[Docs] [txt|pdf|xml|html] [Tracker] [WG] [Email] [Diff1] [Diff2] [Nits]

Versions: (draft-mcdonald-nsis-qos-nslp) 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 RFC 5974

Network Working Group                                          J. Manner
Internet-Draft                                          Aalto University
Intended status: Experimental                             G. Karagiannis
Expires: August 2, 2010                    University of Twente/Ericsson
                                                             A. McDonald
                                             Siemens/Roke Manor Research
                                                        January 29, 2010


                 NSLP for Quality-of-Service Signaling
                    draft-ietf-nsis-qos-nslp-18.txt

Abstract

   This specification describes the NSIS Signaling Layer Protocol (NSLP)
   for signaling QoS reservations in the Internet.  It is in accordance
   with the framework and requirements developed in NSIS.  Together with
   GIST, it provides functionality similar to RSVP and extends it.  The
   QoS NSLP is independent of the underlying QoS specification or
   architecture and provides support for different reservation models.
   It is simplified by the elimination of support for multicast flows.
   This specification explains the overall protocol approach, design
   decisions made and provides examples.  It specifies object, message
   formats and processing rules.

Status of this Memo

   This Internet-Draft is submitted to IETF in full conformance with the
   provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.

   Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
   Task Force (IETF), its areas, and its working groups.  Note that
   other groups may also distribute working documents as Internet-
   Drafts.

   Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
   and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any
   time.  It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
   material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."

   The list of current Internet-Drafts can be accessed at
   http://www.ietf.org/ietf/1id-abstracts.txt.

   The list of Internet-Draft Shadow Directories can be accessed at
   http://www.ietf.org/shadow.html.

   This Internet-Draft will expire on August 2, 2010.




Manner, et al.           Expires August 2, 2010                 [Page 1]

Internet-Draft                  QoS NSLP                    January 2010


Copyright Notice

   Copyright (c) 2010 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
   document authors.  All rights reserved.

   This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
   Provisions Relating to IETF Documents
   (http://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of
   publication of this document.  Please review these documents
   carefully, as they describe your rights and restrictions with respect
   to this document.  Code Components extracted from this document must
   include Simplified BSD License text as described in Section 4.e of
   the Trust Legal Provisions and are provided without warranty as
   described in the BSD License.


Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  5
   2.  Terminology  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  6
   3.  Protocol Overview  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  7
     3.1.  Overall Approach . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  7
       3.1.1.  Protocol Messages  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
       3.1.2.  QoS Models and QoS Specifications  . . . . . . . . . . 11
       3.1.3.  Policy Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
     3.2.  Design Background  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
       3.2.1.  Soft States  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
       3.2.2.  Sender and Receiver Initiation . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
       3.2.3.  Protection Against Message Re-ordering and
               Duplication  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
       3.2.4.  Explicit Confirmations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
       3.2.5.  Reduced Refreshes  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
       3.2.6.  Summary Refreshes and Summary Tear . . . . . . . . . . 15
       3.2.7.  Message Scoping  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
       3.2.8.  Session Binding  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
       3.2.9.  Message Binding  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
       3.2.10. Layering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
       3.2.11. Support for Request Priorities . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
       3.2.12. Rerouting  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
       3.2.13. Pre-emption  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
     3.3.  GIST Interactions  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
       3.3.1.  Support for Bypassing Intermediate Nodes . . . . . . . 25
       3.3.2.  Support for Peer Change Identification . . . . . . . . 26
       3.3.3.  Support for Stateless Operation  . . . . . . . . . . . 26
       3.3.4.  Priority of Signaling Messages . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
       3.3.5.  Knowledge of Intermediate QoS NSLP Unaware Nodes . . . 27
   4.  Examples of QoS NSLP Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
     4.1.  Sender-initiated Reservation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28



Manner, et al.           Expires August 2, 2010                 [Page 2]

