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Versions: 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 RFC 5374

MSEC Working Group                                              B. Weis
Internet-Draft                                            Cisco Systems
Intended status: Standards Track                               G. Gross
Expires: January, 2008                              IdentAware Security
                                                            D. Ignjatic
                                                                Polycom
                                                             July, 2007

    Multicast Extensions to the Security Architecture for the Internet
                                 Protocol
                 draft-ietf-msec-ipsec-extensions-06.txt

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 Copyright Notice

   Copyright (C) The IETF Trust (2007).

Abstract

   The Security Architecture for the Internet Protocol [RFC4301]
   describes security services for traffic at the IP layer. That
   architecture primarily defines services for Internet Protocol (IP)
   unicast packets. It also defines services for manually keyed
   Security Associations (SAs) matching IP multicast traffic
   selectors. This document further defines the security services for
   manually and dynamically keyed SAs matching IP multicast traffic
   selectors within that Security Architecture.



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Table of Contents

1. Introduction.....................................................3
  1.1 Scope.........................................................3
  1.2 Terminology...................................................4
2. Overview of IP Multicast Operation...............................5
3. Security Association Modes.......................................6
  3.1 Tunnel Mode with Address Preservation.........................6
4. Security Association.............................................8
  4.1 Major IPsec Databases.........................................8
    4.1.1 Group Security Policy Database (GSPD).....................8
    4.1.2 Security Association Database (SAD).......................9
    4.1.3 Peer Authorization Database (PAD).........................9
  4.2 Group Security Association (GSA).............................11
  4.3 Data Origin Authentication...................................12
  4.4 Group SA and Key Management..................................13
    4.4.1 Co-Existence of Multiple Key Management Protocols........13
    4.4.2 New Security Association Attributes......................13
5. IP Traffic Processing...........................................14
  5.1 Outbound IP Multicast Traffic Processing.....................14
  5.2 Inbound IP Multicast Traffic Processing......................14
6. Security Considerations.........................................15
  6.1 Security Issues Solved by IPsec Multicast Extensions.........15
  6.2 Security Issues Not Solved by IPsec Multicast Extensions.....15
    6.2.1 Outsider Attacks.........................................15
    6.2.2 Insider Attacks..........................................16
  6.3 Implementation or Deployment Issues that Impact Security.....17
    6.3.1 Homogeneous Group Cryptographic Algorithm Capabilities...17
    6.3.2 Groups that Span Two or More Security Policy Domains.....17
    6.3.3 Network Address Translation..............................17
7. IANA Considerations.............................................20
8. Acknowledgements................................................20
9. References......................................................20
  9.1 Normative References.........................................20
  9.2 Informative References.......................................21
Appendix A - Multicast Application Service Models..................23
  A.1 Unidirectional Multicast Applications........................23
  A.2 Bi-directional Reliable Multicast Applications...............23
  A.3 Any-To-Any Multicast Applications............................24
Author's Address...................................................25
Full Copyright Statement...........................................26
Intellectual Property..............................................26




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1. Introduction

   The Security Architecture for the Internet Protocol [RFC4301]
   provides security services for traffic at the IP layer. It
   describes an architecture for IPsec compliant systems, and a set of
   security services for the IP layer. These security services
   primarily describe services and semantics for IPsec Security
   Associations (SAs) shared between two IPsec devices. Typically,
   this includes SAs with traffic selectors that include a unicast
   address in the IP destination field, and results in an IPsec packet
   with a unicast address in the IP destination field. The security
   services defined in RFC 4301 can also be used to tunnel IP
   multicast packets, where the tunnel is a pairwise association
   between two IPsec devices.  RFC4301 defined manually keyed
   transport mode IPsec SA support for IP packets with a multicast
   address in the IP destination address field. However, RFC4301 did
   not define the interaction of an IPsec subsystem with a Group Key
   Management protocol or the semantics of a tunnel mode IPsec SA with
   an IP multicast address in the outer IP header.

   This document describes extensions to RFC 4301 that further define
   the IPsec security architecture for groups of IPsec devices to
   share SAs. In particular, it supports SAs with traffic selectors
   that include a multicast address in the IP destination field, and
   results in an IPsec packet with an IP multicast address in the IP
   destination field. It also describes additional semantics for IPsec
   Group Key Management (GKM) subsystems. Note that this document uses
   the term "GKM protocol" generically and therefore it does not
   assume a particular GKM protocol.

1.1 Scope

   The IPsec extensions described in this document support IPsec
   Security Associations that result in IPsec packets with IPv4 or
   IPv6 multicast group addresses as the destination address. Both
   Any-Source Multicast (ASM) and Source-Specific Multicast (SSM)
   [RFC3569] [RFC3376] group addresses are supported.

   These extensions also support Security Associations with IPv4
   Broadcast addresses that result in an IPv4 link-level broadcast
   packet, and IPv6 Anycast addresses [RFC2526] that result in an IPv6
   Anycast packet. These destination address types share many of the
   same characteristics of multicast addresses because there may be
   multiple candidate receivers of a packet protected by IPsec.

   The IPsec architecture does not make requirements upon entities not
   participating in IPsec (e.g., network devices between IPsec
   endpoints). As such, these multicast extensions do not require
   intermediate systems in a multicast enabled network to participate
   in IPsec. In particular, no requirements are placed on the use of


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   multicast routing protocols (e.g., PIM-SM [RFC4601]) or multicast
   admission protocols (e.g., IGMP [RFC3376].

   All implementation models of IPsec (e.g., "bump-in-the-stack",
   "bump-in-the-wire") are supported.

   This version of the multicast IPsec extension specification
   requires that all IPsec devices participating in a Security
   Association are homogeneous. They MUST share a common set of
   cryptographic transform and protocol handling capabilities. The
   semantics of an "IPsec composite group" [COMPGRP], a heterogeneous
   IPsec cryptographic group formed from the union of two or more sub-
   groups, is an area for future standardization.

1.2 Terminology

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in
   this document are to be interpreted as described in RFC 2119
   [RFC2119].


   The following key terms are used throughout this document.

   Any-Source Multicast (ASM)
      The Internet Protocol (IP) multicast service model as defined
      in RFC 1112 [RFC1112]. In this model one or more senders source
      packets to a single IP multicast address. When receivers join
      the group, they receive all packets sent to that IP multicast
      address. This is known as a (*,G) group.

