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Versions: (draft-weis-gdoi-update) 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 RFC 6407

MSEC Working Group                                               B. Weis
Internet-Draft                                                 S. Rowles
Intended status: Standards Track                           Cisco Systems
Expires: March 17, 2008                               September 14, 2007


          Updates to the Group Domain of Interpretation (GDOI)
                     draft-ietf-msec-gdoi-update-03

Status of this Memo

   By submitting this Internet-Draft, each author represents that any
   applicable patent or other IPR claims of which he or she is aware
   have been or will be disclosed, and any of which he or she becomes
   aware will be disclosed, in accordance with Section 6 of BCP 79.

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   This Internet-Draft will expire on March 17, 2008.

Copyright Notice

   Copyright (C) The IETF Trust (2007).














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Abstract

   This memo describes updates to the Group Domain of Interpretation
   (GDOI) [RFC3547].  It provides clarification where the original text
   is unclear.  It also includes a discussion of algorithm agility
   within GDOI, and proposes several new algorithm attribute values.


Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  4
     1.1.  Requirements notation  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  4

   2.  Cryptographic Algorithm agility  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  5
     2.1.  Phase 1 protocol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  5
     2.2.  GROUPKEY-PUSH message  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  5
     2.3.  IPsec TEK Distribution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  6
     2.4.  Certificate Payload  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  6
     2.5.  POP Payload  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  6

   3.  RFC 3547 Clarification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  7
     3.1.  SA Payload . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  7
     3.2.  SIG Payload  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  7
     3.3.  SEQ Payload  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  8
     3.4.  POP Payload  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  8
     3.5.  CERT Payload . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
     3.6.  TEK Integrity Key Length . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
     3.7.  KE Payload . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
     3.8.  Minimum defined attributes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
     3.9.  Attribute behavour . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12

   4.  GCKS and Group Member Authorization  . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
     4.1.  Authorization using the CERT/POP Payloads  . . . . . . . . 13
     4.2.  Authorization through other methods  . . . . . . . . . . . 13

   5.  New GDOI Attributes  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
     5.1.  Signature Hash Algorithm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
     5.2.  Support of AH  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
     5.3.  Sender-Specific Attributes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
       5.3.1.  SENDER_ID  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
         5.3.1.1.  GCKS Semantics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
         5.3.1.2.  Group Member Semantics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18

   6.  New IPsec Security Association Attributes  . . . . . . . . . . 19
     6.1.  Address Preservation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
     6.2.  SA Direction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19

   7.  IANA Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20



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   8.  Security Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22

   9.  Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23

   10. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
     10.1. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
     10.2. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24

   Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
   Intellectual Property and Copyright Statements . . . . . . . . . . 28









































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1.  Introduction

   The Group Domain of Interpretation (GDOI) is a group key management
   protocol fitting into the Multicast Security Group Key Management
   Architecture [RFC4046].  GDOI is used to disseminate policy and
   corresponding secrets to a group of participants.  GDOI is
   implemented on hosts and intermediate systems to protect group IP
   communication (e.g., IP multicast packets) by encapsulating them with
   the IP Encapsulating Security Payload (ESP) [RFC4303] packets.
   However, implementation experience has revealed some inconsistencies
   in RFC 3547 needing clarification.  It also defines some additional
   GDOI algorithm attributes which are useful to GDOI applications.

   Algorithm agility, the ability to add new algorithms to namespaces,
   is an important consideration for any protocol.  This memo analyzes
   the state of algorithm agility within GDOI, and proposes some changes
   based upon that analysis.  In particular, methods for fully
   supporting SHA-256 [FIPS.180-2.2002] as an alternative to theSHA-1
   and MD5 hash algorithms are described.

   The clarification and modifications in this memo retain backwards
   compatibility with RFC 3547.

1.1.  Requirements notation

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
   document are to be interpreted as described in [RFC2119].























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2.  Cryptographic Algorithm agility

   Algorithm agility was a goal during the development of GDOI, and RFC
   3547 generally provides the ability to add new algorithms as
   necessary.  However, further analysis has shown that there are places
   where algorithm agility is not complete.  This section discusses the
   use of cryptographic algorithms within GDOI, points out variances in
   algorithm agility, and proposes clarifications without changing any
   payload formats within the protocol.

   Recent published attacks on the SHA-1 algorithm motivate its
   replacement as a cryptographic algorithm.  The ability for GDOI to
   move to the SHA-256 algorithm is explicitly discussed.  Later
   sections on this document propose some enhancements to the GDOI
   protocol to provide for an easier means of supporting this and
   additional hash functions.

2.1.  Phase 1 protocol

   GDOI is a "phase 2" protocol protected by a "phase 1" protocol.  The
   Phase 1 protocol defined in RFC 3547 is an IKEv1 Phase 1 protocol
   (Main Mode or Aggressive Mode).  The Phase 1 protocol provides
   confidentiality via an encryption cipher.  It also provides message
   integrity via a pseudo random function ("prf") (described in Section
   4 of [RFC2409], which is usually a hash algorithm using the HMAC
   [RFC2104] construction.  IKEv1 negotiates which encryption ciphers
   and hash algorithms are to be used.

