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Versions: (draft-jang-mipshop-fh80216e) 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 RFC 5270

MIPSHOP Working Group                                        Heejin Jang
Internet-Draft                                               Samsung AIT
Intended status: Informational                              Junghoon Jee
Expires: May 19, 2008                                               ETRI
                                                            Youn-Hee Han
                                                                     KUT
                                                     Soohong Daniel Park
                                                     Samsung Electronics
                                                              Jaesun Cha
                                                                    ETRI
                                                       November 16, 2007


         Mobile IPv6 Fast Handovers over IEEE 802.16e Networks
                   draft-ietf-mipshop-fh80216e-05.txt

Status of this Memo

   By submitting this Internet-Draft, each author represents that any
   applicable patent or other IPR claims of which he or she is aware
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   This Internet-Draft will expire on May 19, 2008.

Copyright Notice

   Copyright (C) The IETF Trust (2007).







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Abstract

   This document describes how a Mobile IPv6 Fast Handover can be
   implemented on link layers conforming to the 802.16e suite of
   specifications.


Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  3
   2.  Terminology  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  4
   3.  IEEE 802.16e Handover Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  6
   4.  Network Topology Acquisition and Network Selection . . . . . .  8
   5.  Interaction between FMIPv6 and IEEE 802.16e  . . . . . . . . .  9
     5.1.  Access Router Discovery  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  9
     5.2.  Handover Preparation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  9
     5.3.  Handover Execution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
     5.4.  Handover Completion  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
   6.  The Examples of Handover Scenario  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
     6.1.  Predictive Mode  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
     6.2.  Reactive Mode  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
   7.  Security Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
   8.  IANA Consideration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
   9.  Acknowledgment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
   10. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
     10.1. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
     10.2. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
   Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
   Intellectual Property and Copyright Statements . . . . . . . . . . 20






















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1.  Introduction

   Mobile IPv6 (MIPv6) [RFC3775] is currently available to provide the
   session continuity during handover.  It is capable of handling IP
   handover between different subnets in a transparent way for higher-
   layer connections.  However, the handover latency resulting from
   MIPv6 is often unacceptable to real-time traffic such as Voice over
   IP, and Mobile IPv6 Fast Handover protocol (FMIPv6) [RFC4068bis] has
   been proposed as a mechanism to reduce the handover latency by
   predicting and preparing the impending handover in advance.

   As [RFC4260] pointed out, FMIPv6 assumes the support from the link-
   layer technology, but the specific link-layer information available,
   as well as the timing of its availability (before, during or after a
   handover occurs), differs according to the particular link-layer
   technology in use.  This document is proposed to provide
   informational guide to the developers about how to optimize the
   FMIPv6 handover procedure, specifically in the 802.16 networks.

   To provide the seamless handover, this proposal tries to maximize the
   benefits of synchronizing the link layer handover with the fast IP
   handover procedure by exploiting the link-layer handover indicators
   when available.  In this proposal, the Media Independent Handover
   (MIH) services being defined in the IEEE 802.21 working group
   [802.21] is used as an example of link-layer specific indicators for
   this purpose.  This document introduces a set of useful messages
   among primitives proposed by IEEE 802.21 which can be cooperated with
   802.16 handover and FMIPv6 procedures, and provides the most
   appropriate timing for the trigger of each selected primitive during
   802.16 handover procedure.

   We begin with a summary of a handover procedure of [802.16e] which is
   the amendment of 802.16 for mobility.  Then the interaction between
   802.16e and FMIPv6 is presented with the primitives proposed by IEEE
   802.21 [802.21] for the close interaction between Layer 2 and Layer
   3.  Lastly, the examples of handover scenarios are described for both
   predictive mode and reactive mode.














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2.  Terminology

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
   document is to be interpreted as described in [RFC2119].

   Most of terms used in this document are defined in MIPv6 [RFC3775]
   and FMIPv6 [RFC4068bis].

   The following terms come from IEEE 802.16e specification [802.16e].

      MOB_NBR-ADV

         An IEEE 802.16e neighbor advertisement message sent
         periodically by a base station.

