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Versions: (draft-nitinb-lsp-ping-over-mpls-tunnel) 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 RFC 6424

Network Working Group                                         N. Bahadur
Internet-Draft                                               K. Kompella
Updates: 4379 (if approved)                       Juniper Networks, Inc.
Intended status: Standards Track                              G. Swallow
Expires: August 2, 2011                                    Cisco Systems
                                                        January 29, 2011


          Mechanism for performing LSP-Ping over MPLS tunnels
               draft-ietf-mpls-lsp-ping-enhanced-dsmap-08

Abstract

   This document describes methods for performing lsp-ping traceroute
   over mpls tunnels and for traceroute of stitched mpls LSPs.  The
   techniques outlined in RFC 4379 are insufficient to perform
   traceroute FEC validation and path discovery for a LSP that goes over
   other mpls tunnels or for a stitched LSP.  This document describes
   enhancements to the downstream-mapping TLV (defined in RFC 4379).
   These enhancements along with other procedures outlined in this
   document can be used to trace such LSPs.

Status of this Memo

   This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the
   provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.

   Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
   Task Force (IETF).  Note that other groups may also distribute
   working documents as Internet-Drafts.  The list of current Internet-
   Drafts is at http://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/.

   Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
   and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any
   time.  It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
   material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."

   This Internet-Draft will expire on August 2, 2011.

Copyright Notice

   Copyright (c) 2011 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
   document authors.  All rights reserved.

   This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
   Provisions Relating to IETF Documents
   (http://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of
   publication of this document.  Please review these documents



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   carefully, as they describe your rights and restrictions with respect
   to this document.  Code Components extracted from this document must
   include Simplified BSD License text as described in Section 4.e of
   the Trust Legal Provisions and are provided without warranty as
   described in the Simplified BSD License.

   This document may contain material from IETF Documents or IETF
   Contributions published or made publicly available before November
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   not be created outside the IETF Standards Process, except to format
   it for publication as an RFC or to translate it into languages other
   than English.


































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Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  4
     1.1.  Conventions used in this document  . . . . . . . . . . . .  4
   2.  Motivation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  4
   3.  Packet format  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  5
     3.1.  Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  5
     3.2.  New Return Codes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  6
       3.2.1.  Return code per downstream . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  6
       3.2.2.  Return code for stitched LSPs  . . . . . . . . . . . .  6
     3.3.  Downstream Detailed Mapping TLV  . . . . . . . . . . . . .  6
       3.3.1.  Multipath data sub-TLV . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  8
       3.3.2.  Label stack sub-TLV  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  9
       3.3.3.  FEC Stack change sub-TLV . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  9
     3.4.  Deprecation of Downstream Mapping TLV  . . . . . . . . . . 12
   4.  Performing lsp-ping traceroute on tunnels  . . . . . . . . . . 12
     4.1.  Transit node procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
       4.1.1.  Addition of a new tunnel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
       4.1.2.  Transition between tunnels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
       4.1.3.  Modification to FEC Validation procedure on Transit  . 15
     4.2.  Modification to FEC Validation procedure on Egress . . . . 15
     4.3.  Ingress node procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
       4.3.1.  Processing Downstream Detailed Mapping TLV . . . . . . 15
         4.3.1.1.  Stack Change sub-TLV not present . . . . . . . . . 15
         4.3.1.2.  Stack Change sub-TLV(s) present  . . . . . . . . . 16
       4.3.2.  Modifications to handling to EGRESS_OK responses.  . . 18
       4.3.3.  Handling of new return codes . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
     4.4.  Handling deprecated Downstream Mapping TLV . . . . . . . . 18
   5.  Security Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
   6.  IANA Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
   7.  Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
   8.  References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
     8.1.  Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
     8.2.  Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
   Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
















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1.  Introduction

   This documents describes methods for performing lsp-ping traceroute
   over mpls tunnels.  The techniques outlined in [RFC4379] outline a
   traceroute mechanism that includes FEC validation and ECMP path
   discovery.  Those mechanisms are insufficient and do not provide
   details in case the FEC being traced traverses one or more mpls
   tunnels and in case where LSP stitching is in use.  This document
   defines enhancements to the downstream-mapping TLV [RFC4379] to make
   it more extensible and to enable retrieval of detailed information.
   Using the enhanced TLV format along with the existing definitions of
   [RFC4379], this document describes procedures by which a traceroute
   request can correctly traverse mpls tunnels with proper FEC and label
   validations.

