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Versions: (draft-fu-nsis-ntlp-statemachine) 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 RFC 5972

NSIS                                                           T. Tsenov
Internet-Draft                                             H. Tschofenig
Intended status: Informational                    Nokia Siemens Networks
Expires: August 10, 2010                                           X. Fu
                                                        Univ. Goettingen
                                                                 C. Aoun
                                                               E. Davies
                                                        Folly Consulting
                                                       February 10, 2010

                           GIST State Machine
                draft-ietf-nsis-ntlp-statemachine-09.txt

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   This document may contain material from IETF Documents or IETF



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   Contributions published or made publicly available before November
   10, 2008.  The person(s) controlling the copyright in some of this
   material may not have granted the IETF Trust the right to allow
   modifications of such material outside the IETF Standards Process.
   Without obtaining an adequate license from the person(s) controlling
   the copyright in such materials, this document may not be modified
   outside the IETF Standards Process, and derivative works of it may
   not be created outside the IETF Standards Process, except to format
   it for publication as an RFC or to translate it into languages other
   than English.

Abstract

   This document describes the state machines for the General Internet
   Signaling Transport (GIST). The states of GIST nodes for a given flow
   and their transitions are presented in order to illustrate how GIST
   may be implemented.


































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Table of Contents

   1.   Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   4
   2.   Terminology  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   4
   3.   Notational conventions used in state diagrams  . . . . . . .   4
   4.   State Machine Symbols  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   6
   5.   Common Rules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   7
     5.1  Common Procedures  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   8
     5.2  Common Variables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  10
   6.   State machines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  12
     6.1  Diagram notations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  12
     6.2  State machine for GIST querying node . . . . . . . . . . .  12
     6.3  State machine for GIST responding node . . . . . . . . . .  15
   7.   Security Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  17
   8.   IANA Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  17
   9.   Contributors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  17
   10.  Acknowledgments  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  18
   11.  References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  19
     11.1   Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  19
     11.2   Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  19
   Appendix A.  ASCII versions of the state diagrams . . . . . . . .  20
     A.1    State machine for GIST querying node (Figure 2)  . . . .  20
     A.2    State Machine for GIST responding node (Figure 3)  . . .  23
        Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  26



























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1.  Introduction

   The state machines described in this document are illustrative of how
   the GIST protocol defined in [1] may be implemented for the GIST
   nodes in different locations of a flow path.  Where there are
   differences - [1] is authoritative.  The state machines are
   informative only. Implementations may achieve the same results using
   different methods.

   There are two types of possible entities for GIST signaling:

   - GIST querying node - GIST node that initiates the discovery of the
   next peer;

   - GIST responding node - GIST node that is the discovered next peer;

   We describe a set of state machines for these entities to illustrate
   how GIST may be implemented.

2.  Terminology

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
   document are to be interpreted as described in [2].

3.  Notational conventions used in state diagrams

   The following text is reused from [3] and the state diagrams are
   based on the conventions specified in [4], Section 8.2.1.  Additional
   state machine details are taken from [5].

   The complete text is reproduced here:

   State diagrams are used to represent the operation of the protocol by
   a number of cooperating state machines each comprising a group of
   connected, mutually exclusive states.  Only one state of each machine
   can be active at any given time.

   All permissible transitions between states are represented by arrows,
   the arrowhead denoting the direction of the possible transition.
   Labels attached to arrows denote the condition(s) that must be met in
   order for the transition to take place.  All conditions are
   expressions that evaluate to TRUE or FALSE; if a condition evaluates
   to TRUE, then the condition is met.  The label UCT denotes an
   unconditional transition (i.e., UCT always evaluates to TRUE).  A
   transition that is global in nature (i.e., a transition that occurs
   from any of the possible states if the condition attached to the
   arrow is met) is denoted by an open arrow; i.e., no specific state is



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   identified as the origin of the transition.  When the condition
   associated with a global transition is met, it supersedes all other
   exit conditions including UCT.  The special global condition BEGIN
   supersedes all other global conditions, and once asserted remains
   asserted until all state blocks have executed to the point that
   variable assignments and other consequences of their execution remain
   unchanged.