   Group Controller Key Server (GCKS)
      A Group Key Management (GKM) protocol server that manages IPsec
      state for a group. A GCKS authenticates and provides the IPsec
      SA policy and keying material to GKM group members.

   Group Key Management (GKM) Protocol
      A key management protocol used by a GCKS to distribute IPsec
      Security Association policy and keying material. A GKM protocol
      is used when a group of IPsec devices require the same SAs. For
      example, when an IPsec SA describes an IP multicast
      destination, the sender and all receivers need to have the
      group SA.

   Group Key Management Subsystem
      A subsystem in an IPsec device implementing a Group Key
      Management protocol. The GKM subsystem provides IPsec SAs to
      the IPsec subsystem on the IPsec device. Refer to RFC 3547
      [RFC3547] and RFC 4535 [RFC4535] for additional information.



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   Group Member
      An IPsec device that belongs to a group. A Group Member is
      authorized to be a Group Sender and/or a Group Receiver.

   Group Owner
      An administrative entity that chooses the policy for a group.

   Group Security Association (GSA)
      A collection of IPsec Security Associations (SAs) and GKM
      Subsystem SAs necessary for a Group Member to receive key
      updates. A GSA describes the working policy for a group. Refer
      to RFC 4046 [RFC4046] for additional information.

   Group Security Policy Database (GSPD)
      The GSPD is a multicast-capable security policy database, as
      mentioned in RFC3740 and RFC4301 section 4.4.1.1. Its semantics
      are a superset of the unicast SPD defined by RFC4301 section 
      4.4.1. Unlike a unicast SPD-S in which point-to-point traffic
      selectors are inherently bi-directional, multicast security
      traffic selectors in the GSPD-S introduce a "sender only",
      "receiver only" or "symmetric" directional attribute. Refer to
      section 4.1.1 for more details.

   Group Receiver
      A Group Member that is authorized to receive packets sent to a
      group by a Group Sender.

   Group Sender
      A Group Member that is authorized to send packets to a group.

   Source-Specific Multicast (SSM)
      The Internet Protocol (IP) multicast service model as defined
      in RFC 3569 [RFC3569]. In this model, each combination of a
      sender and an IP multicast address is considered a group. This
      is known as an (S,G) group.

   Tunnel Mode with Address Preservation
      A type of IPsec tunnel mode used by security gateway
      implementations when encapsulating IP multicast packets such
      that they remain IP multicast packets. This mode is necessary
      for IP multicast routing to correctly route IP multicast
      packets protected by IPsec.

2. Overview of IP Multicast Operation

   IP multicasting is a means of sending a single packet to a "host
   group", a set of zero or more hosts identified by a single IP
   destination address. IP multicast packets are UDP data packets
   delivered to all members of the group with either "best-effort"
   [RFC1112], or reliable delivery  (e.g., NORM) [RFC3940].


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   A sender to an IP multicast group sets the destination of the
   packet to an IP address that has been allocated for IP multicast.
   Allocated IP multicast addresses are defined in RFC 3171, RFC 3306,
   and RFC 3307 [RFC3171] [RFC3306] [RFC3307]. Potential receivers of
   the packet "join" the IP multicast group by registering with a
   network routing device [RFC3376] [RFC3810], signaling its intent to
   receive packets sent to a particular IP multicast group.

   Network routing devices configured to pass IP multicast packets
   participate in multicast routing protocols (e.g., PIM-SM)
   [RFC4601]. Multicast routing protocols maintain state regarding
   which devices have registered to receive packets for a particular
   IP multicast group. When a router receives an IP multicast packet,
   it forwards a copy of the packet out each interface for which there
   are known receivers.

3. Security Association Modes

   IPsec supports two modes of use: transport mode and tunnel mode.
   In transport mode, IP Authentication Header (AH) [RFC4302] and IP
   Encapsulating Security Payload (ESP) [RFC4303] provide protection
   primarily for next layer protocols; in tunnel mode, AH and ESP are
   applied to tunneled IP packets.

   A host implementation of IPsec using the multicast extensions MAY
   use either transport mode or tunnel mode to encapsulate an IP
   multicast packet. These processing rules are identical to the
   rules described in Section 4.1 or [RFC4301]. However, the
   destination address for the IPsec packet is an IP multicast
   address, rather than a unicast host address.

   A security gateway implementation of IPsec using the multicast
   extensions MUST use a tunnel mode SA, for the reasons described in
   Section 4.1 of [RFC4301]. In particular, the security gateway
   needs to use tunnel mode to encapsulate incoming fragments, since
   IPsec cannot directly operate on fragments.

3.1 Tunnel Mode with Address Preservation

   New header construction semantics are required when tunnel mode is
   used to encapsulate IP multicast packets that are to remain IP
   multicast packets. These semantics are due to the following unique
   requirements of IP multicast routing protocols (e.g., PIM-SM
   [RFC4601]). This document describes these new header construction
   semantics as "tunnel mode with address preservation", and is
   described as follows.

   - IP multicast routing protocols compare the destination address
      on a packet to the multicast routing state. If the destination
      of an IP multicast packet is changed it will no longer be
      properly routed. Therefore, an IPsec security gateway needs to

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      preserve the multicast IP destination address after IPsec tunnel
      encapsulation.

      The GKM Subsystem on a security gateway implementing the IPsec
      multicast extensions preserves the multicast IP address as
      follows. Firstly, the GKM Subsystem sets the Remote Address PFP
      flag in the GSPD-S entry for the traffic selectors. This flag
      causes the remote address of the packet matching IPsec SA
      traffic selectors to be propagated to the IPsec tunnel
      encapsulation. Secondly, the GKM Subsystem needs to signal that
      destination address preservation is in effect for a particular
      IPsec SA. The GKM protocol MUST define an attribute that signals
      destination address preservation to the GKM Subsystem on an
      IPsec security gateway.

   - IP multicast routing protocols also typically create multicast
      distribution trees based on the source address. If an IPsec
      security gateway changes the source address of an IP multicast
      packet (e.g., to its own IP address), the resulting IPsec
      protected packet may fail Reverse Path Forwarding (RPF) checks
      on other routers. A failed RPF check may result in the packet
      being dropped.