   IKEv1 cipher algorithms come from the "Encryption Algorithm" list in
   the IANA IPsec registry [IPSEC-REG], and the hash algorithms come
   from the "Hash Algorithm" list in the same registry.  The IANA IPsec
   registry currently includes the SHA2-256, which is intended to be the
   SHA-256 algorithm.

   In summary, there are no cryptographic algorithm agility issues with
   the IKEv1 Phase 1 protocol when used as a GDOI "phase 1" protocol.
   For a more detailed analysis of the use of hash algorithms in IKE and
   IPsec, see RFC 4894 [RFC4894].

2.2.  GROUPKEY-PUSH message

   The GROUPKEY-PUSH message is protected by an encryption cipher for
   confidentiality and a digital signature for message integrity.  The
   encryption cipher is described by the IANA GDOI registry as the
   KEK_ALGORITHM attribute [GDOI-REG].  The digital signature comprises
   both a hash algorithm defined by the GDOI SIG_HASH_ALGORITHM
   attribute and a public key signature algorithm defined by the
   SIG_ALGORITHM attribute.  This memo adds the SHA-256 algorithm to the



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   SIG_HASH_ALGORITHM attribute in a later section.

   In summary, there are no cryptographic algorithm agility issues with
   the GROUPKEY-PUSH message.

2.3.  IPsec TEK Distribution

   IPsec SAs are distributed by GDOI.  An IPsec ESP SA can include an
   encryption cipher for confidentiality and an algorithm for packet
   authentication.  The encryption ciphers are defined by the IPsec ESP
   Transform Identifiers defined in the IANA ISAKMP registry
   [ISAKMP-REG].  The packet authentication method is distributed via an
   "Authentication Algorithm" SA attribute.  SHA-256 may be chosen as
   the authentication algorithm with HMAC-SHA2-256.  Similarly, an IPsec
   AH SA is defined by choosing AH_SHA2-256 as the "AH Transform
   Identifier".

   In summary, there are no cryptographic algorithm agility issues
   during TEK distribution.

2.4.  Certificate Payload

   Messages in the GROUPKEY-PULL and GROUPKEY-PUSH protocols may include
   a Certificate Payload (CERT).  Certificate digital signatures, and
   the algorithm agility thereof, are outside the scope of this memo.

2.5.  POP Payload

   The GDOI Proof of Possession (POP) payload may be included in the
   GROUPKEY-PULL protocol.  It contains a digital signature over the
   hash of a set of identities and nonces, which provides the current
   possession of the peer.  The digital signature algorithm is defined
   as the "POP Algorithm" in the IANA GDOI registry [GDOI-REG].
   However, identity of the hash algorithm to create the signed data was
   omitted in RFC 3547.

   In summary, the POP Payload has an algorithm agility deficiency with
   regards to the hash algorithm.  This memo remedies this omission in a
   clarification section below.












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3.  RFC 3547 Clarification

   Implementation experience of RFC 3547 has revealed a few areas of
   text that are not sufficiently clear.  This section provides
   clarifying text for those areas.

3.1.  SA Payload

   The SA KEK payload includes the "POP Key Length" field, which is
   meant to declare the length of a POP signature key.  Unfortunately,
   it is not clear as to whether this refers to the GCKS POP signature
   key or all entities' POP signature keys.  The intent of conveying the
   length was to ensure that a group member has the capability to
   validate the GCKS POP payload, so this memo specifies that the value
   is taken to indicate the length of only the GCKS signature key.
   Additionally, the units of this field are not explicitly specified in
   RFC 3547.  The value is a number representing the length of key in
   bits.  In the case of POP_ALG_RSA, the value represents the size of
   the modulus.

   The units of the SIG_KEY_LENGTH KEK attribute value was not
   explicitly specified in RFC 3547.  The value is a number representing
   the length of the KEK encryption key in bits.

   The GDOI_PROTO_IPSEC_ESP attribute is sometimes referred to by the
   truncated name PROTO_IPSEC_ESP.

   RFC 3547 explicitly specifies that if a KEK cipher requires an IV,
   then the IV MUST precede the key in the KEK_ALGORITHM_KEY KD payload
   attribute.  However, it should be noted that this IV length is not
   included in the KEK_KEY_LEN SA payload attribute sent in the SA
   payload.  The KEK_KEY_LEN includes only the actual length of the
   cipher key.

   The Group Controller/Key Server (GCKS) adds the KEK_KEY_LEN attribute
   to the SA payload when distributing KEK policy to group members.  The
   group member verifies whether or not it has the capability of using a
   cipher key of that size.  If the cipher definition includes a fixed
   key length (e.g., KEK_ALG_3DES), the group member can make its
   decision solely using KEK_ALGORITHM attribute and does not need the
   KEK_KEY_LEN attribute.  Sending the KEK_KEY_LEN attribute in the SA
   payload is OPTIONAL if the KEK cipher has a fixed key length.

3.2.  SIG Payload

   The GROUPKEY-PUSH message SIG payload is further clarified here; the
   SIG payload is a signature of the entire GROUPKEY-PUSH message (not
   including the SIG payload) before it's been encrypted.  The HASH is



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   taken over the string 'rekey', the GROUPKEY-PUSH HDR, SEQ, SA, KD,
   and optionally the CERT payload.  After the SIG payload is created
   using the signature of the above hash, the current KEK encryption key
   encrypts all the payloads following the GROUPKEY-PUSH HDR.