1.1.  Conventions used in this document

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
   document are to be interpreted as described in [RFC2119].


2.  Motivation

   A LSP-Ping traceroute may cross multiple mpls tunnels en-route the
   destination.  Let us consider a simple case.


   A          B          C           D           E
   o -------- o -------- o --------- o --------- o
     \_____/  | \______/   \______/  | \______/
       LDP    |   RSVP       RSVP    |    LDP
              |                      |
               \____________________/
                        LDP


                      Figure 1: LDP over RSVP tunnel

   When a traceroute is initiated from router A, router B returns
   downstream mapping information for node C in the echo-response.  The
   next echo request reaches router C with a LDP FEC.  Node C is a pure
   RSVP node and does not run LDP.  Node C will receive the packet with
   2 labels but only 1 FEC in the Target FEC stack.  Consequently, node
   C will be unable to perform FEC complete validation.  It will let the
   trace continue by just providing next-hop information based on
   incoming label, and by looking up the forwarding state associated
   with that label.  However, ignoring FEC validation defeats the



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   purpose of control plane validatations.  The echo request should
   contain sufficient information to allow node C to perform FEC
   validations to catch any misrouted echo-requests.

   The above problem can be extended for a generic case of tunnel over
   tunnel or multiple tunnels (e.g.  B-C can be a separate RSVP tunnel
   and C-D can be a separate RSVP tunnel).  The problem of FEC
   validation for tunnels can be solved if the transit routers (router B
   in the above example) provide some hint or information to the ingress
   regarding the start of a new tunnel.

   Stitched LSPs involve 2 or more LSP segments stitched together.  The
   LSP segments can be signaled using the same or different signaling
   protocols.  In order to perform an end-to-end trace of a stitched
   LSP, the ingress needs to know FEC information regarding each of the
   stitched LSP segments.  For example, conside the figure below.


   A          B          C           D          E         F
   o -------- o -------- o --------- o -------- o ------- o
     \_____/    \______/   \______/    \______/  \_______/
       LDP        LDP         BGP         RSVP      RSVP


                          Figure 2: Stitched LSP

   Consider ingress (A) tracing end-to-end LSP A--F.  When an echo
   request reaches router C, there is a FEC stack change happening at
   router C. With current lsp-ping mechanisms, there is no way to convey
   this information to A. Consequently, when the next echo request
   reaches router D, router D will know nothing about the LDP FEC that A
   is trying to trace.

   Thus, the procedures outlined [RFC4379] do not make it possible for
   the ingress node to:

   1.  Know that tunneling has occured
   2.  Trace the path of the tunnel
   3.  Trace the path of stitched LSPs


3.  Packet format

3.1.  Introduction

   In many cases there has been a need to associate additional data in
   the lsping echo response.  In most cases, the additional data needs
   to be associated on a per downstream neighbor basis.  Currently, the



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   echo response contains 1 downstream map TLV (DSMAP) per downstream
   neighbor.  But the DSMAP format is not extensible and hence it's not
   possible to associate more information with a downstream neighbor.
   This draft defines a new extensible format for the DSMAP and provides
   mechanisms for solving the tunneled lsp-ping problem using the new
   format.  In summary, the draft makes the following TLV changes:

   o  Addition of new Downstream Detailed Mapping TLV (DDMAP).
   o  Deprecation of existing Downstream Mapping TLV.
   o  Addition of Downstream FEC Stack Change Sub-TLV to DDMAP.

3.2.  New Return Codes

3.2.1.  Return code per downstream

   A new Return Code is being defined "See DDM TLV for Return Code and
   Return SubCode" (Section 6.3) to indicate that the Return Code is per
   Downstream Detailed Mapping TLV (Section 3.3).  This Return Code MUST
   be used only in the message header and MUST be set only in the echo
   response message.  If the Return Code is set in the echo request
   message, then it SHOULD be ignored.  When this Return Code is set,
   each Downstream Detailed Mapping TLV MUST have an appropriate Return
   Code and Return SubCode.  This Return Code is to be used when there
   are multiple downstreams for a given node (such as P2MP or ECMP), and
   the node wants to return a different Return Code/Return SubCode for
   each downstream.

