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Versions: (draft-nsis-ext) 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 RFC 5978

Network Working Group                                          J. Manner
Internet-Draft                                                       TKK
Intended status: Informational                                  R. Bless
Expires: September 10, 2009                           Univ. of Karlsruhe
                                                             J. Loughney
                                                                   Nokia
                                                        E B. Davies, Ed.
                                                        Folly Consulting
                                                           March 9, 2009


              Using and Extending the NSIS Protocol Family
                       draft-ietf-nsis-ext-02.txt

Status of this Memo

   This Internet-Draft is submitted to IETF in full conformance with the
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   This Internet-Draft will expire on September 10, 2009.

Copyright Notice



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   Copyright (c) 2009 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
   document authors.  All rights reserved.

   This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
   Provisions Relating to IETF Documents in effect on the date of
   publication of this document (http://trustee.ietf.org/license-info).
   Please review these documents carefully, as they describe your rights
   and restrictions with respect to this document.

Abstract

   This document gives an overview of the Next Steps in Signaling (NSIS)
   framework and protocol suite created by the NSIS working group during
   the period 2001-2009 together with suggestions on how the industry
   can make use of the new protocols, and how the community can exploit
   the extensibility of both the framework and existing protocols to
   address future signaling needs.


































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Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction and History . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  4
   2.  The NSIS Architecture  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  4
   3.  The General Internet Signaling Transport . . . . . . . . . . .  6
   4.  Quality of Service NSLP  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
   5.  NAT/Firewall Traversal NSLP  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
   6.  Deploying the Protocols  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
     6.1.  Obstacles  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
     6.2.  Incremental Deployment and Workarounds . . . . . . . . . . 13
   7.  Security Features  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
   8.  Extending the Protocols  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
     8.1.  Overview of Administrative Actions Needed When
           Extending NSIS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
     8.2.  GIST . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
     8.3.  QoS NSLP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
     8.4.  QoS Specifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
     8.5.  NAT/Firewall NSLP  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
     8.6.  New NSLP protocols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
   9.  Security Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
   10. IANA Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
   11. Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
   12. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
     12.1. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
     12.2. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
   Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25

























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1.  Introduction and History

   The Transport Area Directors held a Next Steps in Signaling (NSIS)
   birds of a feather session on Wednesday 21st March 2001 at the 50th
   IETF meeting in Minneapolis.  The goal of the session was to discuss
   and gather an initial set of requirements for a next generation
   Internet signaling protocol suite as it was felt that the current
   RSVP-based solutions have short-comings, e.g., with respect to
   mobility or QoS interoperability.  The NSIS Working Group was
   officially formed later that year, in November 2001 and had its first
   meeting at the IETF 52 in Salt Lake City in December 2001.

   The initial charter of NSIS was focused on QoS signaling as the first
   use case, taking the Resource ReSerVation Protocol (RSVP) as the
   background for the work.  In May 2003, middlebox traversal was added
   as an explicit second use case.  The requirements for the new
   generation of signaling protocols are documented in [RFC3726] and an
   analysis of existing signaling protocols can be found in [RFC4094].

   The design of NSIS is based on a two-layer model, where a general
   signaling transport layer provides services to an upper signaling
   layer.  The design was influenced by Bob Braden's Internet Draft
   entitled "A Two-Level Architecture for Internet Signaling"
   [I-D.braden-2level-signal-arch].

   This document gives an overview of what the NSIS framework and
   protocol suite is at the time of writing (2008), provides help and
   guidelines to the reader as to how NSIS can be used in an IP network,
   and how the protocol suite can be enhanced to satisfy new use cases.


2.  The NSIS Architecture

   The design of the NSIS protocol suite reuses ideas and concepts from
   RSVP but essentially divides the functionality into two layers.  The
   lower layer, the NSIS Transport Layer Protocol (NTLP), is in charge
   of transporting the higher layer protocol messages to the next
   signaling node on the path.  This includes discovery of the next hop
   NSIS node, which may not be the next routing hop, and different
   transport and security services depending on the signaling
   application requirements.  The General Internet Signaling Transport
   (GIST) [I-D.ietf-nsis-ntlp] has been developed as the protocol that
   fulfills the role of the NTLP.  The NSIS suite supports both IP
   protocol versions, IPv4 and IPv6.

   The actual signaling application logic is implemented in the higher
   layer of the NSIS stack, the NSIS Signaling Layer Protocol (NSLP).
   While GIST is only concerned with transporting NSLP messages hop-by-



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   hop between pairs of signalling nodes, the end-to-end signaling
   functionality is provided by the NSLP protocols if needed - not all
   NSLP protocols need to perform end-to-end signaling, even the current
   protocols have features to confine the signaling to a limited path.
   Messages transmitted by GIST on behalf of an NSLP are identified by a
   unique NSLP identifier (NSLPID) associated with the NSLP.  Two NSLP
   protocols are currently standardized: one concerning Quality of
   Service signaling and one to enable NAT/Firewall traversal.

   NSIS is primarily designed to provide the signaling needed to install
   state on nodes that lie on the path that will be taken by some end-
   to-end flow of data packets in order to facilitate or enhance some
   characteristic of the data flow.  This is achieved by routing
   signaling messages along the same path (known as "path-coupled
   signaling") and intercepting the signaling message at NSIS capable
   nodes.  Parameters carried by the signaling message drive the
   operation of the relevant transport or signaling application.  In
   particular, the messages will carry Message Routing Information (MRI)
   that will allow the NSIS nodes to identify the data flow to which the
   signaling applies.  Generally, the intercepted messages will be
   reinjected into the network after processing by the NSIS entities and
   routed further towards the destination, possibly being intercepted by
   additional NSIS nodes before arriving at the flow endpoint.

   As with RSVP, it is expected that the signaling message will make a
   complete round trip either along the whole end-to-end path or a part
   of it if the scope of the signaling is limited.  This implements a
   two-phase strategy in which capabilities are assessed and provisional
   reservations are made on the outbound leg; these provisional
   reservations are then confirmed and operational state installed on
   the return leg.  Unlike RSVP, signaling is normally initiated at the
   source of the data flow making it easier to ensure that the signaling
   follows the expected path of the data flow, but can also be receiver
   initiated as in RSVP.

