MLDv2
      message.  The protocol MUST match the protocol identified by the
      "P" flag in the Request message.

   o  The IGMPv3 or MLDv2 message MUST be a general query message.

   o  The total length of the encapsulated IP datagram as computed from
      the lengths contained in the datagram header(s) MUST NOT exceed
      the available field length within the Membership Query message.

   Once a gateway receives a Membership Query response to a Request
   message, it SHOULD ignore any other Membership Query messages that
   arrive on the AMT interface until it sends a new Request message.

   The gateway MUST save the Membership Query message, or the Request
   Nonce, Response MAC, Gateway IP Address and Gateway Port Number
   fields for use in sending subsequent Membership Update and Teardown
   messages.

   The gateway extracts the encapsulated IP datagram and forwards it to
   the local IP protocol implementation for checksum verification and
   dispatching to the IGMP or MLD implementation running on the pseudo-
   interface.  The gateway MUST NOT forward any octets that might exist
   between the encapsulated IP datagram and the end of the message or
   Gateway Address fields.

   The MLD protocol specification indicates that senders should use a
   link-local source IP address in message datagrams.  This requirement
   must be relaxed for AMT because gateways and relays do not normally
   share a common subnet.  For this reason, a gateway implementation
   MUST accept MLD (and IGMP) query message datagrams regardless of the
   source IP address they carry.  This may require additional processing
   on the part of the gateway that might be avoided if the relay and
   gateway use the IPv4 and IPv6 addresses allocated for use in AMT
   encapsulated control packets as described in Section 5.2.1.

   The gateway MUST start a timer that will trigger the next iteration
   of the membership update cycle by executing the membership query
   procedure.  The gateway SHOULD compute the timer duration from the



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   Querier's Query Interval Code carried by the general-query.  A
   gateway MAY use a smaller timer duration if required to refresh a NAT
   mapping that would otherwise timeout.  A gateway MAY use a larger
   timer duration if it has no group subscriptions to report.

   If the gateway supports the Teardown message and the G-flag is set in
   the Membership Query message, the gateway MUST compare the Gateway IP
   Address and Gateway Port Number on the new Membership Query message
   with the values carried by the previous Membership Query message.  If
   either value has changed the gateway MUST send a Teardown message to
   the relay as described in Section 5.2.3.7.

   If the L-flag is set in the Membership Query message, the relay is
   reporting that it is NOT accepting Membership Update messages that
   create new tunnel endpoints and will simply ignore any that do.  If
   the L-flag is set and the gateway is not currently reporting any
   group subscriptions to the relay, the gateway SHOULD stop sending
   periodic Request messages and restart the relay discovery procedure
   (if discovery is enabled) to find a new relay with which to
   communicate.  The gateway MAY continue to send updates even if the
   L-flag is set, if it has previously reported group subscriptions to
   the relay, one or more subscriptions still exist and the gateway
   endpoint address has not changed since the last Membership Query was
   received (see previous paragraph).

5.2.3.5.5.  Handling Query Timer Expiration

   When the query timer (started in the previous step) expires, the
   gateway should execute the membership query procedure again to
   continue the membership update cycle.

5.2.3.5.6.  Request Nonce Generation

   The request nonce MUST be a random value, and if possible, SHOULD be
   computed using a cryptographically secure pseudo random number
   generator.  A new nonce MUST be generated each time the gateway
   starts the membership query process.  The same nonce SHOULD be used
   when retransmitting a Request message.

5.2.3.6.  Membership Update Procedure

   This section describes gateway requirements related to the membership
   update message sequence described in Section 4.2.1.2.

   The membership update process is primarily driven by the host-mode
   IGMP or MLD protocol implementation running on the gateway pseudo-
   interface.  The IGMP and MLD protocols produce current-state reports
   in response to general queries generated by the pseudo-interface via



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   AMT and produce state-change reports in response to receiver requests
   made using the IGMP or MLD service interface.

5.2.3.6.1.  Handling an IGMP/MLD IP Datagram

   The gateway pseudo-interface MUST accept the following IP datagrams
   from the IPv4/IGMP and IPv6/MLD protocols running on the pseudo-
   interface:

   o  IPv4 datagrams that carry an IGMPv2, or IGMPv3 Membership Report
      or an IGMPv2 Leave Group message as described in Section 4 of
      [RFC3376].

   o  IPv6 datagrams that carry an MLDv1 or MLDv2 Multicast Listener
      Report or an MLDv1 Multicast Listener Done message as described in
      Section 5 of [RFC3810].

   The gateway must be prepared to receive these messages any time the
   pseudo-interface is running.  The gateway MUST ignore any datagrams
   not listed above.

   A gateway that waits to start a membership update cycle until after
   it receives a datagram containing an IGMP/MLD state-change message
   MAY:

   o  Discard IGMP or MLD datagrams until it receives a Membership Query
      message, at which time it processes the Membership Query message
      as normal to eventually produce a current-state report on the
      pseudo-interface which describes the end state (RECOMMENDED).

   o  Insert IGMP or MLD datagrams into a queue for transmission after
      it receives a Membership Query message.

   If and when a gateway receives a Membership Query message (for IGMP
   or MLD) it sends any queued or incoming IGMP or MLD datagrams to the
   relay as described in the next section.

5.2.3.6.2.  Sending a Membership Update Message

   A gateway cannot send a Membership Update message to a relay until it
   has received a Membership Query message from a relay.  If the gateway
   has not yet located a relay with which to communicate, it MUST first
   execute the relay discovery procedure described in Section 5.2.3.4 to
   obtain a relay address.  If the gateway has a relay address, but has
   not yet received a Membership Query message, it MUST first execute
   the membership query procedure described in Section 5.2.3.5 to obtain
   a Request Nonce and Response MAC that can be used to send a
   Membership Update message.



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   Once a gateway possesses a valid Relay Address, Request Nonce and
   Response MAC, it may encapsulate the IP datagram containing the IGMP/
   MLD message into a Membership Update message.  The gateway MUST copy
   the Request Nonce and Response MAC values from the last Membership
   Query received from the relay into the corresponding fields in the
   Membership Update.  The gateway MUST send the Membership Update
   message using the Relay Address and IANA-assigned AMT port number as
   the destination.

