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Versions: 00 01 02 03 RFC 4977

Network Working Group                                        G. Tsirtsis
Internet-Draft                                                  Qualcomm
Intended status: Standards Track                              H. Soliman
Expires: July 23, 2007                              Elevate Technologies
                                                        January 19, 2007


                 Problem Statement: Dual Stack Mobility
                  draft-ietf-mip6-dsmip-problem-03.txt

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   Copyright (C) The IETF Trust (2007).













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Abstract

   This draft discusses the issues associated with mobility management
   for dual stack mobile nodes.  Currently, two mobility management
   protocols are defined for IPv4 and IPv6.  Deploying both in a dual
   stack mobile node introduces a number of problems.  Deployment and
   operational issues motivate the use of a single mobility management
   protocol.  This draft discusses such motivations.  The draft also
   discusses requirements for the Mobile IPv4 and Mobile IPv6 protocol
   so that they can support mobility management for a dual stack node.


Table of Contents

   1.  Requirements Notation  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  3
   2.  Terminology  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  4
   3.  Introduction and Motivation  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  5
   4.  Problem Description  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  6
     4.1.  The impossibility of Maintaining IP Connectivity . . . . .  6
     4.2.  Implementation Burdens . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  6
     4.3.  Operational Burdens  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  7
     4.4.  Mobility Management Inefficiencies . . . . . . . . . . . .  7
     4.5.  IPv4 to IPv6 Transition Mechanisms . . . . . . . . . . . .  7
   5.  Conclusions and Recommendations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  9
   6.  Security Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
   7.  IANA Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
   8.  Changes from version .02 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
   9.  References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
     9.1.  Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
     9.2.  Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
   Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
   Intellectual Property and Copyright Statements . . . . . . . . . . 15



















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1.  Requirements Notation

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
   document are to be interpreted as described in [RFC2119].














































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2.  Terminology

   In addition to [RFC2119], this draft uses the following terms as
   defined in SIIT [RFC2765]: IPv4-capable node, IPv4-enabled node,
   IPv6-capable node, IPv6-enabled node.

   The following terms are introduced in this document:

   - MIPv4-capable node:

      A node that supports MIPv4 [RFC3344] in its implementation.  This
      allows the mobile node to configure a home address (statically or
      dynamically) and use such address in its Mobile IPv4 signaling.  A
      MIPv4-capable node may also be IPv6-capable or IPv6-enabled and
      must be IPv4-capable.

   - MIPv6-capable node:

      A node that supports MIPv6 [RFC3775] by configuring a home address
      and using such address in its Mobile IPv6 signaling.  A MIPv6-
      enabled node may also be IPv4-capable or IPv4-enabled and must be
      IPv6-capable.





























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3.  Introduction and Motivation

   A MIPv4-capable node can use Mobile IPv4 [RFC3344] to maintain
   connectivity while moving between IPv4 subnets.  Similarly, a MIPv6-
   capable node can use Mobile IPv6 [RFC3775] to maintain connectivity
   while moving between IPv6 subnets.

   One of the ways of migrating to IPv6 is to deploy nodes that are both
   IPv4 and IPv6 capable.  Such nodes will be able to get both IPv4 and
   IPv6 addresses and thus can communicate with the current IPv4
   Internet as well as any IPv6 nodes and networks as they become
   available.

   A node that is both IPv4 and IPv6 capable can use Mobile IPv4 for its
   IPv4 stack and Mobile IPv6 for its IPv6 stack so that it can move
   between IPv4 and IPv6 subnets.  While this is possible, it does not
   ensure connectivity since that also depends on the IP version support
   of the network accessed.  Supporting Mobile IPv4 and Mobile IPv6 is
   also more inefficient since it requires:

      - Mobile nodes to be both MIPv4 and MIPv6 capable.

      - Mobile nodes to send two sets of signaling messages on every
      handoff.

      - Network Administrators to run and maintain two sets of mobility
      management systems on the same network.  Each of these systems
      requiring their own set of optimizations.

   This draft discusses the potential inefficiencies, IP connectivity
   problems, and operational issues that are evident when running both
   mobility management protocols simultaneously.  It also proposes a
   work area to be taken up by the IETF on the subject and discusses
   requirements for appropriate solutions.

