      To accommodate routing protocol RPF checks, the GKM Subsystem on
      a security gateway implementation implementing the IPsec
      multicast extensions needs to preserve the original packet IP
      source address as follows. Firstly, the GSPD-S entry for the
      traffic selectors sets the Source Address PFP flag. This flag
      causes the remote address to be propagated to the IPsec SA.
      Secondly, the GKM Subsystem needs to signal that source address
      preservation is in effect for a particular IPsec SA. The GKM
      Subsystem MUST define a protocol attribute that signals source
      address preservation to the GKM Subsystem on an IPsec security
      gateway.

   Some applications of address preservation may only require the
   destination address to be preserved. For this reason, the
   specification of destination address preservation and source
   address preservation are separated in the above description.

   Address preservation is applicable only for tunnel mode IPsec SAs
   that specify the IP version of the encapsulating header to be the
   same version as that of the inner header. When the IP versions are
   different, tunnel processing semantics described in RFC 4301 MUST
   be followed.

   In summary, retaining both the IP source and destination addresses
   of the inner IP header allow IP multicast routing protocols to
   route the packet irrespective of the packet being protected by
   IPsec. This result is necessary in order for the multicast
   extensions to allow a security gateway to provide IPsec services

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   for IP multicast packets. This method of RFC 4301 tunnel mode is
   known as "tunnel mode with address preservation".


4. Security Association

4.1 Major IPsec Databases

   The following sections describe the GKM Subsystem and IPsec
   extension interactions with the IPsec databases. The major IPsec
   databases needed expanded semantics to fully support multicast.

4.1.1 Group Security Policy Database (GSPD)

   The Group Security Policy Database is a security policy database
   capable of implementing both unicast security associations as
   defined by RFC4301 and the multicast extensions defined by this
   specification. A new Group Security Policy Database (GSPD)
   attribute is introduced: GSPD entry directionality. Directionality
   can take three types. Each GSPD entry can be marked "symmetric",
   "sender only" or "receiver only". "Symmetric" GSPD entries are the
   common entries as specified by RFC 4301. "Symmetric" SHOULD be the
   default directionality unless specified otherwise. GSPD entries
   marked as "sender only" or "receiver only" SHOULD support
   multicast IP addresses in their destination address selectors. If
   the processing requested is bypass or discard and a "sender only"
   type is configured the entry SHOULD be put in GSPD-O only.
   Reciprocally, if the type is "receiver only", the entry SHOULD go
   to GSPD-I only. SSM is supported by the use of unicast IP address
   selectors as documented in RFC 4301.

   GSPD entries created by a GCKS may be assigned identical SPIs to
   SAD entries created by IKEv2 [RFC4306]. This is not a problem for
   the inbound traffic as the appropriate SAs can be matched using
   the algorithm described in RFC 4301 section 4.1. In addition, SAs
   with identical SPI values but not manually keyed can be
   differentiated because they contain a link to their parent SPD
   entries. However, the outbound traffic needs to be matched against
   the GSPD selectors so that the appropriate SA can be created on
   packet arrival. IPsec implementations that support multicast MUST
   use the destination address as the additional selector and match
   it against the GSPD entries marked "sender only".

   To facilitate dynamic group keying, the outbound GSPD MUST
   implement a policy action capability that triggers a GKM protocol
   registration exchange (as per Section 5.1 of [RFC4301]). For
   example, the Group Sender GSPD policy might trigger on a match
   with a specified multicast application packet. The ensuing Group
   Sender registration exchange would setup the Group Sender's
   outbound SAD entry that encrypts the multicast application's data


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   stream. In the inverse direction, group policy may also setup an
   inbound IPsec SA.

   At the Group Receiver endpoint(s), the GSPD policy might trigger
   on a match with the multicast application packet sent from the
   Group Sender. The ensuing Group Receiver registration exchange
   would setup the Group Receiver's inbound SAD entry that decrypts
   the multicast application's data stream. In the inverse direction,
   the group policy may also setup an outbound IPsec SA (e.g. when
   supporting an ASM service model).

   The IPsec subsystem MAY provide GSPD policy mechanisms (e.g.
   trigger on detection of IGMP/MLD leave group exchange) that
   automatically initiate a GKM protocol de-registration exchange.
   De-registration may allow a GCKS to minimize exposure of the
   group's secret key by re-keying a group on a group membership
   change event. It also minimizes cost on a GCKS for those groups
   that maintain member state.

   Additionally, the GKM subsystem MAY setup the GSPD/SAD state
   information independent of the multicast application's state. In
   this scenario, the group's Group Owner issues management
   directives that tells the GKM subsystem when it should start GKM
   registration and de-registration protocol exchanges. Typically the
   registration policy strives to make sure that the group's IPsec
   subsystem state is "always ready" in anticipation of the multicast
   application starting its execution.

4.1.2 Security Association Database (SAD)

   The Security Association Database (SAD) can support multicast SAs,
   if manually configured. An outbound multicast SA has the same
   structure as a unicast SA. The source address is that of the Group
   Sender and the destination address is the multicast group address.
   An inbound multicast SA MUST be configured with the source
   addresses of each Group Sender peer authorized to transmit to the
   multicast SA in question. The SPI value for a multicast SA is
   provided by a GCKS, not by the receiver as occurs for a unicast SA.
   Other than the SPI assignment and the inbound packet de-
   multiplexing described in RFC4301 section 4.1, the SAD behaves
   identically for unicast and multicast security associations.

4.1.3 Peer Authorization Database (PAD)

   The Peer Authorization Database (PAD) is extended in order to
   accommodate peers that may take on specific roles in the group.
   Such roles can be GCKS, Group Sender or a Group Receiver. A peer
   can have multiple roles. The PAD may also contain root certificates
   for PKI used by the group.



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4.1.3.1 GKM/IPsec Interactions with the PAD

   The RFC 4301 section 4.4.3 introduced the PAD. In summary, the PAD
   manages the IPsec entity authentication mechanism(s) and
   authorization of each such peer identity to negotiate modifications
   to the GSPD/SAD. Within the context of the GKM/IPsec subsystem, the
   PAD defines for each group:

   . For those groups that authenticate identities using a Public Key
      Infrastructure, the PAD contains the group's set of one or more
      trusted root public key certificates. The PAD may also include
      the PKI configuration data needed to retrieve supporting
      certificates needed for an end entity's certificate path
      validation.

   . A set of one or more group membership authorization rules. The
      GCKS examines these rules to determine a candidate group
      member's acceptable authentication mechanism and to decide
      whether that candidate has the authority to join the group.