   When a gateway sends a Membership Update message, it may be notified
   that an ICMP Destination Unreachable message was received as a result
   of an earlier AMT message transmission.  Handling of ICMP Destination
   Unreachable messages is described in Section 5.2.3.9.

5.2.3.7.  Teardown Procedure

   This section describes gateway requirements related to the teardown
   message sequence described in Section 4.2.1.3.

   Gateway support for the Teardown message is OPTIONAL but RECOMMENDED.

   A gateway that supports Teardown SHOULD make use of Teardown
   functionality if it receives a Membership Query message from a relay
   that has the "G" flag set to indicate that it contains valid gateway
   address fields.

5.2.3.7.1.  Handling a Membership Query Message

   As described in Section 5.2.3.5.4, if a gateway supports the Teardown
   message, has reported active group subscriptions, and receives a
   Membership Query message with the "G" flag set, the gateway MUST
   compare the Gateway IP Address and Gateway Port Number on the new
   Membership Query message with the values carried by the previous
   Membership Query message.  If either value has changed the gateway
   MUST send a Teardown message as described in the next section.

5.2.3.7.2.  Sending a Teardown Message

   A gateway sends a Teardown message to a relay to request that it stop
   delivering Multicast Data messages to the gateway and delete any
   group memberships created by the gateway.

   When a gateway constructs a Teardown message, it MUST copy the
   Request Nonce, Response MAC, Gateway IP Address and Gateway Port
   Number fields from the Membership Query message that provided the
   Response MAC for the last Membership Update message sent, into the
   corresponding fields of the Teardown message.




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   A gateway MUST send the Teardown message using the Relay Address and
   IANA-assigned AMT port number as the destination.  A gateway MAY send
   the Teardown message multiple times for robustness.  The gateway
   SHOULD use the Querier's Robustness Variable (QRV) field contained in
   the query encapsulated within the last Membership Query to set the
   limit on the number of retransmissions.  If the gateway sends the
   Teardown message multiple times, it SHOULD insert a delay between
   each transmission using the timing algorithm employed in IGMP/MLD for
   transmitting unsolicited state-change reports.  The RECOMMENDED
   default delay value is 1 second.

   When a gateway sends a Teardown message, it may be notified that an
   ICMP Destination Unreachable message was received as a result of an
   earlier AMT message transmission.  Handling of ICMP Destination
   Unreachable messages is described in Section 5.2.3.9.

5.2.3.8.  Shutdown

   When a gateway pseudo-interface is stopped and the gateway has
   existing group subscriptions, the gateway SHOULD either:

   o  Send a Teardown message to the relay as described in
      Section 5.2.3.7, but only if the gateway supports the Teardown
      message, and the current relay is returning gateway address fields
      in Membership Query messages, or

   o  Send a Membership Update message to the relay that will delete
      existing group subscriptions.

5.2.3.9.  Handling ICMP Destination Unreachable Responses

   A gateway may receive an ICMP "Destination Unreachable" message
   [RFC0792] after sending an AMT message.  Whether the gateway is
   notified that an ICMP message was received is highly dependent the
   gateway IP stack behavior and gateway implementation.

   If the reception of an ICMP Destination Unreachable message is
   reported to the gateway while waiting to receive an AMT message, the
   gateway may respond as follows, depending on platform capabilities
   and which outgoing message triggered the ICMP response:

   1.  The gateway MAY simply abandon the current relay and restart
       relay discovery (if used).  This is the least desirable approach
       as it does not allow for transient network changes.

   2.  If the last message sent was a Relay Discovery or Request
       message, the gateway MAY simply ignore the ICMP response and
       continue waiting for incoming AMT messages.  If the gateway is



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       configured to retransmit Relay Discovery or Request messages, the
       normal retransmission behavior for those messages is preserved to
       prevent the gateway from prematurely abandoning a relay.

   3.  If the last message sent was a Membership Update message, the
       gateway MAY start a new membership update and associated Request
       retransmission cycle.

   If the reception of an ICMP Destination Unreachable message is
   reported to the gateway when attempting to transmit a new AMT
   message, the gateway may respond as follows, depending on platform
   capabilities and which outgoing message triggered the ICMP response:

   1.  The gateway MAY simply abandon the current relay and restart
       relay discovery (if used).  This is the least desirable approach
       as it does not allow for transient network changes.

   2.  If the last message sent was a Relay Discovery, Request or
       Teardown message, the gateway MAY attempt to transmit the new
       message.  If the gateway is configured to retransmit Relay
       Discovery, Request or Teardown messages, the normal
       retransmission behavior for those messages is preserved to
       prevent the gateway from prematurely abandoning a relay.

   3.  If the last message sent was a Membership Update message, the
       gateway SHOULD start a new membership update and associated
       Request retransmission cycle.

5.3.  Relay Operation

   The following sections describe relay implementation requirements.  A
   non-normative discussion of relay operation may be found in
   Section 4.2.

5.3.1.  IP/IGMP/MLD Protocol Requirements

   A relay requires a subset of router-mode IGMP and MLD functionality
   to provide group membership tracking and report processing.

   A relay accessible via IPv4 MUST support IPv4/IGMPv3 and MAY support
   IPv6/MLDv2.  A relay accessible via IPv6 MUST support IPv6/MLDv2 and
   MAY support IPv4/IGMPv3.

   A relay MUST apply the forwarding rules described in Section 6.3 of
   [RFC3376] and Section 7.3 of [RFC3810].

   A relay MUST handle incoming reports as described in Section 6.4 of
   [RFC3376] and Section 7.4 of [RFC3810] with the exception that



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   actions that lead to queries MAY be modified to eliminate query
   generation.  A relay MUST accept IGMP and MLD report datagrams
   regardless of the IP source address carried by those datagrams.

   All other aspects of IGMP/MLD router behavior, such as the handling
   of queries, querier election, etc., are not used or required for
   relay operation.

5.3.2.  Startup

   If a relay is deployed for anycast discovery, the relay MUST
   advertise an anycast Relay Discovery Address Prefix into the unicast
   routing system of the anycast domain.  An address within that prefix,
   i.e., a Relay Discovery Address, MUST be assigned to a relay
   interface.

