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In: MissingRef
NFSv4 Working Group                                           J. Lentini
Internet-Draft                                                    NetApp
Intended status: Standards Track                               D. Ellard
Expires: June 15, 2013                         Raytheon BBN Technologies
                                                               R. Tewari
                                                             IBM Almaden
                                                           C. Lever, Ed.
                                                      Oracle Corporation
                                                       December 12, 2012


                NSDB Protocol for Federated Filesystems
               draft-ietf-nfsv4-federated-fs-protocol-15

Abstract

   This document describes a filesystem federation protocol that enables
   file access and namespace traversal across collections of
   independently administered fileservers.  The protocol specifies a set
   of interfaces by which fileservers with different administrators can
   form a fileserver federation that provides a namespace composed of
   the filesystems physically hosted on and exported by the constituent
   fileservers.

Requirements Language

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
   document are to be interpreted as described in [RFC2119].

Status of this Memo

   This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the
   provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.

   Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
   Task Force (IETF).  Note that other groups may also distribute
   working documents as Internet-Drafts.  The list of current Internet-
   Drafts is at http://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/.

   Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
   and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any
   time.  It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
   material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."

   This Internet-Draft will expire on June 15, 2013.

Copyright Notice



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   Copyright (c) 2012 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
   document authors.  All rights reserved.

   This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
   Provisions Relating to IETF Documents
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   publication of this document.  Please review these documents
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   include Simplified BSD License text as described in Section 4.e of
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   This document may contain material from IETF Documents or IETF
   Contributions published or made publicly available before November
   10, 2008.  The person(s) controlling the copyright in some of this
   material may not have granted the IETF Trust the right to allow
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   Without obtaining an adequate license from the person(s) controlling
   the copyright in such materials, this document may not be modified
   outside the IETF Standards Process, and derivative works of it may
   not be created outside the IETF Standards Process, except to format
   it for publication as an RFC or to translate it into languages other
   than English.



























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Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  5
   2.  Overview of Features and Concepts  . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  6
     2.1.  File-access Protocol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  6
     2.2.  File-access Client . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  6
     2.3.  Fileserver . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  6
     2.4.  Referral . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  6
     2.5.  Namespace  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  6
     2.6.  Fileset  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  7
     2.7.  Fileset Name (FSN) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  7
     2.8.  Fileset Location (FSL) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  8
       2.8.1.  The NFS URI scheme . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  9
       2.8.2.  Mutual Consistency across Fileset Locations  . . . . . 10
       2.8.3.  Caching of Fileset Locations . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
       2.8.4.  Generating A Referral from Fileset Locations . . . . . 12
     2.9.  Namespace Database (NSDB)  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
       2.9.1.  NSDB Client  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
     2.10. Junctions and Referrals  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
     2.11. Unified Namespace and the Root Fileset . . . . . . . . . . 15
     2.12. UUID Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
   3.  Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
     3.1.  Creating a Fileset and its FSL(s)  . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
       3.1.1.  Creating a Fileset and an FSN  . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
       3.1.2.  Adding a Replica of a Fileset  . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
     3.2.  Junction Resolution  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
     3.3.  Example Use Cases for Fileset Annotations  . . . . . . . . 18
   4.  NSDB Configuration and Schema  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
     4.1.  LDAP Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
     4.2.  LDAP Schema  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
       4.2.1.  LDAP Attributes  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
       4.2.2.  LDAP Object Classes  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
   5.  NSDB Operations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
     5.1.  NSDB Operations for Administrators . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
       5.1.1.  Create an FSN  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
       5.1.2.  Delete an FSN  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
       5.1.3.  Create an FSL  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
       5.1.4.  Delete an FSL  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
       5.1.5.  Update an FSL  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
     5.2.  NSDB Operations for Fileservers  . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
       5.2.1.  NSDB Container Entry (NCE) Enumeration . . . . . . . . 48
       5.2.2.  Lookup FSLs for an FSN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
     5.3.  NSDB Operations and LDAP Referrals . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
   6.  Security Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
   7.  IANA Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
     7.1.  Registry for the fedfsAnnotation Key Namespace . . . . . . 51
     7.2.  Registry for FedFS Object Identifiers  . . . . . . . . . . 51
     7.3.  LDAP Descriptor Registration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54



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   8.  Glossary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
   9.  References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60
     9.1.  Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60
     9.2.  Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
   Appendix A.  Acknowledgments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62
   Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63













































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1.  Introduction

   A federated filesystem enables file access and namespace traversal in
   a uniform, secure and consistent manner across multiple independent
   fileservers within an enterprise or across multiple enterprises.

   This document specifies a set of protocols that allow fileservers,
   possibly from different vendors and with different administrators, to
   cooperatively form a federation containing one or more federated
   filesystems.  Each federated filesystem's namespace is composed of
   the filesystems physically hosted on and exported by the federation's
   fileservers.  A federation comprises a common namespace across all
   its fileservers.  A federation can project multiple namespaces and
   enable clients to traverse each one.  A federation can contain an
   arbitrary number of namespace repositories, each belonging to a
   different administrative entity, and each rendering a part of the
   namespace.  A federation might also have an arbitrary number of
   administrative entities responsible for administering disjoint
   subsets of the fileservers.

   Traditionally, building a namespace that spans multiple fileservers
   has been difficult for two reasons.  First, the fileservers that
   export pieces of the namespace are often not in the same
   administrative domain.  Second, there is no standard mechanism for
   the fileservers to cooperatively present the namespace.  Fileservers
   may provide proprietary management tools and in some cases an
   administrator may be able to use the proprietary tools to build a
   shared namespace out of the exported filesystems.  However, relying
   on vendor-specific proprietary tools does not work in larger
   enterprises or when collaborating across enterprises because the
   fileservers are likely to be from multiple vendors or use different
   software versions, each with their own namespace protocols, with no
   common mechanism to manage the namespace or exchange namespace
   information.

   The federated filesystem protocols in this document define how to
   construct a namespace accessible by an NFSv4.0 [3530bis], NFSv4.1
   [RFC5661] or newer client and have been designed to accommodate other
   file access protocols in the future.

   The requirements for federated filesystems are described in
   [RFC5716].  A protocol for administering a fileserver's namespace is
   described in [FEDFS-ADMIN].  The mechanism for discovering the root
   of a federated namespace is described in [RFC6641].

   In the rest of the document, the term fileserver denotes a fileserver
   that is part of a federation.




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2.  Overview of Features and Concepts

2.1.  File-access Protocol

   A file-access protocol is a network protocol for accessing data.  The
   NFSv4.0 protocol [3530bis] is an example of a file-access protocol.

2.2.  File-access Client

   File-access clients are standard off-the-shelf network attached
   storage (NAS) clients that communicate with fileservers using a
   standard file-access protocol.

2.3.  Fileserver

   Fileservers are servers that store physical fileset data, or refer
   file-access clients to other fileservers.  A fileserver provides
   access to its shared filesystem data via a file-access protocol.  A
   fileserver may be implemented in a number of different ways,
   including a single system, a cluster of systems, or some other
   configuration.

2.4.  Referral

   A referral is a mechanism by which a fileserver redirects a file-
   access client to a different fileserver or export.  The exact
   information contained in a referral varies from one file-access
   protocol to another.  The NFSv4.0 protocol, for example, defines the
   fs_locations attribute for returning referral information to NFSv4.0
   clients.  The NFSv4.1 protocol introduces the fs_locations_info
   attribute that can return richer referral information to its clients.
   NFSv4.1 fileservers may use either attribute during a referral.  Both
   attributes are defined in [RFC5661].

2.5.  Namespace

   The goal of a unified namespace is to make all managed data available
   to any file-access client via the same path in a common filesystem
   namespace.  This should be achieved with minimal or zero
   configuration on file-access clients.  In particular, updates to the
   common namespace should not require configuration changes to any
   file-access client.

   Filesets, which are the unit of data management, are a set of files
   and directories.  From the perspective of file-access clients, the
   common namespace is constructed by mounting filesets that are
   physically located on different fileservers.  The namespace, which is
   defined in terms of fileset names and locations, is stored in a set



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   of namespace repositories, each managed by an administrative entity.

   The namespace schema defines the model used for populating,
   modifying, and querying the namespace repositories.  It is not
   required by the federation that the namespace be common across all
   fileservers.  It should be possible to have several independently
   rooted namespaces.

2.6.  Fileset

   A fileset is loosely defined as a set of files and the directory tree
   that contains them.  The fileset abstraction is the basic unit of
   data management.  Depending on the configuration, a fileset may be
   anything from an individual directory of an exported filesystem to an
   entire exported filesystem on a fileserver.

2.7.  Fileset Name (FSN)

   A fileset is uniquely represented by its fileset name (FSN).  An FSN
   is considered unique across a federation.  After an FSN is created,
   it is associated with one or more fileset locations (FSLs) on one or
   more fileservers.

   An FSN consists of:

      NsdbName:  the network location of the Namespace Database (NSDB)
         node that contains authoritative information for this FSN.

      FsnUuid:  a UUID (universally unique identifier), conforming to
         [RFC4122], that is used to uniquely identify an FSN.

      FsnTTL:  the time-to-live of the FSN's FSL information, in
         seconds.  Fileservers MUST NOT use cached FSL records after the
         parent FSN's FsnTTL has expired.  An FsnTTL value of zero
         indicates that fileservers MUST NOT cache the results of
         resolving this FSN.

   The NsdbName is not physically stored as an attribute of the record.
   The NsdbName is obvious to any client that accesses an NSDB, and is
   indeed authenticated in cases where TLS security is in effect.

   The FsnUuid and NsdbName values never change during an FSN's
   lifetime.  However, an FSN's FSL information can change over time,
   and is typically cached on fileservers for performance.  More detail
   on FSL caching is provided in Section 2.8.3.

   An FSN record may also contain:




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      Annotations:  name/value pairs that can be interpreted by a
         fileserver.  The semantics of this field are not defined by
         this document.  These tuples are intended to be used by higher-
         level protocols.

      Descriptions:  text descriptions.  The semantics of this field are
         not defined by this document.

2.8.  Fileset Location (FSL)

   An FSL describes one physical location where a complete copy of the
   fileset's data resides.  An FSL contains generic and type specific
   information which together describe how to access the fileset data at
   this location.  An FSL's attributes can be used by a fileserver to
   decide which locations it will return to a file-access client.

   An FSL consists of:

      FslUuid:  a UUID, conforming to [RFC4122], that is used to
         uniquely identify an FSL.

      FsnUuid:  the UUID of the FSL's FSN.

      NsdbName:  the network location of the NSDB node that contains
         authoritative information for this FSL.

   The NsdbName is not stored as an attribute of an FSL record for the
   same reason it is not stored in FSN records.

   An FSL record may also contain:

      Annotations:  name/value pairs that can be interpreted by a
         fileserver.  The semantics of this field are not defined by
         this document.  These tuples are intended to be used by higher-
         level protocols.

      Descriptions:  text descriptions.  The semantics of this field are
         not defined by this document.

   In addition to the attributes defined above, an FSL record contains
   attributes that allow a fileserver to construct referrals.  For each
   file-access protocol, a corresponding FSL record subtype is defined.

   This document defines an FSL subtype for NFS.  An NFS FSL contains
   information suitable for use in one of the NFSv4 referral attributes
   (e.g., fs_locations or fs_locations_info, described in [RFC5661]).
   Section 4.2.2.4 describes the contents of an NFS FSL record.




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   A fileset also may be accessible by file-access protocols other than
   NFS.  The contents and format of such FSL subtypes are not defined in
   this document.

2.8.1.  The NFS URI scheme

   To capture the location of an NFSv4 fileset, we extend the NFS URL
   scheme specified in [RFC2224].  This extension follows rules for
   defining Uniform Resource Identifier schemes (see [RFC3986]).  In the
   following text, we refer to this extended NFS URL scheme as an NFS
   URI.

   An NFS URI MUST contain both an authority and a path component.  It
   MUST NOT contain a query component or a fragment component.  Use of
   the familiar "nfs" scheme name is retained.

2.8.1.1.  The NFS URI authority component

   The rules for encoding the authority component of a generic URI are
   specified in section 3.2 of [RFC3986].  The authority component of an
   NFS URI MUST contain the host subcomponent.  For globally-scoped NFS
   URIs, a hostname used in such URIs SHOULD be a fully qualified domain
   name.  See section 3.2.2 of [RFC3986] for rules on encoding non-ASCII
   characters in hostnames.

   An NFS URI MAY contain a port subcomponent as described in section
   3.2.3 of [RFC3986].  If this subcomponent is missing, a port value of
   2049 is assumed, as specified in [3530bis], Section 3.1.

2.8.1.2.  The NFS URI path component

   The rules for encoding the path component of a generic URI are
   specified in section 3.3 of [RFC3986].

   According to sections 5 and 6 of [RFC2224], NFS URLs specify a
   pathname relative to an NFS fileserver's "public filehandle."
   However, NFSv4 fileservers do not expose a "public filehandle."
   Instead, NFSv4 pathnames contained in an NFS URI are evaluated
   relative to the pseudoroot of the fileserver identified in the URI's
   authority component.

   Each component of an NFSv4 pathname is represented as a component4
   string (see Section 3.2, "Basic Data Types" of [RFC5661]).  The
   component4 elements of an NFSv4 pathname are encoded as path segments
   in an NFS URI.  NFSv4 pathnames MUST be expressed in an NFS URI as an
   absolute path.  An NFS URI path component MUST NOT be empty.  The NFS
   URI path component starts with a slash ("/") character, followed by
   one or more path segments which each start with a slash ("/")



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   character [RFC3986].

   Therefore, a double slash always follows the authority component of
   an NFS URI.  For example, the NFSv4 pathname "/" is represented by
   two slash ("/") characters following an NFS URI's authority
   component.

