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Versions: (draft-droms-mext-nemo-pd) 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 RFC 6276

Mobility Extensions for IPv6                                    R. Droms
(MEXT)                                                        P. Thubert
Internet-Draft                                                     Cisco
Intended status: Standards Track                               F. Dupont
Expires: December 30, 2010                                           ISC
                                                               W. Haddad
                                                                Ericsson
                                                           CJ. Bernardos
                                                                    UC3M
                                                           June 28, 2010


                   DHCPv6 Prefix Delegation for NEMO
                       draft-ietf-mext-nemo-pd-05

Abstract

   One aspect of network mobility support is the assignment of a prefix
   or prefixes to a Mobile Router (MR) for use on the links in the NEMO.
   DHCPv6 prefix delegation can be used for this configuration task.

Status of this Memo

   This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the
   provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.

   Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
   Task Force (IETF).  Note that other groups may also distribute
   working documents as Internet-Drafts.  The list of current Internet-
   Drafts is at http://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/.

   Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
   and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any
   time.  It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
   material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."

   This Internet-Draft will expire on December 30, 2010.

Copyright Notice

   Copyright (c) 2010 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
   document authors.  All rights reserved.

   This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
   Provisions Relating to IETF Documents
   (http://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of
   publication of this document.  Please review these documents
   carefully, as they describe your rights and restrictions with respect



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   to this document.  Code Components extracted from this document must
   include Simplified BSD License text as described in Section 4.e of
   the Trust Legal Provisions and are provided without warranty as
   described in the Simplified BSD License.


Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  3
   2.  Terminology  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  3
   3.  DHCPv6 Prefix Delegation of Mobile Network Prefixes  . . . . .  4
     3.1.  Exchanging DHCPv6 messages when MR is not at home  . . . .  5
       3.1.1.  Relay agent configuration  . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  6
       3.1.2.  Transmission of DHCPv6 messages  . . . . . . . . . . .  7
       3.1.3.  Receipt of DHCPv6 messages . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  7
     3.2.  Exchanging DHCPv6 messages when MR is at home  . . . . . .  7
     3.3.  Selecting an HA that provides DHCPv6PD . . . . . . . . . .  8
     3.4.  Minimizing DHCPv6PD messages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  9
     3.5.  Other DHCPv6 functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  9
   4.  Security Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  9
   5.  IANA Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
   6.  Acknowledgments  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
   7.  Change Log . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
     7.1.  Revision -00 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
     7.2.  Revision -01 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
     7.3.  Revision -02 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
     7.4.  Revision -04 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
     7.5.  Revision -05 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
   8.  References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
     8.1.  Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
     8.2.  Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
   Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13



















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1.  Introduction

   One aspect of network mobility support is the assignment of a prefix
   or prefixes to a Mobile Router for use on the links in the NEMO.
   DHCPv6 prefix delegation [RFC3633] (DHCPv6PD) can be used for this
   configuration task.


2.  Terminology

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
   document are to be interpreted as described in RFC2119 [RFC2119].

   The following terms used in this document are defined in the IPv6
   Addressing Architecture document [RFC4291]:

      Link-Local Unicast address

      Link-Local Scope Multicast address

   The following terms used in this document are defined in the mobile
   IPv6 specification [I-D.ietf-mext-rfc3775bis]:

      Home Agent (HA)

      Home Link

   The following terms used in this document are defined in the Mobile
   Network terminology document [RFC4885]:

      Mobile Router (MR)

      Mobile Network (NEMO)

      Mobile Network Prefix (MNP)

   The following terms used in this document are defined in the DHCPv6
   [RFC3315] and DHCPv6 prefix delegation [RFC3633] specifications:

      Delegating Router (DR; acts as a DHCPv6 server)

      Requesting Router (RR; acts as a DHCPv6 client)

      DHCPv6 Relay Agent (DRA)

   The following acronym is used in this document:




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   DHCPv6PD:  DHCPv6 Prefix Delegation


3.  DHCPv6 Prefix Delegation of Mobile Network Prefixes

   The NEMO Basic protocol [RFC3963] extends the mobile IPv6 protocol
   [I-D.ietf-mext-rfc3775bis] to enable network mobility.  In this
   extension, an MR uses the mobile IPv6 protocol to establish and
   maintain a session with its HA, and uses bidirectional tunneling
   between the MR and HA to provide a path through which nodes attached
   to links in the NEMO can maintain connectivity with nodes not in the
   NEMO.