   A unicast IPv4 and/or IPv6 address MUST be assigned to the relay
   interface that will be used to send and receive AMT control and data
   messages.  This address or addresses are returned in Relay
   Advertisement messages.

   The remaining details of relay "startup" are highly implementation-
   dependent and are not addressed in this document.

5.3.3.  Running

   When a relay is started, it begins listening for AMT messages on the
   interface to which the unicast Relay Address(es) has been assigned,
   i.e., the address returned in Relay Advertisement messages.

5.3.3.1.  Handling AMT Messages

   A relay MUST ignore any message other than a Relay Discovery,
   Request, Membership Update or Teardown message.  The handling of
   Relay Discovery, Request, Membership Update, and Teardown messages is
   addressed in the sections that follow.

   Support for the Teardown message is OPTIONAL.  If a relay does not
   support the Teardown message, it MUST also ignore this message.

   A relay that conforms to this specification MUST ignore any message
   with a Version field value other than zero.

5.3.3.2.  Handling a Relay Discovery Message

   This section describes relay requirements related to the relay
   discovery message sequence described in Section 4.2.1.1.




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   A relay MUST accept and respond to Relay Discovery messages sent to
   an anycast relay discovery address or the unicast relay address.  If
   a relay receives a Relay Discovery message sent to its unicast
   address, it MUST respond just as it would if the message had been
   sent to its anycast discovery address.

   When a relay receives a Relay Discovery message it responds by
   sending a Relay Advertisement message back to the source of the Relay
   Discovery message.  The relay MUST use the source IP address and UDP
   port of the Relay Discovery message as the destination IP address and
   UDP port.  The relay MUST use the destination IP address and UDP port
   of the Relay Discovery as the source IP address and UDP port to
   ensure successful NAT traversal.

   The relay MUST copy the value contained in the Discovery Nonce field
   of the Relay Discovery message into the Discovery Nonce field in the
   Relay Advertisement message.

   If the Relay Discovery message was received as an IPv4 datagram, the
   relay MUST return an IPv4 address in the Relay Address field of the
   Relay Advertisement message.  If the Relay Discovery message was
   received as an IPv6 datagram, the relay MUST return an IPv6 address
   in the Relay Address field.

5.3.3.3.  Handling a Request Message

   This section describes relay requirements related to the membership
   query portion of the message sequence described in Section 4.2.1.2.

   When a relay receives a Request message it responds by sending a
   Membership Query message back to the source of the Request message.

   The relay MUST use the source IP address and UDP port of the Request
   message as the destination IP address and UDP port for the Membership
   Query message.  The source IP address and UDP port carried by the
   Membership Query MUST match the destination IP address and UDP port
   of the Request to ensure successful NAT traversal.

   The relay MUST return the value contained in the Request Nonce field
   of the Request message in the Request Nonce field of the Membership
   Query message.  The relay MUST compute a MAC value, as described in
   Section 5.3.5, and return that value in the Response MAC field of the
   Membership Query message.

   If a relay supports the Teardown message, it MUST set the G-flag in
   the Membership Query message and return the source IP address and UDP
   port carried by the Request message in the corresponding Gateway IP
   Address and Gateway Port Number fields.  If the relay does not



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   support the Teardown message it SHOULD NOT set these fields as this
   may cause the gateway to generate unnecessary Teardown messages.

   If the P-flag in the Request message is 0, the relay MUST return an
   IPv4-encapsulated IGMPv3 general query in the Membership Query
   message.  If the P-flag is 1, the relay MUST return an IPv6-
   encapsulated MLDv2 general query in the Membership Query message.

   If the relay is not accepting Membership Update messages that create
   new tunnel endpoints due to resource limitations, it SHOULD set the
   L-flag in the Membership Query message to notify the gateway of this
   state.  Support for the L-flag is OPTIONAL.  See Section 5.3.3.8.

   The IGMPv3 general query datagram that a relay encapsulates within a
   Membership Query message MUST conform to the descriptions found in
   Section 4.1 of [RFC3376].  These datagrams MUST possess the IP
   headers, header options and header values called for in [RFC3376],
   with the following exception; the source IP address for an IGMP
   general query datagram MAY be set to the "unspecified" address (all
   octets are zero) but SHOULD be set to an address in the address range
   specifically assigned by IANA for use in the IGMP messages sent from
   a relay to a gateway (i.e. 154.7.1.1 as described in Section 7).
   This exception is made because the source address that a relay might
   normally send may not be a valid source address on any gateway
   interface.  The rationale for using the aforementioned source
   addresses is primary one of convenience - a gateway will accept an
   IGMP query regardless of the source address it carries.  See
   Section 5.2.1.

   The MLDv2 general query datagram that a relay encapsulates within a
   Membership Query message MUST conform to the descriptions found in
   Section 5.1 of [RFC3810].  These datagrams MUST possess the IP
   headers, header options and header values called for in [RFC3810],
   with the following exception; the source IP address for an MLD
   general query datagram MAY be set to the "unspecified" address (all
   octets are zero) but SHOULD be set to an IPv6 link-local address in
   the range FE80::/64.  A relay may use a dynamically-generated link-
   local address or the fixed address FE80::2.  As with IGMP, a gateway
   will accept an MLD query regardless of the source address it carries.
   See Section 5.2.1.

   A relay MUST set the Querier's Query Interval Code (QQIC) field in
   the general query to supply the gateway with a suggested time
   duration to use for the membership query timer.  The QQIC field is
   defined in Section 4.1.1 in [RFC3376] and Section 5.1.3 in [RFC3810].
   A relay MAY adjust this value to affect the rate at which the Request
   messages are sent from a gateway.  However, a gateway is allowed to
   use a shorter duration than specified in the QQIC field, so a relay



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   may be limited in its ability to spread out Requests coming from a
   gateway.

   A relay MUST set the Querier's Robustness Variable (QRV) field in the
   general query to a non-zero value.  This value SHOULD be greater than
   one.  If a gateway retransmits membership state change messages, it
   will retransmit them (robustness variable - 1) times.