3.2.2.  Return code for stitched LSPs

   When a traceroute is being performed on stitched LSPs, Figure 10, the
   stitching point SHOULD indicate the stitching action to the node
   performing the trace.  This is done by setting the Return Code to
   "Label switched with FEC change" (Section 6.3).  If a node is
   performing FEC hiding, then it MAY choose to set the Return Code to a
   value other than "Label switched with FEC change".  This Return Code
   MUST NOT be used if no FEC Stack sub-TLV (Section 3.3.3) is present
   in the Downstream Detailed Mapping TLV(s).  This new Return Code MAY
   be used for hierarchical LSPs (for indicating start or end of an
   outer LSP).

3.3.  Downstream Detailed Mapping TLV

   A new TLV has been added to the mandatory range of TLVs.  The TLV
   type is pending IANA allocation.







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        Type #   Value Field
        ------   ------------

        TBD      Downstream detailed mapping


                                 Figure 3

   The Downstream Detailed Mapping object is a TLV that MAY be included
   in an echo request message.  Only one Downstream Detailed Mapping
   object may appear in an echo request.  The presence of a Downstream
   Mapping object is a request that Downstream Detailed Mapping objects
   be included in the echo reply.  If the replying router is the
   destination of the FEC, then a Downstream Detailed Mapping TLV SHOULD
   NOT be included in the echo reply.  Otherwise the replying router
   SHOULD include a Downstream Detailed Mapping object for each
   interface over which this FEC could be forwarded.

       0                   1                   2                   3
       0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
       |               MTU             | Address Type  |    DS Flags   |
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
       |             Downstream IP Address (4 or 16 octets)            |
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
       |         Downstream Interface Address (4 or 16 octets)         |
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
       |  Return Code  | Return SubCode|        Sub-tlv length         |
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
       .                                                               .
       .                      List of Sub TLVs                         .
       .                                                               .
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+


                 Figure 4: Downstream Detailed Mapping TLV

   The Downstream Detailed Mapping TLV format is derived from the
   Downstream Mapping TLV format.  The key change is that variable
   length and optional fields have been coverted into sub-TLVs.  The
   fields have the same use and meaning as in [RFC4379].  The newly
   added sub-TLVs and their fields are as described below.

   Return code
      The Return Code and Return SubCode are set to zero by the sender.
      The receiver can set it to one of the values specified in the
      "Multi-Protocol Label Switching (MPLS) Label Switched Paths (LSPs)
      Parameters" registry, "Return Codes" sub-registry.  The notation



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      <RSC> refers to the Return SubCode.  This field is filled in with
      the stack-depth for those codes that specify that.  For all other
      codes, the Return SubCode MUST be set to zero.

      If the receiver sets a non-zero value of the Return Code field in
      the Downstream Detailed Mapping TLV, then the receiver MUST also
      set the Return Code field in the echo response header to "See DDM
      TLV for Return Code and Return SubCode" (Section 6.3).  An
      exception to this is if the receiver is a bud node and is replying
      as both an egress and a transit node with a Return Code of 3
      ("Replying router is an egress for the FEC") in the echo response
      header.

      If the Return Code of the echo response message is not set to
      either "See DDM TLV for Return Code and Return SubCode"
      (Section 6.3) or "Replying router is an egress for the FEC", then
      the Return Code and Return SubCode specified in the Downstream
      Detailed Mapping TLV SHOULD be ignored.

   Sub-tlv length
      Total length in bytes of the sub-TLVs associated with this TLV.


        Sub-Type    Value Field
        ---------   ------------
        TBD         Multipath data
        TBD         Label stack
        TBD         FEC Stack change


            Figure 5: Downstream Detailed Mapping Sub-TLV List

3.3.1.  Multipath data sub-TLV

       0                   1                   2                   3
       0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
       |Multipath Type |       Multipath Length        |Reserved (MBZ) |
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
       |                                                               |
       |                  (Multipath Information)                      |
       |                                                               |
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+


                        Figure 6: Multipath Sub-TLV

   The multipath data sub-TLV includes information multipath



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   information.  The TLV fields and their usage is as defined in
   [RFC4379].

3.3.2.  Label stack sub-TLV

       0                   1                   2                   3
       0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
       |               Downstream Label                |    Protocol   |
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
       .                                                               .
       .                                                               .
       .                                                               .
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
       |               Downstream Label                |    Protocol   |
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+


                       Figure 7: Label Stack Sub-TLV

   The Label stack sub-TLV contains the set of labels in the label stack
   as it would have appeared if this router were forwarding the packet
   through this interface.  Any Implicit Null labels are explicitly
   included.  The number of labels present in the sub-TLV is determined
   based on the sub-TLV data length.  Labels are treated as numbers,
   i.e., they are right justified in the field.  The label format and
   protocol type are as defined in [RFC4379].  When the Downstream
   Detailed Mapping TLV in sent in the echo response, this sub-TLV MUST
   be included.