   A central concept of NSIS is the Session Identifier (SID).  Signaling
   application states are indexed and referred to through the SID within
   the NSLP layer.  This decouples the state information from IP
   addresses, allowing dynamic IP address changes for signaling flows,
   e.g., due to mobility: changes in IP addresses do not force complete
   tear down and re-initiation of a signaling application state, merely
   an update of the state parameters in the NSLP(s), especially the MRI.

   At the NTLP (GIST) layer the SID is not meaningful by itself, but is
   rather used together with the NSLP identifier (NSLPID) and the
   Message Routing Information (MRI).  This 3-tuple is used by GIST to
   index and manage the signaling flows.  Changes of routing or dynamic
   IP address changes, e.g., due to mobility, will require GIST to



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   modify the Messaging Associations (MAs) that are used to channel NSLP
   messages between adjacent GIST peers in order to satisfy the NSLP MRI
   for each SID.

   The following design restrictions were imposed for the first phase of
   the protocol suite.  They may be lifted in future and new
   functionality may be added into the protocols at some later stage.

   o  Initial focus on MRMs for path-coupled signaling: GIST transports
      messages towards an identified unicast data flow destination based
      on the signaling application request, and does not directly
      support path-decoupled signaling, e.g., QoS signaling to a
      bandwidth broker or other off-path resource manager.  The
      framework also supports a "Loose-End" message routing method used
      to discover GIST nodes with particular properties in the direction
      of a given address, for example the NAT/FW NSLP uses this method
      to discover a NAT along the upstream data path.
   o  No multicast support: Introducing support for multicast was deemed
      too much overhead, considering the currently limited support for
      global IP multicast.  Thus, the current GIST and the NSLP
      specifications consider unicast flows only.

   The key documents specifying the NSIS framework are:

   o  Requirements for Signaling Protocols [RFC3726]
   o  Next Steps in Signaling: Framework [RFC4080]
   o  Security Threats for NSIS [RFC4081]

   The protocols making up the suite specified by the NSIS working group
   are documented in:
   o  The General Internet Signaling Transport protocol
      [I-D.ietf-nsis-ntlp]
   o  Quality of Service NSLP (QoS NSLP) [I-D.ietf-nsis-qos-nslp]
   o  The QoS specification template [I-D.ietf-nsis-qspec]
   o  NAT/Firewall traversal NSLP [I-D.ietf-nsis-nslp-natfw]
   The next three sections provide a brief survey of GIST, the QoS NSLP,
   and the NAT/Firewall NSLP.


3.  The General Internet Signaling Transport

   The General Internet Signaling Transport (GIST) [I-D.ietf-nsis-ntlp]
   provides a signaling transport and security services to NSIS
   Signaling Layer Protocols (NSLP) and the associated signaling
   applications.  GIST does not define new IP transport protocols or
   security mechanisms but rather makes use of existing protocols, such
   as TCP, UDP, TLS and IPsec.  Applications can indicate the desired
   reliability, e.g., unreliable or reliable, and GIST then uses the



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   most appropriate transport protocol to achieve the goal.  If
   applications request also security, GIST uses TLS.  The GIST layered
   protocol stack is shown in Figure 1.



               +-----+ +--------+ +-------+
               |     | |        | |       |
               | QoS | | NAT/FW | |  ...  |       NSLP
               |     | |        | |       |
               +-----+ +--------+ +-------+

  ----------------------------------------------------------------------
               +--------------------------+
               |                          |
               |          GIST            |       NTLP
               |                          |
               +--------------------------+

  ----------------------------------------------------------------------
               +--------------------------+
               |           TLS            |
               +--------------------------+
               +--------------------------+
               | TCP | UDP | SCTP | DCCP  |
               +--------------------------+
               +--------------------------+
               |         IPsec            |
               +--------------------------+
               +--------------------------+
               |    IPv4     |    IPv6    |
               +--------------------------+



                     Figure 1: The NSIS protocol stack

   GIST divides up the end-to-end path to be taken by the data flow into
   a number of segments between pairs of NSIS aware peer nodes located
   along the path.  Not every router or other middlebox on the path
   needs to be NSIS aware: each segment of the signaling path may
   incorporate several routing hops.  Also not every NSIS aware node
   necessarily implements every possible signaling application.  If the
   signaling for a flow requests services from a subset of the
   applications, then only nodes that implement those services are
   expected to participate as peers, and even some of these nodes can
   decline to operate on a particular flow if, for example, the
   additional load might overload the processing capability of the node.



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   These characteristics mean that incremental deployment of NSIS
   capabilities is possible both with the initial protocol suite, and
   for any future NSLP applications that might be developed.  The
   following paragraphs describe how a signaling segment is setup
   offering the transport and security characteristics needed by a
   single NSLP.

   When an NSLP application wants to send a message to its next peer,
   GIST starts the process of discovering the next signaling node by
   sending a Query message towards the destination of the related data
   flow.  This Query carries the NSLP identifier (NSLPID) and Message
   Routing Information (MRI) among others.  The MRI contains enough
   information to control the routing of the signaling message and
   identify the associated data flow.  The next GIST node on the path
   receives the message and if it is running the same NSLP, it provides
   the MRI to the NSLP application and requests it to make a decision on
   whether to peer with the querying node.  If the NSLP application
   chooses to peer, GIST sets up a Message Routing State (MRS) between
   the two nodes for the future exchange of NSLP data.  State setup is
   performed by a three-way handshake that allows for negotiation of
   signaling flow parameters and provides counter-measures against
   several attacks like denial-of-service by using cookie mechanisms and
   a late state installation option.

   If a transport connection is required and needs to provide for
   reliable or secure signaling, like TCP or TLS/TCP, a Messaging
   Association (MA) is established between the two peers.  An MA can be
   re-used for signaling messages concerning several different data
   flows, i.e., signaling messages between two nodes are multiplexed
   over the same transport connection.  This can be done when the
   transport requirements (reliability, security) of a new flow can be
   met with an existing MA, i.e., the security and transport properties
   of an existing MA are equivalent or better than what is requested by
   the new MA.

   For path-coupled signaling, we need to find the nodes on the data
   path that should take part in the signaling of an NSLP and invoke
   them to act on the arrival of such NSLP signaling messages.  The
   basic concept is that such nodes along a flow's data path intercept
   the corresponding signaling packets and are thus discovered
   automatically.  It was originally envisaged that GIST would place a
   Router Alert Option (RAO) in Query message packets to ensure that
   they are intercepted by NSIS aware nodes as in RSVP.