   On entry to a state, the procedures defined for the state (if any)
   are executed exactly once, in the order that they appear on the page.
   Each action is deemed to be atomic; i.e., execution of a procedure
   completes before the next sequential procedure starts to execute.  No
   procedures execute outside of a state block.  The procedures in only
   one state block execute at a time, even if the conditions for
   execution of state blocks in different state machines are satisfied,
   and all procedures in an executing state block complete execution
   before the transition to and execution of any other state block
   occurs, i.e., the execution of any state block appears to be atomic
   with respect to the execution of any other state block and the
   transition condition to that state from the previous state is TRUE
   when execution commences.  The order of execution of state blocks in
   different state machines is undefined except as constrained by their
   transition conditions.  A variable that is set to a particular value
   in a state block retains this value until a subsequent state block
   executes a procedure that modifies the value.

   On completion of all of the procedures within a state, all exit
   conditions for the state (including all conditions associated with
   global transitions) are evaluated continuously until one of the
   conditions is met.  The label ELSE denotes a transition that occurs
   if none of the other conditions for transitions from the state are
   met (i.e., ELSE evaluates to TRUE if all other possible exit
   conditions from the state evaluate to FALSE).  Where two or more exit
   conditions with the same level of precedence become TRUE
   simultaneously, the choice as to which exit condition causes the
   state transition to take place is arbitrary.

   In addition to the above notation, there are a couple of
   clarifications specific to this document.  First, all boolean
   variables are initialized to FALSE before the state machine execution
   begins.  Second, the following notational shorthand is specific to
   this document:

   <variable> = <expression1> | <expression2> | ...

      Execution of a statement of this form will result in <variable>
      having a value of exactly one of the expressions.  The logic for
      which of those expressions gets executed is outside of the state



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      machine and could be environmental, configurable, or based on
      another state machine such as that of the method.

4.  State Machine Symbols

   ( )
      Used to force the precedence of operators in Boolean expressions
      and to delimit the argument(s) of actions within state boxes.

   ;
      Used as a terminating delimiter for actions within state boxes.
      Where a state box contains multiple actions, the order of
      execution follows the normal English language conventions for
      reading text.

   =
      Assignment action.  The value of the expression to the right of
      the operator is assigned to the variable to the left of the
      operator.  Where this operator is used to define multiple
      assignments, e.g., a = b = X the action causes the value of the
      expression following the right-most assignment operator to be
      assigned to all of the variables that appear to the left of the
      right-most assignment operator.

   !
      Logical NOT operator.

   &&
      Logical AND operator.

   ||
      Logical OR operator.

   if...then...
      Conditional action.  If the Boolean expression following the if
      evaluates to TRUE, then the action following the then is executed.

   { statement 1, ... statement N }
      Compound statement.  Braces are used to group statements that are
      executed together as if they were a single statement.

   !=
      Inequality.  Evaluates to TRUE if the expression to the left of
      the operator is not equal in value to the expression to the right.

   ==
      Equality.  Evaluates to TRUE if the expression to the left of the
      operator is equal in value to the expression to the right.



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   >
      Greater than.  Evaluates to TRUE if the value of the expression to
      the left of the operator is greater than the value of the
      expression to the right.

   <=
      Less than or equal to.  Evaluates to TRUE if the value of the
      expression to the left of the operator is either less than or
      equal to the value of the expression to the right.

   ++
      Increment the preceding integer operator by 1.

   +
      Arithmetic addition operator.

   &
      Bitwise AND operator.

5.  Common Rules

   Throughout the document we use terms defined in the [1], such as
   Query, Response, Confirm.

   State machine represents handling of GIST messages that match a
   Message Routing State's MRI, NSLPID and SID and with no protocol
   errors. Separate parallel instances of the state machines should
   handle messages for different Message Routing States.

   The state machine states represent the upstream/downstream peers
   states of the Message Routing State.

   For simplification not all objects included in a message are shown.
   Only those that are significant for the case are shown.  State
   machines do not present handling of messages that are not significant
   for management of the states.

   Presented in this document state machines do not cover all functions
   of a GIST node.  Functionality of message forwarding, transmission of
   NSLP data without MRS establishment and providing of the received
   messages to the appropriate MRS, we refer as "Lower level pre-
   processing" step. Pre-processing provides to the appropriate MRS FSM
   only the messages which are matched against waiting Query/Response
   cookies, or established MRS MRI+NSLPID+SID primary key. This is
   presented by "rx_*" events in the state machines.

   Management of a MA is considered in the document (e.g.,
   tg_Establish_MA, tg_MA_established events), but its FSM is not



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   explicitly presented.

5.1  Common Procedures

   Tg_SendMsg:
      NSLP/GIST API message that request transmission of a NSLP message.