Internet-Draft                  QoS NSLP                    January 2010


     4.2.  Sending a Query  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
     4.3.  Basic Receiver-initiated Reservation . . . . . . . . . . . 30
     4.4.  Bidirectional Reservations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
     4.5.  Aggregate Reservations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
     4.6.  Message Binding  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
     4.7.  Reduced State or Stateless Interior Nodes  . . . . . . . . 38
       4.7.1.  Sender-initiated Reservation . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
       4.7.2.  Receiver-initiated Reservation . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
     4.8.  Proxy Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
   5.  QoS NSLP Functional Specification  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
     5.1.  QoS NSLP Message and Object Formats  . . . . . . . . . . . 42
       5.1.1.  Common Header  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
       5.1.2.  Message Formats  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
       5.1.3.  Object Formats . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
     5.2.  General Processing Rules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
       5.2.1.  State Manipulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
       5.2.2.  Message Forwarding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62
       5.2.3.  Standard Message Processing Rules  . . . . . . . . . . 62
       5.2.4.  Retransmissions  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
       5.2.5.  Rerouting  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
     5.3.  Object Processing  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65
       5.3.1.  Reservation Sequence Number (RSN)  . . . . . . . . . . 65
       5.3.2.  Request Identification Information (RII) . . . . . . . 66
       5.3.3.  BOUND_SESSION_ID . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67
       5.3.4.  REFRESH_PERIOD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68
       5.3.5.  INFO_SPEC  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68
       5.3.6.  SESSION_ID_LIST  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70
       5.3.7.  RSN_LIST . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
       5.3.8.  QSPEC  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72
     5.4.  Message Processing Rules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72
       5.4.1.  RESERVE Messages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72
       5.4.2.  QUERY Messages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77
       5.4.3.  RESPONSE Messages  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78
       5.4.4.  NOTIFY Messages  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79
   6.  IANA Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80
     6.1.  QoS NSLP Message Type  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80
     6.2.  NSLP Message Objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81
     6.3.  QoS NSLP Binding Codes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81
     6.4.  QoS NSLP Error Classes and Error Codes . . . . . . . . . . 81
     6.5.  QoS NSLP Error Source Identifiers  . . . . . . . . . . . . 82
     6.6.  NSLP IDs and Router Alert Option Values  . . . . . . . . . 83
   7.  Security Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83
     7.1.  Trust Relationship Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84
     7.2.  Authorization Model Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86
       7.2.1.  Authorization for the Two Party Approach . . . . . . . 86
       7.2.2.  Token-based Three Party Approach . . . . . . . . . . . 87
       7.2.3.  Generic Three Party Approach . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88
     7.3.  Computing the Authorization Decision . . . . . . . . . . . 89



Manner, et al.           Expires August 2, 2010                 [Page 3]

Internet-Draft                  QoS NSLP                    January 2010


   8.  Acknowledgments  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89
   9.  Contributors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90
   10. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90
     10.1. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90
     10.2. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90
   Appendix A.  Abstract NSLP-RMF API . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92
     A.1.  Triggers from QOS-NSLP towards RMF . . . . . . . . . . . . 92
     A.2.  Triggers from RMF/QOSM towards QOS-NSLP  . . . . . . . . . 94
     A.3.  Configuration interface  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96
   Appendix B.  Glossary  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97
   Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98








































Manner, et al.           Expires August 2, 2010                 [Page 4]

Internet-Draft                  QoS NSLP                    January 2010


1.  Introduction

   This document defines a Quality of Service (QoS) NSIS Signaling Layer
   Protocol (NSLP), henceforth referred to as the "QoS NSLP".  This
   protocol establishes and maintains state at nodes along the path of a
   data flow for the purpose of providing some forwarding resources for
   that flow.  It is intended to satisfy the QoS-related requirements of
   RFC 3726 [RFC3726].  This QoS NSLP is part of a larger suite of
   signaling protocols, whose structure is outlined in the NSIS
   framework [RFC4080]; this defines a common NSIS Transport Layer
   Protocol (NTLP).  The abstract NTLP has been developed into a
   concrete protocol, GIST (General Internet Signaling Transport)
   [I-D.ietf-nsis-ntlp].  The QoS NSLP relies on GIST to carry out many
   aspects of signaling message delivery.