      MOB_MSHO-REQ

         An IEEE 802.16e handover request message sent by a mobile node.

      MOB_BSHO-RSP

         An IEEE 802.16e handover response message sent by a base
         station.

      MOB_BSHO-REQ

         An IEEE 802.16e handover request message sent by a base
         station.

      MOB_HO-IND

         An IEEE 802.16e handover indication message sent by a mobile
         node.

      BSID

         An IEEE 802.16e base station identifier.

   Additionally, the following primitives are proposed by [802.21] and
   the standardization is in progress.

      Link_Detected (LD)

         A trigger from the link layer to the IP layer in a mobile node
         to report that a new link is detected.





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      Link_Handover_Imminent (LHI)

         A trigger from the link layer to the IP layer in a mobile node
         to report that a native link layer handover/switch decision has
         been made and its execution is imminent.

      Link_Up (LUP)

         A trigger from the link layer to the IP layer in a mobile node
         to report that the mobile node completes the link layer
         connection establishment with a new BS.

      Handover_Commit (HC)

         A control command from the IP layer to the link layer in a
         mobile node in order to force the mobile node to switch from an
         old BS to a new BS.


































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3.  IEEE 802.16e Handover Overview

   Compared with the handover in the wireless LAN, the 802.16e handover
   mechanism consists of more steps since 802.16e embraces the
   functionality for elaborate parameter adjustment and procedural
   flexibility.

   When a mobile node (MN) stays in a link, it listens to L2 neighbor
   advertisement messages, named a MOB_NBR-ADV, from its serving base
   station (BS).  A BS broadcasts them periodically to identify the
   network and announces the characteristics of neighbor BSs.  Once
   receiving this, the MN decodes this message to find out information
   about the parameters of neighbor BSs for its future handover.  With
   the provided information in a MOB_NBR-ADV, the MN may minimize the
   handover latency by obtaining the channel number of neighbors and
   reducing the scanning time, or may select the better target BS based
   on the signal strength, QoS level, service price, etc.

   The handover procedure is conceptually divided into two steps:
   ``handover preparation'' and ``handover execution'' [SH-802.16e].
   The handover preparation can be initiated by either the MN or the BS.
   During this period, neighbors are compared by the metrics such as
   signal strength or QoS parameters and a target BS is selected among
   them.  If necessary, the MN may try to associate (initial ranging)
   with candidate BSs to expedite a future handover.  Once the MN
   decides handover, it notifies its intent by sending a MOB_MSHO-REQ
   message to the serving BS.  The BS then replies with a MOB_BSHO-RSP
   containing the recommended BSs to the MN after negotiating with
   candidates.  Optionally it may confirm handover to the target BS over
   backbone when the target is decided.  The BS alternatively may
   trigger handover with a MOB_BSHO-REQ message.

   After handover preparation, handover execution starts.  When the MN
   is about to move to the new link after deciding the target BS, it
   sends a MOB_HO-IND message to the serving BS as a final indication
   for its handover.  Once the MN makes a new attachment, it conducts
   802.16e ranging through which it can acquire physical parameters from
   the target BS, tuning its parameters to the target BS.  After ranging
   with the target BS successfully, the MN negotiates basic capabilities
   such as maximum transmit power and modulator/demodulator type.  It
   then performs authentication and key exchange procedure, and finally
   registers with the target BS.  If the target BS has already learned
   some contexts such as authentication or capability parameters through
   backbone, it may omit the corresponding procedures.  For the detailed
   procedure of the 802.16 network entry, refer to section 6.3.22 of
   [802.16e].  After completing registration, the target BS starts to
   serve the MN and communication via target BS is available.  However,
   when the MN moves to a different subnet, it should re-configure a new



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   IP address and re-establish an IP connection.  To resume the active
   session of the previous link, the MN should perform IP layer handover
   additionally.
















































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4.  Network Topology Acquisition and Network Selection

   This section describes how discovery of adjacent networks and
   selection of target network work in 802.16e for background
   information.