   Tg_SetStateLifetime(time_period):
      NSLP/GIST API message providing info for the Lifetime of an RS,
      required by the application. "Time_period = 0" represents the
      cancellation of established RSs/MAs (invoked by NSLP application).

   Tg_MessageStatus:
      NSLP/GIST API message informing NSLP application of unsuccessful
      delivery of a message

   Tg_RecvMsg:
      NSLP/GIST API message that provides received message to the NSLP

   Tg_NetworkNotification:
      NSLP/GIST API message that informs NSLP for change in MRS

   Tx_Query:
      Transmit of Query message

   Tx_Response:
      Transmit of Response message

   Tx_Confirm:
      Transmit of Confirm message

   Rx_Query:
      Receive of Query message

   Rx_Response:
      Receive of Response message

   Rx_Confirm:
      Receive of Confirm message

   Tx_Error:
      Transmit of Error message

   Rx_Error:
      Receive of Error message

   Queue NSLP info:
      Save NLSP messages in a queue until a required MA association is



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      established

   Tx_Data:
      Transmit of Data message

   Rx_Data:
      Receive of Data message

   T_Inactive_QNode:
      Message Routing State lifetime timer in Querying Node

   T_Expired_RNode:
      Message Routing State lifetime timer in Responding Node

   T_Refresh_QNode:
      Message Routing State refresh timer in Querying Node

   T_No_Response:
      Timer for the waiting period for Response message in Querying Node

   T_No_Confirm:
      Timer for the waiting period for Confirm message in Responding
      Node

   Install downstream/upstream MRS:
      Install new Message Routing State and save the corespoding peer
      state info (IP address and UDP port or pointer to the used MA) for
      the current Message Routing State or update the coresponding peer
      state info.

   DELETE MRS:
      Delete installed downstream/upstream peer's info for the current
      Message Routing State and delete the Message Routing State if
      required.

   Established MA:
      A Message Association (MA) is established between the current node
      and its upstream peer.  The initiator for the establishment is the
      upstream peer.

   Re-use existing MA:
      An existing MA between the current node and its peer is re-used.

   DELETE MA:
      Delete/disconnect used MA.

   Stop using shared MA:
      Stop using shared MA. If the shared MA is no more used by any



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      other MRSs, it depends on the local policy whether it is deleted
      or kept.

   REFRESH MRS:
      Refreshes installed MRS.

   Tg_MA_Error:
      Error event with used MA.

   Tg_InvalidRoutingState:
      Notification from NSLP application for path change

   Tg_Establish_MA:
      Trigers establishment of MA.

   Tg_MA_Established:
      MA has been successfully established.

   Tg_ERROR:
      General Error event / system level error.

   No_MRS_Installed:
      Error response, send by the Responding node indicating lost
      Confirm message.

5.2  Common Variables

   It is assumed that the type of mode and destination info (which need
   to be taken from the application parameters and local GIST policy)is
   provided.  This is represented by the common variables Dmode, Cmode,
   MAinfo, MApresent and Refresh.

   Cmode:
      The message MUST be transmitted in Cmode.  This is specified by
      "Message transfer attributes" set to any of the following values:

      "Reliability" is set to TRUE.

      "Security" is set to values that request secure handling of a
      message.

      "Local processing" is set to values that require services offered
      by Cmode (e.g., congestion control). [1]

   Dmode:
      The message MUST be transmitted in Dmode.  This is specified by
      local policy rules and in case that the "Message transfer
      attributes" are not set to any of the following values:



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      "Reliability" is set to TRUE.

      "Security" is set to values that request special security handling
         of a message.

      "Local processing" is set to values that require services offered
         by Cmode [1]

   MAinfo:
      GIST message parameters describing the required MA or proposed MA
      e.g. "Stack-proposal" and "Stack-Configuration-Data".

   NSLPdata:
      NSLP application data.

   RespCookie:
      Responder Cookie that is being sent by the Responding node with
      the Response message in case that its local policy requires a
      confirmation from the querying node.

   ConfirmRequired:
      Confirm message is required by the local policy rule for
      installation of the new MRS.

   NewPeer:
      Response message is received from new responding peer.

   MAexist:
      Existing MA will be reused.

   CheckPeerInfo:
      The sender of the received data message is matched against the
      installed peer info in the MRS.

   UpstreamPeerInstalled:
      Upstream peer info is installed in the MRS.















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6.  State machines

   The following section presents the state machine diagrams of GIST
   peers.