   The design of the QoS NSLP is conceptually similar to RSVP, RFC 2205
   [RFC2205], and uses soft-state peer-to-peer refresh messages as the
   primary state management mechanism (i.e., state installation/refresh
   is performed between pairs of adjacent NSLP nodes, rather than in an
   end-to-end fashion along the complete signaling path).  The QoS NSLP
   extends the set of reservation mechanisms to meet the requirements of
   RFC 3726 [RFC3726], in particular support of sender or receiver-
   initiated reservations, as well as, a type of bi-directional
   reservation and support of reservations between arbitrary nodes,
   e.g., edge-to-edge, end-to-access, etc.  On the other hand, there is
   currently no support for IP multicast.

   A distinction is made between the operation of the signaling protocol
   and the information required for the operation of the Resource
   Management Function (RMF).  This document describes the signaling
   protocol, whilst [I-D.ietf-nsis-qspec] describes the RMF-related
   information carried in the QSPEC (QoS Specification) object in QoS
   NSLP messages.  This is similar to the decoupling between RSVP and
   the IntServ architecture, RFC 1633 [RFC1633].  The QSPEC carries
   information on resources available, resources required, traffic
   descriptions and other information required by the RMF.

   This document is structured as follows.  The overall protocol design
   is outlined in Section 3.1.  The operation and use of the QoS NSLP is
   described in more detail in the rest of Section 3.  Section 4 then
   clarifies the protocol by means of a number of examples.  These
   sections should be read by people interested in the overall protocol
   capabilities.  The functional specification in Section 5 contains
   more detailed object and message formats and processing rules and
   should be the basis for implementers.  The subsequent sections
   describe IANA allocation issues, and security considerations.





Manner, et al.           Expires August 2, 2010                 [Page 5]

Internet-Draft                  QoS NSLP                    January 2010


2.  Terminology

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
   document are to be interpreted as described in RFC 2119 [RFC2119].

   The terminology defined by GIST [I-D.ietf-nsis-ntlp] applies to this
   draft.

   In addition, the following terms are used:

   QNE: an NSIS Entity (NE), which supports the QoS NSLP.

   QNI: the first node in the sequence of QNEs that issues a reservation
   request for a session.

   QNR: the last node in the sequence of QNEs that receives a
   reservation request for a session.

   P-QNE: Proxy-QNE, a node set to reply to messages with the PROXY
   scope flag set.

   Session: A session defines an association between a QNI and QNR
   related to a data flow.  Intermediate QNEs on the path, the QNI and
   the QNR use the same identifier to refer to the state stored for the
   association.  The same QNI and QNR may have more than one session
   active at any one time.

   Session Identification (SESSION_ID, SID): This is a cryptographically
   random and (probabilistically) globally unique identifier of the
   application layer session that is associated with a certain flow.
   Often there will only be one data flow for a given session, but in
   mobility/multihoming scenarios there may be more than one and they
   may be differently routed [RFC4080].

   Source or message source: The one of two adjacent NSLP peers that is
   sending a signaling message (maybe the upstream or the downstream
   peer).  Note that this is not necessarily the QNI.

   QoS NSLP operation state: State used/kept by the QoS NSLP processing
   to handle messaging aspects.

   QoS reservation state: State used/kept by Resource Management
   Function to describe reserved resources for a session.

   Flow ID: This is essentially the Message Routing Information (MRI)

   in GIST for path-coupled signaling.



Manner, et al.           Expires August 2, 2010                 [Page 6]

Internet-Draft                  QoS NSLP                    January 2010


   Figure 1 shows the components that have a role in a QoS NSLP
   signaling session.  The flow sender and receiver would in most cases
   be part of the QNI and QNR nodes.  Yet, these may be separate nodes,
   too.

                         QoS NSLP nodes
   IP address            (QoS unaware NSIS nodes are          IP address
   = Flow                 not shown)                          = Flow
   Source                 |          |            |          Destination
   Address                |          |            |           Address
                          V          V            V
   +--------+  Data +------+      +------+       +------+     +--------+
   |  Flow  |-------|------|------|------|-------|------|---->|  Flow  |
   | Sender |  Flow |      |      |      |       |      |     |Receiver|
   +--------+       | QNI  |      | QNE  |       | QNR  |     +--------+
                    |      |      |      |       |      |
                    +------+      +------+       +------+
                            =====================>
                            <=====================
                                  Signaling
                                    Flow

             Figure 1: Components of the QoS NSLP architecture

   A glossary of terms and abbreviations used in this document can be
   found in Appendix B.