   . A set of one or more GCKS role authorization rules. A group
      member uses these rules to decide which systems are authorized
      to act as a GCKS for a given group. These rules also declare the
      permitted GCKS authentication mechanism(s).

   . A set of one or more Group Sender role authorization rules. In
      some groups the group members allowed to send protected packets
      is restricted. A GCKS uses these rules to declare which systems
      are authorized to be a Group Sender for a given group.

   Some GKM protocols (e.g. GSAKMP [RFC4535]) distribute their group's
   PAD configuration in a security policy token [RFC4534] signed by
   the group's policy authority, also known as the Group Owner (GO).
   Each group member receives the policy token (using a method not
   described in this memo) and verifies the Group Owner's signature on
   the policy token. If that GO signature is accepted, then the group
   member dynamically updates its PAD with the policy token's
   contents.

   The PAD MUST provide a management interface capability that allows
   an administrator to enforce that the scope of a GKM group's policy
   specified GSPD/SAD modifications are restricted to only those
   traffic data flows that belong to that group. This authorization
   MUST be configurable at GKM group granularity. In the inverse
   direction, the PAD management interface MUST provide a mechanism(s)
   to enforce that IKEv2 security associations do not negotiate
   traffic selectors that conflict or override GKM group policies.

   This document refers to re-key mechanisms as being multicast
   because of the inherent scalability of IP multicast distribution.

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   However, there is no particular reason that re-key mechanisms need
   be multicast. For example, [ZLLY03] describes a method of re-key
   employing both unicast and multicast messages.

4.2 Group Security Association (GSA)

   As stated in Section 4 of [RFC3740] an IPsec implementation
   supporting these extensions has a number of security associations:
   one or more IPsec SAs, and one or more GKM SAs used to download
   IPsec SAs. These SAs are collectively referred to as a Group
   Security Association (GSA).

4.2.1 Concurrent IPsec SA Life Spans and Re-key Rollover

   During a cryptographic group's lifetime, multiple IPsec group
   security associations can exist concurrently. This occurs
   principally due to two reasons:

   - There are multiple Group Senders authorized in the group, each
     with its own IPsec SA that maintains anti-replay state. A group
     that does not rely on IP Security anti-replay services can share
     one IPsec SA for all of its Group Senders.

   - The life spans of a Group Sender's two (or more) IPsec SAs are
     allowed to overlap in time, so that there is continuity in the
     multicast data stream across group re-key events. This capability
     is referred to as "re-key rollover continuity".

   Each group re-key multicast message sent by a GCKS signals the
   start of a new Group Sender time epoch, with each such epoch
   having an associated IPsec SA. The group membership interacts with
   these IPsec SAs as follows:

   - As a precursor to the Group Sender beginning its re-key rollover
     continuity processing, the GCKS periodically multicasts a Re-Key
     Event (RKE) message to the group. The RKE multicast contains
     group policy directives, and new IPsec SA policy and keying
     material. In the absence of a reliable multicast transport
     protocol, the GCKS may re-transmit the RKE a policy defined
     number of times to improve the availability of re-key
     information.

   - The RKE multicast configures the group's GSPD/SAD with the new
     IPsec SAs. Each IPsec SA that replaces an existing SA is called a
     "leading edge" IPsec SA. The leading edge IPsec SA has a new
     Security Parameter Index (SPI) and its associated keying material
     keys it. For a short period after the GCKS multicasts the RKE, a
     Group Sender does not yet transmit data using the leading edge
     IPsec SA. Meanwhile, other Group Members prepare to use this


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     IPsec SA by installing the new IPsec SAs to their respective
     GSPD/SAD.

   - After waiting a sufficiently long enough period such that all of
     the Group Members have processed the RKE multicast, the Group
     Sender begins to transmit using the leading edge IPsec SA with
     its data encrypted by the new keying material. Only authorized
     Group Members can decrypt these IPsec SA multicast transmissions.
     The time delay that a Group Sender waits before starting its
     first leading edge SA transmission is a GKM/IPsec policy
     parameter. This value SHOULD be configurable at the Group Owner
     management interface on a per group basis.

   - The Group Sender's "trailing edge" SA is the oldest security
     association in use by the group for that sender. All authorized
     Group Members can receive and decrypt data for this SA, but the
     Group Sender does not transmit new data using the "trailing edge"
     SA after it has transitioned to the "leading edge SA". The
     trailing edge SA is deleted by the group's endpoints according
     to group policy (e.g., after a defined period has elapsed)"

   This re-key rollover strategy allows the group to drain its in
   transit datagrams from the network while transitioning to the
   leading edge SA. Staggering the roles of each respective IPsec SA
   as described above improves the group's synchronization even when
   there are high network propagation delays. Note that due to group
   membership joins and leaves, each Group Sender time epoch may have
   a different group membership set.

   It is a group policy decision whether the re-key event transition
   between epochs provides forward and backward secrecy. The group's
   re-key protocol keying material and algorithm (e.g. Logical Key
   Hierarchy) enforces this policy. Implementations MAY offer a Group
   Owner management interface option to enable/disable re-key rollover
   continuity for a particular group. This specification requires that
   a GKM/IPsec implementation MUST support at least two concurrent
   IPsec SAs per Group Sender and this re-key rollover continuity
   algorithm.


4.3 Data Origin Authentication

   As defined in [RFC4301], data origin authentication is a security
   service that verifies the identity of the claimed source of data.
   A Message Authentication Code (MAC) is often used to achieve data
   origin authentication for connections shared between two parties.
   But typical MAC authentication methods using a single shared
   secret are not sufficient to provide data origin authentication
   for groups with more than two parties. With a MAC algorithm, every
   group member can use the MAC key to create a valid MAC tag,


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   whether or not they are the authentic originator of the group
   application's data.

   When the property of data origin authentication is required for an
   IPsec SA distributed from a GKCS, an authentication transform
   where the originator keeps a secret should be used. Two possible
   algorithms are TESLA [RFC4082] or RSA digital signature [RFC4359].

   In some cases, (e.g., digital signature authentication transforms)
   the processing cost of the algorithm is significantly greater than
   an HMAC authentication method. To protect against denial of
   service attacks from device that is not authorized to join the
   group, the IPsec SA using this algorithm may be encapsulated with
   an IPsec SA using a MAC authentication algorithm. However, doing
   so requires the packet to be sent across the IPsec boundary for
   additional inbound processing (see Section 5.2 of [RFC4301]). This
   use of ESP encapsulated within ESP accommodates the constraint
   that an ESP trailer defines an Integrity Check Value (ICV) for
   only a single authenticator transform. Relaxing this constraint on
   the use of the ICV field is an area for future standardization.