   A relay SHOULD set the Max Resp Code field in the general query to a
   value of 1 to trigger an immediate response from the gateway (some
   host IGMP/MLD implementations may not accept a value of zero).  A
   relay SHOULD NOT use the IGMPv2/MLDv2 Query Response Interval
   variable, if available, to generate the Max Resp Code field value as
   the Query Response Interval variable is used in setting the duration
   of group state timers and must not be set to such a small value.  See
   Section 5.3.3.7.

5.3.3.4.  Handling a Membership Update Message

   This section describes relay requirements related to the membership
   update portion of the message sequence described in Section 4.2.1.2.

   When a relay receives a Membership Update message it must first
   determine whether it should accept or ignore the message.  A relay
   MUST NOT make any changes to group membership and forwarding state if
   the message fails to satisfy any of the following requirements:

   o  The IP datagram encapsulated within the message MUST be one of the
      following:

      *  IPv4 datagram carrying an IGMPv2 or IGMPv3 Membership Report
         message.

      *  IPv4 datagram carrying an IGMPv2 Leave Group message.

      *  IPv6 datagram carrying an MLDv1 or MLDv2 Multicast Listener
         Report message.

      *  IPv6 datagram carrying MLDv1 Multicast Listener Done message.

   o  The encapsulated IP datagram MUST satisfy the IP header
      requirements for the IGMP or MLD message type as described in
      Section 4 of [RFC3376], Section 2 of [RFC2236], Section 5 of
      [RFC3810], and Section 3 of [RFC2710], with the following
      exception - a relay MUST accept an IGMP or MLD message regardless
      of the IP source address carried by the datagram.





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   o  The total length of the encapsulated IP datagram as computed from
      the lengths contained in the datagram header(s) MUST NOT exceed
      the available field length within the Membership Update message.

   o  The computed checksums for the encapsulated IP datagram and its
      payload MUST match the values contained therein.  Checksum
      computation and verification varies by protocol; See [RFC0791] for
      IPv4, [RFC3376] for IGMPv3, and [RFC4443] for MLD (ICMPv6).

   o  If processing of the encapsulated IGMP or MLD message would result
      in an allocation of new state or a modification of existing state,
      the relay MUST authenticate the source of the Membership message
      by verifying that the value contained in the Response MAC field
      equals the MAC value computed from the fields in the Membership
      Update message datagram.  Because the private secret used to
      compute Response MAC values may change over time, the relay MUST
      retain the previous version of the private secret to use in
      authenticating Membership Updates sent during the subsequent query
      interval.  If the first attempt at Response MAC authentication
      fails, the relay MUST attempt to authenticate the Response MAC
      using the previous private secret value unless 2*query_interval
      time has elapsed since the private secret change.  See
      Section 5.3.5.  An alternative approach to Response MAC generation
      that avoids repeated Response MAC computations may be found in
      Appendix A.1.

   A relay MAY skip source authentication to reduce the computational
   cost of handling Membership Update messages if the relay can make a
   trivial determination that the IGMP/MLD message carried by the
   Membership Update message will produce no changes in group membership
   or forwarding state.  The relay does not need to compute and compare
   MAC values if it finds there are no group subscriptions for the
   source of the Membership Update message and either of the following
   is true:

   o  The encapsulated IP datagram is an IGMPv3 Membership Report or
      MLDv2 Multicast Listener Report message that contains no group
      records.  This may often be the case for gateways that
      continuously repeat the membership update cycle even though they
      have no group subscriptions to report.

   o  The encapsulated IP datagram is an IGMPv2 Leave Group or MLDv1
      Multicast Listener Done message.

   The IGMP and MLD protocol specifications indicate that senders SHOULD
   use a link-local source IP address in message datagrams.  This
   requirement must be relaxed for AMT because gateways and relays do
   not share a common subnet.  For this reason, a relay implementation



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   MUST accept IGMP and MLD datagrams regardless of the source IP
   address they carry.

   Once a relay has determined that the Membership Update message is
   valid, it processes the encapsulated IGMP or MLD membership message
   to update group membership state and communicates with the multicast
   protocol to update forwarding state and possibly send multicast
   protocol messages towards upstream routers.  The relay MUST ignore
   any octets that might exist between the encapsulated IP datagram and
   the end of the Membership Update message.

   As described in Section 4.2.2, a relay uses the source IP address and
   source UDP port carried by a Membership Update messages to identify a
   tunnel endpoint.  A relay uses the tunnel endpoint as the destination
   address for any Multicast Data messages it sends as a result of the
   group membership and forwarding state created by processing the IGMP/
   MLD messages contained in Membership Update messages received from
   the endpoint.

   If a Membership Update message originates from a new endpoint, the
   relay MUST determine whether it can accept updates from a new
   endpoint.  If a relay has been configured with a limit on the total
   number of endpoints, or a limit on the total number of endpoints for
   a given source address, then the relay MAY ignore the Membership
   Update message and possibly withdraw any Relay Discovery Address
   Prefix announcement that it might have made.  See Section 5.3.3.8.

   A relay MUST maintain some form of group membership database for each
   endpoint.  The per-endpoint databases are used update a forwarding
   table containing entries that map an (*,G) or (S,G) subscription to a
   list of tunnel endpoints.

   A relay MUST maintain some form of group membership database
   representing a merger of the group membership databases of all
   endpoints.  The merged group membership database is used to update
   upstream multicast forwarding state.

   A relay MUST maintain a forwarding table that maps each unique (*,G)
   and (S,G) subscription to a list of tunnel endpoints.  A relay uses
   this forwarding table to provide the destination address when
   performing UDP/IP encapsulation of the incoming multicast IP
   datagrams to form Multicast Data messages.

   If a group filter mode for a group entry on a tunnel endpoint is
   EXCLUDE, the relay SHOULD NOT forward datagrams that originate from
   sources in the filter source list unless the relay architecture does
   not readily support source filtering.  A relay MAY ignore the source
   list if necessary because gateways are expected to do their own



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   source filtering.

5.3.3.5.  Handling a Teardown Message

   This section describes relay requirements related to the teardown
   message sequence described in Section 4.2.1.3.