   Late in the development of GIST serious concerns were raised in the
   IETF about the security risks and performance implications of
   extensive usage of the RAO [I-D.rahman-rtg-router-alert-dangerous],
   as well as discovery of evidence that several existing



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   implementations of RAO were inconsistent with the standards and would
   not support the NSIS usage.  There were also concerns that extending
   the need for RAO recognition in the fast path of routers that are
   frequently implemented in hardware would delay or deter
   implementation and deployment of NSIS.  An alternative mechanism was
   therefore standardized.

   The approved version of GIST specifies that NSIS nodes recognise UDP
   packets directed to a specific destination port and containing a GIST
   specific "magic number" as the first 32 bits of the UDP payload as
   Query messages that need to be intercepted.  It is recognised that
   this interception method is not the most efficient possible and GIST
   provides for the use of alternatives, such as the RAO, for specific
   NSLPs as a part of its extensibility design.  Further intentional
   bypassing of signaling nodes can be accomplished either in GIST or in
   the NSLP.

   Since GIST carries information about the data flow inside its
   messages (in the MRI), NAT gateways must be aware of GIST in order to
   let it work correctly.  GIST provides a special object for NAT
   traversal so that the actual translation is disclosed if a GIST-aware
   NAT gateway provides this object.

   As with RSVP, all the state installed by NSIS protocols is "soft-
   state" that will expire and be automatically removed unless it is
   periodically refreshed.  NSIS state is held both at the signaling
   application layer and in the transport layer, and is maintained
   separately.  NSLPs control the lifetime of the state in the
   application layer by setting a timeout and sending periodic "keep
   alive" messages along the signaling path if no other messages are
   required.  The MAs and the routing state are maintained semi-
   independently by the transport layer, because MAs may be used by
   multiple NSLP sessions, and can also be recreated "on demand" if the
   node needs to reclaim resources.  The transport layer can send its
   own "keep alive" messages across a MA if no NSLP messages have been
   sent, for example if the transport layer decides to maintain a
   heavily used MA even though there is no current NSLP session using
   it.  State can also be deleted explicitly when no longer needed.

   If there is a change in the route used by a flow for which NSIS has
   created state, NSIS needs to detect the change in order to determine
   if the new path contains additional NSIS nodes that should have state
   installed.  GIST may use a range of triggers in order to detect a
   route change.  It probes periodically for the next peer by sending a
   GIST Query, thereby detecting a changed route and GIST peer.  GIST
   monitors routing tables, the GIST peer states, and notifies NSLPs of
   any routing changes.  It is then up to the NSLPs to act
   appropriately, if needed, e.g., by issuing a refresh message.  The



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   periodic queries also serve to maintain the soft-state in nodes as
   long as the route is unchanged.

   In summary, GIST provides several services in one package to the
   upper layer signaling protocols:

   o  Signaling peer discovery: GIST is able to find the next hop node
      that runs the NSLP being signaled for.
   o  Multiplexing: GIST reuses already established signaling
      relationships and messaging associations to peers if the signaling
      flows traverse the same next signaling hop.
   o  Transport: GIST provides transport with different attributes,
      namely reliable/unreliable and secure/unsecure.
   o  Confidentiality: If security is requested, GIST uses TLS to
      provide an encrypted and integrity protected message transport to
      the next signaling peer.
   o  Routing changes: GIST detects routing changes, but instead of
      acting on its own, it merely sends a notification to the local
      NSLP.  It is then up to the NSLP to act.
   o  Fragmentation: GIST uses either a known Path MTU for the next hop
      or limits its message size to 576 bytes.  If fragmentation is
      required it automatically establishes an MA and sends the
      signaling traffic over a reliable protocol, e.g., TCP.
   o  State maintenance: GIST establishes and then maintains the soft-
      state that controls communications through MAs between GIST peers
      along the signaling path, according to usage parameters supplied
      by NSLPs and local policies.


4.  Quality of Service NSLP

   The Quality of Service (QoS) NSIS Signaling Layer Protocol (NSLP)
   establishes and maintains state at nodes along the path of a data
   flow for the purpose of providing some forwarding resources for that
   flow.  It is intended to satisfy the QoS-related requirements of RFC
   3726 [RFC3726].  No support for QoS architectures based on bandwidth
   brokers or other off-path resource managers is currently included.

   The design of the QoS NSLP is conceptually similar to RSVP, RFC 2205
   [RFC2205], and uses soft-state peer-to-peer refresh messages as the
   primary state management mechanism (i.e., state installation/refresh
   is performed between pairs of adjacent NSLP nodes, rather than in an
   end-to-end fashion along the complete signaling path).  The QoS NSLP
   extends the set of reservation mechanisms to meet the requirements of
   RFC 3726 [RFC3726], in particular support of sender or receiver-
   initiated reservations, as well as, a type of bi-directional
   reservation and support of reservations between arbitrary nodes,
   e.g., edge-to-edge, end-to-access, etc.  On the other hand, there is



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   currently no support for IP multicast.

   A distinction is made between the operation of the signaling protocol
   and the information required for the operation of the Resource
   Management Function (RMF).  RMF-related information is carried in the
   QSpec (QoS Specification) object in QoS NSLP messages.  This is
   similar to the decoupling between RSVP and the IntServ architecture,
   RFC 1633 [RFC1633].  The QSpec carries information on resources
   available, resources required, traffic descriptions and other
   information required by the RMF.  A template for Qspec objects is
   defined in [I-D.ietf-nsis-qspec].  This provides a number of basic
   parameter objects that can be used as a common language to specify
   components of concrete QoS models.  The objects defined in
   [I-D.ietf-nsis-qspec] provide the building blocks for many existing
   QoS models such as those associated with RSVP and Differentiated
   Services.  The extensibility of the template allows new QoS model
   specifications to extend the template language as necessary to
   support these specifications.

   The QoS NSLP supports different QoS models, because it does not
   define the QoS mechanisms and RMF that have to be used in a domain.
   As long as a domain knows how to perform admission control for a
   given QSpec, QoS NSLP actually does not care how the specified
   constraints are enforced and met, e.g., by putting the related data
   flow in the topmost of four DiffServ classes, or by putting it into
   the third highest of twelve DiffServ classes.  The particular QoS
   configuration used is up to the network provider of the domain.  The
   QSpec can be seen as a common language to express QoS requirements
   between different domains and QoS models.