   The component4 elements of an NFSv4 pathname MUST be prepared using
   the component4 rules defined in Chapter 12 "Internationalization" of
   [3530bis] prior to encoding the path component of an NFS URI.  As
   specified in [RFC3986], any non-ASCII characters and any URI-reserved
   characters, such as the slash ("/") character, contained in a
   component4 element MUST be represented by URI percent encoding.

2.8.1.3.  Encoding an NFS location in an FSL

   The path component of an NFS URI encodes the "rootpath" field of the
   NFSv4 fs_location4 data type or the "fli_rootpath" of the NFSv4
   fs_locations_item4 data type (see [RFC5661]).

   In its "server" field, the NFSv4 fs_location4 data type contains a
   list of universal addresses and DNS labels.  Each may optionally
   include a port number.  The exact encoding requirements for this
   information is found in Section 12.6 of [3530bis].  The NFSv4
   fs_locations_item4 data type encodes the same data in its
   "fli_entries" field (see [RFC5661]).  This information is encoded in
   the authority component of an NFS URI.

   The "server" and "fli_entries" fields can encode multiple server
   hostnames that share the same pathname.  An NFS URI, and hence an FSL
   record, represents only a single hostname and pathname pair.  An NFS
   fileserver MUST NOT combine a set of FSL records into a single
   fs_location4 or fs_locations_item4 unless each FSL record in the set
   contains the same rootpath value and extended filesystem information.

2.8.2.  Mutual Consistency across Fileset Locations

   All of the FSLs that have the same FSN (and thereby reference the
   same fileset) are equivalent from the point of view of access by a
   file-access client.  Different fileset locations for an FSN represent
   the same data, though potentially at different points in time.
   Fileset locations are equivalent but not identical.  Locations may
   either be read-only or read-write.  Typically, multiple read-write
   locations are backed by a clustered filesystem while read-only
   locations are replicas created by a federation-initiated or external
   replication operation.  Read-only locations may represent consistent
   point-in-time copies of a read-write location.  The federation
   protocols, however, cannot prevent subsequent changes to a read-only



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   location nor guarantee point-in-time consistency of a read-only
   location if the read-write location is changing.

   Regardless of the type, one file-access client may be referred to a
   location described by one FSL while another client chooses to use a
   location described by another FSL.  Since updates to each fileset
   location are not controlled by the federation protocol, it is the
   responsibility of administrators to guarantee the functional
   equivalence of the data.

   The federation protocols do not guarantee that different fileset
   locations are mutually consistent in terms of the currency of their
   data.  However, they provide a means to publish currency information
   so that all fileservers in a federation can convey the same
   information to file-access clients during referrals.  Clients use
   this information to ensure they do not revert to an out-of-date
   version of a fileset's data when switching between fileset locations.
   NFSv4.1 provides guidance on how replication can be handled in such a
   manner.  In particular see Section 11.7 of [RFC5661].

2.8.3.  Caching of Fileset Locations

   To resolve an FSN to a set of FSL records, a fileserver queries the
   NSDB node named in the FSN for FSL records associated with this FSN.
   The parent FSN's FsnTTL attribute (see Section 2.7) specifies the
   period of time during which a fileserver may cache these FSL records.

   The combination of FSL caching and FSL migration presents a
   challenge.  For example, suppose there are three fileservers named A,
   B, and C. Suppose further that fileserver A contains a junction J to
   fileset X stored on fileserver B (see Section 2.10 for a description
   of junctions).

   Now suppose that fileset X is migrated from fileserver B to
   fileserver C, and the corresponding FSL information for fileset X in
   the authoritative NSDB is updated.

   If fileserver A has cached FSLs for fileset X, a file-access client
   traversing junction J on fileserver A will be referred to fileserver
   B, even though fileset X has migrated to fileserver C. If fileserver
   A had not cached the FSL records, it would have queried the NSDB and
   obtained the correct location of fileset X.

   Typically, the process of fileset migration leaves a redirection on
   the source fileserver in place of a migrated fileset (without such a
   redirection, file-access clients would find an empty space where the
   migrated fileset was, which defeats the purpose of a managed
   migration).



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   This redirection might be a new junction that targets the same FSN as
   other junctions referring to the migrated fileset, or it might be
   some other kind of directive, depending on the fileserver
   implementation, that simply refers file-access clients to the new
   location of the migrated fileset.

   Back to our example.  Suppose, as part of the migration process, a
   junction replaces fileset X on fileserver B. Later, either:

   o  New file-access clients are referred to fileserver B by stale FSL
      information cached on fileserver A, or

   o  File-access clients continue to access fileserver B because they
      cache stale location data for fileset X.

   In either case, thanks to the redirection, file-access clients are
   informed by fileserver B that fileset X has moved to fileserver C.

   Such redirecting junctions (here, on fileserver B) would not be
   required to be in place forever.  They need to stay in place at least
   until FSL entries cached on fileservers and locations cached on file-
   access clients for the target fileset are invalidated.

   The FsnTTL field in the FSL's parent FSN (see Section 2.7) specifies
   an upper bound for the lifetime of cached FSL information, and thus
   can act as a lower bound for the lifetime of redirecting junctions.

   For example, suppose the FsnTTL field contains the value 3600 seconds
   (one hour).  In such a case, administrators SHOULD keep the
   redirection in place for at least one hour after a fileset migration
   has taken place, because a referring fileserver might cache the FSL
   data during that time before refreshing it.

   To get file-access clients to access the destination fileserver more
   quickly, administrators SHOULD set the FsnTTL field of the migrated
   fileset to a low number or zero before migration begins.  It can be
   reset to a more reasonable number at a later point.

   Note that some file-access protocols do not communicate location
   cache expiry information to file-access clients.  In some cases it
   may be difficult to determine an appropriate lifetime for redirecting
   junctions because file-access clients may cache location information
   indefinitely.

2.8.4.  Generating A Referral from Fileset Locations

   After resolving an FSN to a set of FSL records, the fileserver
   generates a referral to redirect a file-access client to one or more



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   of the FSN's FSLs.  The fileserver converts the FSL records to a
   referral format understood by a particular file-access client, such
   as an NFSv4 fs_locations or fs_locations_info attribute.

   To give file-access clients as many options as possible, the
   fileserver SHOULD include the maximum possible number of FSL records
   in a referral.  However, the fileserver MAY omit some of the FSL
   records from the referral.  For example, the fileserver might omit an
   FSL record because of limitations in the file access protocol's
   referral format.

   For a given FSL record, the fileserver MAY convert or reduce the FSL
   record's contents in a manner appropriate to the referral format.
   For example, an NFS FSL record contains all the data necessary to
   construct an fs_locations_info attribute, but an fs_locations_info
   attribute contains several pieces of information that are not found
   in the simpler fs_locations attribute.  A fileserver constructs
   entries in an fs_locations attribute using the relevant contents of
   an NFS FSL record.

   Whenever the fileserver converts or reduces FSL data, the fileserver
   SHOULD attempt to maintain the original meaning where possible.  For
   example, an NFS FSL record contains the rank and order information
   that is included in an fs_locations_info attribute (see NFSv4.1's
   FSLI4BX_READRANK, FSLI4BX_READORDER, FSLI4BX_WRITERANK, and
   FSLI4BX_WRITEORDER).  While this rank and order information is not
   explicitly expressible in an fs_locations attribute, the fileserver
   can arrange the fs_locations attribute's locations list based on the
   rank and order values.

   Another example: A single NFS FSL record contains the hostname of one
   fileserver.  A single fs_locations attribute can contain a list of
   fileserver names.  An NFS fileserver MAY combine two or more FSL
   records into a single entry in an fs_locations or fs_locations_info
   array only if each FSL record contains the same pathname and extended
   filesystem information.

   Refer to the NFSv4.1 protocol specification [RFC5661], sections 11.9
   and 11.10, for further details.

2.9.  Namespace Database (NSDB)

   The NSDB service is a federation-wide service that provides
   interfaces to define, update, and query FSN information, FSL
   information, and FSN to FSL mapping information.

   An individual repository of namespace information is called an NSDB
   node.  The difference between the NSDB service and an NSDB node is



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   analogous to that between the DNS service and a particular DNS
   server.

   Each NSDB node is managed by a single administrative entity.  A
   single administrative entity can manage multiple NSDB nodes.

   Each NSDB node stores the definition of the FSNs for which it is
   authoritative.  It also stores the definitions of the FSLs associated
   with those FSNs.  An NSDB node is authoritative for the filesets that
   it defines.

   An NSDB MAY be replicated throughout the federation.  If an NSDB is
   replicated, the NSDB MUST exhibit loose, converging consistency as
   defined in [RFC3254].  The mechanism by which this is achieved is
   outside the scope of this document.  Many LDAP implementations
   support replication.  These features MAY be used to replicate the
   NSDB.

2.9.1.  NSDB Client

   Each NSDB node supports an LDAP [RFC4510] interface.  An NSDB client
   is software that uses the LDAP protocol to access or update namespace
   information stored on an NSDB node.  Details of these transactions
   are discussed in Section 4.

   A domain's administrative entity uses NSDB client software to manage
   information stored on NSDB nodes.

   Fileservers act as an NSDB client when contacting a particular NSDB
   node to resolve an FSN to a set of FSL records.  The resulting
   location information is then transferred to file-access clients via
   referrals.  Therefore file-access clients never have need to access
   NSDBs directly.

2.10.  Junctions and Referrals

   A junction is a point in a particular fileset namespace where a
   specific target fileset may be attached.  If a file-access client
   traverses the path leading from the root of a federated namespace to
   the junction referring to a target fileset, it should be able to
   mount and access the data in that target fileset (assuming
   appropriate permissions).  In other words, a junction can be viewed
   as a reference from a directory in one fileset to the root of the
   target fileset.

   A junction can be implemented as a special marker on a directory, or
   by some other mechanism in the fileserver's underlying filesystem.
   What data is used by the fileserver to represent junctions is not



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   defined by this document.  The essential property is that given a
   junction, a fileserver must be able to find the FSN for the target
   fileset.

   When a file-access client reaches a junction, the fileserver refers
   the client to a list of FSLs associated with the FSN targeted by the
   junction.  The client can then mount one of the associated FSLs.

   The federation protocols do not limit where and how many times a
   fileset is mounted in the namespace.  Filesets can be nested; a
   fileset can be mounted under another fileset.

2.11.  Unified Namespace and the Root Fileset

   The root fileset, when defined, is the top-level fileset of the
   federation-wide namespace.  The root of the unified namespace is the
   top level directory of this fileset.  A set of designated fileservers
   in the federation can export the root fileset to render the
   federation-wide unified namespace.  When a file-access client mounts
   the root fileset from any of these designated fileservers it can view
   a common federation-wide namespace.

2.12.  UUID Considerations

   To ensure FSN and FSL records are unique across a domain, FedFS
   employs UUIDs conforming to [RFC4122] to form the distinguished names
   of LDAP records containing FedFS data (see Section 4.2.2.2).

   Because junctions store a tuple containing an FSN UUID and the name
   and port of an NSDB node, an FSN UUID must be unique only on a single
   NSDB node.  An FSN UUID collision can be detected immediately when an
   administrator attempts to publish an FSN or FSL by storing it under a
   specific NSDB Container Entry (NCE) on an authoritative NSDB host.

   Note that one NSDB node may store multiple NCEs, each under a
   different namingContext.  If an NSDB node must contain more than one
   NCE, the federation's admin entity SHOULD provide a robust method for
   preventing FSN UUID collisions between FSNs that reside on the same
   NSDB node but under different NCEs.

   Because FSLs are children of FSNs, FSL UUIDs must be unique for just
   a single FSN.  As with FSNs, as soon as an FSL is published, its
   uniqueness is guaranteed.

   A fileserver performs the operations described in Section 5.2 as an
   unauthenticated user.  Thus distinguished names of FSN and FSL
   records, as well as the FSN and FSL records themselves, are required
   to be readable by anyone who can bind anonymously to an NSDB node.



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   Therefore FSN and FSL UUIDs should be considered public information.

   Version 1 UUIDs contain a host's MAC address and a time stamp in the
   clear.  This gives provenance to each UUID, but attackers can use
   such details to guess information about the host where the UUID was
   generated.  Security-sensitive installations should be aware that on
   externally-facing NSDBs, UUIDs can reveal information about the hosts
   where they are generated.

   In addition, version 1 UUIDs depend on the notion that a hardware MAC
   address is unique across machines.  As virtual machines do not depend
   on unique physical MAC addresses and in any event an administrator
   can modify the physical MAC address, version 1 UUIDs are no longer
   considered sufficient.

   To minimize the probability of UUIDs colliding, a consistent
   procedure for generating UUIDs should be used throughout a
   federation.  Within a federation, UUIDs SHOULD be generated using the
   procedure described for version 4 of the UUID variant specified in
   [RFC4122].


3.  Examples

   In this section we provide examples and discussion of the basic
   operations facilitated by the federated filesystem protocol: creating
   a fileset, adding a replica of a fileset, resolving a junction, and
   creating a junction.

3.1.  Creating a Fileset and its FSL(s)

   A fileset is the abstraction of a set of files and the directory tree
   that contains them.  The fileset abstraction is the fundamental unit
   of data management in the federation.  This abstraction is
   implemented by an actual directory tree whose root location is
   specified by a fileset location (FSL).

   In this section, we describe the basic requirements for starting with
   a directory tree and creating a fileset that can be used in the
   federation protocols.  Note that we do not assume that the process of
   creating a fileset requires any transformation of the files or the
   directory hierarchy.  The only thing that is required by this process
   is assigning the fileset a fileset name (FSN) and expressing the
   location of the implementation of the fileset as an FSL.

   There are many possible variations to this procedure, depending on
   how the FSN that binds the FSL is created, and whether other replicas
   of the fileset exist, are known to the federation, and need to be



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   bound to the same FSN.