6.1  Diagram notations


+--------------------------------+
|             STATE              |
+--------------+-----------------+
               |
               |
             ooooo
            o  N  o   Transition N
             ooooo
               |
               v
+--------------------------------+
|             STATE              |
+--------------------------------+

                      Figure 1: Diagram notations

6.2  State machine for GIST querying node

   GIST querying node state machine diagram is depicted bellow.
   Transition description follows.

   For .txt version, please refer to Appendix A.1 for complete
   transition details (triggering event, action taken and variables
   status).



















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+-----------+           ooooo
| Any State +----------o  18 o
+-----------+           ooooo
                          |
                          v
+-----------------------------------------------------------------+
|                             IDLE                                |
+--+--------------------------------------------------------------+
   |        ^                                        ^        ^
   |        |                                        |        |
 ooooo    ooooo     ooooo      ooooo      ooooo      |        |
o  1  o  o  2  o  +o  3  o+  +o  4  o+  +o  5  o+    |        |
 ooooo    ooooo   | ooooo |  | ooooo |  | ooooo |    |        |
   |        |     |       |  |       |  |       |    |        |
   v        |     |       v  |       v  |       v    |        |
+-----------+-----+----------+----------+--------+   |        |
|                 Wait Response                  |   |        |
+--+-------------------------------------+-------+   |        |
   |       ^                             |           |        |
   |       |                             |           |        |
 ooooo     |           ooooo           ooooo       ooooo      |
o  6  o    |         +o  5  o+        o  7  o     o  8  o     |
 ooooo     |         | ooooo |         ooooo       ooooo      |
   |       |         |       |           |           |        |
   |       |         |       v           v           |        |
   |       |    +----+-------------------------------+---+    |
   |       |    |         Wait MA Establishment          |    |
   |       |    +------------------------------+---------+    |
   |       |          ^                        |              |
   |       |          |                        |              |
   |     ooooo      ooooo        ooooo       ooooo          ooooo
   |    o  9  o    o  11 o     +o  13 o+    o  12 o        o  10 o
   |     ooooo      ooooo      | ooooo |     ooooo          ooooo
   |       |          |        |       |       |              |
   v       |          |        |       v       v              |
+----------+----------+--------+------------------------------+---+
|                  Established Downstream MRS                     |
+--+-----------+-----------+-----------+-----------+--------------+
   |       ^   |       ^   |       ^   |       ^   |       ^
   |       |   |       |   |       |   |       |   |       |
   | ooooo |   | ooooo |   | ooooo |   | ooooo |   | ooooo |
   +o  16 o+   +o  14 o+   +o  15 o+   +o  4  o+   +o  17 o+
     ooooo       ooooo       ooooo       ooooo       ooooo

               Figure 1: GIST Querying Node State Machine

   1**) Initial request from NSLP application is received, which
      triggers Query messages requesting either D_mode or C_mode.



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      Depending on nodes local policy NSLP data might be piggybacked in
      the Query requesting D_mode. Query may carry MAinfo if C_mode
      transport is needed.
   2) No_Response timer expires and maximum number of retries has been
      reached. NSLP application is notified for the GIST peer discovery
      failure.
   3) No_Response timer expires. Query is resent.
   4) Data message is received. It is checked if its sender matches the
      installed downstream peer info in the MRS and then processed. In
      WaitResponse state, this event might happen in the process of MA
      upgrade, when the downstream peer is still not aware of
      establishment of the new MA.
   5) NSLP application requests sending data. NSLP data is queued,
      because downstream peer is not discovered or required MA is still
      not established.
   6) Response message is received. If D_mode connection is requested or
      available MA can be reused for requested C_mode, the MRS is
      established.
   7*) Response message is received. If C_mode connection must be
      established and there is no available MA to be reused, MA
      establishment is initiated and waited to be completed.
   8) MA establishment failure. NSLP application is notified for
      unsuccessful message delivery.
   9) NSLP application requests sending data and requested transport
      parameters require upgrade of established MRS from D_mode/C_mode
      to C_mode. Or NSLP application notifies GIST for path change.
      Downstream GIST peer discovery is initiated.
   10) MRS lifetime expires or NSLP application notifies that MRS is no
      longer needed. MRS is deleted. If not needed, MA is deleted, too.
      NSLP application is notified for MRS change.
   11*) Path change detected. Response message from a new downstream
      GIST peer is received. A new MA must be established for requested
      C_mode.
   12*) MA is established. MRS is installed. Queued NSLP data is sent.
   13) Refresh_QNode timer expires. Query message is sent.
   14) NSLP application provides data for sending. It is sent via Data
      message towards downstream GIST peer.
   15) Response message from the downstream GIST peer is received. The
      peer is not changed. MRS is refreshed (Refresh_QNode timer is
      restarted).
   16) Path change detected. Response message from a new downstream GIST
      peer is received. D_mode is requested or existing MA can be reused
      for requested C_mode.
   17) Sent Confirm message has not been received by downstream GIST
      peer. Confirm message is resent.
   18) General error or system level error occurs. MRS is deleted. If
      not needed, MA is deleted, too. NSLP application is notified for
      MRS change.