4.4 Group SA and Key Management

4.4.1 Co-Existence of Multiple Key Management Protocols

   Often, the GKM subsystem will be introduced to an existent IPsec
   subsystem as a companion key management protocol to IKEv2
   [RFC4306]. A fundamental GKM protocol IP Security subsystem
   requirement is that both the GKM protocol and IKEv2 can
   simultaneously share access to a common Group Security Policy
   Database and Security Association Database. The mechanisms that
   provide mutually exclusive access to the common GSPD/SAD data
   structures are a local matter. This includes the GSPD-outbound
   cache and the GSPD-inbound cache. However, implementers should note
   that IKEv2 SPI allocation is entirely independent from GKM SPI
   allocation because group security associations are qualified by a
   destination multicast IP address and may optionally have a source
   IP address qualifier. See [RFC4303, Section 2.1] for further
   explanation.

   The Peer Authorization Database does require explicit coordination
   between the GKM protocol and IKEv2. Section 4.1.3 describes these
   interactions.

4.4.2 New Security Association Attributes

   A number of new security association attributes are defined to
   convey extensions defined in this document. Each GKM protocol
   supporting this architecture MUST support the following list of
   attributes described elsewhere in this document.


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   - Address Preservation (Section 3.1). This attribute describes
   whether address preservation is to be applied to the SA on the
   source address, destination address, or both source and
   destination addresses.

   - Directional attribute (Section 4.1.1). This attribute describes
   whether a pair of SAs (one in each direction) are to be installed
   (to match the "symmetric" SPD directionality), only in the
   outbound direction (to match "receiver only" SPD directionality),
   or only in the inbound direction (to match "sender only" SPD
   directionality).

   - Any of the cryptographic transform-specific parameters and keys
   that are sent from the GCKS to the Group Members (e.g. data origin
   authentication parameters as described in section 4.3).

   - Re-key rollover procedure time intervals (section 4.2.1). The
   time that the Group Receiver IPsec subsystems will wait after
   creating the leading edge IPsec SA before they will retire the
   trailing edge IPsec SA. Also, the time that the Group Sender will
   delay before it starts transmitting on the leading edges IPsec SA.

5. IP Traffic Processing

   Processing of traffic follows Section 5 of [RFC4301], with the
   additions described below when these IP multicast extensions are
   supported.

5.1 Outbound IP Multicast Traffic Processing

   If an IPsec SA is marked as supporting tunnel mode with address
   preservation (as described in Section 3.1), either or both of the
   outer header source or destination addresses is marked as being
   preserved. If the source address is marked as being preserved,
   during header construction the "src address" header field MUST be
   "copied from inner hdr" rather than "constructed" as described in
   [RFC4301]. Similarly, if the destination address is marked as being
   preserved, during header construction the "dest address" header
   field MUST be "copied from inner hdr" rather than "constructed".

5.2 Inbound IP Multicast Traffic Processing

   If an IPsec SA is marked as supporting tunnel mode with address
   preservation (as described in Section 3.1), the marked address
   (i.e., source and/or destination address) on the outer IP header
   MUST be verified to be the same value as the inner IP header. If
   the addresses are not consistent, the IPsec system MUST treat the
   error in the same manner as other invalid selectors, as described
   in Section 5.2 of [RFC4301]. In particular the IPsec system MUST
   discard the packet, as well as treat the inconsistency as an
   auditable event.

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6. Security Considerations

   The IP security multicast extensions defined by this specification
   build on the unicast-oriented IP security architecture [RFC4301].
   Consequently, this specification inherits many of the RFC4301
   security considerations and the reader is advised to review it as
   companion guidance.

6.1 Security Issues Solved by IPsec Multicast Extensions

   The IP security multicast extension service provides the following
   network layer mechanisms for secure group communications:

   - Confidentiality using a group shared encryption key.

   - Group source authentication and integrity protection using a
     group shared authentication key.

   - Group Sender data origin authentication using a digital
     signature, TESLA, or other mechanism.

   - Anti-replay protection for a limited number of Group Senders
     using the ESP (or AH) sequence number facility.

   - Filtering of multicast transmissions by those group members who
     are not authorized by group policy to be Group Senders. This
     feature leverages the IPsec state-less firewall service.

   In support of the above services, this specification enhances the
   definition of the SPD, PAD, and SAD databases to facilitate the
   automated group key management of large-scale cryptographic groups.

6.2 Security Issues Not Solved by IPsec Multicast Extensions

   As noted in RFC4301 section 2.2, it is out of scope of this
   architecture to defend the group's keys or its application data
   against those attacks against many aspects of the operating
   environment in which the IPsec implementation executes. However, it
   should be noted that the risk of attacks originating by an
   adversary in the network is magnified to the extent that the group
   keys are shared across a large number of systems.

   The security issues that are left unsolved by the IPsec multicast
   extension service divide into two broad categories: outsider
   attacks, and insider attacks.

6.2.1 Outsider Attacks



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   The IPsec multicast extension service does not defend against an
   Adversary outside of the group who has:

   - The capability to launch a multicast flooding denial-of-service
     attack against the group, originating from a system whose IPsec
     subsystem does not filter the unauthorized multicast
     transmissions.

   - Compromised a multicast router, allowing the Adversary to corrupt
     or delete all multicast packets destined for the group endpoints
     downstream from that router.

   - Captured a copy of an earlier multicast packet transmission and
     then replays it to a group that does not have the anti-replay
     service enabled. Note that for a large-scale any source multicast
     group, it is impractical for the Group Receivers to maintain an
     anti-replay state for every potential Group Sender. Group
     policies that require anti-replay protection for a large-scale
     any-source-multicast group should consider an application layer
     total order multicast protocol.

6.2.2 Insider Attacks

   For large-scale groups, the IP security multicast extensions are
   dependent on an automated Group Key Management protocol to
   correctly authenticate and authorize trustworthy members in
   compliance to the group's policies. Inherent in the concept of a
   cryptographic group is a set of one or more shared secrets
   entrusted to all of the group's members. Consequently, the
   service's security guarantees are no stronger than the weakest
   member admitted to the group by the GKM system. The GKM system is
   responsible for responding to compromised group member detection by
   executing a group key recovery procedure. The GKM re-keying
   protocol will expel the compromised group members and distribute
   new group keying material to the trusted members. Alternatively,
   the group policy may require the GKM system to terminate the group.