   An MN can learn the network topology and acquire the link information
   in two ways.  One method is via L2 neighbor advertisements.  A BS
   supporting mobile functionality shall broadcast a MOB_NBR-ADV message
   including the network topology periodically (maximum interval,
   1sec.).  This message includes BSIDs and channel information of
   neighbor BSs, and is used to facilitate the MN's synchronization with
   neighbor BSs.  An MN can collect the necessary information of the
   neighbor BSs through this message for its future handover.

   Another method for acquisition of network topology is scanning, which
   is the process to seek and monitor available BSs in order to find
   suitable handover targets.  While a MOB_NBR-ADV message includes
   static information about neighbor BSs, scanning provides rather
   dynamic parameters such as link quality parameters.  Since the
   MOB_NBR-ADV message delivers a list of neighbor BSIDs periodically
   and scanning provides a way to sort out some adequate BSs, it is
   recommended that when new BSs are found in the advertisement, the MN
   identifies them via scanning and resolves their BSIDs to the
   information of the subnet where the BS is connected.  The
   association, an optional initial ranging procedure occurring during
   scanning, is one of the helpful methods to facilitate the impending
   handover.  The MN is able to get ranging parameters and service
   availability information for the purpose of proper selection of the
   target BS and expediting a potential future handover to it.  The
   detailed explanation of association is described in section 6.3.22 of
   [802.16e].

   After learning about neighbors, the MN may compare them to find a BS
   which can serve better than the serving BS.  The target BS may be
   determined by considering various criteria such as required QoS,
   cost, user preference, and policy.  How to select the target BS is
   not in the scope of this document.













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5.  Interaction between FMIPv6 and IEEE 802.16e

   In this section, we describe the desirable FMIPv6 handover procedure
   in 802.16 networks.  We introduce four primitives proposed by
   [802.21] for the close interaction between FMIPv6 and 802.16e, and
   present the detailed interaction procedure.

5.1.  Access Router Discovery

   Once a new BS is detected through the reception of a MOB_NBR-ADV and
   scanning, an MN may try to learn the associated AR information as
   soon as possible.  In order to enable quick discovery of the
   associated AR information in the IP layer, the link layer (802.16)
   triggers a Link_Detected primitive to the IP layer (FMIPv6) on
   detecting the new BS.

   Receiving the Link_Detected from the link layer, the IP layer tries
   to learn the associated AR information by exchanging the RtSolPr
   (Router Solicitation for Proxy Advertisement) and the PrRtAdv (Proxy
   Router Advertisement) with the PAR.  The result of resolving BSIDs is
   a list of [BSID, AR-Info] tuple(s).  AR-Info consists of AR's prefix,
   IP address and link layer address.

5.2.  Handover Preparation

   As mentioned in section 4, an MN initiates handover by sending a
   MOB_MSHO-REQ to the BS and receives a MOB_BSHO-RSP from the BS as a
   response.  Alternatively, the BS can initiate handover by sending a
   MOB_BSHO-REQ to the MN.  After receiving either MOB_BSHO-RSP or
   MOB_BSHO-REQ message, the MN sends an FBU (Fast Binding Update) to
   the PAR.

   After receiving either a MOB_BSHO-RSP or MOB_BSHO-REQ, the MN
   triggers the Link_Handover_Imminent (LHI) in order to signal the IP
   layer of the arrival of MOB_BSHO-REQ/MOB_BSHO-RSP in the link layer
   as soon as possible.  According to [802.21], the LHI primitive is
   used to report that a native link layer handover/switch decision has
   been made and its execution is imminent.  At this time, the target
   network decided in the link layer is notified to the IP layer by
   using the MAC_access_router parameter (MAC address of the target AR)
   of the LHI primitive.

   On receiving the LHI, the IP layer sends an FBU to the PAR.  Before
   sending an FBack (Fast Binding Acknowledgement) to the MN, the PAR
   sets up a tunnel between the PCoA (Previous CoA) and the NCoA (New
   CoA) by exchanging HI (Handover Initiate) and HAck (Handover
   Acknowledge) messages with the NAR, and forwards the packets destined
   for the MN to NCoA.  During the tunnel set-up procedure, the NAR



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   checks the availability of the NCoA and confirms it in the HAck
   message.