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   Remarks:
   *) Response and Comfirm messages might be sent either in Dmode or
   Cmode, before or after MA establishment depending on node's local
   3-way handshake policy and the availability of MAs to be reused. See
   draft for details.
   **) Depending on the local policy NSLPdata might be send as payload
   of Query and Confirm messages (piggybacking).



6.3  State machine for GIST responding node

   GIST responding node state machine diagram is depicted bellow.
   Transition description follows.

   For .txt version, please refer to Appendix A.2 for complete
   transition details (triggering event, action taken and variables
   status).

































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+-----------+           ooooo
| Any State +----------o  13 o
+-----------+           ooooo
                          |
                          v
+-----------------------------------------------------------------+
|                             IDLE                                |
+--+-------------------------------+------------------------------+
   |                 ^             |                          ^
   |                 |             |                          |
 ooooo               |           ooooo          ooooo       ooooo
o  1  o              |          o  2  o       +o  4  o+    o  3  o
 ooooo               |           ooooo        | ooooo |     ooooo
   |                 |             |          |       |       |
   |                 |             v          |       v       |
   |                 |   +--------------------+---------------+---+
   |                 |   |             Wait Confirm               |
   |                 |   +---------+------------------+-----------+
   |                 |             |          ^       |       ^
   |                 |             |          |       |       |
   |     ooooo     ooooo         ooooo      ooooo     | ooooo |
   |   +o  5  o+  o  8  o       o  5  o    o  7  o    +o  6  o+
   |   | ooooo |   ooooo         ooooo      ooooo       ooooo
   |   |       |     |             |          |
   v   |       v     |             v          |
+------+-------------+------------------------+-------------------+
|                  Established Upstream MRS                       |
+------+-------------+-------------+------------+-----------------+
       |       ^     |       ^     |       ^     |       ^
       |       |     |       |     |       |     |       |
       | ooooo |     | ooooo |     | ooooo |     | ooooo |
       +o  9  o+     +o  11 o+     +o  12 o+     +o  10 o+
         ooooo         ooooo         ooooo         ooooo

              Figure 3: GIST Responding Node State Machine

   1) A Query message is received. MRS is installed immediately, based
      on the local policy. Query message might carry piggybacked NSLP
      data which is provided to the NSLP application.
   2) A Query message is received. Explicit Confirm message is required
      for MRS installation, based on the local policy. Query message
      might carry piggybacked NSLP data which is provided to the NSLP
      application.
   3) No_Confirm timer expires. Note that all cases of lost handshake
      GIST messages are handled only by GIST querying node via resend of
      Query message.
   4) A Query message is received again. This means that sent Response
      message has not been received by upstream GIST peer. Response



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      message is resent.
   5) Confirm message is received which causes installation of the
      complete MRS or just installation of the used MA as a upstream
      peer info.
   6) In case of lost Confirm message, data messages might be received
      from the upstream GIST node (it is unaware of the lost Confirm
      message). Response indicating the loss of the Confirm is sent back
      to the upstream GIST node.
   7) A Query message is received with request for change of the used
      connection mode (from D_mode/C_mode to better C_mode) or from new
      upstream GIST node. Local policy requires explicit Confirm message
      for MRS installation.
   8) MRS lifetime expires or NSLP application notifies that MRS is no
      longer needed. MRS is deleted. If used and not needed, MA is
      deleted, too. NSLP application is notified for MRS change.
   9) Data for sending is received from NSLP application. NSLP data is
      sent if discovery process is successfully accomplished or is
      queued if Confirm message is still expected to confirm
      establishment of MA.
   10) A Query message is received. If it is sent from new upstream GIST
      node there is path change. Local policy does not need explicit
      Confirm message for MRS installation. MRS data is updated.
   11) A Query message is received with request for change of the used
      connection mode (from D_mode/C_mode to better C_mode). Local
      policy does not need explicit Confirm message for MRS
      installation. MRS data is updated.
   12) A Data message is received. Data messages are accepted only if
      complete MRS is installed, e.g., there is installed upstream peer
      info. If not, then Confirm message is expected and data message
      wont be accepted. Response indicating the loss of the Confirm is
      sent back to the upstream GIST node.
   13) General error or system level error occurs. MRS is deleted. If
      not needed, MA is deleted, too. NSLP application is notified for
      MRS change.