   In the event that an Adversary has been admitted into the group by
   the GKM system, the following attacks are possible and they can not
   be solved by the IPsec multicast extension service:

   - The Adversary can disclose the secret group key or group data to
     an unauthorized party outside of the group. After a group key or
     data compromise, cryptographic methods such as traitor tracing or
     watermarking can assist in the forensics process. However, these
     methods are outside the scope of this specification.

   - The insider Adversary can forge packet transmissions that appear
     to be from a peer group member. To defend against this attack for
     those Group Sender transmissions that merit the overhead, the


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     group policy can require the Group Sender to multicast packets
     using the data origin authentication service.

   - If the group's data origin authentication service uses digital
     signatures, then the insider Adversary can launch a computational
     resource denial of service attack by multicasting bogus signed
     packets.

6.3 Implementation or Deployment Issues that Impact Security

6.3.1 Homogeneous Group Cryptographic Algorithm Capabilities

   The IP security multicast extensions service can not defend against
   a poorly considered group security policy that allows a weaker
   cryptographic algorithm simply because all of the group's endpoints
   are known to support it. Unfortunately, large-scale groups can be
   difficult to upgrade to the current best in class cryptographic
   algorithms. One possible approach to solving many of these problems
   is the deployment of composite groups that can straddle
   heterogeneous groups [COMPGRP]. A standard solution for
   heterogeneous groups is an activity for future standardization. In
   the interim, synchronization of a group's cryptographic
   capabilities could be achieved using a secure and scalable software
   distribution management tool.

6.3.2 Groups that Span Two or More Security Policy Domains

   Large-scale groups may span multiple legal jurisdictions (e.g
   countries) that enforce limits on cryptographic algorithms or key
   strengths. As currently defined, the IPsec multicast extension
   service requires a single group policy per group. As noted above,
   this problem remains an area for future standardization.

6.3.3 Network Address Translation

   With the advent of NAT and mobile nodes, IPsec multicast
   applications need to overcome several architectural barriers to
   their successful deployment. This section surveys those problems
   and identifies the GSPD/SAD state information that the GKM
   protocol supporting NAT and mobile nodes need to synchronize
   across the group membership.

6.3.3.1 GSPD Losses Synchronization with Internet Layer's State

   The most prominent problem facing GKM protocols supporting IPsec
   is that the GKM protocol's group security policy mechanism can
   inadvertently configure the group's GSPD traffic selectors with
   unreliable transient IP addresses. The IP addresses are transient
   because of either node mobility or Network Address Translation
   (NAT), both of which can unilaterally change a Group Sender's


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   source IP address without signaling the GKM protocol. The absence
   of a GSPD synchronization mechanism can cause the group's data
   traffic to be discarded rather than processed correctly.

6.3.3.2 Mobile Multicast Care-Of Address Route Optimization

   Both Mobile IPv4 [RFC3344] and Mobile IPv6 provide transparent
   unicast communications to a mobile Node. However, comparable
   support for secure multicast mobility management is not specified
   by these standards. The goal is the ability to maintain an end-to-
   end transport mode group SA between a Group Sender mobile node that
   has a volatile care-of-address and a Group Receiver membership that
   also may have mobile endpoints. In particular, there is no secure
   mechanism for route optimization of the triangular multicast path
   between the correspondent Group Receiver nodes, the home agent, and
   the mobile node. Any proposed solution needs to be secure against
   hostile re-direct and flooding attacks.

6.3.3.3 NAT Translation Mappings Are Not Predictable

   The following spontaneous NAT behaviors adversely impact source-
   specific secure multicast groups. When a NAT gateway is on the
   path between a Group Sender residing behind a NAT and a public
   IPv4 multicast Group Receiver, the NAT gateway alters the private
   source address to a public IPv4 address. This translation needs to
   be coordinated with every Group Receiver's inbound GSPD multicast
   entries that depend on that source address as a traffic selector.
   One might mistakenly assume that the GCKS could set up the Group
   Members with a GSPD entry that anticipates the value(s) that the
   NAT translates the packet's source address. However, there are
   known cases where this address translation can spontaneously
   change without warning:

   - NAT gateways may re-boot and lose their address translation
     state information.

   - The NAT gateway may de-allocate its address translation state
     after an inactivity timer expires. The address translation used
     by the NAT gateway after the resumption of data flow may differ
     than that known to the GSPD selectors at the group endpoints.

   - The GCKS may not have global consistent knowledge of a group
     endpoint's current public and private address mappings due to
     network errors or race conditions. For example, a Group Member's
     address may change due to a DHCP assigned address lease
     expiration.

   - Alternate paths may exist between a given pair of Group Members.
     If there are parallel NAT gateways along those paths, then the


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     address translation state information at each NAT gateway may
     produce different translations on a per packet basis.

   The consequence of this problem is that the GCKS can not be pre-
   configured with NAT mappings, as the GSPD at the Group Members
   will lose synchronization as soon as a NAT mapping changes due to
   any of the above events. In the worst case, Group Members in
   different sections of the network will see different NAT mappings,
   because the multicast packet traversed multiple NAT gateways.

6.3.3.4 SSM Routing Dependency on Source IP Address

   Source-Specific Multicast (SSM) routing depends on a multicast
   packet's source IP address and multicast destination IP address to
   make a correct forwarding decision. However, a NAT gateway alters
   that packet's source IP address as its passes from a private
   network into the public network. Mobility changes a Group Member's
   point of attachment to the Internet, and this will change the
   packet's source IP address. Regardless of why it happened, this
   alteration in the source IP address makes it infeasible for transit
   multicast routers in the public Internet to know which SSM sender
   originated the multicast packet, which in turn selects the correct
   multicast forwarding policy.

6.3.3.5 ESP Cloaks Its Payloads from NAT Gateway

   When traversing NAT, application layer protocols that contain IPv4
   addresses in their payload need the intervention of an Application
   Layer Gateway (ALG) that understands that application layer
   protocol [RFC3027] [RFC3235]. The ALG massages the payload's
   private IPv4 addresses into equivalent public IPv4 addresses.
   However, when encrypted by end-to-end ESP, such payloads are
   opaque to application layer gateways.