3.  Protocol Overview

3.1.  Overall Approach

   This section presents a logical model for the operation of the QoS
   NSLP and associated provisioning mechanisms within a single node.
   The model is shown in Figure 2.
















Manner, et al.           Expires August 2, 2010                 [Page 7]

Internet-Draft                  QoS NSLP                    January 2010


                                      +---------------+
                                      |     Local     |
                                      |Applications or|
                                      |Management (e.g|
                                      |for aggregates)|
                                      +---------------+
                                              ^
                                              V
                                              V
               +----------+             +----------+      +---------+
               | QoS NSLP |             | Resource |      | Policy  |
               |Processing|<<<<<<>>>>>>>|Management|<<<>>>| Control |
               +----------+             +----------+      +---------+
                 .  ^   |              *      ^
                 |  V   .            *        ^
               +----------+        *          ^
               |   NTLP   |       *           ^
               |Processing|       *           V
               +----------+       *           V
                 |      |         *           V
     ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
                 .      .         *           V
                 |      |         *     .............................
                 .      .         *     .   Traffic Control         .
                 |      |         *     .                +---------+.
                 .      .         *     .                |Admission|.
                 |      |         *     .                | Control |.
       +----------+    +------------+   .                +---------+.
   <-.-|  Input   |    | Outgoing   |-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.->
       |  Packet  |    | Interface  |   .+----------+    +---------+.
   ===>|Processing|====| Selection  |===.|  Packet  |====| Packet  |.==>
       |          |    |(Forwarding)|   .|Classifier|     Scheduler|.
       +----------+    +------------+   .+----------+    +---------+.
                                        .............................
           <.-.-> = signaling flow
           =====> = data flow (sender --> receiver)
           <<<>>> = control and configuration operations
           ****** = routing table manipulation

                       Figure 2: QoS NSLP in a Node

   This diagram shows an example implementation scenario where QoS
   conditioning is performed on the output interface.  However, this
   does not limit the possible implementations.  For example, in some
   cases traffic conditioning may be performed on the incoming
   interface, or it may be split over the input and output interfaces.
   Also, the interactions with the Policy Control component may be more
   complex, involving interaction with the Resource Management Function,



Manner, et al.           Expires August 2, 2010                 [Page 8]

Internet-Draft                  QoS NSLP                    January 2010


   and the AAA infrastructure.

   From the perspective of a single node, the request for QoS may result
   from a local application request, or from processing an incoming QoS
   NSLP message.  The request from a local application includes not only
   user applications (e.g., multimedia applications) but also network
   management (e.g. initiating a tunnel to handle an aggregate, or
   interworking with some other reservation protocol - such as RSVP) and
   the policy control module (e.g., for explicit teardown triggered by
   AAA).  In this sense, the model does not distinguish between hosts
   and routers.

   Incoming messages are captured during input packet processing and
   handled by GIST.  Only messages related to QoS are passed to the QoS
   NSLP.  GIST may also generate triggers to the QoS NSLP (e.g.,
   indications that a route change has occurred).  The QoS request is
   handled by the RMF, which coordinates the activities required to
   grant and configure the resource.  It also handles policy-specific
   aspects of QoS signaling.

   The grant processing involves two local decision modules, 'policy
   control' and 'admission control'.  Policy control determines whether
   the user is authorized to make the reservation.  Admission control
   determines whether the network of the node has sufficient available
   resources to supply the requested QoS.  If both checks succeed,
   parameters are set in the packet classifier and in the link layer
   interface (e.g., in the packet scheduler) to obtain the desired QoS.
   Error notifications are passed back to the request originator.  The
   resource management function may also manipulate the forwarding
   tables at this stage, to select (or at least pin) a route; this must
   be done before interface-dependent actions are carried out (including
   sending outgoing messages over any new route), and is in any case
   invisible to the operation of the protocol.