   When a relay (that supports the Teardown message) receives a Teardown
   message, it MUST first authenticate the source of the Teardown
   message by verifying that the Response MAC carried by the Teardown
   message is equal to a MAC value computed from the fields carried by
   the Teardown message.  The method used to compute the MAC differs
   from that used to generate and validate the Membership Query and
   Membership Update messages in that the source IP address and source
   UDP port number used to compute the MAC are taken from the Gateway IP
   Address and Gateway Port Number field in the Teardown message rather
   than from the IP and UDP headers in the datagram that carries the
   Teardown message.  The MAC computation is described Section 5.3.5.  A
   relay MUST ignore a Teardown message If the computed MAC does not
   equal the value of the Response MAC field.

   If a relay determines that a Teardown message is authentic, it MUST
   immediately stop transmitting Multicast Data messages to the endpoint
   identified by the Gateway IP Address and Gateway Port Number fields
   in the message.  The relay MUST eventually delete any group
   membership and forwarding state associated with the endpoint, but MAY
   delay doing so to allow a gateway to recreate group membership state
   on a new endpoint and thereby avoid making unnecessary (temporary)
   changes in upstream routing/forwarding state.

   The state changes made by a relay when processing a Teardown message
   MUST be identical to those that would be made as if the relay had
   received an IGMP/MLD report that would cause the IGMP or MLD protocol
   to delete all existing group records in the group membership database
   associated with the endpoint.  The processing of the Teardown message
   should trigger or mimic the normal interaction between IGMP or MLD
   and a multicast protocol to produce required changes in forwarding
   state and possibly send prune/leave messages towards upstream
   routers.

5.3.3.6.  Handling Multicast IP Datagrams

   When a multicast IP datagram is forwarded to the relay pseudo-
   interface, the relay MUST, for each gateway that has expressed an
   interest in receiving the datagram, encapsulate the IP datagram into
   a Multicast Data message and send that message to the gateway.  This
   process is highly implementation dependent, but conceptually requires
   the following steps:



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   o  Use the IP datagram source and destination address to look up the
      appropriate (*,G) or (S,G) entry in the endpoint forwarding table
      created for the pseudo-interface as a result of IGMP/MLD
      processing.

   o  Possibly replicate the datagram for each gateway endpoint listed
      for that (*,G) or (S,G) entry.

   o  Encapsulate the IP datagram in a UDP/IP Membership Data message,
      using the endpoint UDP/IP address as the destination address and
      the unicast relay address and IANA-assigned port as the source
      UDP/IP address.  To ensure successful NAT traversal, the source
      address and port MUST match the destination address and port
      carried by the Membership Update message sent by the gateway to
      create the forwarding table entry.

   o  If possible, the relay SHOULD compute a valid, non-zero checksum
      for the UDP datagram carrying the Membership Data message.  See
      Section 4.2.2.3.

   o  Send the message to the gateway.

   The relay pseudo-interface MUST ignore any other IP datagrams
   forwarded to the pseudo-interface.

5.3.3.7.  State Timers

   A relay MUST maintain a timer or timers whose expiration will trigger
   the removal of any group subscriptions and forwarding state
   previously created for a gateway endpoint should the gateway fail to
   refresh the group membership state within a specified time interval.

   A relay MAY use a variant of the IGMPv3/MLDv2 state management
   protocol described in Section 6 of [RFC3376] or Section 7 of
   [RFC3810], or may maintain a per-endpoint timer to trigger the
   deletion of group membership state.

   If a per-endpoint timer is used, the relay MUST restart this timer
   each time it receives a new Membership Update message from the
   gateway endpoint.

   The endpoint timer duration MAY be computed from tunable IGMP/MLD
   variables as follows:

   ((Robustness_Variable) * (Query_Interval)) + Query_Response_Interval

   If IGMP/MLD default values are used for these variables, the gateway
   will timeout after 125s * 2 + 10s = 260s.  The timer duration MUST be



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   greater than the query interval suggested in the last Membership
   Query message sent to the gateway endpoint.

   Regardless of the timers used (IGMPv3/MLDv2 or endpoint), the
   Query_Response_Interval value SHOULD be greater than or equal to 10s
   to allow for packet loss and round-trip time in the Request/
   Membership Query message exchange.

5.3.3.8.  Relay Resource Management

   A relay may be configured with various service limits to ensure a
   minimum level of performance for gateways that connect to it.

   If a relay has determined that it has reached or exceeded maximum
   allowable capacity or has otherwise exhausted resources required to
   support additional gateways, it SHOULD withdraw any Relay Discovery
   Address Prefix it has advertised into the unicast internetwork and
   SHOULD set the L-flag in any Membership Query messages it returns to
   gateways while in this state.

   If the relay receives an update from a gateway that adds group
   membership or forwarding state for an endpoint that has already
   reached maximum allowable state entries, the relay SHOULD continue to
   accept updates from the gateway but ignore any group membership/
   forwarding state additions requested by that gateway.

   If the relay receives an update from a gateway that would create a
   new tunnel endpoint for a source IP address that has already reached
   the maximum allowable number of endpoints (maximum UDP ports), it
   should simply ignore the Membership Update.

5.3.4.  Shutdown

   The following steps should be treated as an abstract description of
   the shutdown procedure for a relay:

   o  Withdraw the Relay Discovery Address Prefix advertisement (if
      used).

   o  Stop listening for Relay Discovery messages.

   o  Stop listening for control messages from gateways.

   o  Stop sending data messages to gateways.

   o  Delete all AMT group membership and forwarding state created on
      the relay, coordinating with the multicast routing protocol to
      update the group membership state on upstream interfaces as



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      required.

5.3.5.  Response MAC Generation

   A Response MAC is produced by a hash digest computation.  A Response
   MAC value is computed from a Request message for inclusion in a
   Membership Query message, is computed from a Membership Update
   message to authenticate the Response MAC carried within that message,
   and is computed from fields in a Teardown message to authenticate the
   Response MAC carried within that message.

   Gateways treat the Response MAC field as an opaque value, so a relay
   implementation may generate the MAC using any method available to it.
   The hash function RECOMMENDED for use in computing the Response MAC
   is the MD5 hash digest [RFC1321], though hash functions or keyed-hash
   functions of greater cryptographic strength may be used.