   The SIG_ALGORITHM type of SIG_ALG_RSA does not specify which PKCS#1
   [RFC3447] encoding method is employed.  To match existing practice,
   this memo requires that it be the EMSA-PKCS1-v1_5 encoding method.

3.3.  SEQ Payload

   Each GROUPKEY-PUSH message contains a sequence number, which provides
   anti-replay protection for a KEK.  Thus, the GCKS returns a SEQ
   payload in the GROUPKEY-PULL exchange only if a KEK attribute also
   exists in the SA payload.

   A KEK sequence number is associated with a single SPI (i.e., the
   single set of cookie pair values sent in a GROUPKEY-PUSH ISAKMP HDR).
   When a new KEK is distributed by a GCKS, it contains a new SPI and
   resets the sequence number.

   When a SEQ payload is included in the GROUPKEY-PULL exchange, it
   includes the most recently used sequence number for the group.  At
   the conclusion of a GROUPKEY-PULL exchange, the initiating group
   member MUST NOT accept any rekey message with both the KEK attribute
   SPI value and a sequence number less than or equal to the one
   received during the GROUPKEY-PULL.  When the first group member
   initiates a GROUPKEY-PULL exchange, the GCKS provides a Sequence
   Number of zero, since no GROUPKEY-PUSH messages have yet been sent.
   Note the sequence number increments only with GROUPKEY-PUSH messages.
   The GROUPKEY-PULL exchange distributes the current sequence number to
   the group member.

   The sequence number resets to one with a new KEK attribute, as
   described in section 5.6 of RFC 3547: "Thus the first packet sent for
   a given Rekey SA will have a Sequence Number of 1".  The sequence
   number increments with each successive rekey.

3.4.  POP Payload

   RFC 3547 defines the Proof of Possession (POP) payload, which
   contains a digital signature over a hash.  Some RFC 3547 text
   erroneously describes it as a "prf()".

   RFC 3547 omitted including a method of specifying the hash function
   type used in the POP payload.  As a result, the GCKS or group member
   do not have a means by which to agree which hash algorithm should be
   used.  To remedy this omission without changing the protocol, this



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   memo specifies that the hash algorithm passed in the
   SIG_HASH_ALGORITHM MUST be also used as the POP hash algorithm.

   The SIG_ALGORITHM type of SIG_ALG_RSA does not specify which PKCS#1
   [RFC3447] encoding method is employed.  To match existing practice,
   this memo requires that it be the EMSA-PKCS1-v1_5 encoding method.

   Meadows and Pavlovic have published a paper [MP04] describing a means
   by which a rogue GDOI device (i.e., GCKS or group member) can gain
   access to a group for which it is not a group member.  The rogue
   device perpetrates a man-in-the-middle attack, which can occur if the
   following conditions are true:

   1.  The rogue GDOI participant convinces an authorized member of the
       group (i.e., victim group member) that it is a GCKS for that
       group, and it also convinces the GCKS (i.e., victim GCKS) of that
       group it is an authorized group member.

   2.  The victim group member, victim GCKS, and rogue group member all
       share IKEv1 authentication credentials.

   3.  The victim GCKS does not properly verify that the IKEv1
       authentication credentials used to protect a GROUPKEY-PULL
       protocol are authorized to be join the group.

   The point of proof-of-possession is to prove that the owner of the
   identity associated with the Phase 1 key is the same as the owner of
   the key distributed in the CERT.  This attack can be mitigated by
   adding the Phase 1 identities into the hashed data.  This memo
   replaces the method of computing POP_HASH, which is:

   POP_HASH = hash("pop" | IKE-Initiator-P1-ID | IKE-Responder-P1-ID |
   Ni | Nr)

   where the fields are hashed as follows:

   o  The string "pop" without a NULL termination character.

   o  The IKE Phase 1 identity of the GCKS as distributed in the
      "identification Data" portion of the ID payload.  Because the
      length of the identity is variable, the length of the
      Identification Data MUST be hashed as a four octet value with the
      length located in the least significant bits (in big-endian
      format).  The length value is hashed before the data value.

   o  The IKE Phase 1 identity of the group member as distributed in the
      "identification Data" portion of the ID payload.  Because the
      length of the identity is variable, the length of the



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      Identification Data MUST be hashed as a four octet value with the
      length located in the least significant bits (in big-endian
      format).  The length value is hashed before the data value.

   o  The initiator nonce Ni, as passed in the first GROUPKEY-PULL
      message.

   o  The responder nonce Nr, as passed in the second GROUPKEY-PULL
      message.

3.5.  CERT Payload

   Receivers of the POP payload need the sender's public key in order to
   validate the POP.  However the source of that public key is not
   explicitly defined.  For example, if the certificate passed in the
   CERT payload is an attribute certificate (not containing a public
   key) then no public key is available.  To remedy this omission, this
   memo specifies that the certificate passed in the CERT payload MUST
   be an identity certificate (including a public key).