   After the MN sends a MOB_HO-IND to the serving BS, data packet
   transfer between the MN and the BS is not allowed any more.
   Therefore, if possible, the MN should exchange an FBU and an FBack
   message with the PAR before sending a MOB_HO-IND to the BS so as to
   operate in predictive mode.

5.3.  Handover Execution

   When an FBack message arrives before handover, an MN runs in
   predictive mode.  If the MN can not acquire an FBack message on the
   current link, it should run in reactive mode after handover.  Note
   that when a MOB_HO-IND is sent before an FBack arrives, the MN will
   operate in reactive mode because the serving BS releases the MN's all
   connections and resources after it receives a MOB_HO-IND.  The BS may
   retain the resource until the resource retain timer expires.

   When an FBack message arrives, a Handover_Commit (HC) may be issued
   from the IP layer to the link layer optionally so as to promote
   sending the MOB_HO-IND message immediately.  Until the HC occurs, the
   link-layer keeps the current link if possible and postpone sending a
   MOB_HO-IND message as long as possible to operate in predictive mode.
   Similar concept has already introduced for the wireless LAN in
   [I-D.irtf-mobopts-l2-abstractions].  An HC is also a command service
   provided by [802.21].

   After switching links, the MN synchronizes with the target BS and
   performs the 802.16e network entry procedure.  The MN exchanges the
   RNG-REQ/RSP, SBC-REQ/RSP, PKM-REQ/RSP and REG-REQ/RSP messages with
   the target BS.  Some of these messages may be omitted if the
   (previously) serving BS transferred the context to the target BS over
   the backbone beforehand.  When the network entry procedure is
   completed and the link layer is ready for data transmission, it
   informs the IP layer of the fact with a Link_Up (LUP) primitive,
   forcing the IP layer to send an FNA (Fast Neighbor Advertisement) to
   the NAR.  In case of reactive mode, the MN should include an FBU
   within an FNA message.

5.4.  Handover Completion

   When an MN establishes link connectivity with the NAR, it sends an
   FNA message to the NAR.  When an NCoA in the FNA is acceptable, in
   predictive mode, the NAR stops defending the NCoA and delivers the
   buffered packets to the MN.  In reactive mode, the MN sends the FNA
   containing the FBU.  If the NAR detects the NCoA is already in use,
   it MUST discard the FBU and reply with Router Advertisement with



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   Neighbor Advertisement Acknowledge (NAACK) option to the MN.
   Otherwise, the NAR forwards the inner FBU to the PAR, establishes the
   tunnel, and finally delivers packets destined for the NCoA to the MN.
















































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6.  The Examples of Handover Scenario

   In this section, the recommended handover procedure over the 802.16e
   network is shown for both predictive mode and reactive mode.

6.1.  Predictive Mode

   The procedure is described briefly as follows.

          1. A BS broadcasts a MOB_NBR-ADV periodically.

          2. If an MN discovers a new neighbor BS in this message, it
             may perform scanning for the BS.

          3. When a new BS is found through the MOB_NBR-ADV and
             scanning, the MN's link layer notifies it to the IP layer
             (FMIPv6) by a Link_Detected primitive.

          4. Then the MN tries to resolve the new BS's BSID to the
             associated AR by exchange of RtSolPr and PrRtAdv messages
             with the PAR.

          5. The MN initiates handover by sending a MOB_MSHO-REQ message
             to the BS and receives a MOB_BSHO-RSP from the BS.
             Alternatively, the BS may initiate handover by sending a
             MOB_BSHO-REQ to the MN.

          6. When the MN receives either MOB_BSHO-RSP or MOB_BSHO-REQ
             from the BS, its link layer triggers a
             Link_Handover_Imminent primitive to the IP layer.