   When multiple Group Senders reside behind a NAT with a single
   public IPv4 address, the NAT gateway can not do UDP or TCP
   protocol port translation (i.e. NAPT) because the ESP encryption
   conceals the transport layer protocol headers. The use of UDP
   encapsulated ESP [RFC3948] avoids this problem. However, this
   capability needs to be configured at the GCKS as a group policy,
   and it needs to be supported in unison by all of the group
   endpoints within the group, even those that reside in the public
   Internet.

6.3.3.6 UDP Checksum Dependency on Source IP Address

   An IPsec subsystem using UDP within an ESP payload will encounter
   NAT induced problems. The original IPv4 source address is an input
   parameter into a receiver's UDP pseudo-header checksum
   verification, yet that value is lost after the IP header's address

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   translation by a transit NAT gateway. The UDP header checksum is
   opaque within the encrypted ESP payload. Consequently, the checksum
   can not be manipulated by the transit NAT gateways. UDP checksum
   verification needs a mechanism that recovers the original source
   IPv4 address at the Group Receiver endpoints.

   In a transport mode multicast application GSA, the UDP checksum
   operation requires the origin endpoint's IP address to complete
   successfully. In IKEv2, this information is obtained from the
   Traffic Selectors associated with the exchange [RFC4306, Section
   2.23]. See also reference [RFC3947]. A facility that obtains the
   same result needs to exist in a GKM protocol payload that defines
   the multicast application GSA attributes for each Group Sender.

6.3.3.7 Cannot Use AH with NAT Gateway

   The presence of a NAT gateway makes it impossible to use an
   Authentication Header, keyed by a group-wide key, to protect the
   integrity of the IP header for transmissions between members of
   the cryptographic group.

7. IANA Considerations

   This document has no actions for IANA.

8. Acknowledgements

   The authors wish to thank Pasi Eronen and Tero Kivinen for their
   helpful comments.

   The "Guidelines for Writing RFC Text on Security Considerations"
   [RFC3552] was consulted to develop the Security Considerations
   section of this memo.

9. References

9.1 Normative References

   [RFC1112] Deering, S., "Host Extensions for IP Multicasting," RFC
             1112, August 1989.

   [RFC2119] Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
             Requirement Level", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997.

   [RFC3552] Rescorla, E., et. al., "Guidelines for Writing RFC Text
             on Security Considerations", RFC 3552, July 2003.

   [RFC4301] Kent, S. and K. Seo, "Security Architecture for the
             Internet Protocol", RFC 4301, December 2005.


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   [RFC4302] Kent, S., "IP Authentication Header", RFC 4302, December
             2005.

   [RFC4303] Kent, S., "IP Encapsulating Security Payload (ESP)", RFC
             4303, December 2004.

9.2 Informative References

   [COMPGRP] Gross G. and H. Cruickshank, "Multicast IP Security
             Composite Cryptographic Groups", draft- msec-ipsec-
             composite-group-01.txt, work in progress, February 2007.

   [RFC2526] Johnson, D., and S. Deering., "Reserved IPv6 Subnet
             Anycast Addresses", RFC 2526, March 1999.

   [RFC2914] Floyd, S., "Congestion Control Principles", RFC 2914,
             September 2000.

   [RFC3027] Holdrege, M., and P. Srisuresh, "Protocol Complications
             with the IP Network Address Translator", RFC 3027,
             January 2001.

   [RFC3171] Albanni, Z., et. al., "IANA Guidelines for IPv4
             Multicast Address Assignments", RFC 3171, August 2001.

   [RFC3235] Senie, D., "Network Address Translator (NAT)-Friendly
             Application Design Guidelines", RFC 3235, January 2002.

   [RFC3306] Haberman B. and D. Thaler, " Unicast-Prefix-based IPv6
             Multicast Addresses", RFC3306, August 2002.

   [RFC3307] Haberman B., " Allocation Guidelines for IPv6 Multicast
             Addresses", RFC3307, August 2002.

   [RFC3344] Perkins, C., "IP Mobility Support for IPv4", RFC 3344,
             August 2002.

   [RFC3376] Cain, B., et. al., "Internet Group Management Protocol,
             Version 3", RFC 3376, October 2002.

   [RFC3547] Baugher, M., Weis, B., Hardjono, T., and H. Harney, "The
             Group Domain of Interpretation", RFC 3547, December
             2002.

   [RFC3569] Bhattacharyya, S., "An Overview of Source-Specific
             Multicast (SSM)", RFC 3569, July 2003.

   [RFC3740] Hardjono, Tl, and B. Weis, "The Multicast Group Security
             Architecture", RFC 3740, March 2004.



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   [RFC3810] Vida, R., and L. Costa, "Multicast Listener Discovery
             Version 2 (MLDv2) for IPv6", RFC 3810, June 2004.

   [RFC3940] Adamson, B., et. al., "Negative-acknowledgment (NACK)-
             Oriented Reliable Multicast (NORM) Protocol", RFC 3940,
             November 2004.

   [RFC3947] Kivinen, T., et. al., "Negotiation of NAT-Traversal in
             the IKE", RFC 3947, January 2005.

   [RFC3948] Huttunen, A., et. al., "UDP Encapsulation of IPsec ESP
             Packets", RFC 3948, January 2005.

   [RFC4046] Baugher, M., Dondeti, L., Canetti, R., and F. Lindholm,
             "Multicast Security (MSEC) Group Key Management
             Architecture", RFC4046, April 2005.

   [RFC4082] Perrig, A., et. al., "Timed Efficient Stream Loss-
             Tolerant Authentication (TESLA): Multicast Source
             Authentication Transform Introduction", RFC 4082, June
             2005.

   [RFC4306] Kaufman, C., "Internet Key Exchange (IKEv2) Protocol",
             RFC 4306, December 2005.

   [RFC4359] Weis, B., "The Use of RSA/SHA-1 Signatures within
             Encapsulating Security Payload (ESP) and Authentication
             Header (AH)", RFC 4359, January 2006.

   [RFC4534] Colegrove, A., and H. Harney, "Group Security Policy
             Token v1", RFC 4534, June 2006.

   [RFC4535] Harney, H., Meth, U., Colegrove, A., and G. Gross,
             "GSAKMP: Group Secure Association Key Management
             Protocol", RFC 4535, June 2006.

   [RFC4601] Fenner, B., et. al., "Protocol Independent Multicast -
             Sparse Mode (PIM-SM): Protocol  Specification
             (Revised)",  RFC 4601, August 2006.