3.3.3.  FEC Stack change sub-TLV

   A router SHOULD include the the FEC Stack change sub-TLV when the
   downstream node in the echo response has a different FEC stack than
   the FEC stack received in the echo request.  One or more FEC Stack
   change sub-TLVs MAY be present in the Downstream Detailed Mapping
   TLV.  The format is as below.














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   0                   1                   2                   3
   0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |Operation Type | Address type  | FEC-tlv length|  Reserved     |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |           Remote Peer Address (0, 4 or 16 octets)             |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   .                                                               .
   .                         FEC TLV                               .
   .                                                               .
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+



                    Figure 8: FEC Stack Change Sub-TLV

   Operation Type

      The operation type specifies the action associated with the FEC
      stack change.  The following operation types are defined.

        Type #     Operation
        ------     ---------
        1          Push
        2          Pop



                           Operation Type Values

      A FEC Stack change sub-TLV containing a PUSH operation MUST NOT be
      followed by a FEC Stack change sub-TLV containing a POP operation.
      One or more POP operations MAY be followed by one or more PUSH
      operations.  One FEC Stack change sub-TLV MUST be included per FEC
      stack change.  For example, if 2 labels are going to be pushed,
      then 1 FEC Stack change sub-TLV MUST be included for each FEC.  A
      FEC splice operation (an operation where 1 FEC ends and another
      FEC starts, see Figure 10) SHOULD be performed by including a POP
      type FEC Stack change sub-TLV followed by a PUSH type FEC Stack
      change sub-TLV.
      A Downstream detailed mapping TLV containing only 1 FEC change
      sub-TLV with Pop operation is equivalent to EGRESS_OK (Return code
      3, [RFC4379]) for the outermost FEC in the FEC stack.  The ingress
      router performing the lsp trace MUST treat such a case as an
      EGRESS_OK for the outermost FEC.

   FEC tlv Length




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      Length in bytes of the FEC TLV.

   Address Type

      The Address Type indicates the remote peer's address type.  The
      Address Type is set to one of the following values.  The peer
      address length is determined based on the address type.  The
      address type MAY be different from the address type included in
      the Downstream Detailed Mapping TLV.  This can happen in case the
      LSP goes over a tunnel of a different address family.  The address
      type MAY be set to Unspecified if the peer-address is either
      unavailable or the transit router does not wish it provide it for
      security or administrative reasons.


        Type #   Address Type   Address length
        ------   ------------   --------------

        0        Unspecified    0
        1        IPv4           4
        2        IPv6           16

                    Figure 9: Remote peer address type

   Remote peer address

      The remote peer address specifies the remote peer which is the
      next-hop for the FEC being currently traced.  E.g.  In the LDP
      over RSVP case Figure 1, router B would respond back with the
      address of router D as the remote peer address for the LDP FEC
      being traced.  This allows the ingress node to provide helpful
      information regarding FEC peers.  If the operation type is PUSH,
      the remote peer address is the address of the peer from which the
      FEC being pushed was learnt.  If the operation type is POP, the
      remote peer address MAY be set to Unspecified.  For upstream
      assigned labels [RFC5331], an operation type of POP will have a
      remote peer address (the upstream node that assigned the label)
      and this SHOULD be included in the FEC Stack change sub-TLV.

   FEC TLV
      The FEC TLV is present only when FEC-tlv length field is non-zero.
      The FEC TLV specifies the FEC associated with the FEC stack change
      operation.  This TLV MAY be included when the operation type is
      POP.  It SHOULD be included when the operation type is PUSH.  The
      FEC TLV contains exactly 1 FEC from the list of FECs specified in
      [RFC4379].  A NIL FEC MAY be associated with a PUSH operation if
      the responding router wishes to hide the details of the FEC being
      pushed.



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3.4.  Deprecation of Downstream Mapping TLV

   The Downstream Mapping TLV has been deprecated.  LSP-ping procedures
   should now use the Downstream Detailed Mapping TLV.  Detailed
   procedures regarding interoperability between the deprecated TLV and
   the new tlv are specified in Section 4.4.