   The requirements for NEMO [RFC4885] include the ability of the MR to
   receive delegated prefixes that can then be assigned to links in the
   NEMO.  DHCPv6PD can be used to meet this requirement for prefix
   delegation.

   To use DHCPv6PD for NEMOs, the HA assumes the role of the DR, and the
   MR assumes the role of the RR when located at home, and the role of a
   DRA co-located with the RR function, when the MR is away from home.

   When the MR is not at home, the HA and MR exchange DHCPv6PD protocol
   messages as specified in RFC3775bis.  This means that messages sent
   by the MR include the Home Address destination option and messages
   sent by the HA make use of a Routing Header type 2.  See Figure 1 for
   the deployment topologies when the MR is at home and when it is
   visiting a foreign network.

                   ----                  ----
                  | MR |----------------| HA |
                  |(RR)| (home network) |(DR)|
                   ----                  ----

               -----     /-----------\      ----
              | MR  |----|  Internet |-----| HA |
              |(RR) |    \-----------/     |(DR)|
              |(DRA)|                       ----
               -----
      (visited network)

   Figure 1: Deployment topologies of the use of DHCPv6PD for delegation
                                  of MNPs

   The DHCPv6PD server is provisioned with prefixes to be assigned using
   any of the prefix assignment mechanisms described in the DHCPv6PD
   specifications.  Other updates to the HA data structures required as
   a side effect of prefix delegation are specified by the particular



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   network mobility protocol.  For example, in the case of Basic Network
   Mobility Support [RFC3963], the HA would add an entry in its binding
   cache registering the delegated prefix to the MR to which the prefix
   was delegated.

3.1.  Exchanging DHCPv6 messages when MR is not at home

   The case when the MR is away from home is described in this section.
   Section 3.2 describes the protocol operation for the case the MR is
   attached to its home link.

   The MR MUST register at the HA (i.e. by sending a Binding Update to
   the HA) before initiating a DHCPv6 message exchange for prefix
   delegation.  Since the MR may not have yet requested any prefixes,
   implicit BU signaling MUST be used.  While using the NEMO Basic
   Support protocol with DHCPv6PD, implicit BU signaling is the default
   mode of operation.

   If the MR does not have any active delegated prefixes (with unexpired
   leases), the MR initiates a DHCPv6 message exchange with a DHCPv6
   Solicit message as described in section 17 of RFC 3315 and section
   11.1 of RFC 3633.  The Delegating Router at the HA responds with an
   Advertise message.  Then, the MR requests a set of prefixes by
   sending a Request message.  The DR includes the delegated prefixes in
   a Reply message.  Note that in this case, the MR has previously sent
   a BU to the HA without knowing yet the set of prefixes that it can
   use as MNPs.  The HA, upon reception of the implicit BU from the MR,
   selects (in case this was not pre-configured already) the prefixes
   that would then be delegated to the MR via DHCPv6PD.  The HA, once
   the DHCPv6 signaling has been completed, adds an entry in its binding
   cache including the delegated prefixes.

   In case the MR has one or more active delegated prefixes -- as for
   example if the MR reboots or the MNP(s) currently used by the is
   about to expire -- the MR initiates a DHCPv6 message exchange with a
   DHCPv6 Rebind message as described in section 18.1.2 of RFC 3315 and
   section 12.1 of RFC 3633.  In this case, only one BU signaling
   sequence is required.