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4.  Problem Description

   Mobile IP (v4 and v6) uses a signaling protocol (Registration
   requests in MIPv4 [RFC3344] and Binding updates in MIPv6 [RFC3775])
   to set up tunnels between two end points.  At the moment, Mobile IP
   signaling is tightly coupled to the address family (i.e., IPv4 or
   IPv6) used, in the connections it attempts to manipulate.  There are
   no fundamental technical reasons for such coupling.  If Mobile IP
   were viewed as a tunnel setup protocol, it should be able to setup IP
   in IP tunnels, independently of the IP version used in the outer and
   inner headers.  Other protocols, for example SIP [RFC3261], are able
   to use either IPv4 or IPv6 based signaling plane to manipulate IPv4
   and IPv6 connections.

   A node that is both MIPv4 and MIPv6 capable, will require the
   following to roam within the Internet:

      - The network operator needs to ensure that the home agent
      supports both protocols or that it has two separate Home Agents
      supporting the two protocols, each requiring its own management.

      - Double the amount of configuration in the mobile node and the
      home agent (e.g., security associations).

      - IP layer local network optimizations for handovers will also
      need to be duplicated.

   We argue that all of the above will make the deployment of Mobile
   IPv6 as well as any dual stack solution in a mobile environment
   harder.  We will discuss some of the issues with the current approach
   separately in the following sections.

4.1.  The impossibility of Maintaining IP Connectivity

   Even if a mobile node is both MIPv4 and MIPv6 capable, connectivity
   across different networks would not in fact be guaranteed since that
   also depends on the IPv4/IPv6 capabilities of the networks the mobile
   is visiting; i.e., a node attempting to connect via a IPv4 only
   network would not be able to maintain connectivity of its IPv6
   applications and vice versa.  This is potentially the most serious
   problem discussed in this document.

4.2.  Implementation Burdens

   As mentioned above, a node that is IPv4 and IPv6 capable must also be
   MIPv4 and MIPv6 capable to roam within the Internet.  Clearly this
   increases the complexity of implementations for vendors that decide
   to support both protocols.



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   Some vendors, however, may not support both protocols in either
   mobile nodes or home agents.  Although this is more of a commercial
   issue, it does affect the large-scale deployment of mobile devices on
   the Internet.

4.3.  Operational Burdens

   As mentioned earlier, deploying both protocols will require managing
   both protocols in the mobile node and the home agent.  This adds
   significant operational issues for the network operator.  It would
   certainly require the network operator to have deep knowledge in both
   protocols which is something an operator may not be able to justify
   due to the lack of substantial gains.

   In addition, deploying both protocols will require duplication of
   security credentials on mobile nodes and home agents.  This includes,
   IPsec security associations, keying material, and new authentication
   protocols for Mobile IPv6, in addition to the security credentials
   and associations required by Mobile IPv4.  Depending on the security
   mechanisms used and with some further work it might be possible to
   optimize some of these processes.  Assuming nothing else changes,
   however, such duplication is again significant with no gain to the
   operator or the mobile node.

4.4.  Mobility Management Inefficiencies

   Suppose that a mobile node is moving within a dual stack access
   network.  Every time the mobile node moves it needs to send two
   mobile IP messages to its home agent to allow its IPv4 and IPv6
   connections to survive.  There is no reason for such duplication.  If
   local mobility optimizations were deployed (e.g., Hierarchical Mobile
   IPv6 [RFC4140], Fast handovers for Mobile IPv4 [RFC4068]) the mobile
   node will need to update the local agents running each protocol.
   Ironically, one local agent might be running both HMIPv6 and local
   MIPv4 home agent.  Clearly, it is not desirable to have to send two
   messages and complete two sets of transactions for the same
   fundamental optimization.

   Hence, such parallel operation of Mobile IPv4 and Mobile IPv6 will
   complicate mobility management within the Internet and increase the
   amount of bandwidth needed at the critical handover time for no
   apparent gain.