7.  Security Considerations

   This document does not raise new security considerations. Any
   security concerns with GIST are likely reflected in security related
   NSIS work already (such as [1] or [6]).

8.  IANA Considerations

   This document has no actions for IANA.

9.  Contributors

   Christian Dickmann contributed to refining of the state machine since



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   01 version.

10.  Acknowledgments

   The authors would like to thank Robert Hancock, Ingo Juchem, Andreas
   Westermaier, Alexander Zrim, Julien Abeille Youssef Abidi and Bernd
   Schloer for their insightful comments.












































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11.  References

11.1.  Normative References

   [1]         Schulzrinne, H., "GIST: General Internet Signaling
               Transport", draft-ietf-nsis-ntlp-20 (work in progress),
               December 2009.

   [2]         Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
               Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997.

11.2.  Informative References

   [3]         Vollbrecht, J., Eronen, P., Petroni, N., and Y. Ohba,
               "State Machines for Extensible Authentication Protocol
               (EAP) Peer and Authenticator", RFC4137, August 2005.

   [4]         Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers,
               "Standard for Local and Metropolitan Area Networks: Port-
               Based Network Access Control", IEEE 802-1X-2004, December
               2004.

   [5]         Fajardo, V., Ohba, Y. and R. Marin-Lopez, "State Machines
               for Protocol for Carrying Authentication for Network
               Access (PANA)", RFC 5609, August 2009.

   [6]         Tschofenig, H. and D. Kroeselberg, "Security Threats for
               NSIS", RFC 4081, June 2005.























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Appendix A. ASCII versions of state diagrams

   This appendix contains the state diagrams in ASCII format.  Please
   use the PDF version whenever possible: it is much easier to
   understand.

   For each state there is a separate table that lists in each row:
   - an event that triggers a transition,
   - actions taken as a result of the incoming event,
   - and the new state at which the transitions ends.

A.1.  State machine for GIST querying node (Figure 2)

-----------
State: IDLE
-----------

+Transition
|  |Condition               |Action                   |State
V--+------------------------+-------------------------+-----------
1) |tg_SendMsg              |tx_Query                 |Wait
** |                        |start T_No_Response      |Response
   |                        |Queue NSLP data          |
   |                        |                         |
18)|Tg_ERROR                |Delete MRS               |IDLE
   |                        |IF (MA is used)          |
   |                        |  ((Delete MA)||         |
   |                        |  (Stop using shared MA))|
   |                        |Tg_NetworkNotification   |
   |                        |                         |
---+------------------------+-------------------------+-----------


-----------
State: WaitResponse
-----------

+Transition
|  |Condition               |Action                   |State
V--+------------------------+-------------------------+-----------
2) |(timeout T_No_Response) |tg_MessageStatus         |IDLE
   |&&(MaxRetry)            |                         |
   |                        |                         |
3) |(timeout T_No_Response) |Tx_Query                 |Wait
   |&&(!MaxRetry)           |restart T_No_Response    |Response
   |                        |                         |
4) |rx_Data                 |IF(CheckPeerInfo)        |Wait
   |                        |      tg_RecvMsg to Appl.|Response



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   |                        |                         |
5) |tg_SendMsg              |Queue NSLP data          |Wait
   |                        |                         |Response
   |                        |                         |
6) |rx_Response)||          |Install MRS              |Established
   |(rx_Response(MAinfo)&&  |IF (RespCookie)          |Downstream
   |(MAexist))              |   tx_Confirm(RespCookie)|MRS
   |                        |tx_Data(Queued NSLP data)|
   |                        |                         |
7) |rx_Response(MAinfo)&&   |tg_Establish_MA          |Wait MA
*  |(!MAexist)              |(tx_Confirm)             |Establish.
   |                        |                         |
   |                        |                         |
18)|Tg_ERROR                |(Delete MRS)             |IDLE
   |                        |IF (MA is used)          |
   |                        |  ((Delete MA)||         |
   |                        |  (Stop using shared MA))|
   |                        |Tg_NetworkNotification   |
   |                        |                         |
---+------------------------+-------------------------+-----------