   In short, the functionality of the QoS NSLP includes:
   o  Conveying resource requests for unicast flows
   o  Resource requests (QSpec) that are decoupled from the signaling
      protocol (QoS NSLP)
   o  Sender- and receiver-initiated reservations, as well as, bi-
      directional
   o  Soft-state and reduced refresh (keep-alive) signaling
   o  Session binding, session X can be valid only if session Y is too
   o  Message scoping, end-to-end, edge-to-edge or end-to-edge (proxy
      mode)
   o  Protection against message re-ordering and duplication
   o  Group tear, tearing down several session with a single message
   o  Support for re-routing, e.g., due to mobility
   o  Support for request priorities and preemption
   o  Stateful and stateless nodes: stateless operation is particularly
      relevant in core networks where large amounts of QoS state could
      easily overwhelm a node




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   o  Reservation aggregation
   The protocol also provides for a proxy mode to allow the QoS
   signaling to be implemented without needing all end hosts to be
   capable of handling NSIS signaling.

   The QSpec Template supports situations where the QoS parameters need
   to be fine-grained, specifically targeted to an individual flow in
   one part of the network (typically the edge or access part) but might
   need to be more coarse-grained, where the flow is part of an
   aggregate (typically in the core of the network).


5.  NAT/Firewall Traversal NSLP

   The NAT/Firewall Traversal NSLP [I-D.ietf-nsis-nslp-natfw] lets end-
   hosts interact with NAT and firewall devices in the data path.
   Basically it allows for a dynamic configuration of NATs and/or
   firewalls along the data path in order to enable data flows to
   traverse these devices without being obstructed.  For instance,
   firewall pinholes could be opened on demand by authorized hosts.
   Furthermore, it is possible to block unwanted incoming traffic on
   demand, e.g., if an end-host is under attack.

   Configurations to be implemented in NAT and firewall devices
   signalled by the NAT/Firewall NSLP take the form of a (Pattern,
   Action) pair, where the pattern specifies a template for packet
   header fields to be matched.  The device is then expected to apply
   the specified action to any passing packet that matches the template.
   Actions are currently limited to ALLOW (forward the packet) and DENY
   (drop the packet).  The template specification allows for a greater
   range of packet fields to be matched than those allowed for in the
   GIST MRI.

   Basically NAT/Firewall signaling starts at the data sender (NSIS
   Initiator) before any actual application data packets are sent.
   Signaling messages may pass several NAT/Firewall NSLP-aware
   middleboxes (NSIS Forwarder) on their way downstream and usually hit
   the receiver (being the NSIS Responder).  A proxy mode is also
   available for cases where the NAT/Firewall NSLP is not fully
   supported along the complete data path.  NAT/Firewall NSLP is based
   on a soft-state concept, i.e., the sender must periodically repeat
   its request in order to keep it active.

   Additionally, the protocol also provides functions for receivers
   behind NATs.  The receiver may request an external address that is
   reachable from outside.  The reserved external address must, however,
   be communicated to the sender out-of-band by other means, e.g., by
   application level signaling.  After this step the data sender may



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   initiate a normal NAT/Firewall signaling in order to create firewall
   pinholes.

   The protocol also provides for a proxy mode to allow the NAT/Firewall
   signaling to be implemented without needing all end hosts to be
   capable of handling NSIS signaling.


6.  Deploying the Protocols

   First of all, NSIS implementations must be available in at least some
   of the corresponding network nodes (i.e., routers, firewalls, or NAT
   gateways) and end-hosts.  That means not only GIST support, but also
   the NSLPs and their respective control functions (such as a resource
   management function for QoS admission control etc.) must be
   implemented.  NSIS is capable of incremental deployment and an
   initial deployment does not need to involve every node in a network
   domain.  This is discussed further in Section 6.2.

   Another important issue is that applications may need to be made
   NSIS-aware, thereby requiring some effort on the applications
   programmer's behalf.  Alternatively, it may be possible to implement
   separate applications to control, e.g., the network QoS requests or
   firewall pinholes, without needing to update the actual applications
   that will take advantage of NSIS capabilities.

6.1.  Obstacles

   Although GIST is no longer dependent on RAO (there is known to be
   network equipment with broken implementations of the RAO deployed),
   if NSIS is to be deployed in routers with hardware-based forwarding
   engines it is not guaranteed that the hardware will be able to divert
   Query packets identified by a well-known UDP port into the slow path,
   which will make deployment of NSIS dependent on hardware replacement
   rather than software upgrade.  However, the removal of dependence on
   RAO makes it more likely that NSIS Query packets can be forwarded
   through nodes that are not NSIS aware.

   NAT gateways and firewalls may also hinder initial deployment of NSIS
   protocols as they may either filter signaling traffic or perform
   NSIS-unaware address translations.

6.2.  Incremental Deployment and Workarounds

   NSIS is specifically designed to be incrementally deployable.  It is
   not required that all nodes on the signaling and data path are NSIS
   aware.  To make any use of NSIS at least two nodes on the path need
   to be NSIS aware.  However, it is not essential that the initiator



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   and receiver of the data flow are NSIS aware.  Both the QoS and NAT/
   Firewall NSLPs provide "proxy modes" in which nodes adjacent to the
   initiator and/or receiver can act as proxy signaling initiator or
   receiver.  An initiator proxy can monitor traffic and, hopefully,
   detect when a data flow of a type needing NSIS support is being
   initiated.  The proxies can act more or less transparently on behalf
   of the data flow initiator and/or receiver to set up the required
   NSIS state and maintain it while the data flow continues.  This
   capability reduces the immediate need to modify all the data flow end
   points before NSIS is viable.


7.  Security Features

   Basic security functions are provided at the GIST layer, e.g.,
   protection against some blind or denial-of-service attacks, but note
   that introduction of alternative MRMs may provide attack avenues that
   are not present with the current emphasis on the path-coupled MRM.
   Conceptually it is difficult to protect against on-path attacker and
   man-in-the-middle attacks when using path-coupled MRMs, because a
   basic functionality of GIST is to discover yet unknown signaling
   peers.  Transport security can be requested by signaling applications
   and is realized by using TLS between signaling peers, i.e.,
   authenticity and confidentiality of signaling messages can be assured
   between peers.  GIST allows for mutual authentication of the
   signaling peers (using TLS means like certificates) and can verify
   the authenticated identity against a database of nodes authorized to
   take part in GIST signaling.  It is, however, a matter of policy that
   the identity of peers is verified and accepted upon establishment of
   the secure TLS connection.