   Policy control is expected to make use of the authentication
   infrastructure or the authentication protocols external to the node
   itself.  Some discussion can be found in a separate document on
   authorization issues [qos-auth].  More generally, the processing of
   policy and resource management functions may be outsourced to an
   external node leaving only 'stubs' co-located with the NSLP node;
   this is not visible to the protocol operation.  A more detailed
   discussion of authentication and authorization can be found in
   Section 3.1.3.

   Admission control, packet scheduling, and any part of policy control
   beyond simple authorization have to be implemented using specific
   definitions for types and levels of QoS.  A key assumption is made
   that the QoS NSLP is independent of the QoS parameters (e.g., IntServ



Manner, et al.           Expires August 2, 2010                 [Page 9]

Internet-Draft                  QoS NSLP                    January 2010


   service elements).  These are captured in a QoS Model and interpreted
   only by the resource management and associated functions, and are
   opaque to the QoS NSLP itself.  QoS Models are discussed further in
   Section 3.1.2.

   The final stage of processing for a resource request is to indicate
   to the QoS NSLP protocol processing that the required resources have
   been configured.  The QoS NSLP may generate an acknowledgment message
   in one direction, and may forward the resource request in the other.
   Message routing is carried out by the GIST module.  Note that while
   Figure 2 shows a unidirectional data flow, the signaling messages can
   pass in both directions through the node, depending on the particular
   message and orientation of the reservation.

3.1.1.  Protocol Messages

   The QoS NSLP uses four message types:

   RESERVE: The RESERVE message is the only message that manipulates QoS
   NSLP reservation state.  It is used to create, refresh, modify and
   remove such state.  The result of a RESERVE message is the same
   whether a message is received once or many times.

   QUERY: A QUERY message is used to request information about the data
   path without making a reservation.  This functionality can be used to
   reservations or for support of certain QoS models.  The information
   obtained from a QUERY may be used in the admission control process of
   a QNE (e.g., in case of measurement-based admission control).  Note
   that a QUERY does not change existing reservation state.

   RESPONSE: The RESPONSE message is used to provide information about
   the result of a previous QoS NSLP message.  This includes explicit
   confirmation of the state manipulation signaled in the RESERVE
   message, the response to a QUERY message or an error code if the QNE
   or QNR is unable to provide the requested information or if the
   response is negative.  The RESPONSE message does not cause any
   reservation state to be installed or modified.

   NOTIFY: NOTIFY messages are used to convey information to a QNE.
   They differ from RESPONSE messages in that they are sent
   asynchronously and need not refer to any particular state or
   previously received message.  The information conveyed by a NOTIFY
   message is typically related to error conditions.  Examples would be
   notification to an upstream peer about state being torn down or to
   indicate when a reservation has been preempted.

   QoS NSLP messages are sent peer-to-peer.  This means that a QNE
   considers its adjacent upstream or downstream peer to be the source



Manner, et al.           Expires August 2, 2010                [Page 10]

Internet-Draft                  QoS NSLP                    January 2010


   of each message.

   Each protocol message has a common header which indicates the message
   type and contains various flag bits.  Message formats are defined in
   Section 5.1.2.  Message processing rules are defined in Section 5.4.

   QoS NSLP messages contain three types of objects:

   1.  Control Information: Control information objects carry general
   information for the QoS NSLP processing, such as sequence numbers or
   whether a response is required.

   2.  QoS specifications (QSPECs): QSPEC objects describe the actual
   resources that are required and depend on the QoS model being used.
   Besides any resource description they may also contain other control
   information used by the RMF's processing.

   3.  Policy objects: Policy objects contain data used to authorize the
   reservation of resources.

   Object formats are defined in Section 5.1.3.  Object processing rules
   are defined in Section 5.3.

3.1.2.  QoS Models and QoS Specifications

   The QoS NSLP provides flexibility over the exact patterns of
   signaling messages that are exchanged.  The decoupling of QoS NSLP
   and QSPEC allows the QoS NSLP to be ignorant about the ways in which
   traffic, resources, etc. are described, and it can treat the QSPEC as
   an opaque object.  Various QoS models can be designed, and these do
   not affect the specification of the QoS NSLP protocol.  Only the RMF
   specific to a given QoS model will need to interpret the QSPEC.  The
   Resource Management Function (RMF) reserves resources for each flow.

