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Versions: (draft-ellard-nfsv4-federated-fs-admin) 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 13 14 15

NFSv4 Working Group                                           J. Lentini
Internet-Draft                                               C. Everhart
Intended status: Standards Track                                  NetApp
Expires: January 11, 2010                                      D. Ellard
                                                        BBN Technologies
                                                               R. Tewari
                                                                 M. Naik
                                                             IBM Almaden
                                                           July 10, 2009


           Administration Protocol for Federated Filesystems
                 draft-ietf-nfsv4-federated-fs-admin-02

Status of this Memo

   This Internet-Draft is submitted to IETF in full conformance with the
   provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.

   Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
   Task Force (IETF), its areas, and its working groups.  Note that
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   and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any
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   The list of current Internet-Drafts can be accessed at
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   The list of Internet-Draft Shadow Directories can be accessed at
   http://www.ietf.org/shadow.html.

   This Internet-Draft will expire on January 11, 2010.

Copyright Notice

   Copyright (c) 2009 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
   document authors.  All rights reserved.

   This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
   Provisions Relating to IETF Documents in effect on the date of
   publication of this document (http://trustee.ietf.org/license-info).
   Please review these documents carefully, as they describe your rights
   and restrictions with respect to this document.




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Abstract

   This document describes the administration protocol for a federated
   file system that enables file access and namespace traversal across
   collections of independently administered fileservers.  The protocol
   specifies a set of interfaces by which fileservers and collections of
   fileservers with different administrators can form a fileserver
   federation that provides a namespace composed of the filesystems
   physically hosted on and exported by the constituent fileservers.

Requirements Language

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
   document are to be interpreted as described in [RFC2119].


Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  3
   2.  Error Definitions  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  3
   3.  Administrator-Initiated Operations . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  5
     3.1.  Basic Definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  5
     3.2.  Required Procedures  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  7
       3.2.1.  FEDFS_CREATE_JUNCTION  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  8
       3.2.2.  FEDFS_DELETE_JUNCTION  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  9
       3.2.3.  FEDFS_LOOKUP_FSN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
   4.  Security Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
   5.  IANA Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
   6.  Glossary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
   7.  References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
     7.1.  Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
     7.2.  Informational References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
   Appendix A.  Acknowledgments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
   Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
















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1.  Introduction

   A federated filesystem enables file access and namespace traversal in
   a uniform, secure and consistent manner across multiple independent
   fileservers within an enterprise (and possibly across multiple
   enterprises) with reasonably good performance.

   Traditionally, building a namespace that spans multiple fileservers
   has been difficult for two reasons.  First, the fileservers that
   export pieces of the namespace are often not in the same
   administrative domain.  Second, there is no standard mechanism for
   the fileservers to cooperatively present the namespace.  Fileservers
   may provide proprietary management tools and in some cases an
   administrator may be able to use the proprietary tools to build a
   shared namespace out of the exported filesystems.  Relying on vendor-
   proprietary tools does not work in larger enterprises or when
   collaborating across enterprises because it is likely that the system
   will contain fileservers running different software, each with their
   own protocols, with no common protocol to manage the namespace or
   exchange namespace information.

   The requirements for federated namespaces are described in
   [FEDFS-REQTS].

   The filesystem federation protocol described in [FEDFS-NSDB] allows
   fileservers from different vendors and/or with different
   administrators to cooperatively build a namespace.

   This document describes the protocol used by administrators to
   configure the fileservers and construct the namespace.


2.  Error Definitions

   The results of successful operations will consist of a status of
   FEDFS_OK.  The results of unsuccessful operations will begin with a
   status, other than FEDFS_OK, that indicates the reason why the
   operation failed.

   Many of the error status names and meanings (and the prose for their
   descriptions) are taken from the specification for NFSv4 [RFC3530].
   Note, however, that the literal values for the status codes are
   different.

   Note that the status of an unsuccessful operation will generally only
   indicate the first error encountered during the attempt to execute
   the operation.




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   FEDFS_OK  No errors were encountered.  The operation was a success.

   FEDFS_ERR_ACCESS  Permission denied.  The caller does not have the
      correct permission to perform the requested operation.