   It is easiest to describe this in terms of how to create the initial
   implementation of the fileset, and then describe how to add replicas.

3.1.1.  Creating a Fileset and an FSN

   1.  Choose the NSDB node that will keep track of the FSL(s) and
       related information for the fileset.

   2.  Create an FSN in the NSDB node.

       The FSN UUID is chosen by the administrator or generated
       automatically by administration software.  The former case is
       used if the fileset is being restored, perhaps as part of
       disaster recovery, and the administrator wishes to specify the
       FSN UUID in order to permit existing junctions that reference
       that FSN to work again.

       At this point, the FSN exists, but its fileset locations are
       unspecified.

   3.  For the FSN created above, create an FSL in the NSDB node that
       describes the physical location of the fileset data.

3.1.2.  Adding a Replica of a Fileset

   Adding a replica is straightforward: the NSDB node and the FSN are
   already known.  The only remaining step is to add another FSL.

   Note that the federation protocols provide only the mechanisms to
   register and unregister replicas of a fileset.  Fileserver-to-
   fileserver replication protocols are not defined.

3.2.  Junction Resolution

   A fileset may contain references to other filesets.  These references
   are represented by junctions.  If a file-access client requests
   access to a fileset object that is a junction, the fileserver
   resolves the junction to discover one or more FSLs that implement the
   referenced fileset.

   There are many possible variations to this procedure, depending on
   how the junctions are represented by the fileserver and how the
   fileserver performs junction resolution.

   Step 4 is the only step that interacts directly with the federation
   protocols.  The rest of the steps may use platform-specific



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   interfaces.

   1.  The fileserver determines that the object being accessed is a
       junction.

   2.  The fileserver does a local lookup to find the FSN of the target
       fileset.

   3.  Using the FSN, the fileserver finds the NSDB node responsible for
       the target FSN.

   4.  The fileserver contacts that NSDB node and asks for the set of
       FSLs that implement the target FSN.  The NSDB node responds with
       a (possibly empty) set of FSLs.

   5.  The fileserver converts one or more of the FSLs to the location
       type used by the file-access client (e.g., an NFSv4 fs_locations
       attribute as described in [RFC5661]).

   6.  The fileserver redirects (in whatever manner is appropriate for
       the client) the client to the location(s).

3.3.  Example Use Cases for Fileset Annotations

   Fileset annotations can convey additional attributes of a fileset.
   For example, fileset annotations can be used to define relationships
   between filesets that can be used by an auxiliary replication
   protocol.  Consider the scenario where a fileset is created and
   mounted at some point in the namespace.  A snapshot of the read-write
   FSL of that fileset is taken periodically at different frequencies
   (say, a daily or weekly snapshot).  The different snapshots are
   mounted at different locations in the namespace.

   The daily snapshots are considered as different filesets from the
   weekly ones, but both are related to the source fileset.  We can
   define an annotation labeling the filesets as source and replica.
   The replication protocol can use this information to copy data from
   one or more FSLs of the source fileset to all the FSLs of the replica
   fileset.  The replica filesets are read-only while the source fileset
   is read-write.

   This follows the traditional Andrew File System (AFS) model of
   mounting the read-only volume at a path in the namespace different
   from that of the read-write volume [AFS].

   The federation protocol does not control or manage the relationship
   among filesets.  It merely enables annotating the filesets with user-
   defined relationships.



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   Another potential use for annotations is recording references to an
   FSN.  A single annotation containing the number of references could
   be defined; or multiple annotations, one per reference, could be used
   to store detailed information on the location of each reference.

   As with the replication annotation described above, the maintenance
   of reference information would not be controlled by the federation
   protocol.  The information would most likely be non-authoritative
   because the ability to create a junction does not require the
   authority to update the FSN record.  In any event, such annotations
   could be useful to administrators for determining if an FSN is
   referenced by a junction.


4.  NSDB Configuration and Schema

   This section describes how an NSDB is constructed using an LDAP
   Version 3 [RFC4510] Directory.  Section 4.1 describes the basic
   properties of the LDAP configuration that MUST be used in order to
   ensure compatibility between different implementations.  Section 4.2
   defines the new LDAP attribute types, the new object types, and
   specifies how the distinguished name (DN) of each object instance
   MUST be constructed.

4.1.  LDAP Configuration

   An NSDB is constructed using an LDAP Directory.  This LDAP Directory
   MAY have multiple naming contexts.  The LDAP Directory's DSA-specific
   entry (its rootDSE) has a multi-valued namingContext attribute.  Each
   value of the namingContext attribute is the DN of a naming context's
   root entry (see [RFC4512]).

   For each naming context that contains federation entries (e.g., FSNs
   and FSLs):

   1.  There MUST be an LDAP entry that is superior to all of the naming
       context's federation entries in the Directory Information Tree
       (DIT).  This entry is termed the NSDB Container Entry (NCE).  The
       NCE's children are FSNs.  An FSN's children are FSLs.

   2.  The naming context's root entry MUST include the
       fedfsNsdbContainerInfo (defined below) as one of its object
       classes.  The fedfsNsdbContainerInfo's fedfsNceDN attribute is
       used to locate the naming context's NCE.

   If a naming context does not contain federation entries, it will not
   contain an NCE and its root entry will not include a
   fedfsNsdbContainerInfo as one of its object classes.



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   A fedfsNsdbContainerInfo's fedfsNceDN attribute contains the
   Distinguished Name (DN) of the NSDB Container Entry residing under
   this naming context.  The fedfsNceDN attribute MUST NOT be empty.

   For example, an LDAP directory might have the following entries:

           -+ [root DSE]
            |  namingContext: o=fedfs
            |  namingContext: dc=example,dc=com
            |  namingContext: ou=system
            |
            |
            +---- [o=fedfs]
            |      fedfsNceDN: o=fedfs
            |
            |
            +---- [dc=example,dc=com]
            |      fedfsNceDN: ou=fedfs,ou=corp-it,dc=example,dc=com
            |
            |
            +---- [ou=system]

   In this case, the o=fedfs namingContext has an NSDB Container Entry
   at o=fedfs, the dc=example,dc=com namingContext has an NSDB Container
   Entry at ou=fedfs,ou=corp-it,dc=example,dc=com, and the ou=system
   namingContext has no NSDB Container Entry.

   The NSDB SHOULD be configured with one or more privileged LDAP users.
   These users are able to modify the contents of the LDAP database.  An
   administrator that performs the operations described in Section 5.1
   SHOULD authenticate using the DN of a privileged LDAP user.

   It MUST be possible for an unprivileged (unauthenticated) user to
   perform LDAP queries that access the NSDB data.  A fileserver
   performs the operations described in Section 5.2 as an unprivileged
   user.

   All implementations SHOULD use the same schema.  At minimum, each
   MUST use a schema that includes all objects named in the following
   sections, with all associated attributes.  If it is necessary for an
   implementation to extend the schema defined here, consider using one
   of the following ways to extend the schema:

   o  Define a fedfsAnnotation key and values (see Section 4.2.1.6).
      Register the new key and values with IANA (see Section 7.1).

   o  Define additional attribute types and object classes, then have
      entries inherit from a class defined in this document and from the



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      implementation-defined ones.

   Given the above configuration guidelines, an NSDB SHOULD be
   constructed using a dedicated LDAP server.  If LDAP directories are
   needed for other purposes, such as to store user account information,
   use of a separate LDAP server for those is RECOMMENDED.  By using an
   LDAP server dedicated to storing NSDB records, there is no need to
   disturb the configuration of any other LDAP directories that store
   information unrelated to an NSDB.

4.2.  LDAP Schema

   The schema definitions provided in this document use the LDAP schema
   syntax defined in [RFC4512].  The definitions are formatted to allow
   the reader to easily extract them from the document.  The reader can
   use the following shell script to extract the definitions:


           <CODE BEGINS>

           #!/bin/sh
           grep '^ *///' | sed 's?^ */// ??' | sed 's?^ *///$??'

           <CODE ENDS>


   If the above script is stored in a file called "extract.sh", and this
   document is in a file called "spec.txt", then the reader can do:


           <CODE BEGINS>

           sh extract.sh < spec.txt > fedfs.schema

           <CODE ENDS>


   The effect of the script is to remove leading white space from each
   line, plus a sentinel sequence of "///".

   Code components extracted from this document must include the
   following license:

   <CODE BEGINS>







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     /// #
     /// # Copyright (c) 2010-2012 IETF Trust and the persons identified
     /// # as authors of the code.  All rights reserved.
     /// #
     /// # The authors of the code are the authors of
     /// # [draft-ietf-nfsv4-federated-fs-protocol-xx.txt]: J. Lentini,
     /// # C. Everhart, D. Ellard, R. Tewari, and M. Naik.
     /// #
     /// # Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with
     /// # or without modification, are permitted provided that the
     /// # following conditions are met:
     /// #
     /// # - Redistributions of source code must retain the above
     /// #   copyright notice, this list of conditions and the
     /// #   following disclaimer.
     /// #
     /// # - Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above
     /// #   copyright notice, this list of conditions and the
     /// #   following disclaimer in the documentation and/or other
     /// #   materials provided with the distribution.
     /// #
     /// # - Neither the name of Internet Society, IETF or IETF
     /// #   Trust, nor the names of specific contributors, may be
     /// #   used to endorse or promote products derived from this
     /// #   software without specific prior written permission.
     /// #
     /// #   THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE COPYRIGHT HOLDERS
     /// #   AND CONTRIBUTORS "AS IS" AND ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED
     /// #   WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE
     /// #   IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS
     /// #   FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE ARE DISCLAIMED.  IN NO
     /// #   EVENT SHALL THE COPYRIGHT OWNER OR CONTRIBUTORS BE
     /// #   LIABLE FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL,
     /// #   EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT
     /// #   NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS OR
     /// #   SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS
     /// #   INTERRUPTION) HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF
     /// #   LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT LIABILITY,
     /// #   OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING
     /// #   IN ANY WAY OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF
     /// #   ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGE.
     /// #


   <CODE ENDS>






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4.2.1.  LDAP Attributes

   The following definitions are used below:

   o  The "name" attribute described in [RFC4519].

   o  The Integer syntax (1.3.6.1.4.1.1466.115.121.1.27) described in
      [RFC4517].

   o  The "integerMatch" rule described in [RFC4517].

   o  The Octet String syntax (1.3.6.1.4.1.1466.115.121.1.40) described
      in [RFC4517].

   o  The "octetStringMatch" rule described in [RFC4517].

   o  The Boolean syntax (1.3.6.1.4.1.1466.115.121.1.7) described in
      [RFC4517].

   o  The "booleanMatch" rule described in [RFC4517].

   o  The "distinguishedNameMatch" rule described in [RFC4517].

   o  The DN syntax (1.3.6.1.4.1.1466.115.121.1.12) described in
      [RFC4517].

   o  The "labeledURI" attribute described in [RFC2079].

   o  The UUID syntax (1.3.6.1.1.16.1) described in [RFC4530].

   o  The UuidMatch rule described in [RFC4530].

   o  The UuidOrderingMatch rule described in [RFC4530].

4.2.1.1.  fedfsUuid

   A fedfsUuid is the base type for all of the universally unique
   identifiers (UUIDs) used by the federated filesystem protocols.

   The fedfsUuid type is based on rules and syntax defined in [RFC4530].

   A fedfsUuid is a single-valued LDAP attribute.

   <CODE BEGINS>







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           ///
           /// attributetype (
           ///     1.3.6.1.4.1.31103.1.1 NAME 'fedfsUuid'
           ///     DESC 'A UUID used by NSDB'
           ///     EQUALITY uuidMatch
           ///     ORDERING uuidOrderingMatch
           ///     SYNTAX 1.3.6.1.1.16.1
           ///     SINGLE-VALUE
           ///     )
           ///

   <CODE ENDS>

4.2.1.2.  fedfsFsnUuid

   A fedfsFsnUuid represents the UUID component of an FSN.  An NSDB
   SHOULD ensure that no two FSNs it stores have the same fedfsFsnUuid.

   This attribute is single-valued.

   <CODE BEGINS>

           ///
           /// attributetype (
           ///     1.3.6.1.4.1.31103.1.4 NAME 'fedfsFsnUuid'
           ///     DESC 'The FSN UUID component of an FSN'
           ///     SUP fedfsUuid
           ///     SINGLE-VALUE
           ///     )
           ///

   <CODE ENDS>

4.2.1.3.  fedfsFsnTTL

   A fedfsFsnTTL is the time-to-live in seconds of a cached FSN and its
   child FSL records.  It corresponds to the FsnTTL as defined in
   Section 2.7.  See also Section Section 2.8.3 for information about
   caching FSLs.  A fedfsFsnTTL MUST be encoded as an Integer syntax
   value [RFC4517] in the range [0, 4294967295].

   This attribute is single-valued.

   <CODE BEGINS>







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           ///
           /// attributetype (
           ///     1.3.6.1.4.1.31103.1.11 NAME 'fedfsFsnTTL'
           ///     DESC 'Time to live of an FSN tree'
           ///     EQUALITY integerMatch
           ///     SYNTAX 1.3.6.1.4.1.1466.115.121.1.27
           ///     SINGLE-VALUE
           ///     )
           ///

   <CODE ENDS>

   OID 1.3.6.1.4.1.1466.115.121.1.27 is the Integer syntax [RFC4517].

4.2.1.4.  fedfsNceDN

   A fedfsNceDN stores a distinguished name (DN).

   This attribute is single-valued.

   <CODE BEGINS>

           ///
           /// attributetype (
           ///     1.3.6.1.4.1.31103.1.14 NAME 'fedfsNceDN'
           ///     DESC 'NCE Distinguished Name'
           ///     EQUALITY distinguishedNameMatch
           ///     SYNTAX 1.3.6.1.4.1.1466.115.121.1.12
           ///     SINGLE-VALUE
           ///     )
           ///

   <CODE ENDS>

   OID 1.3.6.1.4.1.1466.115.121.1.12 is the DN syntax [RFC4517].