   The digest MUST be computed over the following values:

   o  The Source IP address of the message (or Teardown Gateway IP
      Address field)

   o  The Source UDP port of the message (or Teardown Gateway Port
      Number field)

   o  The Request Nonce contained in the message.

   o  A private secret known only to the relay

   An Response MAC generation solution that satisfies these requirements
   is described in Appendix A.1.

5.3.6.  Private Secret Generation

   The private secret, or hash-key, is a random value that the relay
   includes in the Response MAC hash digest computation.  A relay SHOULD
   periodically compute a new private secret.  The RECOMMENDED maximum
   interval is 2 hours.  A relay MUST retain the prior secret for use in
   verifying MAC values that were sent to gateways just prior to the use
   of the new secret.

   The private secret SHOULD be computed using a cryptographically-
   secure pseudo-random number generator.  The private secret width
   SHOULD equal that of the hash function used to compute the Response
   MAC, e.g., 128-bits for an MD5 hash.






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6.  Security Considerations

   AMT is not intended to be a strongly secured protocol.  In general,
   the protocol provides the same level of security and robustness as is
   provided by the UDP, IGMP and MLD protocols on which it relies.  The
   lack of strong security features can largely be attributed to the
   desire to make the protocol light-weight by minimizing the state and
   computation required to service a single gateway, thereby allowing a
   relay to service a larger number of gateways.

   Many of the threats and vectors described in [RFC3552] may be
   employed against the protocol to launch various types of denial-of-
   service attacks that can affect the functioning of gateways or their
   ability to locate and communicate with a relay.  These scenarios are
   described below.

   As is the case for UDP, IGMP and MLD, the AMT protocol provides no
   mechanisms for ensuring message delivery or integrity.  The protocol
   does not provide confidentiality - multicast groups, sources and
   streams requested by a gateway are sent in the clear.

   The protocol does use a three-way handshake to provide trivial source
   authentication for state allocation and updates (see below).  The
   protocol also requires gateways and relays to ignore malformed
   messages and those messages that do not carry expected address values
   or protocol payload types or content.

6.1.  Relays

   The three-way handshake provided by the membership update message
   sequence (See (Section 4.2.1.2)) provides a defense against source-
   spoofing-based resource-exhaustion attacks on a relay by requiring
   source authentication before state allocation.  However, attackers
   may still attempt to flood a relay with Request and Membership Update
   messages to force the relay to make the hash computations in an
   effort to consume computational resources.  Implementations may
   choose to limit the frequency with which a relay responds to Request
   messages sent from a single IP address or IP address and UDP port
   pair, but support for this functionality is not required.  The three-
   way handshake provides no defense against an eavesdropping or man-in-
   the-middle attacker.

   Attackers that execute the gateway protocol may consume relay
   resources by instantiating a large number of tunnels or joining a
   large number of multicast streams.  A relay implementation should
   provide a mechanism for limiting the number of tunnels (Multicast
   Data message destinations) that can be created for a single gateway
   source address.  Relays should also provide a means for limiting the



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   number of joins per tunnel instance as a defense against these
   attacks.

   Relays may withdraw their AMT anycast prefix advertisement when they
   reach configured maximum capacity or exhaust required resources.
   This behavior allows gateways to use the relay discovery process to
   find the next topologically-nearest relay that has advertised the
   prefix.  This behavior also allows a successful resource exhaustion
   attack to propagate from one relay to the next until all relays
   reachable using the anycast address have effectively been taken
   offline.  This behavior may also be used to acquire the unicast
   addresses for individual relays which can then be used to launch a
   DDoS attack on all of the relays without using the relay discovery
   process.  To prevent wider disruption of AMT-based distribution
   network, relay anycast address advertisements can be limited to
   specific administrative routing domains.  This will isolate such
   attacks to a single domain.

6.2.  Gateways

   A passive eavesdropper may launch a denial-of-service attack on a
   gateway by capturing a Membership Query or Membership Update message
   and using the request nonce and message authentication code carried
   by the captured message to send a spoofed a Membership Update or
   Teardown message to the relay.  The spoofed messages may be used to
   modify or destroy group membership state associated with the gateway,
   thereby changing or interrupting the multicast traffic flows.

   A passive eavesdropper may also spoof Multicast Data messages in an
   attempt to overload the gateway or disrupt or supplant existing
   traffic flows.  A properly implemented gateway will filter Multicast
   Data messages that do not originate from the expected relay address
   and should filter non-multicast packets and multicast IP packets
   whose group or source addresses are not included in the current
   reception state for the gateway pseudo-interface.

   An active eavesdropper may launch a man-in-the-middle attack in which
   messages normally exchanged between a gateway and relay are
   intercepted, modified, spoofed or discarded by the attacker.  The
   attacker may deny access to, modify or replace requested multicast
   traffic.  The AMT protocol provides no means for detecting or
   defending against a man-in-the-middle attack - any such functionality
   must be provided by multicast receiver applications through
   independent detection and validation of incoming multicast datagrams.

   The anycast discovery technique for finding relays (see
   Section 4.1.4) introduces a risk that a rogue router or a rogue AS
   could introduce a bogus route to a specific Relay Discovery Address



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   prefix, and thus divert or absorb Relay Discovery messages sent by
   gateways.  Network managers must guarantee the integrity of their
   routing to a particular Relay Discovery Address prefix in much the
   same way that they guarantee the integrity of all other routes.

6.3.  Encapsulated IP Packets

   An attacker forging or modifying a Membership Query or Membership
   Update message may attempt to embed something other than an IGMP or
   MLD message within the encapsulated IP packet carried by these
   messages in an effort to introduce these into the recipient's IP
   stack.  A properly implemented gateway or relay will ignore any such
   messages - and may further choose to ignore Membership Query messages
   that do not contain a IGMP/MLD general queries or Membership Update
   messages that do not contain IGMP/MLD membership reports.

   Properly implemented gateways and relays will also filter
   encapsulated IP packets that appear corrupted or truncated by
   verifying packet length and checksums.
