   The QSPEC fulfills a similar purpose to the TSpec, RSpec and AdSpec
   objects used with RSVP and specified in RFC 2205 [RFC2205] and RFC
   2210 [RFC2210].  At each QNE, the content of the QSPEC is interpreted
   by the Resource Management Function and the Policy Control Function
   for the purposes of traffic and policy control (including admission
   control and configuration of the packet classifier and scheduler).

   The QoS NSLP does not mandate any particular behavior for the RMF,
   instead providing interoperability at the signaling protocol level
   whilst leaving the validation of RMF behavior to contracts external
   to the protocol itself.  The RMF may make use of various elements
   from the QoS NSLP message, not only the QSPEC object.

   Still, this specification assumes that resource sharing is possible



Manner, et al.           Expires August 2, 2010                [Page 11]

Internet-Draft                  QoS NSLP                    January 2010


   between flows with the same SESSION_ID that originate from the same
   QNI or between flows with a different SESSION_ID that are related
   through the BOUND_SESSION_ID object.  For flows with the same
   SESSION_ID, resource sharing is only applicable when the existing
   reservation is not just replaced (which is indicated by the REPLACE
   flag in the common header).  We assume that the QoS model supports
   resource sharing between flows.  A QoS Model may elect to implement a
   more general behavior of supporting relative operations on existing
   reservations, such as ADDING or SUBTRACTING a certain amount of
   resources from the current reservation.  A QoS Model may also elect
   to allow resource sharing more generally, e.g., between all flows
   with the same Differentiated Service Code Point (DSCP).

   The QSPEC carries a collection of objects that can describe QoS
   specifications in a number of different ways.  A generic template is
   defined in [I-D.ietf-nsis-qspec] and contains object formats for
   generally useful elements of the QoS description, which is designed
   to ensure interoperability when using the basic set of objects.  A
   QSPEC describing the resources requested will usually contain objects
   which need to be understood by all implementations, and it can also
   be enhanced with additional objects specific to a QoS model to
   provide a more exact definition to the RMF, which may be better able
   to use its specific resource management mechanisms (which may, e.g.,
   be link specific) as a result.

   A QoS Model defines the behavior of the RMF, including inputs and
   outputs, and how QSPEC information is used to describe resources
   available, resources required, traffic descriptions, and control
   information required by the RMF.  A QoS Model also describes the
   minimum set of parameters QNEs should use in the QSPEC when signaling
   about this QoS Model.

   QoS Models may be local (private to one network), implementation/
   vendor specific, or global (implementable by different networks and
   vendors).  All QSPECs should follow the design of the QSPEC template.

   The definition of a QoS model may also have implications on how local
   behavior should be implemented in the areas where the QoS NSLP gives
   freedom to implementers.  For example, it may be useful to identify
   recommended behavior for how a RESERVE message that is forwarded
   relates to that received, or when additional signaling sessions
   should be started based on existing sessions, such as required for
   aggregate reservations.  In some cases, suggestions may be made on
   whether state that may optionally be retained should be held in
   particular scenarios.  A QoS model may specify reservation
   preemption, e.g., an incoming resource request may cause removal of
   an earlier established reservation.




Manner, et al.           Expires August 2, 2010                [Page 12]

Internet-Draft                  QoS NSLP                    January 2010


3.1.3.  Policy Control

   Getting access to network resources, e.g., network access in general
   or access to QoS, typically involves some kind of policy control.
   One example of this is authorization of the resource requester.
   Policy control for QoS NSLP resource reservation signaling is
   conceptually organized as illustrated below in Figure 3.