-----------
State: Established Downstream MRS
-----------

+Transition
|  |Condition               |Action                   |State
V--+------------------------+-------------------------+-----------
4) |rx_Data                 |IF(CheckPeerInfo)        |Established
   |                        |      tg_RecvMsg to Appl.|Downstream
   |                        |                         |MRS
   |                        |                         |
9) |((tg_SendMsg)&&(Cmode)&&|tx_Query                 |Wait
   |(!MAexist))||           |Queue NSLP data          |Response
   |(tg_MA_error)||         |                         |
   |(tg_InvalidRoutingState)|                         |
   |                        |                         |
10)|(timeout T_Inactive_    |Delete MRS               |IDLE
   |                QNode)|||IF (MA is used)          |
   |(tg_SetStateLifetime(0))|   (Delete MA)||         |
   |                        |   (Stop using shared MA)|
   |                        |Tg_NetworkNotification   |
   |                        |                         |
11)|(rx_Response(MAinfo)&&  |((Delete MA)||           |Wait MA
*  |(NewPeer)&&(!MA_exist)) |(Stop using shared MA))  |Establish.



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   |                        |tg_Establish_MA          |
   |                        |(tx_Confirm)             |
   |                        |                         |
13)|timeout T_Refresh_QNode |tx_Query                 |Established
   |                        |                         |Downstream
   |                        |                         |MRS
   |                        |                         |
14)|tg_SendMsg              |tx_Data                  |Established
   |                        |restart T_Inactive_QNode |Downstream
   |                        |                         |MRS
   |                        |                         |
15)|(rx_Response)&&         |Refresh MRS              |Established
   |(!NewPeer)              |restart T_Inactive_QNode |Downstream
   |                        |                         |MRS
   |                        |                         |
16)|(rx_Response)||         |IF (MA is used)          |Established
   |(rx_Response(Mainfo)&&  |   (Delete MA)||         |Downstream
   |(MAexist)))&&(NewPeer)  |   (Stop using shared MA)|MRS
   |                        |Install MRS              |
   |                        |restart T_Inactive_QNode |
   |                        |IF (RespCookie)          |
   |                        |   tx_Confirm(RespCookie)|
   |                        |                         |
17)|rx_Response(No_MRS_     |tx_Confirm(RespCookie)   |Established
   |              installed)|tx_Data(Queued NSLP data)|Downstream
   |                        |                         |MRS
   |                        |                         |
18)|Tg_ERROR                |(Delete MRS)             |IDLE
   |                        |IF (MA is used)          |
   |                        |  ((Delete MA)||         |
   |                        |  (Stop using shared MA))|
   |                        |Tg_NetworkNotification   |
   |                        |                         |
---+------------------------+-------------------------+-----------


-----------
State: Wait MA Establishment
-----------

+Transition
|  |Condition               |Action                   |State
V--+------------------------+-------------------------+-----------
5) |tg_SendMsg              |Queue NSLP data          |Wait MA
   |                        |                         |Establish.
   |                        |                         |
8) |tg_MA_error             |Delete MRS               |IDLE
   |                        |tg_MessageStatus         |



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   |                        |                         |
12)|tg_MA_Established       |Install MRS              |Established
*  |                        |(tx_Confirm)             |Downstream
   |                        |tx_Data(Queued NSLP data)|MRS
   |                        |                         |
18)|Tg_ERROR                |Delete MRS               |IDLE
   |                        |IF (MA is used)          |
   |                        |  ((Delete MA)||         |
   |                        |  (Stop using shared MA))|
   |                        |Tg_NetworkNotification   |
   |                        |                         |
---+------------------------+-------------------------+-----------
                                Figure 4

A.2.  State Machine for GIST responding node (Figure 3)

-----------
State: IDLE
-----------

+Transition
|  |Condition               |Action                   |State
v--+------------------------+-------------------------+-----------
1) |rx_Query&&              |tx_Response              |Established
   |(!ConfirmRequired)      |Install MRS              |Upstream
   |                        |IF(NSLPdata)             |MRS
   |                        |     tg_RecvMsg(NSLPdata)|
   |                        |                 to Appl.|
   |                        |                         |
2) |rx_Query&&              |tx_Response              |Wait
   |(ConfirmRequired)       |start T_No_Confirm       |Confirm
   |                        |IF(NSLPdata)             |
   |                        |     tg_RecvMsg(NSLPdata)|
   |                        |                 to Appl.|
   |                        |                         |
---+------------------------+-------------------------+-----------