3.6.  TEK Integrity Key Length

   This length of an integrity key distributed within GDOI varies
   according to the integrity algorithm.  The SHA1 keys will consist of
   160 bits, SHA256 keys will consist of 256 bits, and MD5 keys will
   consist of 128 bits.

3.7.  KE Payload

   RFC 3547 provides an OPTIONAL additional protection for the KD
   payload during a GROUPKEY-PULL exchange called Perfect Forward
   Secrecy (PFS).  If the GCKS and group member exchange KE payloads
   containing Diffie-Hellman public keys, the GCKS encrypts the KD
   payload with a secret obtained from the Diffie-Hellman shared number.
   This encryption precedes the encryption of the entire GROUPKEY-PULL
   message.

   The purpose of PFS in GDOI is to more carefully protect the keying
   material passed from the GCKS to the group member.  If a passive
   attacker captures the GROUPKEY-PULL exchange and performs an offline
   attack of the IKE Phase 1 confidentiality keys, it may eventually
   discover them.  If PFS is not used, the attacker can immediately use
   the recovered keys to decrypt data packets and GROUPKEY-PUSH
   messages, either live or stored.  Thus, the IKE Phase 1 keys are
   critical to the long-term confidentiality of the group.  PFS was
   added as an additional mechanism to hinder a passive attacker by
   requiring the attacker to perform an additional cryptanalysis to
   recover the Diffie-Hellman shared number computed by the GCKS and



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   group member.

   RFC 3547 Section 3.2.1 says "The GCKS responder will xor the DH
   secret with the KD payload and send it to the member Initiator, which
   recovers the KD by repeating this operation as in the Oakley IEXTKEY
   procedure [RFC2412]".  However, the IEXTKEY procedure does not xor
   the DH shared secret with an entire payload, and the DH shared secret
   is not likely to be long enough to cover the entire payload.
   Therefore, the following amended procedure MUST be used for PFS.

   1.  The GCKS and group member MUST derive an encryption key and IV
       (if needed by the encryption algorithm mode) using the dhEphem
       method described in Section 6.1.2.1 of [NIST.800-56A.2006].

   2.  The key derivation function MUST be the preferred key derivation
       function described in Section 5.8.1 of [NIST.800-56A.2006].  The
       "kdf" function MUST be algorithm defined in the group policy as
       the SIG_HASH_ALGORITHM attribute.  The "keydatalen" input will be
       the number of bits necessary for the encryption algorithm plus
       the number of bits needed by the algorithm mode (if any).  The
       following kdf "OtherInfo" values MUST be hashed:

       *  AlgorithmID: This value represents the encryption algorithm
          with which the derived keying material will be used (i.e.,
          KEK_ALGORITHM).  The value is hashed as a two octet value with
          the algorithm id located in the least significant bits (in
          big-endian format).

       *  PartyUInfo: This value will be the IKE Phase 1 identity of the
          GCKS as distributed in the "identification Data" portion of
          the ID payload.  Because the length of the identity is
          variable, the length of the Identification Data MUST be hashed
          as a four octet value with the length located in the least
          significant bits (in big-endian format).  The length value is
          hashed before the data value.

       *  PartyVInfo: This value will be the IKE Phase 1 identity of the
          group member as distributed in the "identification Data"
          portion of the ID payload.  Because the length of the identity
          is variable, the length of the Identification Data MUST be
          hashed as a four octet value with the length located in the
          least significant bits (in big-endian format).  The length
          value is hashed before the data value.

   3.  The result of the hash will be used as input to the encryption
       algorithm described in the KEK_ALGORITHM attribute.  If the
       algorithm mode requires an IV, the initial bits (in big-endian
       format) of the derived keying material will be used as the IV.



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       The subsequent bits are used as the encryption key, encrypting
       the bytes of the KD payload as described in Section 5.4 of RFC
       3547.  Note that the length of the KD payload may be larger due
       to cipher block padding.  If so, the KD payload length must be
       modified to reflect the actual length of the ciphertext.

3.8.  Minimum defined attributes

   Minimum attributes that must be sent as part of an SA KEK:
   KEK_ALGORITHM, KEK_KEY_LENGTH (if the cipher definition includes a
   variable length key), KEK_KEY_LIFETIME, SIG_HASH_ALGORITHM (except
   for DSA based algorithms), SIG_ALGORITHM, and SIG_KEY_LENGTH.

   RFC 3547 states that all mandatory IPsec DOI attributes are mandatory
   in GDOI_PROTO_IPSEC_ESP.  However, no such list of mandatory IPsec
   DOI attributes can be found in RFC 2407.  This memo requires that the
   following attributes MUST be supported by an RFC 3547 implementation
   supporting the GDOI_PROTO_IPSEC_ESP SA TEK: SA Life Type, SA Life
   Duration, Encapsulation Mode, Authentication Algorithm (if the ESP
   transform includes authentication).

3.9.  Attribute behavour

   An GDOI implementation MUST abort if it encounters and attribute or
   capability that it does not understand.


























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4.  GCKS and Group Member Authorization

   A GDOI group member SHOULD be configured with policy describing which
   IKEv1 identities are authorized to act as GCKS for a group.