   A DHPCv6 relay agent function [RFC3315] is used at the MR.  This
   relay agent function is co-located in the MR with the DHCPv6 client
   function (see Figure 2).  The DHCPv6 signaling between the MR and the
   HA are exchanged between the DHCPv6 relay agent in the MR and the
   DHCPv6 server on the HA.  DHCPv6 messages from the MR to the HA are
   unicast packets sent from the global unicast HoA of the MR to the
   global unicast address of the HA, and therefore the Home Address
   destination option is.  DHCPv6 replies from the HA to the MR are sent
   using the Routing Header type 2, as specified in RFC3775bis.  The



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   DHCPv6 client in the MR hands any outbound DHCPv6 messages to the co-
   located relay agent.  Responses from the DHCPv6 server are delivered
   to the relay agent function in the MR, which extracts the
   encapsulated message and delivers it to the DHCPv6 client in the MR.

                        MR
                       (RR)                        HA
                       (DRA)                      (DR)
                         |       Binding Update    |
                         |------------------------>|
                         |       (HoA, CoA)        |
                         |                         |
                         |       Binding Ack       |
                         |<------------------------|
                     --  |                         |
                    /  \ |                         |
                    \   *|                         |
              DHCPv6 -- >|       DHCPv6 Solicit    |
              Solicit    |--=====================->|
                         |                         |
                         |       DHCPv6 Advertise  |
                     --  |<-=====================--|
                    /  \ |                         |
                    \   *|       DHCPv6 Request    |
              DHCPv6 -- >|--=====================->|
              Request    |                         |
                         |       DHCPv6 Reply      |
                         |<-=====================--|
                         | (Mobile Network Prefix) |
                         |                         |

          Figure 2: Signaling sequence when the MR is not at home

   Note that an MR using DHCPv6PD to obtain the set of prefixes to be
   used as MNPs cannot derive its HoA from an MNP (as the MR does not
   know them before registering to the HA), unless it obtains the
   prefixes while at attached to the home link.  Therefore, the MR is
   assigned its HoA from the prefix on its Home Link.

3.1.1.  Relay agent configuration

   The use of the relay agent function in the MR allows the MR to
   unicast DHCPv6 messages to the DHCPv6 server.  The relay agent MUST
   be configured with the address of the DHCPv6 server.  For the
   purposes of NEMO, the relay agent assumes that the HA for the MR
   hosts the DHCPv6 server.  Therefore, the MR MUST configure the DHCPv6
   relay agent to forward DHCPv6 messages to the HA.




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3.1.2.  Transmission of DHCPv6 messages

   When the DHCPv6 client in the MR sends a message, it hands the
   message to the DHCPv6 relay agent in the MR.  The way in which the
   message is passed to the DHCP relay agent is beyond the scope of this
   document.  The relay agent encapsulates the message from the client
   according to RFC 3315 in a Relay-forward message and sends the
   resulting DHCPv6 message to the HA.  The relay agent sets the fields
   in the Relay-forward message as follows:

   msg-type       RELAY-FORW

   hop-count      1

   link-address   A non-link-local address from the MR egress interface
                  (e.g., home address) used to send packets between the
                  HA and the MR

   peer-address   A non-link-local address from the MR egress interface
                  (e.g., home address) used to send packets between the
                  HA and the MR

   options        MUST include a "Relay Message option" [RFC3315]; MAY
                  include other options added by the relay agent.

3.1.3.  Receipt of DHCPv6 messages

   Messages from the DHCPv6 server will be returned to the DHCPv6 relay
   agent, with the message for the DHCPv6 client encapsulated in the
   Relay Message option [RFC3315] in a Relay-reply message.  The relay
   agent function extracts the message for the client from the Relay
   Message option and hands the message to the DHCPv6 client in the MR.
   The way in which the message is passed to the client is beyond the
   scope of this document.