   [ZLLY03] Zhang, X., et. al., "Protocol Design for Scalable and
             Reliable Group Rekeying", IEEE/ACM Transactions on
             Networking (TON), Volume 11, Issue 6, December 2003. See
             http://www.cs.utexas.edu/users/lam/Vita/Cpapers/ZLLY01.p
             df.







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Appendix A - Multicast Application Service Models

   The vast majority of secure multicast applications can be
   catalogued by their service model and accompanying intra-group
   communication patterns. Both the Group Key Management (GKM)
   Subsystem and the IPsec subsystem MUST be able to configure the
   GSPD/SAD security policies to match these dominant usage scenarios.
   The GSPD/SAD policies MUST include the ability to configure both
   Any-Source-Multicast groups and Source-Specific-Multicast groups
   for each of these service models. The GKM Subsystem management
   interface MAY include mechanisms to configure the security policies
   for service models not identified by this standard.

A.1 Unidirectional Multicast Applications

   Multi-media content delivery multicast applications that do not
   have congestion notification or retransmission error recovery
   mechanisms are inherently unidirectional. RFC 4301 only defines bi-
   directional unicast traffic selectors (as per sections 4.4.1 and
   5.1 with respect to traffic selector directionality). The GKM
   Subsystem requires that the IPsec subsystem MUST support
   unidirectional SPD entries, which cause a Group Security
   Associations (GSA)to be installed in only one direction. Multicast
   applications that have only one group member authorized to transmit
   can use this type of group security association to enforce that
   group policy. In the inverse direction, the GSA does not have a SAD
   entry, and the GSPD configuration is optionally setup to discard
   unauthorized attempts to transmit unicast or multicast packets to
   the group.

   The GKM Subsystem's management interface MUST have the ability to
   setup a GKM Subsystem group having a unidirectional GSA security
   policy.

A.2 Bi-directional Reliable Multicast Applications

   Some secure multicast applications are characterized as one Group
   Sender to many receivers, but with inverse data flows required by a
   reliable multicast transport protocol (e.g. NORM). In such
   applications, the data flow from the sender is multicast, and the
   inverse flow from the group's receivers is unicast to the sender.
   Typically, the inverse data flows carry error repair requests and
   congestion control status.

   For such applications, it is advantageous to use the same IPsec SA
   for protection of both unicast and multicast data flows. This does
   introduce one risk: the IKEv2 application may choose the same SPI
   for receiving unicast traffic as the GCKS chooses for a group
   IPsec SA covering unicast traffic. If both SAs are installed in
   the SAD, the SA lookup may return the wrong SPI as the result of
   an SA lookup. To avoid this problem, IPsec SAs installed by the

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   GKM SHOULD use the 2-tuple {destination IP address, SPI} to
   identify each IPsec SA. In addition, the GKM SHOULD use a unicast
   destination IP address that does not match any destination IP
   address in use by an IKE-v2 unicast IPsec SA. For example, suppose
   a Group Member is using both IKEv2 and a GKM protocol, and and the
   group security policy requires protecting the NORM inverse data
   flows as described above. In this case, group policy SHOULD
   allocate and use a unique unicast destination IP address
   representing the NORM Group Sender. This address would be
   configured in parallel to the Group Sender's existing IP
   addresses. The GKM subsystems at both the NORM Group Sender and
   Group Receiver endpoints would install the IPsec SA protecting the
   NORM unicast messages such that the SA lookup uses the unicast
   destination address as well as the SPI.

   The GSA SHOULD use IPsec anti-replay protection service for the
   sender's multicast data flow to the group's receivers. Because of
   the scalability problem described in the next section, it is not
   practical to use the IPsec anti-replay service for the unicast
   inverse flows. Consequently, in the inverse direction the IPsec
   anti-replay protection MUST be disabled. However, the unicast
   inverse flows can use the group's IPsec group authentication
   mechanism. The group receiver's GSPD entry for this GSA SHOULD be
   configured to only allow a unicast transmission to the sender Node
   rather than a multicast transmission to the whole group.

   If an ESP digital signature authentication is available (E.g., RFC
   4359), source authentication MAY be used to authenticate a receiver
   Node's transmission to the sender. The GKM protocol MUST define a
   key management mechanism for the Group Sender to validate the
   asserted signature public key of any receiver Node without
   requiring that the sender maintain state about every group
   receiver.

   This multicast application service model is RECOMMENDED because it
   includes congestion control feedback capabilities. Refer to
   [RFC2914] for additional background information.

   The GKM Subsystem's Group Owner management interface MUST have the
   ability to setup a symmetric GSPD entry and one Group Sender. The
   management interface SHOULD be able to configure a group to have at
   least 16 concurrent authorized senders, each with their own GSA
   anti-replay state.

A.3 Any-To-Any Multicast Applications

   Another family of secure multicast applications exhibits a "any to
   many" communications pattern. A representative example of such an
   application is a videoconference combined with an electronic
   whiteboard.


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   For such applications, all (or a large subset) of the Group Members
   are authorized multicast senders. In such service models, creating
   a distinct IPsec SA with anti-replay state for every potential
   sender does not scale to large groups. The group SHOULD share one
   IPsec SA for all of its senders. The IPsec SA SHOULD NOT use the
   IPsec anti-replay protection service for the sender's multicast
   data flow to the Group Receivers.

   The GKM Subsystem's management interface MUST have the ability to
   setup a group having an Any-To-Many Multicast GSA security policy.


Author's Address

   Brian Weis
   Cisco Systems
   170 W. Tasman Drive,
   San Jose, CA 95134-1706
   USA

   Phone: +1-408-526-4796
   Email: bew@cisco.com

   George Gross
   IdentAware Security
   82 Old Mountain Road
   Lebanon, NJ 08833
   USA

   Phone: +1-908-268-1629
   Email: gmgross@identaware.com

   Dragan Ignjatic
   Polycom
   1000 W. 14th Street
   North Vancouver, BC V7P 3P3
   Canada

   Phone: +1-604-982-3424
   Email: dignjatic@polycom.com












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Internet-Draft     Multicast Extensions to RFC 4301         July, 2007


Full Copyright Statement

   Copyright (C) The IETF Trust (2007).

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Acknowledgement

   Funding for the RFC Editor function is provided by the IETF
   Administrative Support Activity (IASA).
















































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