4.2.1.5.  fedfsFslUuid

   A fedfsFslUuid represents the UUID of an FSL.  An NSDB SHOULD ensure
   that no two FSLs it stores have the same fedfsFslUuid.

   This attribute is single-valued.

   <CODE BEGINS>







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           ///
           /// attributetype (
           ///     1.3.6.1.4.1.31103.1.8 NAME 'fedfsFslUuid'
           ///     DESC 'UUID of an FSL'
           ///     SUP fedfsUuid
           ///     SINGLE-VALUE
           ///     )
           ///

   <CODE ENDS>

4.2.1.6.  fedfsAnnotation

   A fedfsAnnotation contains an object annotation formatted as a key/
   value pair.

   This attribute is multi-valued; an object type that permits
   annotations may have any number of annotations per instance.

   A fedfsAnnotation attribute is a human-readable sequence of UTF-8
   characters with no non-terminal NUL characters.  The value MUST be
   formatted according to the following ABNF [RFC5234] rules:

      ANNOTATION = KEY "=" VALUE
      KEY = ITEM
      VALUE = ITEM
      ITEM = *WSP DQUOTE UTF8-octets DQUOTE *WSP

   DQUOTE and WSP are defined in [RFC5234], and UTF8-octets is defined
   in [RFC3629].

   The following escape sequences are allowed:

                     +-----------------+-------------+
                     | escape sequence | replacement |
                     +-----------------+-------------+
                     |        \\       |      \      |
                     |        \"       |      "      |
                     +-----------------+-------------+

   A fedfsAnnotation value might be processed as follows:

   1.  Parse the attribute value according to the ANNOTATION rule,
       ignoring the escape sequences above.

   2.  Scan through results of the previous step and replace the escape
       sequences above.




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   A fedfsAnnotation attribute that does not adhere to this format
   SHOULD be ignored in its entirety.  It MUST NOT prevent further
   processing of its containing entry.

   The following are examples of valid fedfsAnnotation attributes:

            "key1" = "foo"
            "another key" = "x=3"
            "key-2" = "A string with \" and \\ characters."
            "key3"="bar"

   which correspond to the following key/value pairs:

            +-------------+-----------------------------------+
            |     key     |               value               |
            +-------------+-----------------------------------+
            |     key1    |                foo                |
            | another key |                x=3                |
            |    key-2    | A string with " and \ characters. |
            |     key3    |                bar                |
            +-------------+-----------------------------------+

   <CODE BEGINS>

           ///
           /// attributetype (
           ///     1.3.6.1.4.1.31103.1.12 NAME 'fedfsAnnotation'
           ///     DESC 'Annotation of an object'
           ///     SUP name
           ///     )
           ///

   <CODE ENDS>

4.2.1.7.  fedfsDescr

   A fedfsDescr stores an object description.  The description MUST be
   encoded as a UTF-8 string.

   This attribute is multi-valued which permits any number of
   descriptions per entry.

   <CODE BEGINS>








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           ///
           /// attributetype (
           ///     1.3.6.1.4.1.31103.1.13 NAME 'fedfsDescr'
           ///     DESC 'Description of an object'
           ///     SUP name
           ///     )
           ///

   <CODE ENDS>

4.2.1.8.  fedfsNfsURI

   A fedfsNfsURI stores the host and pathname components of an FSL.  A
   fedfsNfsURI MUST be encoded as an NFS URI (see Section 2.8.1).

   The fedfsNfsURI is a subtype of the labeledURI type [RFC2079], with
   the same encoding rules.

   This attribute is single-valued.

   <CODE BEGINS>

           ///
           /// attributetype (
           ///     1.3.6.1.4.1.31103.1.120 NAME 'fedfsNfsURI'
           ///     DESC 'Location of fileset'
           ///     SUP labeledURI
           ///     SINGLE-VALUE
           ///     )
           ///

   <CODE ENDS>

4.2.1.9.  fedfsNfsCurrency

   A fedfsNfsCurrency stores the NFSv4.1 fs_locations_server's
   fls_currency value [RFC5661].  A fedfsNfsCurrency MUST be encoded as
   an Integer syntax value [RFC4517] in the range [-2147483648,
   2147483647].

   This attribute is single-valued.

   <CODE BEGINS>








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           ///
           /// attributetype (
           ///     1.3.6.1.4.1.31103.1.103 NAME 'fedfsNfsCurrency'
           ///     DESC 'up-to-date measure of the data'
           ///     EQUALITY integerMatch
           ///     SYNTAX 1.3.6.1.4.1.1466.115.121.1.27
           ///     SINGLE-VALUE
           ///     )
           ///

   <CODE ENDS>

   OID 1.3.6.1.4.1.1466.115.121.1.27 is the Integer syntax [RFC4517].

4.2.1.10.  fedfsNfsGenFlagWritable

   A fedfsNfsGenFlagWritable stores the value of an FSL's NFSv4.1
   FSLI4GF_WRITABLE bit [RFC5661].  A value of "TRUE" indicates the bit
   is set.  A value of "FALSE" indicates the bit is not set.

   <CODE BEGINS>

          ///
          /// attributetype (
          ///     1.3.6.1.4.1.31103.1.104 NAME 'fedfsNfsGenFlagWritable'
          ///     DESC 'Indicates if the filesystem is writable'
          ///     EQUALITY booleanMatch
          ///     SYNTAX 1.3.6.1.4.1.1466.115.121.1.7
          ///     SINGLE-VALUE
          ///     )
          ///

   <CODE ENDS>

   OID 1.3.6.1.4.1.1466.115.121.1.7 is the Boolean syntax [RFC4517].

4.2.1.11.  fedfsNfsGenFlagGoing

   A fedfsNfsGenFlagGoing stores the value of an FSL's NFSv4.1
   FSLI4GF_GOING bit [RFC5661].  A value of "TRUE" indicates the bit is
   set.  A value of "FALSE" indicates the bit is not set.

   <CODE BEGINS>








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           ///
           /// attributetype (
           ///     1.3.6.1.4.1.31103.1.105 NAME 'fedfsNfsGenFlagGoing'
           ///     DESC 'Indicates if the filesystem is going'
           ///     EQUALITY booleanMatch
           ///     SYNTAX 1.3.6.1.4.1.1466.115.121.1.7
           ///     SINGLE-VALUE
           ///     )
           ///

   <CODE ENDS>

   OID 1.3.6.1.4.1.1466.115.121.1.7 is the Boolean syntax [RFC4517].

4.2.1.12.  fedfsNfsGenFlagSplit

   A fedfsNfsGenFlagSplit stores the value of an FSL's NFSv4.1
   FSLI4GF_SPLIT bit [RFC5661].  A value of "TRUE" indicates the bit is
   set.  A value of "FALSE" indicates the bit is not set.

   <CODE BEGINS>

           ///
           /// attributetype (
           ///     1.3.6.1.4.1.31103.1.106 NAME 'fedfsNfsGenFlagSplit'
           ///     DESC 'Indicates if there are multiple filesystems'
           ///     EQUALITY booleanMatch
           ///     SYNTAX 1.3.6.1.4.1.1466.115.121.1.7
           ///     SINGLE-VALUE
           ///     )
           ///

   <CODE ENDS>

   OID 1.3.6.1.4.1.1466.115.121.1.7 is the Boolean syntax [RFC4517].

4.2.1.13.  fedfsNfsTransFlagRdma

   A fedfsNfsTransFlagRdma stores the value of an FSL's NFSv4.1
   FSLI4TF_RDMA bit [RFC5661].  A value of "TRUE" indicates the bit is
   set.  A value of "FALSE" indicates the bit is not set.

   <CODE BEGINS>








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           ///
           /// attributetype (
           ///     1.3.6.1.4.1.31103.1.107 NAME 'fedfsNfsTransFlagRdma'
           ///     DESC 'Indicates if the transport supports RDMA'
           ///     EQUALITY booleanMatch
           ///     SYNTAX 1.3.6.1.4.1.1466.115.121.1.7
           ///     SINGLE-VALUE
           ///     )
           ///

   <CODE ENDS>

   OID 1.3.6.1.4.1.1466.115.121.1.7 is the Boolean syntax [RFC4517].

4.2.1.14.  fedfsNfsClassSimul

   A fedfsNfsClassSimul contains the FSL's NFSv4.1 FSLI4BX_CLSIMUL
   [RFC5661] value.  A fedfsNfsClassSimul MUST be encoded as an Integer
   syntax value [RFC4517] in the range [0, 255].

   <CODE BEGINS>

           ///
           /// attributetype (
           ///     1.3.6.1.4.1.31103.1.108 NAME 'fedfsNfsClassSimul'
           ///     DESC 'The simultaneous-use class of the filesystem'
           ///     EQUALITY integerMatch
           ///     SYNTAX 1.3.6.1.4.1.1466.115.121.1.27
           ///     SINGLE-VALUE
           ///     )
           ///

   <CODE ENDS>

   OID 1.3.6.1.4.1.1466.115.121.1.27 is the Integer syntax [RFC4517].

4.2.1.15.  fedfsNfsClassHandle

   A fedfsNfsClassHandle contains the FSL's NFSv4.1 FSLI4BX_CLHANDLE
   [RFC5661] value.  A fedfsNfsClassHandle MUST be encoded as an Integer
   syntax value [RFC4517] in the range [0, 255].

   <CODE BEGINS>








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           ///
           /// attributetype (
           ///     1.3.6.1.4.1.31103.1.109 NAME 'fedfsNfsClassHandle'
           ///     DESC 'The handle class of the filesystem'
           ///     EQUALITY integerMatch
           ///     SYNTAX 1.3.6.1.4.1.1466.115.121.1.27
           ///     SINGLE-VALUE
           ///     )
           ///

   <CODE ENDS>

   OID 1.3.6.1.4.1.1466.115.121.1.27 is the Integer syntax [RFC4517].

4.2.1.16.  fedfsNfsClassFileid

   A fedfsNfsClassFileid contains the FSL's NFSv4.1 FSLI4BX_CLFILEID
   [RFC5661] value.  A fedfsNfsClassFileid MUST be encoded as an Integer
   syntax value [RFC4517] in the range [0, 255].

   <CODE BEGINS>

           ///
           /// attributetype (
           ///     1.3.6.1.4.1.31103.1.110 NAME 'fedfsNfsClassFileid'
           ///     DESC 'The fileid class of the filesystem'
           ///     EQUALITY integerMatch
           ///     SYNTAX 1.3.6.1.4.1.1466.115.121.1.27
           ///     SINGLE-VALUE
           ///     )
           ///

   <CODE ENDS>

   OID 1.3.6.1.4.1.1466.115.121.1.27 is the Integer syntax [RFC4517].

4.2.1.17.  fedfsNfsClassWritever

   A fedfsNfsClassWritever contains the FSL's NFSv4.1 FSLI4BX_CLWRITEVER
   [RFC5661] value.  A fedfsNfsClassWritever MUST be encoded as an
   Integer syntax value [RFC4517] in the range [0, 255].

   <CODE BEGINS>








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           ///
           /// attributetype (
           ///     1.3.6.1.4.1.31103.1.111 NAME 'fedfsNfsClassWritever'
           ///     DESC 'The write-verifier class of the filesystem'
           ///     EQUALITY integerMatch
           ///     SYNTAX 1.3.6.1.4.1.1466.115.121.1.27
           ///     SINGLE-VALUE
           ///     )
           ///

   <CODE ENDS>

   OID 1.3.6.1.4.1.1466.115.121.1.27 is the Integer syntax [RFC4517].

4.2.1.18.  fedfsNfsClassChange

   A fedfsNfsClassChange contains the FSL's NFSv4.1 FSLI4BX_CLCHANGE
   [RFC5661] value.  A fedfsNfsClassChange MUST be encoded as an Integer
   syntax value [RFC4517] in the range [0, 255].

   <CODE BEGINS>

           ///
           /// attributetype (
           ///     1.3.6.1.4.1.31103.1.112 NAME 'fedfsNfsClassChange'
           ///     DESC 'The change class of the filesystem'
           ///     EQUALITY integerMatch
           ///     SYNTAX 1.3.6.1.4.1.1466.115.121.1.27
           ///     SINGLE-VALUE
           ///     )
           ///

   <CODE ENDS>

   OID 1.3.6.1.4.1.1466.115.121.1.27 is the Integer syntax [RFC4517].

4.2.1.19.  fedfsNfsClassReaddir

   A fedfsNfsClassReaddir contains the FSL's NFSv4.1 FSLI4BX_CLREADDIR
   [RFC5661] value.  A fedfsNfsClassReaddir MUST be encoded as an
   Integer syntax value [RFC4517] in the range [0, 255].

   <CODE BEGINS>








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           ///
           /// attributetype (
           ///     1.3.6.1.4.1.31103.1.113 NAME 'fedfsNfsClassReaddir'
           ///     DESC 'The readdir class of the filesystem'
           ///     EQUALITY integerMatch
           ///     SYNTAX 1.3.6.1.4.1.1466.115.121.1.27
           ///     SINGLE-VALUE
           ///     )
           ///

   <CODE ENDS>

   OID 1.3.6.1.4.1.1466.115.121.1.27 is the Integer syntax [RFC4517].

4.2.1.20.  fedfsNfsReadRank

   A fedfsNfsReadRank contains the FSL's NFSv4.1 FSLI4BX_READRANK
   [RFC5661] value.  A fedfsNfsReadRank MUST be encoded as an Integer
   syntax value [RFC4517] in the range [0, 255].