   FEDFS_ERR_BADCHAR  A UTF-8 string contains a character which is not
      supported by the server in the context in which it being used.

   FEDFS_ERR_BADXDR  The server encountered an XDR decoding error while
      processing an operation.

   FEDFS_ERR_EXIST  The junction specified already exists.

   FEDFS_ERR_INVAL  Invalid argument for an operation.

   FEDFS_ERR_IO  A hard error occurred while processing the requested
      operation.

   FEDFS_ERR_NOSPC  The requested operation would have caused the
      server's filesystem to exceed some limit (for example, if there is
      a fixed number of junctions per fileset or per server).

   FEDFS_ERR_NOTDIR  The caller specified a non-directory in an
      operation that requires a directory.

   FEDFS_ERR_NOTEMPTY  The caller specified a directory that is not
      empty as the operand of an operation that requires an empty
      directory.

   FEDFS_ERR_NOTJUNCT  The caller specified a path that does not end in
      a junction as the operand for an operation that requires the last
      component of the path to be a junction.

   FEDFS_ERR_NOTLOCAL  The caller specified a path that contains a
      junction in any position other than the last component.

   FEDFS_ERR_PERM  The operation was not allowed because the caller is
      either not a privileged user or not the owner of an object that
      would be modified by the operation.

   FEDFS_ERR_ROFS  A modifying operation was attempted on a read-only
      filesystem.

   FEDFS_ERR_SVRFAULT  An unanticipated non-protocol error occurred on
      the server.






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3.  Administrator-Initiated Operations

   The RPC protocol used by the administration operations is ONC RPC
   [RFC5531].  The data structures used for the parameters and return
   values of these procedures are expressed in this document in XDR
   [RFC4506].

3.1.  Basic Definition

   We begin by defining basic constants and structures, in XDR notation,
   that will be used to specify the types of the RPCs described in the
   rest of this subsection.

   The XDR definitions below are formatted to allow the reader to easily
   extract them from the document.  The reader can use the following
   shell script to extract the definitions:


           <CODE BEGINS>

           #!/bin/sh
           grep '^ *///' | sed 's?^ */// ??' | sed 's?^ *///$??'

           <CODE ENDS>


   If the above script is stored in a file called "extract.sh", and this
   document is in a file called "spec.txt", then the reader can do:


           <CODE BEGINS>

           sh extract.sh < spec.txt > admin1.xdr

           <CODE ENDS>


   The effect of the script is to remove leading white space from each
   line, plus a sentinel sequence of "///".

   <CODE BEGIN>

     /// enum FedFsStatus {
     ///  FEDFS_OK                 = 0,
     ///  FEDFS_ERR_ACCESS         = 1,
     ///  FEDFS_ERR_BADCHAR        = 2,
     ///  FEDFS_ERR_BADXDR         = 3,
     ///  FEDFS_ERR_EXIST          = 4,



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     ///  FEDFS_ERR_INVAL          = 5,
     ///  FEDFS_ERR_IO             = 6,
     ///  FEDFS_ERR_NOSPC          = 7,
     ///  FEDFS_ERR_NOTDIR         = 8,
     ///  FEDFS_ERR_NOTEMPTY       = 9,
     ///  FEDFS_ERR_NOTJUNCT       = 10,
     ///  FEDFS_ERR_NOTLOCAL       = 11,
     ///  FEDFS_ERR_PERM           = 12,
     ///  FEDFS_ERR_ROFS           = 13,
     ///  FEDFS_ERR_SVRFAULT       = 14
     /// };
     ///
     /// typedef opaque FedFsFsnUuid<16>;
     /// typedef opaque FedFsNsdbName<>;
     /// typedef opaque FedFsPathName<>;
     ///
     /// struct FedFsFsn {
     ///  FedFsFsnUuid             fsnUuid;
     ///  FedFsNsdbName            nsdbName;
     /// };
     ///
     /// struct FedFsCreateJunctionArgs {
     ///  FedFsPathName            path;
     ///  FedFsFsn                 fsn;
     /// };
     ///
     /// union FedFsLookupFsnRes switch (FedFsStatus status) {
     ///  case FEDFS_OK:
     ///           FedFsFsn        fsn;
     ///  default:
     ///           void;
     /// };
     ///
     /// program FEDFS_PROG {
     ///  version FEDFS_VERSION {
     ///           void FEDFS_NULL(void) = 0;
     ///           FedFsStatus FEDFS_CREATE_JUNCTION(
     ///                   FedFsCreateJunctionArgs args) = 1;
     ///           FedFsStatus FEDFS_DELETE_JUNCTION(
     ///                   FedFsPathName path) = 2;
     ///           FedFsLookupFsnRes FEDFS_LOOKUP_FSN(
     ///                   FedFsPathName path) = 3;
     ///  } = 1;
     /// } = 100418;