          7. On reception of a Link_Handover_Imminent, the MN's IP layer
             sends an FBU message to the PAR. On receiving this message,
             the PAR establishes tunnel with the NAR by exchange of HI
             and HAck messages. During this time, the NAR confirms NCoA
             availability in the new link via HAck.

          8. The MN receives an FBack message before its handover and
             operates in predictive mode after handover. It sends a
             MOB_HO-IND message as a final indication of handover.
             Issue of a MOB_HO-IND may be promoted by using a
             Handover_Commit command from the IP layer.









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           9. The MN conducts handover to the target BS and performs
              the 802.16e network entry procedure.

           10. As soon as the network entry procedure is completed, the
              MN's link layer signals the IP layer with a Link_Up and
              the MN issues an FNA to the NAR.

           11. When the NAR receives the FNA from the MN, it delivers
              the buffered packets to the MN.


        (MN L3  MN L2)                   s-BS   PAR          NAR   t-BS
          |      |                        |      |            |      |
    1-2.  |      |<---MOB_NBR-ADV --------|      |            |      |
          |      |<-------Scanning------->|      |            |      |
    3.    |<-LD--|                        |      |            |      |
    4.    |--------------(RtSolPr)-------------->|            |      |
          |<--------------PrRtAdv----------------|            |      |
          |      |                        |      |            |      |
    5.    |      |------MOB_MSHO-REQ----->|      |            |      |
          |      |<-----MOB_BSHO-RSP------|      |            |      |
          |      |  or                    |      |            |      |
          |      |<-----MOB_BSHO-REQ------|      |            |      |
    6.    |<-LHI-|                        |      |            |      |
    7.    |------------------FBU---------------->|            |      |
          |      |                        |      |-----HI---->|      |
          |      |                        |      |<---HACK----|      |
          |<-----------------FBack---------------|-->         |      |
          |      |                        |  forward pkt=====>|      |
    8.    |(HC)->|-------MOB_HO-IND------>|      |            |      |
       disconnect|                        |      |            |      |
       connect   |                        |      |            |      |
    9.    |      |<-------------802.16 network entry---------------->|
    10.   |<-LUP-|                        |      |            |      |
          |-------------------------FNA---------------------->|      |
    11.   |<=============================================deliver pkt |
          |      |                        |      |                   |

               Figure 3. Predictive Fast Handover in 802.16e

6.2.  Reactive Mode

   The procedure is described as follows in case of reactive mode.

           1.~ 7. The same as the case of predictive Mode.






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          8. In case the MN cannot receive an FBack message before its
             handover, it operates in reactive mode after handover.
             It sends a MOB_HO-IND message as a final indication of
             handover.

          9. The MN conducts handover to the target BS and performs
             the 802.16e network entry procedure.

          10. As soon as the network entry procedure is completed, the
             MN's link layer signals the IP layer with a Link_Up and
             the MN issues an FNA encapsulating an FBU to the NAR.

          11. Receiving the FNA, the NAR verifies the availability of
             NCoA and forwards the inner FBU to the PAR, establishing
             the tunnel. If the NAR detects an NCoA is already in use,
             it MUST discard the FBU and reply with Router Advertisement
             with NAACK option to the MN. Otherwise, it delivers the
             packets destined for NCoA to the MN.


        (MN L3  MN L2)                   s-BS   PAR          NAR   t-BS
          |      |                        |      |            |      |
    1-2.  |      |<---MOB_NBR-ADV & Scan--|      |            |      |
          |      |<-------Scanning------->|      |            |      |
    3.    |<-LD--|                        |      |            |      |
    4.    |--------------(RtSolPr)-------------->|            |      |
          |<--------------PrRtAdv----------------|            |      |
          |      |                        |      |            |      |
    5.    |      |------MOB_MSHO-REQ----->|      |            |      |
          |      |<-----MOB_BSHO-RSP------|      |            |      |
          |      |  or                    |      |            |      |
          |      |<-----MOB_BSHO-REQ------|      |            |      |
    6.    |<-LHI-|                        |      |            |      |
    7.    |--------FBU----X--->           |      |            |      |
    8.    |      |-------MOB_HO-IND------>|      |            |      |
       disconnect|                        |      |            |      |
       connect   |                        |      |            |      |
    9.    |      |<-------------802.16 network entry---------------->|
    10.   |<-LUP-|                        |      |            |      |
          |-------------------------FNA[FBU]----------------->|      |
    11.   |      |                        |      |<---FBU-----|      |
          |      |                        |      |----FBack-->|      |
          |      |                        |  forward pkt=====>|      |
          |<=============================================deliver pkt |
          |      |                        |      |            |      |