   The following sections clarify the need for a GCKS to authorize group
   members.  Authorization is needed regardless of whether the CERT and
   POP payloads are mandated in group policy.

4.1.  Authorization using the CERT/POP Payloads

   A GCKS conforming with RFC 3547 SHOULD perform authorization based on
   the IKEv1 authentication credentials.  When the CERT and POP payloads
   are used for authorization, the GCKS and group member SHOULD verify
   that the identify in the CERT payload is syntactically the same
   identity as used in the IKEv1 authentication credentials.  For the
   authorization check to succeed, the two credentials are compared and
   found to be identical.  This stops a group member from authenticating
   to the GCKS with its own credential, yet including another group
   member's credentials and proof-of-possession in the CERT and POP
   payloads.

4.2.  Authorization through other methods

   When the use of CERT and POP payloads are not mandated in group
   policy, the GCKS SHOULD have a means of recognizing authorized group
   members for each group, where the recognition is based on IKEv1
   authentication credentials.  For example, the GCKS may have a list of
   authorized IKEv1 identifiers stored for each Group.  The
   authorization check SHOULD be made after receipt of the ID payload
   containing a group id the group member is requesting to join.




















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5.  New GDOI Attributes

   This section contains new attributes to be are defined as part of
   GDOI.

5.1.  Signature Hash Algorithm

   RFC 3547 defines two signature hash algorithms (MD5 and SHA-1).
   However, steady advances in technology have rendered both hash
   algorithms to be weak when used as a signature hash algorithm.

   The SHA-256 algorithm [FIPS.180-2.2002] has been made available by
   NIST as a replacement for SHA-1, and is its preferred replacement for
   both MD5 and SHA-1.  A new value for the GDOI SIG_HASH_ALGORITHM
   attribute is defined by this memo to represent the SHA-256 algorithm:
   SIG_HASH_SHA256.  Support for SIG_HASH_SHA256 is OPTIONAL.

5.2.  Support of AH

   RFC3547 only specifies data-security SAs for one security protocol,
   IPsec ESP.  Typically IPsec implementations use ESP and AH IPsec SAs.
   This document extends the capability of GDOI to support both ESP and
   AH.  The GROUPKEY-PULL mechanism will establish IPsec ESP SAs and
   IPsec AH SAs.  The GROUPKEY-PUSH will refresh the IPsec ESP SAs and
   the IPsec AH SAs.  Support for AH [RFC4302] will come with the
   introduction of a new SA_TEK Protocol-ID with the name
   GDOI_PROTO_IPSEC_AH.  Support for the GDOI_PROTO_IPSEC_AH SA TEK is
   OPTIONAL.

   The TEK Protocol-Specific payload for AH is as follows:

        0                   1                   2                   3
        0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-!
       !    Protocol   !  SRC ID Type  !         SRC ID Port           !
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-!
       !SRC ID Data Len!          SRC Identification Data              ~
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-!
       ! DST ID Type   !         DST ID Port           !DST ID Data Len!
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-!
       ! DST Identification Data                                       ~
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-!
       ! Transform ID  !                        SPI                    !
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-!
       !      SPI      !       RFC 2407 SA Attributes                  ~
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-!

   The SAT Payload fields are defined as follows:



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   o  Protocol (1 octet) -- Value describing an IP protocol ID (e.g.,
      UDP/TCP).  A value of zero means that the Protocol field should be
      ignored.

   o  SRC ID Type (1 octet) -- Value describing the identity information
      found in the SRC Identification Data field.  Defined values are
      specified by the IPsec Identification Type section in the IANA
      ISAKMP Registry [ISAKMP-REG].

   o  SRC ID Port (2 octets) -- Value specifying a port associated with
      the source Id.  A value of zero means that the SRC ID Port field
      should be ignored.

   o  SRC ID Data Len (1 octet) -- Value specifying the length of the
      SRC Identification Data field.

   o  SRC Identification Data (variable length) -- Value, as indicated
      by the SRC ID Type.  Set to three bytes of zero for multiple-
      source multicast groups that use a common TEK for all senders.

   o  DST ID Type (1 octet) -- Value describing the identity information
      found in the DST Identification Data field.  Defined values are
      specified by the IPsec Identification Type section in the IANA
      ISAKMP Registry [ISAKMP-REG].

   o  DST ID Port (1 octet) -- Value describing an IP protocol ID (e.g.,
      UDP/TCP).  A value of zero means that the DST Id Port field should
      be ignored.

   o  DST ID Port (2 octets) -- Value specifying a port associated with
      the source Id.  A value of zero means that the DST ID Port field
      should be ignored.

   o  DST ID Data Len (1 octet) -- Value specifying the length of the
      DST Identification Data field.

   o  DST Identification Data (variable length) -- Value, as indicated
      by the DST ID Type.

   o  Transform ID (1 octet) -- Value specifying which AH transform is
      to be used.  The list of valid values is defined in the IPsec AH
      Transform Identifiers section of the IANA ISAKMP Registry
      [ISAKMP-REG].

   o  SPI (4 octets) -- Security Parameter Index for AH.

   o  RFC 2407 Attributes -- AH Attributes from Section 4.5 of
      [RFC2407].  The GDOI supports all IPsec DOI SA Attributes for



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      GDOI_PROTO_IPSEC_AH excluding the Group Description, which MUST
      NOT be sent by a GDOI implementation and is ignored by a GDOI
      implementation if received.  The Authentication Algorithm
      attribute of the IPsec DOI is group authentication in GDOI.  The
      following RFC 2407 attributes MUST be sent as part of a
      GDOI_PROTO_IPSEC_AH attribute: SA Life Type, SA Life Duration,
      Encapsulation Mode.