   <CODE BEGINS>

           ///
           /// attributetype (
           ///     1.3.6.1.4.1.31103.1.114 NAME 'fedfsNfsReadRank'
           ///     DESC 'The read rank of the filesystem'
           ///     EQUALITY integerMatch
           ///     SYNTAX 1.3.6.1.4.1.1466.115.121.1.27
           ///     SINGLE-VALUE
           ///     )
           ///

   <CODE ENDS>

   OID 1.3.6.1.4.1.1466.115.121.1.27 is the Integer syntax [RFC4517].

4.2.1.21.  fedfsNfsReadOrder

   A fedfsNfsReadOrder contains the FSL's NFSv4.1 FSLI4BX_READORDER
   [RFC5661] value.  A fedfsNfsReadOrder MUST be encoded as an Integer
   syntax value [RFC4517] in the range [0, 255].

   <CODE BEGINS>








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           ///
           /// attributetype (
           ///     1.3.6.1.4.1.31103.1.115 NAME 'fedfsNfsReadOrder'
           ///     DESC 'The read order of the filesystem'
           ///     EQUALITY integerMatch
           ///     SYNTAX 1.3.6.1.4.1.1466.115.121.1.27
           ///     SINGLE-VALUE
           ///     )
           ///

   <CODE ENDS>

   OID 1.3.6.1.4.1.1466.115.121.1.27 is the Integer syntax [RFC4517].

4.2.1.22.  fedfsNfsWriteRank

   A fedfsNfsWriteRank contains the FSL's FSLI4BX_WRITERANK [RFC5661]
   value.  A fedfsNfsWriteRank MUST be encoded as an Integer syntax
   value [RFC4517] in the range [0, 255].

   <CODE BEGINS>

           ///
           /// attributetype (
           ///     1.3.6.1.4.1.31103.1.116 NAME 'fedfsNfsWriteRank'
           ///     DESC 'The write rank of the filesystem'
           ///     EQUALITY integerMatch
           ///     SYNTAX 1.3.6.1.4.1.1466.115.121.1.27
           ///     SINGLE-VALUE
           ///     )
           ///

   <CODE ENDS>

   OID 1.3.6.1.4.1.1466.115.121.1.27 is the Integer syntax [RFC4517].

4.2.1.23.  fedfsNfsWriteOrder

   A fedfsNfsWriteOrder contains the FSL's FSLI4BX_WRITEORDER [RFC5661]
   value.  A fedfsNfsWriteOrder MUST be encoded as an Integer syntax
   value [RFC4517] in the range [0, 255].

   <CODE BEGINS>








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           ///
           /// attributetype (
           ///     1.3.6.1.4.1.31103.1.117 NAME 'fedfsNfsWriteOrder'
           ///     DESC 'The write order of the filesystem'
           ///     EQUALITY integerMatch
           ///     SYNTAX 1.3.6.1.4.1.1466.115.121.1.27
           ///     SINGLE-VALUE
           ///     )
           ///

   <CODE ENDS>

   OID 1.3.6.1.4.1.1466.115.121.1.27 is the Integer syntax [RFC4517].

4.2.1.24.  fedfsNfsVarSub

   A fedfsNfsVarSub stores the value of an FSL's NFSv4.1 FSLI4IF_VAR_SUB
   bit [RFC5661].  A value of "TRUE" indicates the bit is set.  A value
   of "FALSE" indicates the bit is not set.

   <CODE BEGINS>

           ///
           /// attributetype (
           ///     1.3.6.1.4.1.31103.1.118 NAME 'fedfsNfsVarSub'
           ///     DESC 'Indicates if variable substitution is present'
           ///     EQUALITY booleanMatch
           ///     SYNTAX 1.3.6.1.4.1.1466.115.121.1.7
           ///     SINGLE-VALUE
           ///     )
           ///

   <CODE ENDS>

   OID 1.3.6.1.4.1.1466.115.121.1.7 is the Boolean syntax [RFC4517].

4.2.1.25.  fedfsNfsValidFor

   A fedfsNfsValidFor stores an FSL's NFSv4.1 fs_locations_info
   fli_valid_for value [RFC5661].  A fedfsNfsValidFor MUST be encoded as
   an Integer syntax value [RFC4517] in the range [-2147483648,
   2147483647].

   An FSL's parent's fedfsFsnTTL value and its fedfsNfsValidFor value
   MAY be different.

   This attribute is single-valued.




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   <CODE BEGINS>

           ///
           /// attributetype (
           ///     1.3.6.1.4.1.31103.1.19 NAME 'fedfsNfsValidFor'
           ///     DESC 'Valid for time'
           ///     EQUALITY integerMatch
           ///     SYNTAX 1.3.6.1.4.1.1466.115.121.1.27
           ///     SINGLE-VALUE
           ///     )
           ///

   OID 1.3.6.1.4.1.1466.115.121.1.27 is the Integer syntax [RFC4517].

   <CODE ENDS>

4.2.2.  LDAP Object Classes

4.2.2.1.  fedfsNsdbContainerInfo

   A fedfsNsdbContainerInfo describes the location of the NCE.

   A fedfsNsdbContainerInfo's fedfsNceDN attribute is REQUIRED.

   A fedfsNsdbContainerInfo's fedfsAnnotation and fedfsDescr attributes
   are OPTIONAL.

   <CODE BEGINS>

          ///
          /// objectclass (
          ///     1.3.6.1.4.1.31103.1.1001 NAME 'fedfsNsdbContainerInfo'
          ///     DESC 'Describes NCE location'
          ///     SUP top AUXILIARY
          ///     MUST (
          ///             fedfsNceDN
          ///     )
          ///     MAY (
          ///             fedfsAnnotation
          ///             $ fedfsDescr
          ///     ))
          ///

   <CODE ENDS>







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4.2.2.2.  fedfsFsn

   A fedfsFsn represents an FSN.

   A fedfsFsn's fedfsFsnUuid and fedfsFsnTTL attributes are REQUIRED.

   A fedfsFsn's fedfsAnnotation and fedfsDescr attributes are OPTIONAL.

   The DN of an FSN is REQUIRED to take the following form:
   "fedfsFsnUuid=$FSNUUID,$NCE", where $FSNUUID is the UUID of the FSN
   and $NCE is the DN of the NCE.  Since LDAP requires a DN to be
   unique, this ensures that each FSN entry has a unique UUID value
   within the LDAP directory.

   <CODE BEGINS>

           ///
           /// objectclass (
           ///     1.3.6.1.4.1.31103.1.1002 NAME 'fedfsFsn'
           ///     DESC 'Represents a fileset'
           ///     SUP top STRUCTURAL
           ///     MUST (
           ///             fedfsFsnUuid
           ///             $ fedfsFsnTTL
           ///     )
           ///     MAY (
           ///             fedfsAnnotation
           ///             $ fedfsDescr
           ///     ))
           ///

   <CODE ENDS>

4.2.2.3.  fedfsFsl

   The fedfsFsl object class represents an FSL.

   The fedfsFsl is an abstract object class.  Protocol specific subtypes
   of this object class are used to store FSL information.  The
   fedfsNfsFsl object class defined below is used to record an NFS FSL's
   location.  Other subtypes MAY be defined for other protocols (e.g.,
   CIFS).

   A fedfsFsl's fedfsFslUuid and fedfsFsnUuid attributes are REQUIRED.

   A fedfsFsl's fedfsAnnotation, and fedfsDescr attributes are OPTIONAL.

   The DN of an FSL is REQUIRED to take the following form:



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   "fedfsFslUuid=$FSLUUID,fedfsFsnUuid=$FSNUUID,$NCE" where $FSLUUID is
   the FSL's UUID, $FSNUUID is the FSN's UUID, and $NCE is the DN of the
   NCE.  Since LDAP requires a DN to be unique, this ensures that each
   FSL entry has a unique UUID value within the LDAP directory.

   <CODE BEGINS>

           ///
           /// objectclass (
           ///     1.3.6.1.4.1.31103.1.1003 NAME 'fedfsFsl'
           ///     DESC 'A physical location of a fileset'
           ///     SUP top ABSTRACT
           ///     MUST (
           ///             fedfsFslUuid
           ///             $ fedfsFsnUuid
           ///     )
           ///     MAY (
           ///             fedfsAnnotation
           ///             $ fedfsDescr
           ///     ))
           ///

   <CODE ENDS>

4.2.2.4.  fedfsNfsFsl

   A fedfsNfsFsl is used to represent an NFS FSL.  The fedfsNfsFsl
   inherits all of the attributes of the fedfsFsl and extends the
   fedfsFsl with information specific to the NFS protocol.

   The DN of an NFS FSL is REQUIRED to take the following form:
   "fedfsFslUuid=$FSLUUID,fedfsFsnUuid=$FSNUUID,$NCE" where $FSLUUID is
   the FSL's UUID, $FSNUUID is the FSN's UUID, and $NCE is the DN of the
   NCE.  Since LDAP requires a DN to be unique, this ensures that each
   NFS FSL entry has a unique UUID value within the LDAP directory.

   <CODE BEGINS>














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           ///
           /// objectclass (
           ///     1.3.6.1.4.1.31103.1.1004 NAME 'fedfsNfsFsl'
           ///     DESC 'An NFS location of a fileset'
           ///     SUP fedfsFsl STRUCTURAL
           ///     MUST (
           ///             fedfsNfsURI
           ///             $ fedfsNfsCurrency
           ///             $ fedfsNfsGenFlagWritable
           ///             $ fedfsNfsGenFlagGoing
           ///             $ fedfsNfsGenFlagSplit
           ///             $ fedfsNfsTransFlagRdma
           ///             $ fedfsNfsClassSimul
           ///             $ fedfsNfsClassHandle
           ///             $ fedfsNfsClassFileid
           ///             $ fedfsNfsClassWritever
           ///             $ fedfsNfsClassChange
           ///             $ fedfsNfsClassReaddir
           ///             $ fedfsNfsReadRank
           ///             $ fedfsNfsReadOrder
           ///             $ fedfsNfsWriteRank
           ///             $ fedfsNfsWriteOrder
           ///             $ fedfsNfsVarSub
           ///             $ fedfsNfsValidFor
           ///     ))
           ///

   <CODE ENDS>


5.  NSDB Operations

   The operations defined by the protocol can be described as several
   sub-protocols that are used by entities within a federation to
   perform different roles.

   The first of these sub-protocols defines how the state of an NSDB
   node can be initialized and updated.  The primary use of this sub-
   protocol is by an administrator to add, edit, or delete filesets,
   their properties, and their fileset locations.

   The second of these sub-protocols defines the queries that are sent
   to an NSDB node in order to perform resolution (or to find other
   information about the data stored within that NSDB node) and the
   responses returned by the NSDB node.  The primary use of this sub-
   protocol is by a fileserver in order to perform resolution, but it
   may also be used by an administrator to query the state of the
   system.



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   The first and second sub-protocols are defined as LDAP operations,
   using the schema defined in the previous section.  If each NSDB node
   is a standard LDAP server, then, in theory, it is unnecessary to
   describe the LDAP operations in detail, because the operations are
   ordinary LDAP operations to query and update records.  However, we do
   not require that an NSDB node implement a complete LDAP service, and
   therefore we define in these sections the minimum level of LDAP
   functionality required to implement an NSDB node.

   The NSDB sub-protocols are defined in Section 5.1 and Section 5.2.
   The descriptions of LDAP messages in these sections use the LDAP Data
   Interchange Format (LDIF) [RFC2849].  In order to differentiate
   constant and variable strings in the LDIF specifications, variables
   are prefixed by a $ character and use all upper case characters.  For
   example, a variable named FOO would be specified as $FOO.

   This document uses the term NSDB client to refer to an LDAP client
   that uses either of the NSDB sub-protocols.

   The third sub-protocol defines the queries and other requests that
   are sent to a fileserver in order to get information from it or to
   modify the state of the fileserver in a manner related to the
   federation protocols.  The primary purpose of this protocol is for an
   administrator to create or delete a junction or discover related
   information about a particular fileserver.

   The third sub-protocol is defined as an ONC RPC protocol.  The reason
   for using ONC RPC instead of LDAP is that all fileservers support ONC
   RPC but some do not support an LDAP Directory server.

   The ONC RPC administration protocol is defined in [FEDFS-ADMIN].

5.1.  NSDB Operations for Administrators

   The admin entity initiates and controls the commands to manage
   fileset and namespace information.  The protocol used for
   communicating between the admin entity and each NSDB node MUST be the
   LDAPv3 [RFC4510] protocol.

   The names we assign to these operations are entirely for the purpose
   of exposition in this document, and are not part of the LDAP dialogs.

5.1.1.  Create an FSN

   This operation creates a new FSN in the NSDB by adding a new fedfsFsn
   entry in the NSDB's LDAP directory.

   A fedfsFsn entry contains a fedfsFsnUuid.  The administrator chooses



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   the fedfsFsnUuid by a process described in Section 2.12).  A fedfsFsn
   entry also contains a fedfsFsnTTL.  The fedfsFsnTTL is chosen by the
   administrator as described in Section 2.8.3.

5.1.1.1.  LDAP Request

   This operation is implemented using the LDAP ADD request described by
   the LDIF below.

           dn: fedfsFsnUuid=$FSNUUID,$NCE
           changeType: add
           objectClass: fedfsFsn
           fedfsFsnUuid: $FSNUUID
           fedfsFsnTTL: $TTL

   For example, if the $FSNUUID is "e8c4761c-eb3b-4307-86fc-
   f702da197966", the $TTL is "300" seconds, and the $NCE is "o=fedfs"
   the operation would be:

           dn: fedfsFsnUuid=e8c4761c-eb3b-4307-86fc-f702da197966,o=fedfs
           changeType: add
           objectClass: fedfsFsn
           fedfsFsnUuid: e8c4761c-eb3b-4307-86fc-f702da197966
           fedfsFsnTTL: 300

5.1.2.  Delete an FSN

   This operation deletes an FSN by removing a fedfsFsn entry in the
   NSDB's LDAP directory.