   While GIST is handling authentication of peer nodes, more fine
   grained authorization may be required in the NSLP protocols.  There
   is currently an ongoing work to specify common authorization
   mechanisms to be used in NSLP protocols [I-D.manner-nsis-nslp-auth],
   thus allowing, e.g., per-user and per-service authorization.


8.  Extending the Protocols

   This section discusses the ways that are available to extend the NSIS
   protocol suite.  The Next Steps in Signaling (NSIS) Framework
   [RFC4080] describes a two-layer framework for signaling on the
   Internet, comprising a generic transport layer with specific
   signaling layers to address particular applications running over this
   transport layer.  The model is designed to be highly extensible so
   that it can be adapted for different signaling needs.




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   It is expected that additional signaling requirements will be
   identified in future.  The two layer approach allows for NSLP
   signaling applications to be developed independently of the transport
   protocol.  Further NSLPs can therefore be developed and deployed to
   meet these new needs using the same GIST infrastructure thereby
   providing a level of macro-extensibility.  However, the GIST protocol
   and the two signaling applications have been designed so that
   additional capabilities can be incorporated into the design should
   additional requirements within the general scope of these protocols
   need to be accommodated.

   The NSIS framework is also highly supportive of incremental
   deployment.  A new NSLP need not be available on every NSIS aware
   node in a network or along a signaling path in order to start using
   it.  Nodes that do not (yet) support the application will forward it
   without complaint until it reaches a node where the new NSLP
   application is deployed.

   One key functionality of parameter objects carried in NSIS protocols
   is the so-called "Extensibility flags (AB)".  All the existing
   protocols (and any future ones conforming to the standards) can carry
   new experimental objects, where the AB-flags can indicate whether a
   receiving node must interpret the object, or whether it can just drop
   them or pass them along in subsequent messages sent out further on
   the path.  This functionality allows defining new objects without
   forcing all network entities to understand them.

8.1.  Overview of Administrative Actions Needed When Extending NSIS

   Generally, NSIS protocols can be extended in multiple ways, many of
   which require the allocation of unique code point values in
   registries maintained by IANA on behalf of the IETF.  This section is
   an overview of the administrative mechanisms that might apply.  The
   extensibility rules are based upon the procedures by which IANA
   assigns values: "Standards Action" (as defined in [IANA]), "IETF
   Action", "Expert Review", and "Organization/Vendor Private", defined
   below.  The appropriate procedure for a particular type of code point
   is defined in one or other of the NSIS protocol documents, mostly
   [I-D.ietf-nsis-ntlp].

   In addition to registered code points, all NSIS protocols provide
   code points that can be used for experimentation, usually within
   closed networks, as explained in [RFC3692].  There is no guarantee
   that independent experiments will not be using the same code point!







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8.2.  GIST

   GIST is extensible in several aspects.  In this list, references to
   document sections refer to the GIST specification
   [I-D.ietf-nsis-ntlp].
   o  Use of different Message Routing Methods: currently only two
      message routing methods are supported (Path-coupled MRM and Loose-
      End MRM), but further MRMs may be defined in the future.  See
      Section 3.8.  One possible additional MRM under development is
      documented in [I-D.bless-nsis-est-mrm].  This MRM would direct
      signaling towards an explicit target address other than the
      (current) data flow destination and is intended to assist setting
      up of state on a new path during 'make-before-break' handover
      sequences in mobile operations.  Note that alternative routing
      methods may require modifications to the firewall traversal
      techniques used by GIST and NSLPs.
      *  New MRMs require allocation of a new MRM-ID either by standards
         action or expert review[I-D.ietf-nsis-ntlp].
   o  Use of different transport protocols or security capabilities: the
      initial handshake allows a negotiation of the transport protocols
      to be used.  Currently, a proposal to add DCCP and DTLS to GIST
      exists [I-D.manner-nsis-gist-dccp].  See Sections 3.2 and 5.7.
      GIST expects alternative capabilities to be treated as selection
      of an alternative protocol stack.  Within the protocol stack, the
      individual protocols used are specified by MA Protocol IDs which
      are allocated from an IANA registry if new protocols are to be
      used.  See Sections 5.7 and 9.
      *  Use of an alternative transport protocol or security capability
         requires allocation of a new MA-Protocol-ID either by standards
         action or expert review[I-D.ietf-nsis-ntlp].
   o  Use of alternative security services: Currently only TLS is
      specified for providing secure channels with MAs.  Section 3.9
      suggests that alternative protocols could be used, but the
      interactions with GIST functions would need to be carefully
      specified.  See also Section 4.4.2.
      *  Use of an alternative security service requires allocation of a
         new MA-Protocol-ID either by standards action or expert
         review[I-D.ietf-nsis-ntlp].
   o  Query mode packet interception schemes: GIST has standardized a
      simple scheme using a well-known UDP port number plus a "magic
      number" at the start of the UDP payload.  Alternative schemes,
      possibly including a reversion to the original proposal to use RAO
      mechanisms[I-D.hancock-nsis-gist-rao], can be specified as
      extensions.  See Sections 5.3.2 and 5.3.2.5.  Each NSLP needs to
      specify membership of an "interception class" whenever it sends a
      message through GIST.  A packet interception scheme can support
      one or more interception classes.  In principle, a GIST instance
      can support multiple packet interception schemes, but each



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      interception class needs to be associated with exactly one
      interception scheme in a GIST instance and GIST instances that use
      different packet interception schemes for the same interception
      class will not be interoperable.