4.  Performing lsp-ping traceroute on tunnels

   This section describes the procedures to be followed by an ingress
   node and transit nodes when performing lsp-ping traceroute over mpls
   tunnels.

4.1.  Transit node procedure

4.1.1.  Addition of a new tunnel

   A transit node (Figure 1) knows when the FEC being traced is going to
   enter a tunnel at that node.  Thus, it knows about the new outer FEC.
   All transit nodes that are the origination point of a new tunnel
   SHOULD add the a FEC Stack change sub-TLV (Section 3.3.3) to the
   Downstream Detailed Mapping TLV (Figure 4) in the echo-response.  The
   transit node SHOULD add 1 FEC Stack change sub-TLV of operation type
   PUSH, per new tunnel being originated at the transit node.

   A transit node that sends a Downstream FEC Stack change sub-TLV in
   the echo response SHOULD fill the address of the remote peer; which
   is the peer of the current LSP being traced.  If the transit node
   does not know the address of the remote peer, it MAY leave it as
   unspecified.

   The Label stack sub-TLV MUST contain 1 additional label per FEC being
   PUSHed.  The label value MUST be the value used to switch the data
   traffic.  If the tunnel is transparent to the node, i.e. the data-
   plane trace will not expire in the middle of the new tunnel, then a
   FEC Stack change sub-TLV SHOULD NOT be added and the Label stack sub-
   TLV SHOULD NOT contain a label corresponding to the hidden tunnel.

   If the transit node wishes to hide the nature of the tunnel from the
   ingress of the echo-request, then it MAY not want to send details
   about the new tunnel FEC to the ingress.  In such a case, the transit
   node SHOULD use the NIL FEC.  The echo response would then contain a
   FEC Stack change sub-TLV with operation type PUSH and a NIL FEC.  The
   value of the label in the NIL FEC MUST be set to zero.  The remote
   peer address type MUST be set to Unspecified.  The transit node
   SHOULD add 1 FEC Stack change sub-TLV of operation type PUSH, per new
   tunnel being originated at the transit node.  The Label stack sub-TLV



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   MUST contain 1 additional label per FEC being PUSHed.  The label
   value MUST be the value used to switch the data traffic.

4.1.2.  Transition between tunnels


   A          B          C           D          E         F
   o -------- o -------- o --------- o -------- o ------- o
     \_____/    \______/   \______/    \______/  \_______/
       LDP        LDP         BGP         RSVP      RSVP



                         Figure 10: Stitched LSPs

   In the above figure, we have 3 seperate LSP segments stitched at C
   and D. Node C SHOULD include 2 FEC Stack change sub-TLVs.  One with a
   POP operation for the LDP FEC and one with the PUSH operation for the
   BGP FEC.  Similarly, node D SHOULD include 2 FEC Stack change sub-
   TLVs, one with a POP operation for the BGP FEC and one with a PUSH
   operation for the RSVP FEC.  Nodes C and D SHOULD set the Return Code
   to "Label switched with FEC change" (Section 6.3) to indicate change
   in FEC being traced.

   If node C wishes to perform FEC hiding, it SHOULD respond back with 2
   FEC Stack change sub-TLVs.  One POP followed by 1 PUSH.  The POP
   operation MAY either exclude the FEC TLV (by setting FEC TLV length
   to 0) or set the FEC TLV to contain the LDP FEC.  The PUSH operation
   SHOULD have the FEC TLV containing the NIL FEC.  The Return Code
   SHOULD be set to "Label switched with FEC change".

   If node C performs FEC hiding and node D also performs FEC hiding,
   then node D MAY choose to not send any FEC Stack change sub-TLVs in
   the echo response since the number of labels has not changed (for the
   downstream of node D) and the FEC type also has not changed (NIL
   FEC).  In such a case, node D MUST NOT set the Return Code to "Label
   switched with FEC change".  If node D performs FEC hiding, then node
   F will respond as EGRESS_OK for the NIL FEC.  The ingress (node A)
   will know that EGRESS_OK corresponds to the end-to-end LSP.












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   A          B          C           D           E           F
   o -------- o -------- o --------- o --------- o --------- o
     \_____/  |\____________________/            |\_______/
       LDP    |\       RSVP-A                    |    LDP
              | \_______________________________/|
              |       RSVP-B                     |
               \________________________________/
                               LDP




                       Figure 11: Hierarchical LSPs

   In the above figure, the following sequence of FEC Stack change sub-
   TLVs will be performed

   Node B:

   Respond with 2 FEC Stack change sub-TLVs: PUSH RSVP-B, PUSH RSVP-A.