3.2.  Exchanging DHCPv6 messages when MR is at home

   When the MR is on its home link, the HA uses the home link to
   exchange DHCPv6PD messages with the MR (Figure 3).  In this case, the
   DHCPv6 co-located relay function is disabled.  It is the
   responsibility of the implementation to determine when the MR is on
   its home link.  The Home Link Detection mechanism is described in the
   section 11.5.2 of RFC3775bis.








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                     MR                         HA
                    (RR)                       (DR)
                      |                         |
                      |       DHCPv6 Solicit    |
                      |------------------------>|
                      |                         |
                      |       DHCPv6 Advertise  |
                      |<------------------------|
                      |                         |
                      |       DHCPv6 Request    |
                      |------------------------>|
                      |                         |
                      |       DHCPv6 Reply      |
                      |<------------------------|
                      | (Mobile Network Prefix) |
                      |                         |

        Figure 3: Signaling sequence for the case the HA is at home

3.3.  Selecting an HA that provides DHCPv6PD

   Not all nodes that are willing to act as an HA are required to
   provide DHCPv6PD.  Therefore, when selecting an HA, an MR that
   requires DHCPv6PD service must identify an HA that will provide the
   service.  The MR can determine if an HA provides DHCPv6PD by
   initiating a DHCPv6 message exchange (i.e. sending a Solicit message)
   in which the MR requests delegated prefix(es).  If the HA does not
   respond or responds but does not delegate any prefix(es) in its
   response, the MR assumes that the HA does not provide DHCPv6PD
   service.  The MR continues to query all candidate HAs until it finds
   an HA that provides DHCPv6PD.  Note that in this particular case and
   if the MR is away from home, the MR has to have already performed an
   MIPv6 registration with the HA it queries.

   Querying an HA to determine if it provides DHCPv6PD requires a small
   modification to the operation of DHCPv6 as described in RFC 3315.
   Under normal circumstances, a host will continue to send DHCPv6
   Solicit messages until it receives a response (see Section 17 of RFC
   3315).  However, an HA may choose not to respond to the Solicit
   messages from the MR because the HA does not provide DHCPv6.
   Therefore, when querying an HA to determine if the HA provides
   DHCPv6PD service, the MR SHOULD discontinue sending Solicit messages
   to the HA after sending 6 Solicit messages, and conclude that the HA
   will not provide DHCPv6PD service.  Sending 6 queries provides enough
   reliability for scenarios in which the wireless connectivity is lost
   for a short period after sending the first BU message.

   It is recommended that the MR uses a sequential probing of the HAs



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   for DHCPv6PD service.

3.4.  Minimizing DHCPv6PD messages

   DHCPv6PD in a NEMO can be combined with the Rapid Commit option
   [RFC3315] to provide DHCPv6 prefix delegation with a two message
   exchange between the mobile router and the DHCPv6PD DR.

3.5.  Other DHCPv6 functions

   The DHCPv6 messages exchanged between the MR and the HA MAY also be
   used for other DHCPv6 functions in addition to DHCPv6PD.  For
   example, the HA MAY assign global addresses to the MR and MAY pass
   other configuration information such as a list of available  DNS
   recursive name servers [RFC3646] to the MR using the same DHCPv6
   messages as used for DHCPV6PD.

   The HA MAY act as a DHCPv6 relay agent for Mobile Nodes while it acts
   as a DR for MRs.


4.  Security Considerations

   This document describes the use of DHCPv6 for prefix delegation in
   NEMO.  In addition to the security considerations for DHCPv6
   described in the "Security Considerations" section of the DHCPv6 base
   specification [RFC3315] and the "Security Considerations" of the
   DHCPv6 Prefix Delegation specification [RFC3633], there are two
   aspects that need to be considered.