   <CODE END>

   The basic data types defined above MUST be formatted as follows:



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   FedFsFsnUuid:  A universally unique identifier (UUID) as described in
      [RFC4122] as a version 1 UUID.  The UUID should be formatted in
      network byte order.

   FedFsNsdbName:  A variable length UTF-8 string that represents an
      NSDB's network location in either IPv4, IPv6, or DNS host name
      notation.

   FedFsPathName:  A variable UTF-8 string that represents a file system
      path.

3.2.  Required Procedures

   Fileservers that participate as "internal" nodes in the federated
   namespace MUST provide these procedures:

   FEDFS_NULL  The null RPC, which is included, by convention, in every
      ONC RPC protocol.

   FEDFS_CREATE_JUNCTION  Create a new junction from some location on
      the server (defined as a pathname) to an FSN.

   FEDFS_DELETE_JUNCTION  Delete an existing junction from some location
      on the server (defined as a pathname).

   FEDFS_LOOKUP_FSN  Query the server to discover the current value of
      the junction (if any) at a given path in the server namespace.

   The FEDFS_CREATE_JUNCTION, FEDFS_DELETE_JUNCTION, and
   FEDFS_LOOKUP_FSN operations are described in more detail in the
   following sections.

   Fileservers that participate as "leaf" nodes in the namespace (i.e.,
   fileservers that host filesets that are the target of junctions, but
   that do not contain any junctions) are not required to implement any
   of these operations.

   Note that operations that modify the state of a replicated fileset
   MUST result in the update of all of the replicas in a consistent
   manner.  Ideally all of the replicas SHOULD be updated before any
   operation returns.  If one or more of the replicas are unavailable,
   the operation MAY succeed, but the changes MUST be applied before the
   unavailable replicas are brought back online.  We assume that
   replicas are updated via some protocol that permits state changes to
   be reflected consistently across the set of replicas in such a manner
   that the replicas will converge to a consistent state within a
   bounded number of successful message exchanges between the servers
   hosting the replicas.



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3.2.1.  FEDFS_CREATE_JUNCTION

   This operation creates a junction from a server-relative path to a
   (potentially) remote fileset named by the given FSN.

   The junction directory on the server is named by a pathname in the
   form of a UTF-8 string that has a well-defined interpretation by the
   server).  It is not required that this path be accessible in any
   other manner (e.g., to a client).  This path does not appear in the
   federated namespace, except by coincidence; there is no requirement
   that the global namespace parallel the server namespace, nor is it
   required that this path be relative to the server pseudo-root.  It
   does not need to be a path that is accessible via NFS (although the
   junction will be of limited utility if the directory specified by the
   path is not also accessible via NFS).

   If the fileset is read-only, then this operation SHOULD indicate this
   with a status of FEDFS_ERR_ROFS.

   If the path contains an invalid UTF-8 character, then status
   FEDFS_ERR_BADCHAR must be returned.

   The path is REQUIRED to exist and be completely local to the server.
   It MUST NOT contain a junction.  If the last component of the path is
   a junction (i.e., this operation is attempting to create a junction
   where one already exists), then this operation MUST return the error
   FEDFS_ERR_EXISTS (even if the requested junction is identical to the
   current junction).  If any other component of the path is a junction,
   then this operation MUST fail with status FEDFS_ERR_NOTLOCAL.  The
   path may contain a symbolic link (if supported by the local server),
   but the traversal of the path must remain within the server-local
   namespace.