   Node D:

   Respond with a Return Code of EGRESS_OK when RSVP-A is top of FEC
   stack.  Downstream information for node E when echo request contains
   RSVP-B as top of FEC stack and an appropriate Return Code.

   If node B is performing tunnel hiding, then:

   Node B:

   Respond with 2 FEC Stack change sub-TLVs: PUSH NIL-FEC, PUSH NIL-FEC.

   Node D:

   Respond with either Return Code of EGRESS_OK (if D can co-relate that
   the NIL-FEC corresponds to RSVP-A which is terminating at D) or
   respond with FEC Stack change sub-TLV: POP (since D knows that number
   of labels towards next-hop is decreasing).


   A          B          C        D        E       F       G
   o -------- o -------- o ------ o ------ o ----- o ----- o
        LDP       LDP        BGP   \  RSVP    RSVP /  LDP
                                    \_____________/
                                         LDP





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                   Figure 12: Stitched hierarchical LSPs

   In the above case, node D will send 3 FEC Stack change sub-TLVs.  One
   POP (for the BGP FEC) followed by 2 PUSHes (one for LDP and one for
   RSVP).  Nodes C and D SHOULD set the Return Code to "Label switched
   with FEC change" (Section 6.3) to indicate change in FEC being
   traced.

4.1.3.  Modification to FEC Validation procedure on Transit

   Section 4.4 of [RFC4379] specifies Target FEC stack validation
   procedures.  This document enhances the FEC validation procedures as
   follows.  If the outermost FEC of the target FEC stack is the NIL
   FEC, then the node MUST skip the target FEC validation completely.
   This is to support FEC hiding, in which the outer hidden FEC can be
   the NIL FEC.

4.2.  Modification to FEC Validation procedure on Egress

   Section 4.4 of [RFC4379] specifies Target FEC stack validation
   procedures.  This document enhances the FEC validation procedures as
   follows.  If the outermost FEC of the target FEC stack is the NIL
   FEC, then the node MUST skip the target FEC validation completely.
   This is to support FEC hiding, in which the outer hidden FEC can be
   the NIL FEC.

4.3.  Ingress node procedure

   It is the responsibility of an ingress node to understand tunnel
   within tunnel semantics and lsp stitching semantics when performing a
   lsp traceroute.  This section describes the ingress node procedure
   based on the kind of response an ingress node receives from a transit
   node.

4.3.1.  Processing Downstream Detailed Mapping TLV

   Downstream Detailed Mapping TLV should be processed in procedures
   similar to those of Downstream Mapping TLV, defined in Section 4.4 of
   [RFC4379]

4.3.1.1.  Stack Change sub-TLV not present

   This would be the default behavior as described in [RFC4379].  The
   ingress node MUST perform echo response processing as per the
   procedures in [RFC4379].






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4.3.1.2.  Stack Change sub-TLV(s) present

   If one or more FEC Stack change sub-TLVs (Section 3.3.3) are received
   in the echo response, the ingress node SHOULD process them and
   perform some validation.

   The FEC stack changes are associated with a downstream neighbor and
   along a particular path of the LSP.  Consequently, the ingress will
   need to maintain a FEC-stack per path being traced (in case of
   multipath).  All changes to the FEC stack resulting from the
   processing of FEC Stack change sub-TLV(s) should be applied only for
   the path along a given downstream neighbor.  The following algorithm
   should be followed for processing FEC Stack change sub-TLVs.






































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    push_seen = FALSE
    fec_stack_depth = current-depth-of-fec-stack-being-traced
    saved_fec_stack = current_fec_stack

    while (sub-tlv = get_next_sub_tlv(downstream_detailed_map_tlv))

        if (sub-tlv == NULL) break

        if (sub-tlv.type == FEC-Stack-Change) {

            if (sub-tlv.operation == POP) {
                if (push_seen) {
                    Drop the echo response
                    current_fec_stack = saved_fec_stack
                    return
                }

                if (fec_stack_depth == 0) {
                    Drop the echo response
                    current_fec_stack = saved_fec_stack
                    return
                }

                Pop FEC from FEC stack being traced
                fec_stack_depth--;
            }

            if (sub-tlv.operation == PUSH) {
                push_seen = 1
                Push FEC on FEC stack being traced
                fec_stack_depth++;
            }
         }
     }


     if (fec_stack_depth == 0) {
         Drop the echo response
         current_fec_stack = saved_fec_stack
         return
     }


         Figure 13: FEC Stack Change Sub-TLV Processing Guideline

   The next echo request along the same path should use the modified FEC
   stack obtained after processing the FEC Stack change sub-TLVs.  A
   non-NIL FEC guarantees that the next echo request along the same path



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   will have the Downstream Detailed Mapping TLV validated for IP
   address, Interface address and label stack mismatches.