                Figure 4. Reactive Fast Handover in 802.16e




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7.  Security Considerations

   The security consideration of the FMIPv6 specification [RFC4068bis]
   is applicable to this document.  Particularly, the 802.16e
   architecture supports a number of mandatory authentication
   mechanisms, for example, EAP-TTLS, EAP-SIM and EAP-AKA, as well as,
   secure IP address management between the MN and its network entity.
   That will allow secure handover operation between the MN and the
   network entity.










































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8.  IANA Consideration

   This document does not require any new number assignment from IANA.
















































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9.  Acknowledgment

   Many thanks IETF Mobility Working Group members of KWISF (Korea
   Wireless Internet Standardization Forum) for their efforts on this
   work.  In addition, we would like to thank Alper E. Yegin, Jinhyeock
   Choi, Rajeev Koodli, Soininen Jonne, Gabriel Montenegro, Singh Ajoy,
   Yoshihiro Ohba, Behcet Sarikaya, Vijay Devarapalli and Ved Kafle who
   have provided the technical advice.











































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10.  References

10.1.  Normative References

   [RFC2119]  Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
              Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997.

   [RFC3775]  Johnson, D., Perkins, C., and J. Arkko, "Mobility Support
              in IPv6", RFC 3775, June 2004.

   [RFC4068bis] Koodli, R., "Mobile IPv6 Fast Handovers", draft-ietf
              -mipshop-fmipv6-rfc4068bis-03 (work in progress),
              October 2007.

   [802.16e]  IEEE 802.16 TGe Working Document, "Amendment 2: Physical
              and Medium Access Control Layers for Combined Fixed and
              Mobile Operation in Licensed Bands and Corrigendum 1",
              IEEE Std 802.16e-2005 and IEEE Std 802.16-2004/
              Cor 1-2005, February 2006.

10.2.  Informative References

   [I-D.irtf-mobopts-l2-abstractions]
              Teraoka, F., "Unified L2 Abstractions for L3-Driven Fast
              Handover", draft-irtf-mobopts-l2-abstractions-04 (work in
              progress), August 2007.

   [RFC4260]  McCann, P., "Mobile IPv6 Fast Handovers for 802.11
              Networks", RFC 4260, November 2005.

   [802.21]   IEEE 802.21 Working Group Document,"Draft IEEE Standard
              for Local and Metropolitan Area Networks: Media
              Independent Handover Services", IEEE P802.21/D7.1,
              August 2007.

   [SH-802.16e] Kim, K., Kim, C., and T. Kim, "A Seamless Handover
              Mechanism for IEEE 802.16e Broadband Wireless Access",
              International Conference on Computational Science,
              vol. 2, pp. 527-534, 2005.












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Authors' Addresses

   Heejin Jang
   Samsung Advanced Institute of Technology
   P.O. Box 111
   Suwon 440-600
   Korea

   Email: heejin.jang@samsung.com


   Junghoon Jee
   Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute
   161 Gajeong-dong, Yuseong-gu
   Daejon 305-350
   Korea

   Email: jhjee@etri.re.kr


   Youn-Hee Han
   Korea University of Technology and Education

   Email: yhhan@kut.ac.kr


   Soohong Daniel Park
   Samsung Electronics
   416 Maetan-3dong, Yeongtong-gu
   Suwon 442-742
   Korea

   Email: soohong.park@samsung.com


   Jaesun Cha
   Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute
   161 Gajeong-dong, Yuseong-gu
   Daejon 305-350
   Korea

   Email: jscha@etri.re.kr









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