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7.  IANA Considerations

7.1.  IPv4 and IPv6 Anycast Prefix Allocation

   IANA should allocate an IPv4 prefix and an IPv6 prefix dedicated to
   the public AMT Relays to advertise to the native multicast backbone
   (as described in Section 4.1.4).  The prefix length should be
   determined by the IANA; the prefix should be large enough to
   guarantee advertisement in the default-free BGP networks.

7.1.1.  IPv4

   A prefix length of 24 will meet this requirement.

   Internet Systems Consortium (ISC) has offered 154.7.0/24 for this
   purpose.

7.1.2.  IPv6

   A prefix length of 32 will meet this requirement.  IANA has
   previously set aside the range 2001::/16 for allocating prefixes for
   this purpose.

7.2.  IPv4 Address Prefix Allocation for IGMP Source Addresses

   IANA should allocate an IPv4 prefix dedicated for use in IGMP
   messages exchanged between gateways and relays.  This address range
   is intended for use within tunnels constructed between a gateway and
   relay, and as such, is not intended to be globally routable.

   A prefix length of 24 will meet this requirement.

   Internet Systems Consortium (ISC) has offered 154.7.1/24 for this
   purpose.

7.3.  UDP Port number

   IANA has reserved UDP port number 2268 for AMT.













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8.  Contributors

   The following people provided significant contributions to the design
   of the protocol and earlier versions of this specification:

     Thomas Morin
     France Telecom - Orange
     2, avenue Pierre Marzin
     Lannion  22300
     France
     Email: thomas.morin@orange.com

     Dirk Ooms
     OneSparrow
     Belegstraat 13; 2018 Antwerp;
     Belgium
     EMail: dirk@onesparrow.com

     Tom Pusateri
     !j
     2109 Mountain High Rd.
     Wake Forest, NC  27587
     USA
     Email: pusateri@bangj.com

     Dave Thaler
     Microsoft Corporation
     One Microsoft Way
     Redmond, WA  98052-6399
     USA
     Email: dthaler@microsoft.com




















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9.  Acknowledgments

   The authors would like to thank the following individuals for their
   suggestions, comments, and corrections:

       Amit Aggarwal
       Mark Altom
       Toerless Eckert
       Marshall Eubanks
       Gorry Fairhurst
       Dino Farinacci
       Lenny Giuliano
       Andy Huang
       Tom Imburgia
       Patricia McCrink
       Han Nguyen
       Doug Nortz
       Pekka Savola
       Robert Sayko
       Greg Shepherd
       Steve Simlo
       Mohit Talwar
       Lorenzo Vicisano
       Kurt Windisch
       John Zwiebel


   The anycast discovery mechanism described in this document is based
   on similar work done by the NGTrans WG for obtaining automatic IPv6
   connectivity without explicit tunnels ("6to4").  Tony Ballardie
   provided helpful discussion that inspired this document.

   Juniper Networks was instrumental in funding several versions of this
   draft as well as an open source implementation.

















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10.  References

10.1.  Normative References

   [RFC0768]  Postel, J., "User Datagram Protocol", STD 6, RFC 768,
              August 1980.

   [RFC0792]  Postel, J., "Internet Control Message Protocol", STD 5,
              RFC 792, September 1981.

   [RFC1321]  Rivest, R., "The MD5 Message-Digest Algorithm", RFC 1321,
              April 1992.

   [RFC3376]  Cain, B., Deering, S., Kouvelas, I., Fenner, B., and A.
              Thyagarajan, "Internet Group Management Protocol, Version
              3", RFC 3376, October 2002.

   [RFC3810]  Vida, R. and L. Costa, "Multicast Listener Discovery
              Version 2 (MLDv2) for IPv6", RFC 3810, June 2004.

   [RFC4291]  Hinden, R. and S. Deering, "IP Version 6 Addressing
              Architecture", RFC 4291, February 2006.

   [RFC4605]  Fenner, B., He, H., Haberman, B., and H. Sandick,
              "Internet Group Management Protocol (IGMP) / Multicast
              Listener Discovery (MLD)-Based Multicast Forwarding
              ("IGMP/MLD Proxying")", RFC 4605, August 2006.

   [RFC4607]  Holbrook, H. and B. Cain, "Source-Specific Multicast for
              IP", RFC 4607, August 2006.

   [RFC4787]  Audet, F. and C. Jennings, "Network Address Translation
              (NAT) Behavioral Requirements for Unicast UDP", BCP 127,
              RFC 4787, January 2007.

10.2.  Informative References

   [I-D.ietf-6man-udpchecksums]
              Eubanks, M. and P. Chimento, "UDP Checksums for Tunneled
              Packets", draft-ietf-6man-udpchecksums-02 (work in
              progress), March 2012.

   [I-D.ietf-6man-udpzero]
              Fairhurst, G. and M. Westerlund, "IPv6 UDP Checksum
              Considerations", draft-ietf-6man-udpzero-05 (work in
              progress), December 2011.

   [RFC0791]  Postel, J., "Internet Protocol", STD 5, RFC 791,



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              September 1981.

   [RFC1112]  Deering, S., "Host extensions for IP multicasting", STD 5,
              RFC 1112, August 1989.

   [RFC1546]  Partridge, C., Mendez, T., and W. Milliken, "Host
              Anycasting Service", RFC 1546, November 1993.

   [RFC2104]  Krawczyk, H., Bellare, M., and R. Canetti, "HMAC: Keyed-
              Hashing for Message Authentication", RFC 2104,
              February 1997.

   [RFC2119]  Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
              Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997.

   [RFC2236]  Fenner, W., "Internet Group Management Protocol, Version
              2", RFC 2236, November 1997.

   [RFC2460]  Deering, S. and R. Hinden, "Internet Protocol, Version 6
              (IPv6) Specification", RFC 2460, December 1998.

   [RFC2663]  Srisuresh, P. and M. Holdrege, "IP Network Address
              Translator (NAT) Terminology and Considerations",
              RFC 2663, August 1999.

   [RFC2710]  Deering, S., Fenner, W., and B. Haberman, "Multicast
              Listener Discovery (MLD) for IPv6", RFC 2710,
              October 1999.