   If the top of the FEC stack is a NIL FEC and the echo response does
   not contain any FEC Stack change sub-TLV, then it does not
   necessarily mean that the LSP has not started traversing a different
   tunnel.  It could be that the LSP associated with the NIL FEC
   terminated at a transit node and at the same time a new LSP started
   at the same transit node.  The NIL FEC would now be associated with
   the new LSP (and the ingress has no way of knowing this).  Thus, it
   is not possible to build an accurate hierarchical LSP topology if a
   traceroute contains NIL FECs.

4.3.2.  Modifications to handling to EGRESS_OK responses.

   The procedures above allow the addition of new FECs to the original
   FEC being traced.  Consequently, the EGRESS_OK response from a
   downstream node may not necessarily be for the FEC being traced.  It
   could be for one of the new FECs that was added.  On receipt of an
   EGRESS_OK response, the ingress should check if the depth of Target
   FEC sent to the node that just responded, was the same as the depth
   of the FEC that was being traced.  If it was not, then it should pop
   the an entry from the Target FEC stack and resend the request with
   the same TTL (as previously sent).  The process of popping a FEC is
   to be repeated until either the ingress receives a non-EGRESS_OK
   response or until all the additional FECs added to the FEC stack have
   already been popped.  Using EGRESS_OK responses, an ingress can build
   a map of the hierarchical LSP structure traversed by a given FEC.

4.3.3.  Handling of new return codes

   When the echo response Return Code is "Label switched with FEC
   change" (Section 3.2.2), the ingress node SHOULD manipulate the FEC
   stack as per the FEC Stack change sub-TLVs contained in the
   downstream detailed mapping TLV.  A transit node can use this Return
   Code for stitched LSPs and for hierarchical LSPs.  In case of ECMP or
   P2MP, there could be multiple paths and downstream detailed mapping
   TLVs with different return codes (Section 3.2.1).  The ingress node
   should build the topology based off the Return Code per ECMP path/
   P2MP branch.

4.4.  Handling deprecated Downstream Mapping TLV

   The Downstream Mapping TLV has been deprecated.  Applications should
   now use the Downstream Detailed Mapping TLV.  The following
   procedures SHOULD be used for backward compatibility with routers
   that do not support the Downstream Detailed Mapping TLV.




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   o  The Downstream Mapping TLV and the Downstream Detailed Mapping TLV
      MUST never be sent together in the same echo request or in the
      same echo response.
   o  If the echo request contains a Downstream Detailed Mapping TLV and
      the corresponding echo response contains an Return Code of 2 (one
      or more of the TLVs was not understood), then the sender of the
      echo request MAY resend the echo request with the Downstream
      Mapping TLV (instead of the Downstream Detailed Mapping TLV).  In
      cases where a detailed response is needed, the sender can choose
      to ignore the router that does not support the Downstream Detailed
      Mapping TLV.
   o  If the echo request contains a Downstream Mapping TLV, then a
      Downstream Detailed Mapping TLV MUST NOT be sent in the echo
      response.  This is to handle the case that the sender of the echo
      request does not support the new TLV.  The echo response MAY
      contain Downstream Mapping TLV(s).
   o  If echo request forwarding is in use; such that the echo request
      is processed at an intermediate router and then forwarded on; then
      the intermediate router is responsible for making sure that the
      TLVs being used among the ingress, intermediate and destination
      are consistent.  The intermediate router MUST NOT forward an echo
      request or an echo response containing a Downstream Detailed
      Mapping TLV if it itself does not support that TLV.


5.  Security Considerations

   Tracing inside a tunnel might have some security implications.  There
   are different ways to prevent tracing tunnel details.

   1.  If one wants to prevent tracing inside a tunnel, one can hide the
       outer MPLS tunnel by not propagating the MPLS TTL into the outer
       tunnel (at the start of the outer tunnel).  By doing this, lsp-
       ping packets will not expire in the outer tunnel and the outer
       tunnel will not get traced.  TTL hiding can be imposed on a per
       LSP basis, as need be.
   2.  If one doesn't wish to expose the details of the new outer LSP,
       then the NIL FEC can be used to hide those details.  Using the
       NIL FEC ensures that the trace progresses without false negatives
       and all transit nodes (of the new outer tunnel) perform some
       minimal validations on the received echo requests.