      Defining an alternative interception class mechanism for
      incorporation into GIST should be considered as a very radical
      step and all alternatives should be considered before taking this
      path.  The main reason for this is that the mechanism will
      necessarily require additional operations on every packet passing
      through the affected router interfaces.  A number of
      considerations should be taken into account:
      *  Although the interception mechanism need only be deployed on
         routers that actually need it (probably for a new NSLP),
         deployment may be constrained if the mechanism requires
         modification to the hardware of relevant routers and/or needs
         to await modification of the software by the router vendor.
      *  Any packet fields to be examined should be normally close to
         the start of the packet so that additional memory accesses are
         not needed to retrieve the values needed for examination.
      *  The logic required to determine if a packet should be
         intercepted needs to be kept simple to minimise the extra per-
         packet processing.
      *  The mechanism should be applicable to both IPv4 and IPv6
         packets.
      *  Packet interception mechanisms potentially provide an attack
         path for Denial of Service attacks on routers, in that packets
         are diverted into the "slow path" and hence can significantly
         increase the load on the general processing capability of the
         router.  Any new interception mechanism needs to be carefully
         designed to minimize the attack surface.
      Packet interception mechanisms are identified by an "interception
      class" which is supplied to GIST through the Application
      Programming Interface for each message sent.
      *  New packet interception mechanisms will generally require
         allocation of one or more new Interception-class-IDs.  This
         does not necessarily need to be placed in an IANA registry as
         it is primarily used as a parameter in the API between the
         NSLPs and GIST and may never appear on the wire, depending on
         the mechanism employed; all that is required is consistent
         interpretation between the NSLPs and GIST in each applicable
         node.  However, if, as is the case in the RAO proposal
         [I-D.hancock-nsis-gist-rao], the scheme distinguishes between
         multiple packet interception classes by a value carried on the
         wire (different values of RAO parameter for the RAO proposal),
         an IANA registry may be required to provide a mapping between
         interception classes and on-the-wire values as discussed in
         Section 6 of [I-D.hancock-nsis-gist-rao].



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   o  Use of alternative NAT traversal mechanisms: the mechanisms
      proposed for both legacy NAT traversal (Section 7.2.1) and GIST-
      aware NAT traversal (Section 7.2.2) can be extended or replaced.
      As discussed above, extension of NAT traversal may be needed if a
      new MRM is deployed.  Note that there is extensive discussion of
      NAT traversal in the NAT/Firewall NSLP specification
      [I-D.ietf-nsis-nslp-natfw].
   o  Additional error identifiers: Making extensions to any of the
      above items may result in new error modes having to be catered
      for.  See Section 9 and Appendix A Sections A.4.1 - A.4.3.
      *  Additional error identifiers require allocation of new error
         code(s) and/or subcode(s), and may also require allocation of
         Additional Information types.  These are all allocated on a
         first-come, first-served basis by IANA [I-D.ietf-nsis-ntlp].
   o  Generally: the AB-flags enable the community to specify new
      objects applicable to GIST, that can be carried inside a signaling
      session without breaking existing implementations.  The AB-flags
      can also be used to indicate in a controlled fashion that a
      certain object must be understood by all GIST nodes, which makes
      it possible to probe for the support of an extension.  One such
      object already designed is the "Peering Information Object (PIO)"
      [I-D.manner-nsis-peering-data] that allows a QUERY message to
      carry additional peering data for the recipient for making the
      peering decision.
      *  New objects require allocation of a new Object Type ID either
         by standards action or provision of another type of
         specification [I-D.ietf-nsis-ntlp].
   o  Major modifications could be made by adding additional GIST
      message types and defining appropriate processing.  It might be
      necessary to define this as a new version of the protocol.  A
      field is provided in the GIST Common Header containing the version
      number.  GIST currently has no provision for version or capability
      negotiation that might be needed if a new version was defined.
      *  New GIST Message Types require allocation of a new GIST Message
         Type ID either by standards action or expert review
         [I-D.ietf-nsis-ntlp].
   Finally, and more generally, as asserted in Section 1 of the GIST
   specification, the GIST design could be extended to cater for
   multicast flows and for situations where the signaling is not tied to
   an end-to-end data flow, but it is not clear whether this could be
   done in a totally backwards compatible way, and is not considered
   within the extensibility model of NSIS.

8.3.  QoS NSLP

   The QoS NSLP provides signaling for QoS reservations on the Internet.
   The QoS NSLP decouples the resource reservation model or architecture
   (QoS model) from the signaling.  The signaling protocol is defined in



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   Quality of Service NSLP (QoS NSLP) [I-D.ietf-nsis-qos-nslp].  The QoS
   models are defined in separate specifications and the QoS NSLP can
   operate with one or more of these models as required by the
   environment where it is used.  It is anticipated that additional QoS
   models will be developed to address various Internet scenarios in the
   future.  Extensibility of QoS models is considered in Section 8.4.

   The QoS NSLP specifically mentions the possibility of using
   alternative Message Routing Methods (MRMs), apart from the general
   ability to extend NSLPs using new objects with the standard "AB"
   extensibility flags to allow them to be used in new and old
   implementations.

   There is already work to extend the base QoS NSLP and GIST to enable
   new QoS signaling scenarios.  One such proposal is the Inter-Domain
   Reservation Aggregation aiming to support large-scale deployment of
   the QoS NSLP [I-D.bless-nsis-resv-aggr].  Another current proposal
   seeks to extend the whole NSIS framework towards path-decoupled
   signaling and QoS reservations [I-D.cordeiro-nsis-hypath].

8.4.  QoS Specifications

   The QoS Specification template (QSpec) is defined in
   [I-D.ietf-nsis-qspec].  This provides the language in which the
   requirements of specific QoS models are described.  Introduction of
   new QoS models requires IETF action, with the published document
   defining the specific elements within the QSpec used in the new
   model.  See [I-D.ietf-nsis-qspec] for details.

   The introduction of new QoS models is designed to enable deployment
   of NSIS-based QoS control in specific scenarios.  One such example is
   the Integrated Services Controlled Load Service for NSIS
   [I-D.kappler-nsis-qosmodel-controlledload].

   A key feature provided by defining the QSpec template is support of a
   common language for describing QoS requirements and capabilities,
   which can be reused by any QoS models intending to use the QoS NSLP
   to signal their requirements for traffic flows.  The commonality of
   the QSpec parameters ensures a certain level of interoperability of
   QoS models and reduces the demands on hardware that has to implement
   the QoS control.  Optional QSpec parameters support the extensibility
   of the QoS NSLP to other QoS models in the future; new QSpec
   parameters can be defined in the document that defines a new QoS
   model.  See Sections 4.4 and 7 of [I-D.ietf-nsis-qspec].