   If the FSN entry being deleted has child FSL entries, this function
   MUST return an error.  This ensures that the NSDB will not contain
   any orphaned FSL entries.  A compliant LDAP implementation will meet
   this requirement since Section 4.8 of [RFC4511] defines the LDAP
   delete operation to only be capable of removing leaf entries.

   Note that the FSN delete function removes the fileset only from a
   federation namespace (by removing the records for that FSN from the
   NSDB node that receives this request).  The fileset and its data are
   not deleted.  Any junction that has this FSN as its target may
   continue to point to this non-existent FSN.  A dangling reference may
   be detected when a fileserver tries to resolve a junction that refers
   to the deleted FSN.

5.1.2.1.  LDAP Request

   This operation is implemented using the LDAP DELETE request described
   by the LDIF below.



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           dn: fedfsFsnUuid=$FSNUUID,$NCE
           changeType: delete

   For example, if the $FSNUUID is "e8c4761c-eb3b-4307-86fc-
   f702da197966" and $NCE is "o=fedfs", the operation would be:

           dn: fedfsFsnUuid=e8c4761c-eb3b-4307-86fc-f702da197966,o=fedfs
           changeType: delete

5.1.3.  Create an FSL

   This operation creates a new FSL for the given FSN by adding a new
   fedfsFsl entry in the NSDB's LDAP directory.

   A fedfsFsl entry contains a fedfsFslUuid and fedfsFsnUuid.  The
   administrator chooses the fedfsFslUuid.  The process for choosing the
   fedfsFslUuid is described in Section 2.12.  The fedfsFsnUuid is the
   UUID of the FSL's FSN.

   The administrator will also set additional attributes depending on
   the FSL type.

5.1.3.1.  LDAP Request

   This operation is implemented using the LDAP ADD request described by
   the LDIF below (NOTE: the LDIF shows the creation of an NFS FSL)

























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           dn: fedfsFslUuid=$FSLUUID,fedfsFsnUuid=$FSNUUID,$NCE
           changeType: add
           objectClass: fedfsNfsFsl
           fedfsFslUuid: $FSLUUID
           fedfsFsnUuid: $FSNUUID
           fedfsNfsURI: nfs://$HOST:$PORT//$PATH
           fedfsNfsCurrency: $CURRENCY
           fedfsNfsGenFlagWritable: $WRITABLE
           fedfsNfsGenFlagGoing: $GOING
           fedfsNfsGenFlagSplit: $SPLIT
           fedfsNfsTransFlagRdma: $RDMA
           fedfsNfsClassSimul: $CLASS_SIMUL
           fedfsNfsClassHandle:$CLASS_HANDLE
           fedfsNfsClassFileid:$CLASS_FILEID
           fedfsNfsClassWritever:$CLASS_WRITEVER
           fedfsNfsClassChange: $CLASS_CHANGE
           fedfsNfsClassReaddir: $CLASS_READDIR
           fedfsNfsReadRank: $READ_RANK
           fedfsNfsReadOrder: $READ_ORDER
           fedfsNfsWriteRank: $WRITE_RANK
           fedfsNfsWriteOrder: $WRITE_ORDER
           fedfsNfsVarSub: $VAR_SUB
           fedfsNfsValidFor: $TIME
           fedfsAnnotation: $ANNOTATION
           fedfsDescr: $DESCR


   For example, if the $FSNUUID is "e8c4761c-eb3b-4307-86fc-
   f702da197966", the $FSLUUID is "ba89a802-41a9-44cf-8447-
   dda367590eb3", the $HOST is "server.example.com", $PORT is "20049",
   the $PATH is stored in the file "/tmp/fsl_path", $CURRENCY is "0" (an
   up-to-date copy), the FSL is writable, but not going, split, or
   accessible via RDMA, the simultaneous-use class is "1", the handle
   class is "0", the fileid class is "1", the write-verifier class is
   "1", the change class is "1", the readdir class is "9", the read rank
   is "7", the read order is "8", the write rank is "5", the write order
   is "6", variable substitution is false, $TIME is "300" seconds,
   $ANNOTATION is ""foo" = "bar"", $DESC is "This is a description.",
   and the $NCE is "o=fedfs", the operation would be (for readability
   the DN is split into two lines):











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           dn: fedfsFslUuid=ba89a802-41a9-44cf-8447-dda367590eb3,
            fedfsFsnUuid=e8c4761c-eb3b-4307-86fc-f702da197966,o=fedfs
           changeType: add
           objectClass: fedfsNfsFsl
           fedfsFslUuid: ba89a802-41a9-44cf-8447-dda367590eb3
           fedfsFsnUuid: e8c4761c-eb3b-4307-86fc-f702da197966
           fedfsNfsURI: nfs://server.example.com:20049//tmp/fsl_path
           fedfsNfsCurrency: 0
           fedfsNfsGenFlagWritable: TRUE
           fedfsNfsGenFlagGoing: FALSE
           fedfsNfsGenFlagSplit: FALSE
           fedfsNfsTransFlagRdma: FALSE
           fedfsNfsClassSimul: 1
           fedfsNfsClassHandle: 0
           fedfsNfsClassFileid: 1
           fedfsNfsClassWritever: 1
           fedfsNfsClassChange: 1
           fedfsNfsClassReaddir: 9
           fedfsNfsReadRank: 7
           fedfsNfsReadOrder: 8
           fedfsNfsWriteRank: 5
           fedfsNfsWriteOrder: 6
           fedfsNfsVarSub: FALSE
           fedfsNfsValidFor: 300
           fedfsAnnotation: "foo" = "bar"
           fedfsDescr: This is a description.


5.1.3.2.  Selecting fedfsNfsFsl Values

   The fedfsNfsFSl object class is used to describe NFSv4 accessible
   filesets.  For the reasons described in Section 2.8.4, administrators
   SHOULD choose reasonable values for all LDAP attributes of an NFSv4
   accessible fedfsNfsFsl even though some of these LDAP attributes are
   not explicitly contained in an NFSv4 fs_locations attribute.

   When the administrator is unable to choose reasonable values for the
   LDAP attributes not explicitly contained in an NFSv4 fs_locations
   attribute, the values in the following table are RECOMMENDED.












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   +-------------------------+----------+------------------------------+
   | LDAP attribute          | LDAP     | Notes                        |
   |                         | value    |                              |
   +-------------------------+----------+------------------------------+
   | fedfsNfsCurrency        | negative | Indicates that the server    |
   |                         | value    | does not know the currency   |
   |                         |          | (see 11.10.1 of [RFC5661]).  |
   | fedfsNfsGenFlagWritable | FALSE    | Leaving unset is not harmful |
   |                         |          | (see 11.10.1 of [RFC5661]).  |
   | fedfsNfsGenFlagGoing    | FALSE    | NFS client will detect a     |
   |                         |          | migration event if the FSL   |
   |                         |          | becomes unavailable.         |
   | fedfsNfsGenFlagSplit    | TRUE     | Safe to assume that the FSL  |
   |                         |          | is split.                    |
   | fedfsNfsTransFlagRdma   | TRUE     | NFS client will detect if    |
   |                         |          | RDMA access is available.    |
   | fedfsNfsClassSimul      | 0        | 0 is treated as non-matching |
   |                         |          | (see 11.10.1 of [RFC5661]).  |
   | fedfsNfsClassHandle     | 0        | See fedfsNfsClassSimul note. |
   | fedfsNfsClassFileid     | 0        | See fedfsNfsClassSimul note. |
   | fedfsNfsClassWritever   | 0        | See fedfsNfsClassSimul note. |
   | fedfsNfsClassChange     | 0        | See fedfsNfsClassSimul note. |
   | fedfsNfsClassReaddir    | 0        | See fedfsNfsClassSimul note. |
   | fedfsNfsReadRank        | 0        | Highest value ensures FSL    |
   |                         |          | will be tried.               |
   | fedfsNfsReadOrder       | 0        | See fedfsNfsReadRank note.   |
   | fedfsNfsWriteRank       | 0        | See fedfsNfsReadRank note.   |
   | fedfsNfsWriteOrder      | 0        | See fedfsNfsReadRank note.   |
   | fedfsNfsVarSub          | FALSE    | NFSv4 does not define        |
   |                         |          | variable substitution in     |
   |                         |          | paths.                       |
   | fedfsNfsValidFor        | 0        | Indicates no appropriate     |
   |                         |          | refetch interval (see        |
   |                         |          | 11.10.2 of [RFC5661]).       |
   +-------------------------+----------+------------------------------+

5.1.4.  Delete an FSL

   This operation deletes an FSL record.  The admin requests the NSDB
   node storing the fedfsFsl to delete it from its database.  This
   operation does not result in fileset data being deleted on any
   fileserver.

5.1.4.1.  LDAP Request

   The admin sends an LDAP DELETE request to the NSDB node to remove the
   FSL.




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           dn: fedfsFslUuid=$FSLUUID,fedfsFsnUuid=$FSNUUID,$NCE
           changeType: delete


   For example, if the $FSNUUID is "e8c4761c-eb3b-4307-86fc-
   f702da197966", the $FSLUUID is "ba89a802-41a9-44cf-8447-
   dda367590eb3", and the $NCE is "o=fedfs", the operation would be (for
   readability the DN is split into two lines):


           dn: fedfsFslUuid=ba89a802-41a9-44cf-8447-dda367590eb3,
            fedfsFsnUuid=e8c4761c-eb3b-4307-86fc-f702da197966,o=fedfs
           changeType: delete


5.1.5.  Update an FSL

   This operation updates the attributes of a given FSL.  This command
   results in a change in the attributes of the fedfsFsl at the NSDB
   node maintaining this FSL.  The values of the fedfsFslUuid and
   fedfsFsnUuid attributes MUST NOT change during an FSL update.

5.1.5.1.  LDAP Request

   The admin sends an LDAP MODIFY request to the NSDB node to update the
   FSL.


           dn: fedfsFslUuid=$FSLUUID,fedfsFsnUuid=$FSNUUID,$NCE
           changeType: modify
           replace: $ATTRIBUTE-TYPE


   For example, if the $FSNUUID is "e8c4761c-eb3b-4307-86fc-
   f702da197966", the $FSLUUID is "ba89a802-41a9-44cf-8447-
   dda367590eb3", the $NCE is "o=fedfs", and the administrator wished to
   change the NFS read rank to 10, the operation would be (for
   readability the DN is split into two lines):


           dn: fedfsFslUuid=ba89a802-41a9-44cf-8447-dda367590eb3,
            fedfsFsnUuid=e8c4761c-eb3b-4307-86fc-f702da197966,o=fedfs
           changeType: modify
           replace: fedfsNfsReadClass
           fedfsNfsReadRank: 10






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5.2.  NSDB Operations for Fileservers

5.2.1.  NSDB Container Entry (NCE) Enumeration

   To find the NCEs for the NSDB nsdb.example.com, a fileserver would do
   the following:

        nce_list = empty
        connect to the LDAP directory at nsdb.example.com
        for each namingContext value $BAR in the root DSE
            /* $BAR is a DN */
            query for a fedfsNceDN value at $BAR
            /*
             * The RFC 4516 LDAP URL for this search would be
             *
             *  ldap://nsdb.example.com:389/$BAR?fedfsNceDN??
             *                      (objectClass=fedfsNsdbContainerInfo)
             *
             */
            if a fedfsNceDN value is found
                add the value to the nce_list

5.2.2.  Lookup FSLs for an FSN

   Using an LDAP search, the fileserver can obtain all of the FSLs for a
   given FSN.  The FSN's fedfsFsnUuid is used as the search key.  The
   following examples use the LDAP Universal Resource Identifier (URI)
   format defined in [RFC4516].

   To obtain a list of all FSLs for $FSNUUID on the NSDB named
   $NSDBNAME, the following search can be used (for readability the URI
   is split into two lines):


           for each $NCE in nce_list
               ldap://$NSDBNAME/fsnUuid=$FSNUUID,$NCE??one?
                   (objectClass=fedfsFsl)


   This search is for the children of the object with DN
   "fedfsFsnUuid=$FSNUUID,$NCE" with a filter for
   "objectClass=fedfsFsl".  The scope value of "one" restricts the
   search to the entry's children (rather than the entire subtree below
   the entry) and the filter ensures that only FSL entries are returned.

   For example if $NSDBNAME is "nsdb.example.com", $FSNUUID is
   "e8c4761c-eb3b-4307-86fc-f702da197966", and $NCE is "o=fedfs", the
   search would be (for readability the URI is split into three lines):



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           ldap://nsdb.example.com/
                   fsnUuid=e8c4761c-eb3b-4307-86fc-f702da197966,o=fedfs
                   ??one?(objectClass=fedfsFsl)


   The following search can be used to obtain only the NFS FSLs for
   $FSNUUID on the NSDB named $NSDBNAME (for readability the URI is
   split into two lines):


           for each $NCE in nce_list
               ldap://$NSDBNAME/fsnUuid=$FSNUUID,$NCE??one?
                   (objectClass=fedfsNfsFsl)


   This also searches for the children of the object with DN
   "fedfsFsnUuid=$FSNUUID,$NCE", but the filter for "objectClass =
   fedfsNfsFsl" restricts the results to only NFS FSLs.

   For example if $NSDBNAME is nsdb.example.com, $FSNUUID is "e8c4761c-
   eb3b-4307-86fc-f702da197966", and $NCE is "o=fedfs",the search would
   be (for readability the URI is split into three lines):


           ldap://nsdb.example.com/
                   fsnUuid=e8c4761c-eb3b-4307-86fc-f702da197966,o=fedfs
                   ??one?(objectClass=fedfsNfsFsl)


   The fileserver will generate a referral based on the set of FSLs
   returned by these queries using the process described in
   Section 2.8.4.