5.3.  Sender-Specific Attributes

   RFC 3547 provides for the distribution of policy in the GROUPKEY-PULL
   exchange in an SA payload.  Policy can define GROUPKEY-PUSH policy
   (SA KEK) or traffic encryption policy (SA TEK) such as IPsec policy.
   Additionally, there is a need to distribute sender-specific policy to
   each group member that is irrespective of either the SA KEK or SA TEK
   policy.

   GDOI distributes this sender-specific policy in a new payload called
   the SA Sender-Specific Attributes Payload (SA SSA).  The SA SSA
   payload follows any SA KEK payload, and is placed before any SA TEK
   payloads.  In the case that group policy does not include an SA KEK,
   the SA Attribute Next Payload field in the SA payload MAY indicate
   the SA SSA payload.

   The SA SSA payload MUST NOT be a part of a GROUPKEY-PUSH message,
   because distributing the same sender-specific policy to more than one
   group member may reduce the security of the group.  A group member
   MUST NOT process an SA SSA payload present in a GROUPKEY-PUSH
   message.

   The SA SSA payload is defined as follows:

        0                   1                   2                   3
        0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-!
       ! Next Payload  !   RESERVED    !        Payload Length         !
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-!
       !                   Sender-Specific Attributes                  ~
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-!

   The SA SSA payload fields are defined as follows:

   o  Next Payload (1 octet) -- Identifies the next payload for the
      GROUPKEY-PULL or the GROUPKEY-PUSH message.  The only valid next
      payload type for this message is an SA TEK or zero to indicate
      there are no more security association attributes.





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   o  RESERVED (1 octet) -- Must be zero.

   o  Payload Length (2 octets) -- Length of this payload, including the
      SA SSA header and Sender-Specific Attributes.

   o  Group Attributes (variable) -- Contains sender-specific attributes
      following the format defined in ISAKMP [RFC2408] section 3.3.

   One attribute with the type of SENDER_ID is defined in this memo.

5.3.1.  SENDER_ID

   Several new AES counter-based modes of operation have been specified
   for ESP [RFC3686],[RFC4106],[RFC4309],[RFC4543] and AH [RFC4543].
   These AES counter-based modes require that no two senders in the
   group ever send a packet with the same IV.  This requirement can be
   met using the method described in
   [I-D.ietf-msec-ipsec-group-counter-modes], which requires each sender
   to be allocated a unique Sender ID (SID).  The SENDER_ID attribute is
   used to distribute a SID to a group member during the GROUPKEY-PULL
   message.  Other algorithms with the same need may be defined in the
   future; the sender MUST use the IV construction method described
   above with those algorithms as well.

   The SENDER_ID attribute value contains the following fields.

        0                   1                   2                   3
        0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-!
       !   SID Length  !                    SID Value                  ~
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-!

   o  SID Length (1 octet) -- A natural number defining the number of
      bits to be used in the SID field of the counter mode transform
      nonce.

   o  SID Value (variable) -- The Sender ID value allocated to the group
      member.

5.3.1.1.  GCKS Semantics

   The GCKS maintains a SID counter (SIDC).  It is incremented each time
   a SENDER_ID attribute is distributed to a group member.The first
   group member to register is given the SID of 1.

   Any group member registering will be given a new SID value, which
   allows group members to act as a group sender when an older SID value
   becomes unusable (as described in the next section).



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   A GCKS MAY allocate multiple SID values in one SA SSA payload.
   Allocating several SID values at the same time to a group member
   expected to send at a high rate would obviate the need for the group
   member to re-register as frequently.

   If a GKCS allocates all SID values, it can no longer respond to GDOI
   registrations. and must re-initialize the entire group.  This is done
   by issuing DELETE notifications for all ESP and AH SAs in a GDOI
   rekey message, resetting the SIDC to zero, and creating new ESP and
   AH SAs that match the group policy.  When group members re-register,
   the SIDs are allocated again beginning with the value 1 as described
   above.  Each re-registering group member will be given a new SID and
   the new group policy.

5.3.1.2.  Group Member Semantics

   The SENDER_ID attribute value distributed to the group member MUST be
   used by that group member as the Sender Identifier (SID) field
   portion of the IV.  The SID is used for all counter mode SAs
   distributed by the GCKS to be used for communications sent as a part
   of this group.

   When the Sender-Specific IV (SSIV) field for any IPsec SA is
   exhausted, the group member MUST no longer act as a sender using its
   active SID.  The group member SHOULD re-register, during which time
   the GCKS will issue a new SID to the group member.  The new SID
   replaces the existing SID used by this group member, and also resets
   the SSIV value to it's starting value.  A group member MAY re-
   register prior to the actual exhaustion of the SSIV field to avoid
   dropping data packets due to the exhaustion of available SSIV values
   combined with a particular SID value.




