   The QSPEC consists of a QSPEC version number, QSPEC objects plus
   specification of processing and procedures that can be used to build
   many QoS models.  If changes are made to the QSPEC that are not



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   backwards compatible, a new QSPEC version number has to be assigned.
   Note that a new QSPEC version number is not needed just because new
   additional QSPEC parameters are specified; new versions will be
   needed only if the existing functionality is modified.  It is
   required that later QSPEC versions be backward compatible with
   earlier QSPEC versions.  The template includes version negotiation
   procedures that allow the originator of an NSLP message to retry with
   a lower QSPEC version if the receiver rejects a message because it
   does not support the QSPEC version signaled in the message.
   o  Creation of a new, incompatible version of an existing Qspec
      requires allocation of a new QSPEC version number by standards
      action.  See [I-D.ietf-nsis-qspec].
   o  Completely new QSPECs can also be created.  Such new QSPECs
      require allocation of a QSPEC type by standards action.  Values
      are also available for local or experimental use during
      development.  See [I-D.ietf-nsis-qspec].
   o  Additional QSPEC procedures can be defined requiring allocation of
      a new QSPEC procedure number by standards action or through a
      another specification document.  Values are also available for
      local or experimental use during development.  See
      [I-D.ietf-nsis-qspec].
   o  Additional QSPEC parameters and associated error codes can be
      defined requiring a specification document.  Values are also
      available for local or experimental use during development.  See
      [I-D.ietf-nsis-qspec].

8.5.  NAT/Firewall NSLP

   The NAT/Firewall signaling can be extended broadly in the same way as
   the QoS NSLP by defining new parameters to be carried in NAT/Firewall
   NSLP messages.  See Section 7 of [I-D.ietf-nsis-nslp-natfw].  No
   proposals currently exist to fulfill new use cases for the protocol.

8.6.  New NSLP protocols

   Designing a new NSLP is both challenging and easy.

   New signaling applications with associated NSLPs can be defined to
   work in parallel or replace the applications already defined by the
   NSIS working group.  Applications that fit into the NSIS framework
   will be expected to use GIST to provide transport of signaling
   messages and appropriate security facilities which relieves the
   application designer of many "lower level" problems.  GIST provides
   many important functions through its service layer API, and allows
   the signaling application programmer to offload, e.g., the channel
   security, transport characteristics and signaling node discovery to
   GIST.




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   Yet, on the other hand, the signaling application designer must take
   into account that the network environment can be dynamic, both in
   terms of routing and node availability.  The new NSLP designer must
   take into account at least the following issues:

   o  Routing changes, e.g., due to mobility: GIST sends Network
      Notifications when something happens in the network, e.g., peers
      or routing paths change.  All signaling applications must be able
      to handle these notifications and act appropriately.  GIST does
      not include logic to figure out what the NSLP would want to do due
      to a certain network event.  Therefore, GIST gives the
      notification to the application, and lets it make the right
      decision.
   o  GIST indications: GIST will also send other notifications, e.g.,
      if a signaling peer does not reply to refresh messages, or a
      certain NSLP message was not successfully delivered to the
      recipient.  Again, NSLP applications must be able to handle these
      events, too.  Appendix B in the GIST specification discusses the
      GIST-NSLP API and the various functionality required, but
      implementing this interface can be quite challenging; the
      multitude of asynchronous notifications than can from GIST
      increases the implementation complexity of the NSLP.
   o  Lifetime of the signaling flow: NSLPs should inform GIST when a
      flow is no longer needed using the SetStateLifetime primitive.
      This reduces bandwidth demands in the network.
   o  NSLP IDs: NSLP messages may be multiplexed over GIST MAs.  The new
      NSLP needs to use a unique NSLPID to ensure that its messages are
      delivered to the correct application by GIST.  A single NSLP could
      use multiple NSLPIDs, for example to distinguish different classes
      of signaling nodes that might handle different levels of
      aggregation of requests or alternative processing paths.  Note
      that unlike GIST, the NSLPs do not provide a protocol versioning
      mechanism.  If the new NSLP is an upgraded version of an existing
      NSLP, then it should be distinguished by a different NSLPID.
      *  A new generally available NSLP requires IESG approval for the
         allocation of a new NSLP ID [I-D.ietf-nsis-ntlp].
   o  Source IP address: It is sometimes challenging to find out at the
      NSLP, what will the source IP address be, especially when a node
      has multiple interfaces.  Moreover, the logic in specifying the
      source IP address may differ if the node processing an NSLP
      message is the source of the signaling flow, or an intermediate
      node on the signaling.  Thus, the NSLP must be able to find out
      the right source IP address from its internal interfaces, and its
      location on the signaling.
   o  New MRMs: GIST defines currently two Message Routing Methods, and
      leave the door open for new ideas.  Thus, it is possible that a
      new NSLP also requires a new MRM, path-decoupled routing being one
      example.



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   o  Cooperation with other NSLPs: Some applications might need
      resources from two or more different classes in order to operate
      successfully.  The NSLPs managing these resources could operate
      cooperatively to ensure that such requests were coordinated to
      avoid wasting signaling bandwidth and prevent race conditions.

   The API between GIST and NSLPs (see Appendix B in
   [I-D.ietf-nsis-ntlp]) is very important to understand.  The abstract
   design in the GIST specification does not specify the exact messaging
   between GIST and the NSLPs but gives an understanding of the
   interactions, especially what kinds of asynchronous notifications
   from GIST the NSLP must be prepared to handle: the actual interface
   will be dependent on each implementation of GIST.

   Messages transmitted by GIST on behalf of an NSLP are identified by a
   unique NSLP identifier (NSLPID).  NSLPIDs are 16 bit unsigned numbers
   taken from a registry managed by IANA and defined in Section 9 of the
   GIST specification [I-D.ietf-nsis-ntlp].

   A range of values (32704-32767) is available for Private and
   Experimental use during development, but any new signaling
   application that expects to be deployed generally on the Internet
   needs to be defined either in a standards track RFC or, possibly, an
   experimental RFC.  Such an RFC would request allocation of unique
   NSLPID value(s) from the IANA registry.  There is additional
   discussion of NSLPIDs in Section 3.8 of the GIST specification.


9.  Security Considerations

   This document provides information to the community.  It does not
   raise new security concerns.


10.  IANA Considerations

   This memo includes no request to IANA.


11.  Acknowledgements

   This document combines work previously published as two separate
   drafts: "What is Next Steps in Signaling anyway - A User's Guide to
   the NSIS Protocol Family" written by Roland Bless and Jukka Manner,
   and "NSIS Extensibility Model" written by John Loughney.

   Max Laier, Nuutti Varis and Lauri Liuhto have provided reviews of
   "User's Guide" draft and valuable input.