   [RFC3053]  Durand, A., Fasano, P., Guardini, I., and D. Lento, "IPv6
              Tunnel Broker", RFC 3053, January 2001.

   [RFC3056]  Carpenter, B. and K. Moore, "Connection of IPv6 Domains
              via IPv4 Clouds", RFC 3056, February 2001.

   [RFC3068]  Huitema, C., "An Anycast Prefix for 6to4 Relay Routers",
              RFC 3068, June 2001.

   [RFC3552]  Rescorla, E. and B. Korver, "Guidelines for Writing RFC
              Text on Security Considerations", BCP 72, RFC 3552,
              July 2003.

   [RFC3973]  Adams, A., Nicholas, J., and W. Siadak, "Protocol
              Independent Multicast - Dense Mode (PIM-DM): Protocol
              Specification (Revised)", RFC 3973, January 2005.

   [RFC4443]  Conta, A., Deering, S., and M. Gupta, "Internet Control
              Message Protocol (ICMPv6) for the Internet Protocol



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              Version 6 (IPv6) Specification", RFC 4443, March 2006.

   [RFC4601]  Fenner, B., Handley, M., Holbrook, H., and I. Kouvelas,
              "Protocol Independent Multicast - Sparse Mode (PIM-SM):
              Protocol Specification (Revised)", RFC 4601, August 2006.

   [RFC4760]  Bates, T., Chandra, R., Katz, D., and Y. Rekhter,
              "Multiprotocol Extensions for BGP-4", RFC 4760,
              January 2007.

   [RFC4786]  Abley, J. and K. Lindqvist, "Operation of Anycast
              Services", BCP 126, RFC 4786, December 2006.







































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Appendix A.  Implementation Notes

A.1.  Response MAC Generation and Keying

   This specification does not require relays to use any particular
   method to compute the Response MAC field value - only that it contain
   a hash of the source IP address, source UDP port, request nonce, and
   a private secret known only to the relay.  This allows the relay
   implementor a significant amount of leeway in the computation and
   structure of the value stored in the Response MAC field.

   Section Section 5.3.6 states that a relay should periodically compute
   a new private secret (or hash-key) for MAC generation.  To prevent
   the relay from rejecting Membership Update messages that contain
   Response MAC values computed from an old secret, the relay is
   required to retain the previous secret so that it can re-attempt
   authentication using the old secret, should authentication fail after
   recomputing the MAC using the new secret.  However, this approach
   requires a relay to do at least two hash computations for every
   Membership Update message that carries an old or a invalid MAC.  A
   better approach would be to include information within the message
   that the relay could use to choose a single secret for authentication
   rather relying on sequential authentication failures to test all
   possible secrets.

   The solution proposed here is to compute and exchange an
   "authentication cookie" rather than a simple hash value in the
   Response MAC field.  The authentication cookie would combine a
   timestamp with a hash value.  The timestamp is used to calculate the
   age of the cookie, allowing the relay to reject a message if the
   cookie's age is greater than some maximum allowable value.  If the
   cookie has not expired, the relay uses the timestamp to lookup the
   secret that was in use at that time and then compute and compare the
   hash portion of the cookie to authenticate the message source.

   A second purpose served by including the timestamp in the MAC field
   is that it allows the relay to contribute an unpredictable value to
   the authentication hash.  This contribution provides a defense
   against attempts to use a hash reversal algorithm to determine the
   relay's private secret as the hash result will change over time even
   if the nonce carried by the Request message does not.










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    0                   1                   2                   3
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |  V=0  |4 or 5|   Reserved   | |         Response MAC          |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+                               +
   |                                                               |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                        Request Nonce                          |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   :                                                               :

                       The Opaque Response MAC Field

   A relay may use the opaque Response MAC field to store a cookie as
   follows:

    0                   1                   2                   3
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |  V=0  |4 or 5|   Reserved   | |          Timestamp            |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |      MD5(Secret,Timestamp,IP_ADDR,IP_PORT,Request-Nonce)      |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                        Request Nonce                          |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   :                                                               :

      Using The Response MAC Field To Carry An Authentication Cookie

   The timestamp is an unsigned integer measured relative to the start
   time of relay.  The age of the MAC is computed by subtracting the MAC
   timestamp from the current system timestamp.  The operands must be
   unsigned 16-bit integers and the subtraction must use unsigned
   arithmetic to allow for timestamp wrap-around.  The timestamp
   resolution must provide range sufficient to handle the maximum
   allowable age for a MAC, e.g., a resolution of 1 second allows a
   maximum age of 18 hours.  The timestamp should start at a random
   value by adding a random offset, computed at startup, to the current
   system time.












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     +-------------------------+----------------/ /-----------------+
  -->| Timestamp(N1) [16-bits] |      Random Secret [128-bits]      |
 |   +-------------------------+----------------/ /-----------------+
 |_____________________________________________________________________
                                                                       |
     +-------------------------+----------------/ /-----------------+  |
  -->| Timestamp(N1) [16-bits] |      Random Secret [128-bits]      |--
 |   +-------------------------+----------------/ /-----------------+
 |_____________________________________________________________________
                                                                       |
     +-------------------------+----------------/ /-----------------+  |
  -->| Timestamp(N1) [16-bits] |      Random Secret [128-bits]      |--
 |   +-------------------------+----------------/ /-----------------+
 |
 |__ Current
     Secret

                           Private Secret Queue

   The timestamp is not only used to compute the age of the MAC, but is
   also used to lookup the private secret used to generate the MAC.
   Each time a new private secret is computed, the value and the time at
   which the value was computed is pushed into a fixed-length queue of
   recent values (typically only 2-deep).  The relay uses the timestamp
   contained in the MAC field to lookup the appropriate secret.  The
   relay iterates over the list of secrets, starting with the newest
   entry, until it finds the first secret with a timestamp that is older
   than that contained in the MAC field.  The relay then uses that
   secret to compute the MAC that will be compared with that carried by
   the message.





















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Author's Address

   Gregory Bumgardner
   Cisco
   3700 Cisco Way
   San Jose, CA  95134
   USA

   Phone: +1 408 853 4993
   Email: gbumgard@cisco.com









































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