   In inter-AS (autonomous system) scenarios, information regarding the
   LSP FEC change(s) SHOULD NOT be passed across domains.  A NIL FEC MAY
   be used to make the trace go through without false positives.  An
   ASBR (autonomous system border router) may choose to intercept all
   echo requests and echo responses and change them to hide FEC
   information from other domains.  Detailed operation regarding the



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   same is outside the scope of this document.  Passing of FEC stack
   change information between domains MAY be done if the two AS domains
   belong to the same provider/organization.

   Other security considerations, as discussed in [RFC4379] are also
   applicable to this document.


6.  IANA Considerations

   Editors note: To be removed by RFC-Editor.

   The suggested values in all sub-sections below have been allocated
   according to the early allocation process.

6.1.  New TLV

   IANA is requested to assign TLV type value to the following TLV from
   the "Multiprotocol Label Switching Architecture (MPLS) Label Switched
   Paths (LSPs) Parameters - TLVs" registry, "TLVs and sub-TLVs" sub-
   registry.

   Downstream Detailed Mapping TLV (See Section 3.3).  Suggested value:
   20.

6.2.  New Sub-TLV types and associated registry

   IANA is requested to create a new registry for the Sub-Type field of
   Downstream Detailed Mapping TLV.  The valid range for this is
   0-65535.  Assignments in the range 0-16383 and 32768-49161 are made
   via Standards Action as defined in [RFC3692]; assignments in the
   range 16384-31743 and 49162-64511 are made via Specification Required
   ([RFC4379]); values in the range 31744-32767 and 64512-65535 are for
   Vendor Private Use, and MUST NOT be allocated.  If a sub-TLV has a
   Type that falls in the range for Vendor Private Use, the Length MUST
   be at least 4, and the first four octets MUST be that vendor's SMI
   Enterprise Code, in network octet order.  The rest of the Value field
   is private to the vendor.

   It is requested that IANA assign sub-TLV types from this new registry
   to the following sub-TLVs (See Figure 5).

   Multipath data sub-TLV: Suggested value: 1

   Label stack sub-TLV: Suggested value: 2

   FEC Stack change sub-TLV: Suggested value: 3




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6.3.  New Return Codes

   IANA is requested to assign new Return Code values from the "Multi-
   Protocol Label Switching (MPLS) Label Switched Paths (LSPs)
   Parameters" registry, "Return Codes" sub-registry as follows using a
   Standards Action value.

       Value    Meaning
       -----    -------
       TBD      See DDM TLV for Return Code and Return SubCode
       TBD      Label switched with FEC change

   Suggested values: 14 and 15 respectively


7.  Acknowledgements

   The authors would like to thank Yakov Rekhter and Adrian Farrel for
   their suggestions on the draft.


8.  References

8.1.  Normative References

   [RFC2119]  Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
              Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997.

   [RFC3692]  Narten, T., "Assigning Experimental and Testing Numbers
              Considered Useful", BCP 82, RFC 3692, January 2004.

   [RFC4379]  Kompella, K. and G. Swallow, "Detecting Multi-Protocol
              Label Switched (MPLS) Data Plane Failures", RFC 4379,
              February 2006.

8.2.  Informative References

   [RFC5331]  Aggarwal, R., Rekhter, Y., and E. Rosen, "MPLS Upstream
              Label Assignment and Context-Specific Label Space",
              RFC 5331, August 2008.











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Authors' Addresses

   Nitin Bahadur
   Juniper Networks, Inc.
   1194 N. Mathilda Avenue
   Sunnyvale, CA  94089
   US

   Phone: +1 408 745 2000
   Email: nitinb@juniper.net
   URI:   www.juniper.net


   Kireeti Kompella
   Juniper Networks, Inc.
   1194 N. Mathilda Avenue
   Sunnyvale, CA  94089
   US

   Phone: +1 408 745 2000
   Email: kireeti@juniper.net
   URI:   www.juniper.net


   George Swallow
   Cisco Systems
   1414 Massachusetts Ave
   Boxborough, MA  01719
   US

   Email: swallow@cisco.com
   URI:   www.cisco.com



















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