4.5.  IPv4 to IPv6 Transition Mechanisms

   The IETF has standardized a number of transition mechanisms to allow
   networks and end nodes to gain IPv6 connectivity while the Internet
   is migrating from IPv4 to IPv6.  A cursory examination of such



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   transition mechanisms indicates that none of them is designed to deal
   with mobile nodes.  While some transition mechanisms can be combined
   with Mobile IPv4 or Mobile IPv6, non of the known mechanisms have
   been shown to assist with the issues described in this document.















































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5.  Conclusions and Recommendations

   The points above highlight the tight coupling in both Mobile IPv4 and
   Mobile IPv6 between signaling and the IP addresses used by upper
   layers.  Given that Mobile IPv4 is currently deployed and Mobile IPv6
   is expected to be deployed, there is a need for gradual transition
   from IPv4 mobility management to IPv6.  Running both protocols
   simultaneously is inefficient and has the problems described above.
   The gradual transition can be done when needed or deemed appropriate
   by operators or implementers.  In the mean time, it is important to
   ensure that the problems listed above can be avoided.  Hence, this
   section lists some actions that should be taken by the IETF to
   address the problems listed above, without mandating the use of two
   mobility management protocols simultaneously.

   In order to allow for a gradual transition based on current standards
   and deployment, the following work areas seem to be reasonable:

      - It should be possible to run one mobility management protocol
      that can manage mobility for both IPv4 and IPv6 addresses used by
      upper layers.  Both Mobile IPv4 and Mobile IPv6 should be able of
      performing such task.  It may not be possible to support route
      optimization for Mobile IPv6 in all cases; however, mobility
      management and session continuity can be supported.

      - It should be possible to create IPv4 extensions to Mobile IPv6
      so that an IPv4 and IPv6 capable mobile node can register its IPv4
      and IPv6 home addresses to an IPv4 and IPv6 enabled Home Agent
      using MIPv6 signaling only.

      - It should be possible to create IPv6 extensions to Mobile IPv4
      so that an IPv4 and IPv6 capable mobile node can register its IPv4
      and IPv6 home addresses to an IPv4 and IPv6 enabled Home Agent
      using Mobile IPv4 signaling only.

      - It should also be possible to extend MIPv4 [RFC3344] and MIPv6
      [RFC3775] so that a mobile node can register a single care-of
      address (IPv4 or IPv6) to which IPv4 and/or IPv6 packets can be
      tunneled.

   Following the steps listed above, a vendor can choose to support one
   mobility management protocol while avoiding the incompatibility and
   inefficiency problems listed in this document.  Similarly, operators
   can decide to continue using one mobility management protocol while
   addressing the transition scenarios that a mobile node is likely to
   face when roaming within the Internet.





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6.  Security Considerations

   This documents is a problem statement which does not by itself
   introduce any security issues.















































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7.  IANA Considerations

   This document does not introduce any IANA considerations.
















































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8.  Changes from version .02

      - Re-wrote draft using XML template

      - Changed title to fit in under 47 characters

      - Rearranged subsections under Section 4

      - In Section 4.2, clarified that implementation complexity is
      increased for vendors that decide to support both versions of the
      protocol

      - In Section 4.3, clarified that some optimizations might be
      possible with respect to duplicated security mechanisms for MIPv4
      and MIPv6

      - Added a section on transition mechanisms (Section 4.5)

      - Added "Security Considerations" Section 6

      - General clean up and a number editorial corrections.






























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9.  References

9.1.  Normative References

   [RFC2119]  Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
              Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997.

   [RFC2765]  Nordmark, E., "Stateless IP/ICMP Translation Algorithm
              (SIIT)", RFC 2765, February 2000.

   [RFC3344]  Perkins, C., "IP Mobility Support for IPv4", RFC 3344,
              August 2002.

   [RFC3775]  Johnson, D., Perkins, C., and J. Arkko, "Mobility Support
              in IPv6", RFC 3775, June 2004.

9.2.  Informative References

   [RFC3261]  Rosenberg, J., Schulzrinne, H., Camarillo, G., Johnston,
              A., Peterson, J., Sparks, R., Handley, M., and E.
              Schooler, "SIP: Session Initiation Protocol", RFC 3261,
              June 2002.

   [RFC4068]  Koodli, R., "Fast Handovers for Mobile IPv6", RFC 4068,
              July 2005.

   [RFC4140]  Soliman, H., Castelluccia, C., El Malki, K., and L.
              Bellier, "Hierarchical Mobile IPv6 Mobility Management
              (HMIPv6)", RFC 4140, August 2005.






















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Authors' Addresses

   George Tsirtsis
   Qualcomm

   Phone: +908-443-8174
   Email: tsirtsis@qualcomm.com


   Hesham Soliman
   Elevate Technologies

   Phone: +614-111-410-445
   Email: hesham@elevatemobile.com





































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