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6.  New IPsec Security Association Attributes

   The Multicast Extensions to RFC 4301 [I-D.ietf-msec-ipsec-extensions]
   describes new attributes to an IPsec security association.  These
   attributes describe policy that a group key management system must
   convey in order to support those extensions.  The GDOI SA TEK payload
   distributes IPsec policy using IPsec security association attributes
   defined in [ISAKMP-REG].  This section defines how GDOI can convey
   the new attributes as IPsec Security Association Attributes.

6.1.  Address Preservation

   In order for an IP multicast packet to be encapsulated such that it
   will remain an IP multicast packet, the original IP addresses may
   need to be retained.  This requires a new IPsec SA attribute
   describing which of the IP addresses are to be preserved.

   Depending on group policy, several address preservation methods are
   possible: no address preservation ("None"), preservation of the
   original source address ("Source-Only"), preservation of the original
   destination address ("Destination-Only"), or both addresses ("Source-
   And-Destination").  If the attribute is not included in a GDOI SA TEK
   payload then Source-And-Destination address preservation has been
   defined for the SA TEK.

6.2.  SA Direction

   Depending on group policy, an IPsec SA may be required in one or both
   directions.  An IPsec SA used by multiple senders is required to be
   installed in both the sending and receiving direction ("Symmetric"),
   whereas an SA with a single sender need only be installed in the
   receiving direction by receivers ("Receiver-Only") and in the sending
   direction by the sender ("Sender-Only").  If the attribute is not
   included in a GDOI SA TEK payload then the IPsec SA is treated as a
   Symmetric IPsec SA.
















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7.  IANA Considerations

   The GDOI SIG_HASH_ALGORITHM KEK Attribute [GDOI-REG] should be
   assigned a new Algorithm Type value from the RESERVED space to
   represent the SHA-256 hash algorithm as defined.  The new algorithm
   name should be SIG_HASH_SHA256.

   A new GDOI KEK Attribute [GDOI-REG] is needed to represent the number
   of seconds before a sender should transmit on an TEK.  The attribute
   has the name TEK_TRANSMIT_WAIT_PERIOD, and is a Variable type.

   A new GDOI SA TEK type Protocol-ID type [GDOI-REG] should be assigned
   from the RESERVED space.  The new algorithm id should be called
   GDOI_PROTO_IPSEC_AH, and refers to the IPsec AH encapsulation.

   A new Next Payload Type [ISAKMP-REG] should be assigned.  The new
   type is called "SA SSA Payload (SSA)".

   A new namespace should be created in the GDOI Payloads registry
   [GDOI-REG] to describe SA SSA Payload Values.  The following rules
   apply to define the attributes in SA SSA Payload Values:

              Attribute Type         Value       Type
              ----                   -----       ----
              RESERVED                 0
              SENDER_ID                1          V
              Reserved to IANA        2-127
              Private Use           128-255

   A new IPSEC Security Association Attribute [ISAKMP-REG] defining the
   preservation of IP addresses is needed.  The attribute class is
   called "Address Preservation", and it is a Basic type.  The following
   rules apply to define the values of the attribute:

              Name                      Value
              ----                      -----
              Reserved                  0
              None                      1
              Source-Only               2
              Destination-Only          3
              Source-And-Destination    4
              Reserved to IANA          5-61439
              Private Use               61440-65535

   A new IPSEC Security Association Attribute [ISAKMP-REG] defining the
   SA direction is needed.  The attribute class is called "SA
   Direction", and it is a Basic type.  The following rules apply to
   define the values of the attribute:



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              Name                      Value
              ----                      -----
              Reserved                  0
              Sender-Only               1
              Receiver-Only             2
              Symmetric                 3
              Reserved to IANA          4-61439
              Private Use               61440-65535











































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8.  Security Considerations

   This memo describes additional clarification and protocol updates to
   the GDOI protocol.  The security considerations in RFC 3547 remain
   accurate, with the following additions.

   o  Several minor cryptographic hash algorithm agility issues are
      resolved, and the stronger SHA-256 cryptographic hash algorithm is
      added.

   o  Protocol analysis has revealed a man-in-the-middle attack when the
      GCKS does not authorize group members based on their IKEv1
      authentication credentials.  This is true even when a CERT and POP
      payloads are used for authorization.  Although suggested as an
      option in RFC 3547, a GDOI device (group member or GCKS) SHOULD
      NOT accept an identity in a CERT payload that does not match the
      IKEv1 identity used to authenticate the group member.

   o  Any SA TEK specicifying a counter-based mode of operation with
      multiple senders MUST construct the IVs in each SA TEK according
      to [I-D.ietf-msec-ipsec-group-counter-modes].  The SID MUST either
      be pre-configured on all group members or distributed using the
      SENDER_ID attribute in the SA SSA payload.  However, use use of
      the SENDER_ID attribute is RECOMMENDED.



























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9.  Acknowledgements

   The authors are grateful to Catherine Meadows for her careful review
   and suggestions for mitigating the man-in-the-middle attack she had
   previously identified.














































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10.  References

10.1.  Normative References

   [FIPS.180-2.2002]
              National Institute of Standards and Technology, "Secure
              Hash Standard", FIPS PUB 180-2, August 2002, <http://
              csrc.nist.gov/publications/fips/fips180-2/fips180-2.pdf>.