                                  +-------------+
                                  | Policy      |
                                  | Decision    |
                                  | Point (PDP) |
                                  +------+------+
                                         |
                                 /-\-----+-----/\
                             ////                \\\\
                           ||                        ||
                          |      Policy transport      |
                           ||                        ||
                             \\\\                ////
                                 \-------+------/
                                         |
   +-------------+ QoS signaling  +------+------+
   |  Entity     |<==============>| QNE = Policy|<=========>
   |  requesting | Data Flow      | Enforcement |
   |  resource   |----------------|-Point (PEP)-|---------->
   +-------------+                +-------------+

           Figure 3: Policy control with the QoS NSLP signaling

   From the QoS NSLP point of view, the policy control model is
   essentially a two-party model between neighboring QNEs.  The actual
   policy decision may depend on the involvement of a third entity (the
   policy decision point, PDP), but this happens outside of the QoS NSLP
   protocol by means of existing policy infrastructure (COPS, Diameter,
   etc).  The policy control model for the entire end-to-end chain of
   QNEs is therefore one of transitivity, where each of the QNEs
   exchanges policy information with its QoS NSLP policy peer.

   The authorization of a resource request often depends on the identity
   of the entity making the request.  Authentication may be required.
   The GIST channel security mechanisms provide one way of
   authenticating the QoS NSLP peer which sent the request, and so may
   be used in making the authorization decision.

   Additional information might also be provided in order to assist in
   making the authorization decision.  This might include alternative
   methods of authenticating the request.



Manner, et al.           Expires August 2, 2010                [Page 13]

Internet-Draft                  QoS NSLP                    January 2010


   The QoS NSLP does not currently contain objects to carry
   authorization information.  At the time of writing, there exists a
   separate individual work [I-D.manner-nsis-nslp-auth] that defines
   this functionality for the QoS NSLP and the NATFW NSLP.

   It is generally assumed that policy enforcement is likely to
   concentrate on border nodes between administrative domains.  This may
   mean that nodes within the domain are "Policy Ignorant Nodes" that
   perform no per-request authentication or authorization, relying on
   the border nodes to perform the enforcement.  In such cases, the
   policy management between ingress and egress edge of a domain relies
   on the internal chain of trust between the nodes in the domain.  If
   this is not acceptable, a separate signaling session can be set up
   between the ingress and egress edge nodes in order to exchange policy
   information.

3.2.  Design Background

   This section presents some of the key functionality behind the
   specification of the QoS NSLP.

3.2.1.  Soft States

   The NSIS protocol suite takes a soft-state approach to state
   management.  This means that reservation state in QNEs must be
   periodically refreshed.  The frequency with which state installation
   is refreshed is expressed in the REFRESH_PERIOD object.  This object
   contains a value in milliseconds indicating how long the state that
   is signaled for remains valid.  Maintaining the reservation beyond
   this lifetime can be done by sending a RESERVE message periodically.

3.2.2.  Sender and Receiver Initiation

   The QoS NSLP supports both sender-initiated and receiver-initiated
   reservations.  For a sender-initiated reservation, RESERVE messages
   travel in the same direction as the data flow that is being signaled
   for (the QNI is at the side of the source of the data flow).  For a
   receiver-initiated reservation, RESERVE messages travel in the
   opposite direction (the QNI is at the side of the receiver of the
   data flow).

   Note: these definitions follow the definitions in Section 3.3.1. of
   RFC 4080 [RFC4080].  The main issue is, which node is in charge of
   requesting and maintaining the resource reservation.  In a receiver-
   initiated reservation, even though the sender sends the initial
   QUERY, the receiver is still in charge of making the actual resource
   request, and maintaining the reservation.




Manner, et al.           Expires August 2, 2010                [Page 14]

Internet-Draft                  QoS NSLP                    January 2010


3.2.3.  Protection Against Message Re-ordering and Duplication

   RESERVE messages affect the installed reservation state.  Unlike
   NOTIFY, QUERY and RESPONSE messages, the order in which RESERVE
   messages are received influences the eventual reservation state that
   will be stored at a QNE, that is, the most recent RESERVE message
   replaces the current reservation.  Therefore, in order to protect
   against RESERVE message re-ordering or duplication, the QoS NSLP uses
   a Reservation Sequence Number (RSN).  The RSN has local significance
   only, i.e., between a QNE and its downstream peers.