   First, the NEMO Basic Support specification requires the HA to
   prevent an MR from claiming MNPs belonging to another MR.  Upon
   reception of an implicit BU from an MR, the HA MUST only add prefixes
   into the MR's Binding Cache Entry if the MR has a valid DHCPv6 Prefix
   Delegation lease for said prefixes.  If the MR does not have a valid
   DHCPv6 Prefix Delegation lease, the HA MUST NOT add any prefixes into
   the MR's Binding Cache Entry.  Upon the MR obtaining a valid DHCPv6
   Prefix Delegation lease for a given set of prefixes, the HA MUST add
   these prefixes to the MR's Binding Cache Entry.  This avoids the HA
   forwarding traffic addressed to prefixes that have not been yet
   delegated to the MR.

   The use of DHCPv6, as described in this document, requires message
   integrity protection and source authentication.  When the MR is at
   home, normal DHCPv6 operation is used between MR and HA and therefore
   this specification does not add any new security issue.  While the MR
   is away from home, the IPsec security mechanism mandated by MIPv6
   MUST be used to secure the DHCPv6 signaling.  In the following, we



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   describe the Security Policy Database (SPD) and Security Association
   Database (SAD) entries necessary to protect the DHCPv6 signaling.  We
   use the same format than that used by of [RFC4877].  The SPD and SAD
   entries are only example configurations.  A particular mobile router
   implementation and a home agent implementation could configure
   different SPD and SAD entries as long as they provide the required
   security of the DHCPv6 signaling messages.

   For the examples described in this document, a mobile router with
   home address, "home_address_1", and a home agent with address,
   "home_agent_1" are assumed.  If the home address of the mobile router
   changes, the SPD and SAD entries need to be re-created or updated for
   the new home address.

      mobile router SPD-S:
        - IF local_address = home_address_1 &
             remote_address = home_agent_1 & proto = UDP &
             local_port = any & remote_port = DHCP
          Then use SA1 (OUT) and SA2 (IN)

      mobile router SAD:
        - SA1(OUT, spi_a, home_agent_1, ESP, TRANSPORT):
              local_address = home_address_1 &
              remote_address = home_agent_1 &
              proto = UDP & remote_port = DHCP
        - SA2(IN, spi_b, home_address_1, ESP, TRANSPORT):
              local_address = home_agent_1 &
              remote_address = home_address_1 &
              proto = UDP & local_port = DHCP

      home agent SPD-S:
        - IF local_address = home_agent_1 &
             remote_address = homa_address_1 & proto = UDP &
             local_port = DHCP & remote_port = any
          Then use SA2 (OUT) and SA1 (IN)

      home agent SAD:
        - SA2(OUT, spi_b, home_address_1, ESP, TRANSPORT):
              local_address = home_agent_1 &
              remote_address = home_address_1 &
              proto = UDP & local_port = DHCP
        - SA1(IN, spi_a, home_agent_1, ESP, TRANSPORT):
              local_address = home_address_1 &
              remote_address = home_agent_1 &
              proto = UDP & remote_port = DHCP






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5.  IANA Considerations

   This document describes the use of DHCPv6 for prefix delegation in
   NEMOs.  It does not introduce any additional IANA considerations.


6.  Acknowledgments

   The authors would like to thank people who have given valuable
   comments on the mailing list.  Specific suggestions from Ryuji
   Wakikawa, George Tsirtsis, Alexandru Petrescu, Vijay Devarapalli and
   Marcelo Bagnulo were incorporated into this document.

   The authors would like to thank Julien Laganier, Michaela Vanderveen
   and Jean-Michel Combes for their review of previous versions of this
   document.


7.  Change Log

   This section MUST be removed before this document is published as an
   RFC.

7.1.  Revision -00

   This document is based on draft-ietf-nemo-dhcpv6-pd-03 and includes
   the use of the DHCPv6 relay agent in the MR from
   draft-dupont-mext-dhcrelay-00.

7.2.  Revision -01

   Added detail in Section 4, "Security Considerations", describing
   protection required for DHCPv6 and a mechanism for protecting traffic
   between the DHCPv6 relay agent and server.

   Corrected minor typos.

7.3.  Revision -02

   Removed text describing extensions to DHAAD for discovery of HA that
   will provide PD.