   [I-D.ietf-msec-ipsec-extensions]
              Weis, B., Gross, G., and D. Ignjatic, "Multicast
              Extensions to the Security Architecture for the Internet
              Protocol", draft-ietf-msec-ipsec-extensions-06 (work in
              progress), July 2007.

   [I-D.ietf-msec-ipsec-group-counter-modes]
              McGrew, D. and B. Weis, "Using Counter Modes with
              Encapsulating Security Payload (ESP) and  Authentication
              Header (AH) to Protect Group Traffic",
              draft-ietf-msec-ipsec-group-counter-modes-00 (work in
              progress), February 2007.

   [NIST.800-56A.2006]
              National Institute of Standards and Technology,
              "Recommendation for Pair-Wise Key Establishment Schemes
              Using Discrete Logarithm Cryptography", NIST 800-56A,
              March 2006, <http://csrc.nist.gov/publications/nistpubs/
              800-56A/sp800-56A_May-3-06.pdf>.

   [RFC2119]  Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
              Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997.

   [RFC3547]  Baugher, M., Weis, B., Hardjono, T., and H. Harney, "The
              Group Domain of Interpretation", RFC 3547, July 2003.

   [RFC4302]  Kent, S., "IP Authentication Header", RFC 4302,
              December 2005.

   [RFC4303]  Kent, S., "IP Encapsulating Security Payload (ESP)",
              RFC 4303, December 2005.

10.2.  Informative References

   [GDOI-REG]
              Internet Assigned Numbers Authority, "Group Domain of
              Interpretation (GDOI) Payload Type Values", IANA Registry,
              December 2004,
              <http://www.iana.org/assignments/gdoi-payloads>.



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   [IPSEC-REG]
              Internet Assigned Numbers Authority, "Internet Key
              Exchange (IKE) Attributes IKE Attributes", IANA Registry,
              December 2005,
              <http://www.iana.org/assignments/ipsec-registry>.

   [ISAKMP-REG]
              Internet Assigned Numbers Authority, "Internet Security
              Association and Key Management Protocol (ISAKMP)
              Identifiers ISAKMP Attributes", IANA Registry,
              January 2006,
              <http://www.iana.org/assignments/isakmp-registry>.

   [MP04]     Meadows, C. and D. Pavlovic, "Deriving, Attacking, and
              Defending the GDOI Protocol", ESORICS 2004 pp. 53-72,
              September 2004.

   [RFC2104]  Krawczyk, H., Bellare, M., and R. Canetti, "HMAC: Keyed-
              Hashing for Message Authentication", RFC 2104,
              February 1997.

   [RFC2407]  Piper, D., "The Internet IP Security Domain of
              Interpretation for ISAKMP", RFC 2407, November 1998.

   [RFC2408]  Maughan, D., Schneider, M., and M. Schertler, "Internet
              Security Association and Key Management Protocol
              (ISAKMP)", RFC 2408, November 1998.

   [RFC2409]  Harkins, D. and D. Carrel, "The Internet Key Exchange
              (IKE)", RFC 2409, November 1998.

   [RFC3447]  Jonsson, J. and B. Kaliski, "Public-Key Cryptography
              Standards (PKCS) #1: RSA Cryptography Specifications
              Version 2.1", RFC 3447, February 2003.

   [RFC3686]  Housley, R., "Using Advanced Encryption Standard (AES)
              Counter Mode With IPsec Encapsulating Security Payload
              (ESP)", RFC 3686, January 2004.

   [RFC4046]  Baugher, M., Canetti, R., Dondeti, L., and F. Lindholm,
              "Multicast Security (MSEC) Group Key Management
              Architecture", RFC 4046, April 2005.

   [RFC4106]  Viega, J. and D. McGrew, "The Use of Galois/Counter Mode
              (GCM) in IPsec Encapsulating Security Payload (ESP)",
              RFC 4106, June 2005.

   [RFC4309]  Housley, R., "Using Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) CCM



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              Mode with IPsec Encapsulating Security Payload (ESP)",
              RFC 4309, December 2005.

   [RFC4543]  McGrew, D. and J. Viega, "The Use of Galois Message
              Authentication Code (GMAC) in IPsec ESP and AH", RFC 4543,
              May 2006.

   [RFC4894]  Hoffman, P., "Use of Hash Algorithms in Internet Key
              Exchange (IKE) and IPsec", RFC 4894, May 2007.










































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Authors' Addresses

   Brian Weis
   Cisco Systems
   170 W. Tasman Drive
   San Jose, California  95134-1706
   USA

   Phone: +1-408-526-4796
   Email: bew@cisco.com


   Sheela Rowles
   Cisco Systems
   170 W. Tasman Drive
   San Jose, California  95134-1706
   USA

   Phone: +1-408-527-7677
   Email: srowles@cisco.com































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Full Copyright Statement

   Copyright (C) The IETF Trust (2007).

   This document is subject to the rights, licenses and restrictions
   contained in BCP 78, and except as set forth therein, the authors
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Acknowledgment

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