-----------
State: WAIT CONFIRM
-----------

+Transition
|  |Condition               |Action                   |State
v--+------------------------+-------------------------+-----------
3) |timeout T_No_Confirm    |                         |IDLE
   |                        |                         |



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4) |rx_Query&&              |tx_Response              |Wait
   |(ConfirmRequired)       |start T_No_Confirm       |Confirm
   |                        |IF(NSLPdata)             |
   |                        |     tg_RecvMsg(NSLPdata)|
   |                        |                 to Appl.|
   |                        |                         |
5) |rx_Confirm              |Install Upstream MRS     |Established
   |                        |                         |Upstream
   |                        |                         |MRS
   |                        |                         |
6) |rx_Data                 |tx_Error(No_MRS_         |Wait
   |                        |               installed)|Confirm
   |                        |                         |
---+------------------------+-------------------------+-----------



-----------
State: Established Upstream MRS
-----------

+Transition
|  |Condition               |Action                   |State
v--+------------------------+-------------------------+-----------
5) |rx_Confirm              |Install UpstreamPeerInfo |Established
   |                        |tx_Data(queued_NSLP_data)|Upstream
   |                        |                         |MRS
   |                        |                         |
7) |(rx_Query)&&            |Delete MRS               |Wait
   |(ConfirmRequired)       |tx_Response              |Confirm
   |                        |start T_No_Confirm       |
   |                        |IF(MA is used)           |
   |                        |   (Delete MA)||         |
   |                        |   (Stop using shared MA)|
   |                        |IF(NSLPdata)             |
   |                        |   tg_RecvMsg(NSLPdata)  |
   |                        |                 to Appl.|
   |                        |                         |
8) |(timeout T_Expire_RNode)|Delete MRS               |IDLE
   |||                      |tg_NetworkNotification   |
   |(tg_SetStateLifetime(0))|IF(MA is used)           |
   |                        |   (Delete MA)||         |
   |                        |   (Stop using shared MA)|
   |                        |                         |
9) |tg_SendMsg              |IF(!UpstreamPeerInfo)    |Established
   |                        |    Queue NSLP data      |Upstream
   |                        |ELSE tx_Data             |MRS
   |                        |                         |



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10)|rx_Query                |IF (NewPeer)             |Established
   |                        |  Update UpstreamPeerInfo|Upstream
   |                        |tx_Response              |MRS
   |                        |restart T_Expire_RNode   |
   |                        |                         |
11)|rx_Query(MAinfo)&&      |Delete UpstreamPeerInfo  |Established
   |(!ConfirmRequired)      |restart T_Expire_RNode   |Upstream
   |                        |tx_Response(MAinfo)      |MRS
   |                        |                         |
12)|rx_Data                 |IF(UpstreamPeerInfo)     |Established
   |                        |    (tg_RecvMsg to Appl.)|Upstream
   |                        |    &&(restart_T_Expire_ |MRS
   |                        |                   RNode)|
   |                        |ELSE                     |
   |                        |    tx_Error(No_MRS_     |
   |                        |               installed)|
   |                        |                         |
13)|Tg_ERROR                |(Delete MRS)             |IDLE
   |                        |IF (MA is used)          |
   |                        |  ((Delete MA)||         |
   |                        |  (Stop using shared MA))|
   |                        |Tg_NetworkNotification   |
   |                        |                         |
---+------------------------+-------------------------+-----------

                                Figure 5

























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Authors' Addresses

   Tseno Tsenov
   Sofia, Bulgaria

   Email: tseno.tsenov@mytum.de


   Hannes Tschofenig
   Nokia Siemens Networks
   Linnoitustie 6
   Espoo  02600
   Finland

   Email: Hannes.Tschofenig@nsn.com


   Xiaoming Fu
   University of Goettingen
   Computer Networks Group
   Goldschmidtstr. 7
   Goettingen 37077
   Germany

   Email: fu@cs.uni-goettingen.de


   Cedric Aoun
   Paris, France

   Email: cedric@caoun.net


   Elwyn B. Davies
   Folly Consulting
   Soham, Cambs, UK

   Phone: +44 7889 488 335
   Email: elwynd@dial.pipex.com












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