5.3.  NSDB Operations and LDAP Referrals

   The LDAPv3 protocol defines an LDAP referral mechanism that allows an
   LDAP server to redirect an LDAP client.  LDAPv3 defines two types of
   LDAP referrals: the Referral type defined in Section 4.1.10 of
   [RFC4511] and the SearchResultReference type defined in Section 4.5.3
   of [RFC4511].  In both cases, the LDAP referral lists one or more
   URIs for services that can be used to complete the operation.  In the
   remainder of this document, the term LDAP referral is used to
   indicate either of these types.

   If an NSDB operation results in an LDAP referral, the NSDB client MAY
   follow the LDAP referral.  An NSDB client's decision to follow an
   LDAP referral is implementation and configuration dependent.  For
   example, an NSDB client might be configured to follow only those LDAP



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   referrals that were received over a secure channel, or only those
   that target an NSDB that supports encrypted communication.  If an
   NSDB client chooses to follow an LDAP referral, the NSDB client MUST
   process the LDAP referral and prevent looping as described in Section
   4.1.10 of [RFC4511].


6.  Security Considerations

   Both the NFSv4 and LDAPv3 protocols provide security mechanisms.
   When used in conjunction with the federated filesystem protocols
   described in this document, the use of these mechanisms is
   RECOMMENDED.  Specifically, the use of RPCSEC_GSS [RFC2203], which is
   built on the GSS-API [RFC2743], is RECOMMENDED on all NFS connections
   between a file-access client and fileserver.  The "Security
   Considerations" sections of the NFSv4.0 [3530bis] and NFSv4.1
   [RFC5661] specifications contain special considerations for the
   handling of GETATTR operations for the fs_locations and
   fs_locations_info attributes.

   NSDB nodes and NSDB clients MUST implement support for TLS [RFC5246],
   as described in [RFC4513].  For all LDAP connections established by
   the federated filesystem protocols, the use of TLS is RECOMMENDED.

   If an NSDB client chooses to follow an LDAP referral, the NSDB client
   SHOULD authenticate the LDAP referral's target NSDB using the target
   NSDB's credentials (not the credentials of the NSDB that generated
   the LDAP referral).  The NSDB client SHOULD NOT follow an LDAP
   referral that targets an NSDB for which it does not know the NSDB's
   credentials.

   Within a federation, there are two types of components an attacker
   may compromise: a fileserver and an NSDB.

   If an attacker compromises a fileserver, the attacker can interfere
   with a file-access client's filesystem I/O operations (e.g., by
   returning fictitious data in the response to a read request) or
   fabricating a referral.  The attacker's abilities are the same
   regardless of whether or not the federation protocols are in use.
   While the federation protocols do not give the attacker additional
   capabilities, they are additional targets for attack.  The LDAP
   protocol described in Section 5.2 SHOULD be secured using the methods
   described above to defeat attacks on a fileserver via this channel.

   If an attacker compromises an NSDB, the attacker will be able to
   forge FSL information and thus poison the fileserver's referral
   information.  Therefore an NSDB should be as secure as the
   fileservers which query it.  The LDAP operations described in



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   Section 5 SHOULD be secured using the methods described above to
   defeat attacks on an NSDB via this channel.

   A fileserver binds anonymously when performing NSDB operations.  Thus
   the contents and distinguished names of FSN and FSL records are
   required to be readable by anyone who can bind anonymously to an NSDB
   service.  Section 2.12 presents the security considerations in the
   choice of the type of UUID used in these records.

   It should be noted that the federation protocols do not directly
   provide access to filesystem data.  The federation protocols only
   provide a mechanism for building a namespace.  All data transfers
   occur between a file-access client and fileserver just as they would
   if the federation protocols were not in use.  As a result, the
   federation protocols do not require new user authentication and
   authorization mechanisms or require a fileserver to act as a proxy
   for a client.


7.  IANA Considerations

7.1.  Registry for the fedfsAnnotation Key Namespace

   This document defines the fedfsAnnotation key in Section 4.2.1.6.
   The fedfsAnnotation key namespace is to be managed by IANA.  IANA is
   to create and maintain a new registry entitled "FedFS Annotation
   Keys".  The location of this registry should be under a new heading
   called "Federated File System (FedFS) Parameters".  The URL address
   can be based off of the new heading name, for example:
   http://www.iana.org/assignments/fedfs-parameters/ ...

   Future registrations are to be administered by IANA using the "First
   Come First Served" policy defined in [RFC5226].  Registration
   requests MUST include the key (a valid UTF-8 string of any length), a
   brief description of the key's purpose, and an email contact for the
   registration.  For viewing, the registry should be sorted
   lexicographically by key.  There are no initial assignments for this
   registry.

7.2.  Registry for FedFS Object Identifiers

   Using the process described in [RFC2578], one of the authors was
   assigned the Internet Private Enterprise Numbers range
   1.3.6.1.4.1.31103.x.  Within this range, the subrange
   1.3.6.1.4.1.31103.1.x is permanently dedicated for use by the
   federated file system protocols.  Unassigned OIDs in this range MAY
   be used for Private Use or Experimental Use as defined in [RFC5226].
   New permanent FedFS OID assignments MUST NOT be made using OIDs in



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   this range.

   IANA is to create and maintain a new registry entitled "FedFS Object
   Identifiers" for the purpose of recording the allocations of FedFS
   Object Identifiers (OIDs) specified by this document.  No future
   allocations in this registry are allowed.

   The location of this registry should be under the heading "Federated
   File System (FedFS) Parameters", created in Section 7.1.  The URL
   address can be based off of the new heading name, for example:
   http://www.iana.org/assignments/fedfs-parameters/ ...

   For viewing, the registry should be sorted numerically by OID value.
   The contents of the FedFS Object Identifiers registry are given in
   Table 1.

   Note: A descriptor designated below as "historic" reserves an OID
   used in a past version of the NSDB protocol.  Registering such OIDs
   retains compatibility among existing implementations of the NSDB
   protocol.  This document does not otherwise refer to historic OIDs.































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    +--------------------------+-------------------------+-----------+
    | OID                      | Description             | Reference |
    +--------------------------+-------------------------+-----------+
    | 1.3.6.1.4.1.31103.1.1    | fedfsUuid               | RFC-TBD1  |
    | 1.3.6.1.4.1.31103.1.2    | fedfsNetAddr            | historic  |
    | 1.3.6.1.4.1.31103.1.3    | fedfsNetPort            | historic  |
    | 1.3.6.1.4.1.31103.1.4    | fedfsFsnUuid            | RFC-TBD1  |
    | 1.3.6.1.4.1.31103.1.5    | fedfsNsdbName           | historic  |
    | 1.3.6.1.4.1.31103.1.6    | fedfsNsdbPort           | historic  |
    | 1.3.6.1.4.1.31103.1.7    | fedfsNcePrefix          | historic  |
    | 1.3.6.1.4.1.31103.1.8    | fedfsFslUuid            | RFC-TBD1  |
    | 1.3.6.1.4.1.31103.1.9    | fedfsFslHost            | historic  |
    | 1.3.6.1.4.1.31103.1.10   | fedfsFslPort            | historic  |
    | 1.3.6.1.4.1.31103.1.11   | fedfsFslTTL             | historic  |
    | 1.3.6.1.4.1.31103.1.12   | fedfsAnnotation         | RFC-TBD1  |
    | 1.3.6.1.4.1.31103.1.13   | fedfsDescr              | RFC-TBD1  |
    | 1.3.6.1.4.1.31103.1.14   | fedfsNceDN              | RFC-TBD1  |
    | 1.3.6.1.4.1.31103.1.15   | fedfsFsnTTL             | RFC-TBD1  |
    | 1.3.6.1.4.1.31103.1.100  | fedfsNfsPath            | historic  |
    | 1.3.6.1.4.1.31103.1.101  | fedfsNfsMajorVer        | historic  |
    | 1.3.6.1.4.1.31103.1.102  | fedfsNfsMinorVer        | historic  |
    | 1.3.6.1.4.1.31103.1.103  | fedfsNfsCurrency        | RFC-TBD1  |
    | 1.3.6.1.4.1.31103.1.104  | fedfsNfsGenFlagWritable | RFC-TBD1  |
    | 1.3.6.1.4.1.31103.1.105  | fedfsNfsGenFlagGoing    | RFC-TBD1  |
    | 1.3.6.1.4.1.31103.1.106  | fedfsNfsGenFlagSplit    | RFC-TBD1  |
    | 1.3.6.1.4.1.31103.1.107  | fedfsNfsTransFlagRdma   | RFC-TBD1  |
    | 1.3.6.1.4.1.31103.1.108  | fedfsNfsClassSimul      | RFC-TBD1  |
    | 1.3.6.1.4.1.31103.1.109  | fedfsNfsClassHandle     | RFC-TBD1  |
    | 1.3.6.1.4.1.31103.1.110  | fedfsNfsClassFileid     | RFC-TBD1  |
    | 1.3.6.1.4.1.31103.1.111  | fedfsNfsClassWritever   | RFC-TBD1  |
    | 1.3.6.1.4.1.31103.1.112  | fedfsNfsClassChange     | RFC-TBD1  |
    | 1.3.6.1.4.1.31103.1.113  | fedfsNfsClassReaddir    | RFC-TBD1  |
    | 1.3.6.1.4.1.31103.1.114  | fedfsNfsReadRank        | RFC-TBD1  |
    | 1.3.6.1.4.1.31103.1.115  | fedfsNfsReadOrder       | RFC-TBD1  |
    | 1.3.6.1.4.1.31103.1.116  | fedfsNfsWriteRank       | RFC-TBD1  |
    | 1.3.6.1.4.1.31103.1.117  | fedfsNfsWriteOrder      | RFC-TBD1  |
    | 1.3.6.1.4.1.31103.1.118  | fedfsNfsVarSub          | RFC-TBD1  |
    | 1.3.6.1.4.1.31103.1.119  | fedfsNfsValidFor        | RFC-TBD1  |
    | 1.3.6.1.4.1.31103.1.120  | fedfsNfsURI             | RFC-TBD1  |
    | 1.3.6.1.4.1.31103.1.1001 | fedfsNsdbContainerInfo  | RFC-TBD1  |
    | 1.3.6.1.4.1.31103.1.1002 | fedfsFsn                | RFC-TBD1  |
    | 1.3.6.1.4.1.31103.1.1003 | fedfsFsl                | RFC-TBD1  |
    | 1.3.6.1.4.1.31103.1.1004 | fedfsNfsFsl             | RFC-TBD1  |
    +--------------------------+-------------------------+-----------+

                                  Table 1





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7.3.  LDAP Descriptor Registration

   In accordance with Section 3.4 and Section 4 of [RFC4520], the object
   identifier descriptors defined in this document (listed below) will
   be registered via the Expert Review process.

   Subject:  Request for LDAP Descriptor Registration
   Person & email address to contact for further information:  See
      "Author/Change Controller"
   Specification:  draft-ietf-nfsv4-federated-fs-protocol
   Author/Change Controller:  IESG (iesg@ietf.org)

   Object Identifier:  1.3.6.1.4.1.31103.1.1
   Descriptor (short name):  fedfsUuid
   Usage:  attribute type

   Object Identifier:  1.3.6.1.4.1.31103.1.2
   Descriptor (short name):  fedfsNetAddr
   Usage:  attribute type (historic)

   Object Identifier:  1.3.6.1.4.1.31103.1.3
   Descriptor (short name):  fedfsNetPort
   Usage:  attribute type (historic)

   Object Identifier:  1.3.6.1.4.1.31103.1.4
   Descriptor (short name):  fedfsFsnUuid
   Usage:  attribute type

   Object Identifier:  1.3.6.1.4.1.31103.1.5
   Descriptor (short name):  fedfsNsdbName
   Usage:  attribute type (historic)

   Object Identifier:  1.3.6.1.4.1.31103.1.6
   Descriptor (short name):  fedfsNsdbPort
   Usage:  attribute type (historic)

   Object Identifier:  1.3.6.1.4.1.31103.1.7
   Descriptor (short name):  fedfsNcePrefix
   Usage:  attribute type (historic)

   Object Identifier:  1.3.6.1.4.1.31103.1.8
   Descriptor (short name):  fedfsFslUuid
   Usage:  attribute type








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   Object Identifier:  1.3.6.1.4.1.31103.1.9
   Descriptor (short name):  fedfsFslHost
   Usage:  attribute type (historic)

   Object Identifier:  1.3.6.1.4.1.31103.1.10
   Descriptor (short name):  fedfsFslPort
   Usage:  attribute type (historic)

   Object Identifier:  1.3.6.1.4.1.31103.1.11
   Descriptor (short name):  fedfsFslTTL
   Usage:  attribute type (historic)

   Object Identifier:  1.3.6.1.4.1.31103.1.12
   Descriptor (short name):  fedfsAnnotation
   Usage:  attribute type

   Object Identifier:  1.3.6.1.4.1.31103.1.13
   Descriptor (short name):  fedfsDescr
   Usage:  attribute type

   Object Identifier:  1.3.6.1.4.1.31103.1.14
   Descriptor (short name):  fedfsNceDN
   Usage:  attribute type

   Object Identifier:  1.3.6.1.4.1.31103.1.15
   Descriptor (short name):  fedfsFsnTTL
   Usage:  attribute type

   Object Identifier:  1.3.6.1.4.1.31103.1.100
   Descriptor (short name):  fedfsNfsPath
   Usage:  attribute type (historic)

   Object Identifier:  1.3.6.1.4.1.31103.1.101
   Descriptor (short name):  fedfsNfsMajorVer
   Usage:  attribute type (historic)

   Object Identifier:  1.3.6.1.4.1.31103.1.102
   Descriptor (short name):  fedfsNfsMinorVer
   Usage:  attribute type (historic)

   Object Identifier:  1.3.6.1.4.1.31103.1.103
   Descriptor (short name):  fedfsNfsCurrency
   Usage:  attribute type