   The last component of the path MUST be an empty directory.  If any
   component of the path does not exist, or the final component is not a
   directory, then the operation fails with status FEDFS_ERR_INVAL.

   The server MAY enforce the local permissions on the path, including
   the final component.  If the path cannot be traversed because of
   insufficient permissions, or the final component is an unexecutable
   or unwritable directory, then the operation MAY fail with status
   FEDFS_ERR_ACCESS.

   The association between the path and the FSN MUST be durable before
   the operation may return successfully.  If the operation return codes
   indicates success, then the caller may assume that the junction was
   successfully created and is immediately accessible.




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   If successful, subsequent references via NFSv4 [RFC3530] or NFSv4.1
   [NFSv4.1] clients to the directory that has been replaced by the
   junction will result in a referral to a current location of the
   target fileset [FEDFS-NSDB].

   Note that the effective permissions of the directory that is
   converted, by this operation, into a junction are the permissions of
   the root directory of the target fileset.  The original permissions
   of the directory (and any other attributes it might have) are
   subsumed by the junction.

   Note that this operation does not create a fileset at the location
   targeted by the junction.  If the target fileset does not exist, the
   junction will still be created.  An NFS client will discover the
   missing fileset when it traverses the junction.

3.2.2.  FEDFS_DELETE_JUNCTION

   This operation removes a junction specified by a server-relative
   path.

   As with FEDFS_CREATE_JUNCTION, the junction on the server is named by
   a pathname in the form of a UTF-8 string that has a well-defined
   interpretation by the server.  It is not required that this path be
   accessible in any other manner (e.g., to a client).  This path does
   not appear in the federated namespace, except by coincidence; there
   is no requirement that the global namespace reflect the server
   namespace, nor is it required that this path be relative to the
   server pseudo-root.  It does not need to be a path that is accessible
   via NFS.

   If the fileset is read-only, then this operation SHOULD indicate this
   with a status of FEDFS_ERR_ROFS.

   If the path contains an invalid UTF-8 character, then status
   FEDFS_ERR_BADCHAR must be returned.

   The path used to delete a junction might not be the same path that
   was used to create the junction.  If the namespace on the server has
   changed, then the junction may now appear at a different path than
   where it was created.  If there is more than one valid path to the
   junction, any of them may be used.

   The path is REQUIRED to exist and be completely local to the server.
   It MUST NOT contain a junction, except as the final component, which
   MUST be a junction.  If any other component of the path is a
   junction, then this operation MUST fail with status
   FEDFS_ERR_NOTLOCAL.  If the last component of the path is not a



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   junction then this operation MUST return status FEDFS_ERR_INVAL.  The
   path may contain a symbolic link (if supported by the local server),
   but the traversal of the path must remain within the server-local
   namespace.

   The last component of the path MUST be a junction.  If any component
   of the path does not exist, or the final component is not a junction,
   then the operation fails with status FEDFS_ERR_NOTJUNCT.

   The server MAY enforce the local permissions on the path, including
   the final component.  If the path cannot be traversed because of
   insufficient permissions, or the parent directory of the junction
   unexecutable or unwritable directory, then the operation MAY fail
   with status FEDFS_ERR_ACCESS.

   The removal of the association between the path and the FSN MUST be
   durable before the operation may return successfully.  If the
   operation return codes indicates success, then the caller may assume
   that the junction was successfully destroyed.

   The effective permissions and other attributes of the directory that
   is restored by this operation SHOULD be identical to their value
   prior to the creation of the junction.

3.2.3.  FEDFS_LOOKUP_FSN

   This operation queries a server to determine whether a given path
   ends in a junction, and if so, the FSN to which the junction refers.

   Ordinary NFSv4 operations do not provide any general mechanism to
   determine whether an object is a junction -- there is no encoding
   specified by the NFSv4 protocol that can represent this information.