   Added Section 3.3, "Selecting an HA that provides DHCPv6PD," which
   describes how an MR can discover DHCPv6PD service through polling of
   multiple HAs.

   Added text to Section 4, "Security Considerations", giving detail
   about the use of IPsec.



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7.4.  Revision -04

   Added some figures to better explaining considered topologies and
   message exchanges.  Credits to Alex Petrescu.

   Added some text to clarify that two BUs are required, one to set up
   the tunnel to the HA so the DHCPv6 signaling can be sent, and one to
   register the delegated prefixes as MNPs at the HA.  This updates RFC
   3963 behavior (note added).

   Text added to address some comments received on the MEXT mailing list

   Corrected minor typos.

   Enlisted Carlos J. Bernardos as co-author

7.5.  Revision -05

   Only implicit BU mode supported.

   Only DHCPv6 relay agent in the MR co-located with the DHCPv6 client
   function is supported as mode of operation when the MR is away from
   home.

   Security considerations include now the issue of the HA enforcing
   that the MR registers the prefixes that were delegated to it via
   DHCPv6PD.

   Since RFC3775bis specifies that MR and HA operate in RO mode when
   sending traffic between them, the term tunnel has been removed.

   Some typos detected and corrected.


8.  References

8.1.  Normative References

   [RFC2119]  Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
              Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997.

   [RFC3315]  Droms, R., Bound, J., Volz, B., Lemon, T., Perkins, C.,
              and M. Carney, "Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol for
              IPv6 (DHCPv6)", RFC 3315, July 2003.

   [RFC3633]  Troan, O. and R. Droms, "IPv6 Prefix Options for Dynamic
              Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) version 6", RFC 3633,
              December 2003.



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   [RFC3646]  Droms, R., "DNS Configuration options for Dynamic Host
              Configuration Protocol for IPv6 (DHCPv6)", RFC 3646,
              December 2003.

   [RFC3963]  Devarapalli, V., Wakikawa, R., Petrescu, A., and P.
              Thubert, "Network Mobility (NEMO) Basic Support Protocol",
              RFC 3963, January 2005.

   [RFC4291]  Hinden, R. and S. Deering, "IP Version 6 Addressing
              Architecture", RFC 4291, February 2006.

   [RFC4877]  Devarapalli, V. and F. Dupont, "Mobile IPv6 Operation with
              IKEv2 and the Revised IPsec Architecture", RFC 4877,
              April 2007.

8.2.  Informative References

   [I-D.ietf-mext-rfc3775bis]
              Johnson, D., Perkins, C., and J. Arkko, "Mobility Support
              in IPv6", draft-ietf-mext-rfc3775bis-05 (work in
              progress), October 2009.

   [RFC4885]  Ernst, T. and H-Y. Lach, "Network Mobility Support
              Terminology", RFC 4885, July 2007.


Authors' Addresses

   Ralph Droms
   Cisco
   1414 Massachusetts Avenue
   Boxborough, MA  01719
   USA

   Phone: +1 978.936.1674
   Email: rdroms@cisco.com


   Pascal Thubert
   Cisco
   Village d'Entreprises Green Side
   400, Avenue Roumanille
   Biot - Sophia Antipolis  06410
   FRANCE

   Email: pthubert@cisco.com





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Internet-Draft      DHCPv6 Prefix Delegation for NEMO          June 2010


   Francis Dupont
   ISC

   Email: Francis.Dupont@fdupont.fr


   Wassim Haddad
   Ericsson
   6210 Spine Road
   Boulder, CO  80301
   USA

   Phone: +1 303.473.6963
   Email: Wassim.Haddad@ericsson.com


   Carlos J. Bernardos
   Universidad Carlos III de Madrid
   Av. Universidad, 30
   Leganes, Madrid  28911
   Spain

   Phone: +34 91624 6236
   Email: cjbc@it.uc3m.es
   URI:   http://www.it.uc3m.es/cjbc/


























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