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   Object Identifier:  1.3.6.1.4.1.31103.1.104
   Descriptor (short name):  fedfsNfsGenFlagWritable
   Usage:  attribute type

   Object Identifier:  1.3.6.1.4.1.31103.1.105
   Descriptor (short name):  fedfsNfsGenFlagGoing
   Usage:  attribute type

   Object Identifier:  1.3.6.1.4.1.31103.1.106
   Descriptor (short name):  fedfsNfsGenFlagSplit
   Usage:  attribute type

   Object Identifier:  1.3.6.1.4.1.31103.1.107
   Descriptor (short name):  fedfsNfsTransFlagRdma
   Usage:  attribute type

   Object Identifier:  1.3.6.1.4.1.31103.1.108
   Descriptor (short name):  fedfsNfsClassSimul
   Usage:  attribute type

   Object Identifier:  1.3.6.1.4.1.31103.1.109
   Descriptor (short name):  fedfsNfsClassHandle
   Usage:  attribute type

   Object Identifier:  1.3.6.1.4.1.31103.1.110
   Descriptor (short name):  fedfsNfsClassFileid
   Usage:  attribute type

   Object Identifier:  1.3.6.1.4.1.31103.1.111
   Descriptor (short name):  fedfsNfsClassWritever
   Usage:  attribute type

   Object Identifier:  1.3.6.1.4.1.31103.1.112
   Descriptor (short name):  fedfsNfsClassChange
   Usage:  attribute type

   Object Identifier:  1.3.6.1.4.1.31103.1.113
   Descriptor (short name):  fedfsNfsClassReaddir
   Usage:  attribute type

   Object Identifier:  1.3.6.1.4.1.31103.1.114
   Descriptor (short name):  fedfsNfsReadRank
   Usage:  attribute type








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   Object Identifier:  1.3.6.1.4.1.31103.1.115
   Descriptor (short name):  fedfsNfsReadOrder
   Usage:  attribute type

   Object Identifier:  1.3.6.1.4.1.31103.1.116
   Descriptor (short name):  fedfsNfsWriteRank
   Usage:  attribute type

   Object Identifier:  1.3.6.1.4.1.31103.1.117
   Descriptor (short name):  fedfsNfsWriteOrder
   Usage:  attribute type

   Object Identifier:  1.3.6.1.4.1.31103.1.118
   Descriptor (short name):  fedfsNfsVarSub
   Usage:  attribute type

   Object Identifier:  1.3.6.1.4.1.31103.1.119
   Descriptor (short name):  fedfsNfsValidFor
   Usage:  attribute type

   Object Identifier:  1.3.6.1.4.1.31103.1.120
   Descriptor (short name):  fedfsNfsURI
   Usage:  attribute type

   Object Identifier:  1.3.6.1.4.1.31103.1.1001
   Descriptor (short name):  fedfsNsdbContainerInfo
   Usage:  object class

   Object Identifier:  1.3.6.1.4.1.31103.1.1002
   Descriptor (short name):  fedfsFsn
   Usage:  object class

   Object Identifier:  1.3.6.1.4.1.31103.1.1003
   Descriptor (short name):  fedfsFsl
   Usage:  object class

   Object Identifier:  1.3.6.1.4.1.31103.1.1004
   Descriptor (short name):  fedfsNfsFsl
   Usage:  object class


8.  Glossary

   Administrator:  A user with the necessary authority to initiate
      administrative tasks on one or more servers.






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   Admin Entity:  A server or agent that administers a collection of
      fileservers and persistently stores the namespace information.

   File-access Client:  Standard off-the-shelf network attached storage
      (NAS) client software that communicates with fileservers using a
      standard file-access protocol.

   Federation:  A set of fileserver collections and singleton
      fileservers that use a common set of interfaces and protocols in
      order to provide to file-access clients a federated namespace
      accessible through a filesystem access protocol.

   Fileserver:  A server that stores physical fileset data, or refers
      file-access clients to other fileservers.  A fileserver provides
      access to its shared filesystem data via a file-access protocol.

   Fileset:  The abstraction of a set of files and the directory tree
      that contains them.  A fileset is the fundamental unit of data
      management in the federation.

      Note that all files within a fileset are descendants of one
      directory, and that filesets do not span filesystems.

   Filesystem:  A self-contained unit of export for a fileserver, and
      the mechanism used to implement filesets.  The fileset does not
      need to be rooted at the root of the filesystem, nor at the export
      point for the filesystem.

      A single filesystem MAY implement more than one fileset, if the
      file-access protocol and the fileserver permit this.

   File-access Protocol:  A network filesystem access protocol such as
      NFSv3 [RFC1813], NFSv4 [3530bis], or CIFS (Common Internet File
      System) [MS-SMB] [MS-SMB2] [MS-CIFS].

   FSL (Fileset Location):  The location of the implementation of a
      fileset at a particular moment in time.  An FSL MUST be something
      that can be translated into a protocol-specific description of a
      resource that a file-access client can access directly, such as an
      fs_locations attribute (for NFSv4), or a share name (for CIFS).

   FSN (Fileset Name):  A platform-independent and globally unique name
      for a fileset.  Two FSLs that implement replicas of the same
      fileset MUST have the same FSN, and if a fileset is migrated from
      one location to another, the FSN of that fileset MUST remain the
      same.





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   Junction:  A filesystem object used to link a directory name in the
      current fileset with an object within another fileset.  The
      server-side "link" from a leaf node in one fileset to the root of
      another fileset.

   Namespace:  A filename/directory tree that a sufficiently authorized
      file-access client can observe.

   NSDB (Namespace Database) Service:  A service that maps FSNs to FSLs.
      The NSDB may also be used to store other information, such as
      annotations for these mappings and their components.

   NSDB Node:  The name or location of a server that implements part of
      the NSDB service and is responsible for keeping track of the FSLs
      (and related info) that implement a given partition of the FSNs.

   Referral:  A server response to a file-access client access that
      directs the client to evaluate the current object as a reference
      to an object at a different location (specified by an FSL) in
      another fileset, and possibly hosted on another fileserver.  The
      client re-attempts the access to the object at the new location.

   Replica:  A replica is a redundant implementation of a fileset.  Each
      replica shares the same FSN, but has a different FSL.

      Replicas may be used to increase availability or performance.
      Updates to replicas of the same fileset MUST appear to occur in
      the same order, and therefore each replica is self-consistent at
      any moment.

      We do not assume that updates to each replica occur
      simultaneously.  If a replica is offline or unreachable, the other
      replicas may be updated.

   Server Collection:  A set of fileservers administered as a unit.  A
      server collection may be administered with vendor-specific
      software.

      The namespace provided by a server collection could be part of the
      federated namespace.

   Singleton Server:  A server collection containing only one server; a
      stand-alone fileserver.


9.  References





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9.1.  Normative References

   [3530bis]  Haynes, T. and D. Noveck, "NFS Version 4 Protocol",
              draft-ietf-nfsv4-rfc3530bis (Work In Progress), 2010.

   [RFC2079]  Smith, M., "Definition of an X.500 Attribute Type and an
              Object Class to Hold Uniform Resource Identifiers (URIs)",
              RFC 2079, January 1997.

   [RFC2119]  Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
              Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997.

   [RFC2203]  Eisler, M., Chiu, A., and L. Ling, "RPCSEC_GSS Protocol
              Specification", RFC 2203, September 1997.

   [RFC2578]  McCloghrie, K., Ed., Perkins, D., Ed., and J.
              Schoenwaelder, Ed., "Structure of Management Information
              Version 2 (SMIv2)", STD 58, RFC 2578, April 1999.

   [RFC2743]  Linn, J., "Generic Security Service Application Program
              Interface Version 2, Update 1", RFC 2743, January 2000.

   [RFC2849]  Good, G., "The LDAP Data Interchange Format (LDIF) -
              Technical Specification", RFC 2849, June 2000.

   [RFC3629]  Yergeau, F., "UTF-8, a transformation format of ISO
              10646", STD 63, RFC 3629, November 2003.

   [RFC3986]  Berners-Lee, T., Fielding, R., and L. Masinter, "Uniform
              Resource Identifier (URI): Generic Syntax", STD 66,
              RFC 3986, January 2005.

   [RFC4122]  Leach, P., Mealling, M., and R. Salz, "A Universally
              Unique IDentifier (UUID) URN Namespace", RFC 4122,
              July 2005.

   [RFC4510]  Zeilenga, K., "Lightweight Directory Access Protocol
              (LDAP): Technical Specification Road Map", RFC 4510,
              June 2006.

   [RFC4511]  Sermersheim, J., "Lightweight Directory Access Protocol
              (LDAP): The Protocol", RFC 4511, June 2006.

   [RFC4512]  Zeilenga, K., "Lightweight Directory Access Protocol
              (LDAP): Directory Information Models", RFC 4512,
              June 2006.

   [RFC4513]  Harrison, R., "Lightweight Directory Access Protocol



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              (LDAP): Authentication Methods and Security Mechanisms",
              RFC 4513, June 2006.

   [RFC4516]  Smith, M. and T. Howes, "Lightweight Directory Access
              Protocol (LDAP): Uniform Resource Locator", RFC 4516,
              June 2006.

   [RFC4517]  Legg, S., "Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP):
              Syntaxes and Matching Rules", RFC 4517, June 2006.

   [RFC4519]  Sciberras, A., "Lightweight Directory Access Protocol
              (LDAP): Schema for User Applications", RFC 4519,
              June 2006.

   [RFC4520]  Zeilenga, K., "Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA)
              Considerations for the Lightweight Directory Access
              Protocol (LDAP)", BCP 64, RFC 4520, June 2006.

   [RFC4530]  Zeilenga, K., "Lightweight Directory Access Protocol
              (LDAP) entryUUID Operational Attribute", RFC 4530,
              June 2006.

   [RFC5226]  Narten, T. and H. Alvestrand, "Guidelines for Writing an
              IANA Considerations Section in RFCs", BCP 26, RFC 5226,
              May 2008.

   [RFC5234]  Crocker, D. and P. Overell, "Augmented BNF for Syntax
              Specifications: ABNF", STD 68, RFC 5234, January 2008.

   [RFC5246]  Dierks, T. and E. Rescorla, "The Transport Layer Security
              (TLS) Protocol Version 1.2", RFC 5246, August 2008.

   [RFC5661]  Shepler, S., Eisler, M., and D. Noveck, "Network File
              System (NFS) Version 4 Minor Version 1 Protocol",
              RFC 5661, January 2010.

9.2.  Informative References

   [AFS]      Howard, J., "An Overview of the Andrew File System",
              Proceeding of the USENIX Winter Technical Conference ,
              1988.

   [FEDFS-ADMIN]
              Lentini, J., Everhart, C., Ellard, D., Tewari, R., and M.
              Naik, "Administration Protocol for Federated Filesystems",
              draft-ietf-nfsv4-federated-fs-admin (Work In Progress),
              2010.




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   [MS-CIFS]  Microsoft Corporation, "Common Internet File System (CIFS)
              Protocol Specification", MS-CIFS 2.0, November 2009.

   [MS-SMB]   Microsoft Corporation, "Server Message Block (SMB)
              Protocol Specification", MS-SMB 17.0, November 2009.

   [MS-SMB2]  Microsoft Corporation, "Server Message Block (SMB) Version
              2 Protocol Specification", MS-SMB2 19.0, November 2009.

   [RFC1813]  Callaghan, B., Pawlowski, B., and P. Staubach, "NFS
              Version 3 Protocol Specification", RFC 1813, June 1995.

   [RFC2224]  Callaghan, B., "NFS URL Scheme", RFC 2224, October 1997.

   [RFC3254]  Alvestrand, H., "Definitions for talking about
              directories", RFC 3254, April 2002.

   [RFC5662]  Shepler, S., Eisler, M., and D. Noveck, "Network File
              System (NFS) Version 4 Minor Version 1 External Data
              Representation Standard (XDR) Description", RFC 5662,
              January 2010.

   [RFC5716]  Lentini, J., Everhart, C., Ellard, D., Tewari, R., and M.
              Naik, "Requirements for Federated File Systems", RFC 5716,
              January 2010.

   [RFC6641]  Everhart, C., Adamson, W., and J. Zhang, "Using DNS SRV to
              Specify a Global File Namespace with NFS Version 4",
              RFC 6641, June 2012.


Appendix A.  Acknowledgments

   The authors and editor would like to thank Craig Everhart and Manoj
   Naik, who were co-authors of an earlier version of this document.  In
   addition, we would like to thank Andy Adamson, Paul Lemahieu, Mario
   Wurzl, and Robert Thurlow for helping to author this document.

   We would like to thank George Amvrosiadis, Trond Myklebust, Howard
   Chu, and Nicolas Williams for their comments and review.

   The editor gratefully acknowledges the IESG reviewers, whose
   constructive comments helped make this a much stronger document.

   Finally, we would like to thank Andy Adamson, Rob Thurlow, and Tom
   Haynes for helping to get this document out the door.

   The extract.sh shell script and formatting conventions were first



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   described by the authors of the NFSv4.1 XDR specification [RFC5662].


Authors' Addresses

   James Lentini
   NetApp
   1601 Trapelo Rd, Suite 16
   Waltham, MA  02451
   US

   Phone: +1 781-768-5359
   Email: jlentini@netapp.com


   Daniel Ellard
   Raytheon BBN Technologies
   10 Moulton Street
   Cambridge, MA  02138
   US

   Phone: +1 617-873-8004
   Email: dellard@bbn.com


   Renu Tewari
   IBM Almaden
   650 Harry Rd
   San Jose, CA  95120
   US

   Email: tewarir@us.ibm.com


   Charles Lever (editor)
   Oracle Corporation
   1015 Granger Avenue
   Ann Arbor, MI  48104
   US

   Phone: +1 248-614-5091
   Email: chuck.lever@oracle.com









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