   As with FEDFS_CREATE_JUNCTION, the pathname must be in the form of a
   UTF-8 string that has a well-defined interpretation by the server.
   It is not required that this path be accessible in any other manner
   (e.g., to a client).  This path does not appear in the federated
   namespace, except by coincidence; there is no requirement that the
   global namespace reflect the server namespace, nor is it required
   that this path be relative to the server pseudo-root.  It does not
   need to be a path that is accessible via NFS.

   If the path contains an invalid UTF-8 character, then status
   FEDFS_ERR_BADCHAR must be returned.

   The path used to lookup a junction might not be the same path that
   was used to create the junction.  If the namespace on the server has
   changed, then a junction may now appear at a different path than



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   where it was created.  If there is more than one valid path to the
   junction, any of them may be used.

   The path is REQUIRED to exist and be completely local to the server.
   It MUST NOT contain a junction, except as the final component.  If
   any other component of the path is a junction, then this operation
   MUST fail with status FEDFS_ERR_NOTLOCAL.  If the last component of
   the path is not a junction then this operation MUST return the status
   FEDFS_ERR_NOTJUNCT.  The path may contain a symbolic link (if
   supported by the local server), but the traversal of the path must
   remain within the server-local namespace.

   The server MAY enforce the local permissions on the path, including
   the final component.  If the path cannot be traversed because of
   insufficient permissions, or the parent directory of the junction
   unexecutable or unwritable directory, then the operation MAY fail
   with status FEDFS_ERR_ACCESS.


4.  Security Considerations

   The ONC RPC protocol supports authentication, integrity and privacy
   via the RPCSEC_GSS framework [RFC2203].  Fileservers which support
   the FedFS administration protocol described above MUST support
   RPCSEC_GSS.


5.  IANA Considerations

   A range of ONC RPC program numbers were assigned for use by FedFS
   using the procedure described in Section 7.3 "Program Number
   Assignment" of [RFC5531].  The FedFS range is:

      IETF NFSv4 Working Group - FedFS 100418 - 100421

   This document describes version 1 of the ONC RPC program 100418.


6.  Glossary

   Administrator:  user with the necessary authority to initiate
      administrative tasks on one or more servers.

   Admin entity:  A server or agent that administers a collection of
      fileservers and persistently stores the namespace information.






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   Client:  Any client that accesses the fileserver data using a
      supported filesystem access protocol.

   Federation:  A set of server collections and singleton servers that
      use a common set of interfaces and protocols in order to provide
      to their clients a federated namespace accessible through a
      filesystem access protocol.

   Fileserver:  A server exporting a filesystem via a network filesystem
      access protocol.

   Fileset:  The abstraction of a set of files and their containing
      directory tree.  A fileset is the fundamental unit of data
      management in the federation.

      Note that all files within a fileset are descendants of one
      directory, and that filesets do not span filesystems.

   Filesystem:  A self-contained unit of export for a fileserver, and
      the mechanism used to implement filesets.  The fileset does not
      need to be rooted at the root of the filesystem, nor at the export
      point for the filesystem.

      A single filesystem MAY implement more than one fileset, if the
      client protocol and the fileserver permit this.

   Filesystem access protocol:  A network filesystem access protocol
      such as NFSv2 [RFC1094], NFSv3 [RFC1813], NFSv4 [RFC3530], or
      CIFS.

   FSL (Fileset location):  The location of the implementation of a
      fileset at a particular moment in time.  A FSL MUST be something
      that can be translated into a protocol-specific description of a
      resource that a client can access directly, such as a fs_location
      (for NFSv4), or share name (for CIFS).  Note that not all FSLs
      need to be explicitly exported as long as they are contained
      within an exported path on the fileserver.

   FSN (Fileset name):  A platform-independent and globally unique name
      for a fileset.  Two FSLs that implement replicas of the same
      fileset MUST have the same FSN, and if a fileset is migrated from
      one location to another, the FSN of that fileset MUST remain the
      same.

   Junction:  A filesystem object used to link a directory name in the
      current fileset with an object within another fileset.  The
      server-side "link" from a leaf node in one fileset to the root of
      another fileset.



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   Namespace:  A filename/directory tree that a sufficiently-authorized
      client can observe.

   NSDB (Namespace Database Service):  A service that maps FSNs to FSLs.
      The NSDB may also be used to store other information, such as
      annotations for these mappings and their components.