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   The "Extensibility Model" borrowed some ideas and some text from
   RFC3936 [RFC3936], Procedures for Modifying the Resource ReSerVation
   Protocol (RSVP); Robert Hancock provided text for the original GIST
   section, since much modified and Claudia Keppler have provided
   feedback on this draft, while Allison Mankin and Bob Braden suggested
   that this draft be worked on.


12.  References

12.1.  Normative References

   [I-D.ietf-nsis-nslp-natfw]
              Stiemerling, M., Tschofenig, H., Aoun, C., and E. Davies,
              "NAT/Firewall NSIS Signaling Layer Protocol (NSLP)",
              draft-ietf-nsis-nslp-natfw-20 (work in progress),
              November 2008.

   [I-D.ietf-nsis-ntlp]
              Schulzrinne, H. and R. Hancock, "GIST: General Internet
              Signalling Transport", draft-ietf-nsis-ntlp-17 (work in
              progress), October 2008.

   [I-D.ietf-nsis-qos-nslp]
              Manner, J., Karagiannis, G., and A. McDonald, "NSLP for
              Quality-of-Service Signaling", draft-ietf-nsis-qos-nslp-16
              (work in progress), February 2008.

   [I-D.ietf-nsis-qspec]
              Ash, G., Bader, A., Kappler, C., and D. Oran, "QoS NSLP
              QSPEC Template", draft-ietf-nsis-qspec-21 (work in
              progress), November 2008.

   [RFC3726]  Brunner, M., "Requirements for Signaling Protocols",
              RFC 3726, April 2004.

   [RFC4080]  Hancock, R., Karagiannis, G., Loughney, J., and S. Van den
              Bosch, "Next Steps in Signaling (NSIS): Framework",
              RFC 4080, June 2005.

   [RFC4081]  Tschofenig, H. and D. Kroeselberg, "Security Threats for
              Next Steps in Signaling (NSIS)", RFC 4081, June 2005.

12.2.  Informative References

   [I-D.bless-nsis-est-mrm]
              Bless, R., "An Explicit Signaling Target Message Routing
              Method (EST-MRM) for the  General Internet Signaling



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              Transport (GIST) Protocol", draft-bless-nsis-est-mrm-01
              (work in progress), July 2008.

   [I-D.bless-nsis-resv-aggr]
              Doll, M. and R. Bless, "Inter-Domain Reservation
              Aggregation for QoS NSLP", draft-bless-nsis-resv-aggr-01
              (work in progress), July 2007.

   [I-D.braden-2level-signal-arch]
              Braden, R. and B. Lindell, "A Two-Level Architecture for
              Internet Signaling", draft-braden-2level-signal-arch-01
              (work in progress), November 2002.

   [I-D.cordeiro-nsis-hypath]
              Cordeiro, L., Curado, M., Monteiro, E., Bernardo, V.,
              Palma, D., Racaru, F., Diaz, M., and C. Chassot, "GIST
              Extension for Hybrid On-path Off-path Signaling (HyPath)",
              draft-cordeiro-nsis-hypath-05 (work in progress),
              February 2008.

   [I-D.hancock-nsis-gist-rao]
              Hancock, R., "Using the Router Alert Option for Packet
              Interception in GIST", draft-hancock-nsis-gist-rao-00
              (work in progress), November 2008.

   [I-D.kappler-nsis-qosmodel-controlledload]
              Kappler, C., Fu, X., and B. Schloer, "A QoS Model for
              Signaling IntServ Controlled-Load Service with NSIS",
              draft-kappler-nsis-qosmodel-controlledload-08 (work in
              progress), August 2008.

   [I-D.manner-nsis-gist-dccp]
              Manner, J., "Generic Internet Signaling Transport over
              DCCP and DTLS", draft-manner-nsis-gist-dccp-00 (work in
              progress), June 2007.

   [I-D.manner-nsis-nslp-auth]
              Manner, J., Stiemerling, M., Tschofenig, H., and R. Bless,
              "Authorization for NSIS Signaling Layer Protocols",
              draft-manner-nsis-nslp-auth-04 (work in progress),
              July 2008.

   [I-D.manner-nsis-peering-data]
              Manner, J., Liuhto, L., Varis, N., and T. Huovila,
              "Peering Data for NSIS Signaling Layer Protocols",
              draft-manner-nsis-peering-data-01 (work in progress),
              February 2008.




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   [I-D.rahman-rtg-router-alert-dangerous]
              Rahman, R. and D. Ward, "Use of IP Router Alert Considered
              Dangerous", draft-rahman-rtg-router-alert-dangerous-00
              (work in progress), October 2008.

   [RFC1633]  Braden, B., Clark, D., and S. Shenker, "Integrated
              Services in the Internet Architecture: an Overview",
              RFC 1633, June 1994.

   [RFC2205]  Braden, B., Zhang, L., Berson, S., Herzog, S., and S.
              Jamin, "Resource ReSerVation Protocol (RSVP) -- Version 1
              Functional Specification", RFC 2205, September 1997.

   [RFC3692]  Narten, T., "Assigning Experimental and Testing Numbers
              Considered Useful", BCP 82, RFC 3692, January 2004.

   [RFC3936]  Kompella, K. and J. Lang, "Procedures for Modifying the
              Resource reSerVation Protocol (RSVP)", BCP 96, RFC 3936,
              October 2004.

   [RFC4094]  Manner, J. and X. Fu, "Analysis of Existing Quality-of-
              Service Signaling Protocols", RFC 4094, May 2005.


Authors' Addresses

   Jukka Manner
   Helsinki University of Technology (TKK)
   P.O. Box 3000
   Espoo  FIN-02015 TKK
   Finland

   Phone: +358 9 451 2481
   Email: jukka.manner@tkk.fi
   URI:   http://www.netlab.tkk.fi/~jmanner/


   Roland Bless
   Institute of Telematics, Universitaet Karlsruhe (TH)
   Zirkel 2
   Karlsruhe  76128
   Germany

   Phone: +49 721 608 6413
   Email: bless@tm.uka.de
   URI:   http://www.tm.uka.de/~bless





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   John Loughney
   Nokia
   955 Page Mill Road
   Palo Alto  94303
   USA

   Phone: +1 650 283 8068
   Email: john.loughney@nokia.com


   Elwyn Davies (editor)
   Folly Consulting
   Soham,
   UK

   Phone:
   Fax:
   Email: elwynd@folly.org.uk
   URI:   http://www.folly.org.uk
































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