   NSDB Node:  The name or location of a server that implements part of
      the NSDB service and is responsible for keeping track of the FSLs
      (and related info) that implement a given partition of the FSNs.

   Referral:  A server response to a client access that directs the
      client to evaluate the current object as a reference to an object
      at a different location (specified by an FSL) in another fileset,
      and possibly hosted on another fileserver.  The client re-attempts
      the access to the object at the new location.

   Replica:  A replica is a redundant implementation of a fileset.  Each
      replica shares the same FSN, but has a different FSL.

      Replicas may be used to increase availability or performance.
      Updates to replicas of the same fileset MUST appear to occur in
      the same order, and therefore each replica is self-consistent at
      any moment.

      We do not assume that updates to each replica occur simultaneously
      If a replica is offline or unreachable, the other replicas may be
      updated.

   Server Collection:  A set of fileservers administered as a unit.  A
      server collection may be administered with vendor-specific
      software.

      The namespace provided by a server collection could be part of the
      federated namespace.

   Singleton Server:  A server collection containing only one server; a
      stand-alone fileserver.


7.  References

7.1.  Normative References

   [RFC1094]  Nowicki, B., "NFS: Network File System Protocol
              specification", RFC 1094, March 1989.

   [RFC1813]  Callaghan, B., Pawlowski, B., and P. Staubach, "NFS



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              Version 3 Protocol Specification", RFC 1813, June 1995.

   [RFC2119]  Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
              Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997.

   [RFC2203]  Eisler, M., Chiu, A., and L. Ling, "RPCSEC_GSS Protocol
              Specification", RFC 2203, September 1997.

   [RFC4122]  Leach, P., Mealling, M., and R. Salz, "A Universally
              Unique IDentifier (UUID) URN Namespace", RFC 4122,
              July 2005.

   [RFC4506]  Eisler, M., "XDR: External Data Representation Standard",
              STD 67, RFC 4506, May 2006.

   [RFC5531]  Thurlow, R., "RPC: Remote Procedure Call Protocol
              Specification Version 2", RFC 5531, May 2009.

7.2.  Informational References

   [FEDFS-NSDB]
              J. Lentini, et al., "NSDB Protocol for Federated
              Filesystems (Work In Progress)",
              draft-ietf-nfsv4-federated-fs-admin , 2009.

   [FEDFS-REQTS]
              J. Lentini, et al., "Requirements for Federated File
              Systems (Work In Progress)",
              draft-ietf-nfsv4-federated-fs-reqts , 2008.

   [NFSv4.1]  S. Shepler, et al., "NFS Version 4 Minor Version 1 (Work
              In Progress)", draft-ietf-nfsv4-minorversion1 , 2008.

   [RFC3530]  Shepler, S., Callaghan, B., Robinson, D., Thurlow, R.,
              Beame, C., Eisler, M., and D. Noveck, "Network File System
              (NFS) version 4 Protocol", RFC 3530, April 2003.


Appendix A.  Acknowledgments

   We would like to thank Paul Lemahieu of EMC, Robert Thurlow of Sun
   Microsystems, and Mario Wurzl of EMC for helping to author this
   document.








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Authors' Addresses

   James Lentini
   NetApp
   1601 Trapelo Rd, Suite 16
   Waltham, MA  02451
   US

   Phone: +1 781-768-5359
   Email: jlentini@netapp.com


   Craig Everhart
   NetApp
   7301 Kit Creek Rd
   Research Triangle Park, NC  27709
   US

   Phone: +1 919-476-5320
   Email: everhart@netapp.com


   Daniel Ellard
   BBN Technologies
   10 Moulton Street
   Cambridge, MA  02138
   US

   Phone: +1 617-873-8000
   Email: dellard@bbn.com


   Renu Tewari
   IBM Almaden
   650 Harry Rd
   San Jose, CA  95120
   US

   Email: tewarir@us.ibm.com












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   Manoj Naik
   IBM Almaden
   650 Harry Rd
   San Jose, CA  95120
   US

   Email: manoj@almaden.ibm.com












































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