3.2.4.  Explicit Confirmations

   A QNE may require a confirmation that the end-to-end reservation is
   in place, or a reply to a query along the path.  For such requests,
   it must be able to keep track of which request each response refers
   to.  This is supported by including a Request Identification
   Information (RII) object in a QoS NSLP message.

3.2.5.  Reduced Refreshes

   For scalability, the QoS NSLP supports an abbreviated form of refresh
   RESERVE message.  In this case, the refresh RESERVE references the
   reservation using the RSN and the SESSION_ID, and does not include
   the full reservation specification (including QSPEC).  By default
   state refresh should be performed with reduced refreshes in order to
   save bytes during transmission.  Stateless QNEs will require full
   refresh since they do not store the whole reservation information.

   If the stateful QNE does not support reduced refreshes, or there is a
   mismatch between the local and received RSN, the stateful QNE must
   reply with an RESPONSE carrying an INFO_SPEC indicating the error.
   Furthermore, the QNE must stop sending reduced refreshes to this peer
   if the error indicates lacking support for this feature.

3.2.6.  Summary Refreshes and Summary Tear

   For limiting the number of individual messages, the QoS NSLP supports
   a summary refresh and summary tear messages.  When sending a
   refreshing RESERVE for a certain (primary) session, a QNE may include
   a SESSION_ID_LIST object where the QNE indicates (secondary) sessions
   that are also refreshed.  An RSN_LIST object must also be added.  The
   SESSION IDs and RSNs are stacked in the objects such that the index
   in both stacks refer to the same reservation state, i.e., the
   SESSION_ID and RSN at index i in both objects refers to the same
   session.  If the receiving stateful QNE notices unknown SESSION IDs
   or a mismatch with RSNs for a session, it will reply back to the
   upstream stateful QNE with an error.



Manner, et al.           Expires August 2, 2010                [Page 15]

Internet-Draft                  QoS NSLP                    January 2010


   In order to tear down several sessions at once, a QNE may include
   SESSION_ID_LIST and RSN_LIST objects in a tearing reserve.  The
   downstream stateful QNE must then also tear the other sessions
   indicated.  The downstream stateful QNE must silently ignore any
   unknown SESSION IDs.

   GIST provides a SII_HANDLE for every downstream session.  The
   SII_HANDLE identifies a peer, and should be the same for all sessions
   whose downstream peer is the same.  The QoS NSLP uses this
   information to decide whether summary refresh messages can be sent,
   or when a summary tear is possible.

3.2.7.  Message Scoping

   A QNE may use local policy when deciding whether to propagate a
   message or not.  For example, the local policy can define/configure
   that a QNE is, for a particular session, a QNI and/or a QNR.  The QoS
   NSLP also includes an explicit mechanism to restrict message
   propagation by means of a scoping mechanism.

   For a RESERVE or a QUERY message, two scoping flags limit the part of
   the path on which state is installed on the downstream nodes that can
   respond.  When the SCOPING flag is set to zero, it indicates that the
   scope is "whole path" (default).  When set to one, the scope is
   "single hop".  When the PROXY scope flag is set, the path is
   terminated at a pre-defined Proxy QNE (P-QNE).  This is similar to
   the Localized RSVP [lrsvp].

   The propagation of a RESPONSE message is limited by the RII object,
   which ensures that it is not forwarded back along the path further
   than the node that requested the RESPONSE.

3.2.8.  Session Binding

   Session binding is defined as the enforcement of a relation between
   different QoS NSLP sessions (i.e., signaling flows with different
   SESSION_ID (SID) as defined in GIST [I-D.ietf-nsis-ntlp]).

   Session binding indicates an unidirectional dependency relation
   between two or more sessions by including a BOUND_SESSION_ID object.
   A session with SID_A (the binding session) can express its
   unidirectional dependency relation to another session with SID_B (the
   bound session) by including a BOUND_SESSION_ID object containing
   SID_B in its messages.

   The concept of session binding is used to indicate the unidirectional
   dependency relation between the end-to-end session and the aggregate
   session in case of aggregate reservations.  In case of bidirectional



Manner, et al.           Expires August 2, 2010                [Page 16]

Internet-Draft                  QoS NSLP                    January 2010


   reservations, it is used to express the unidirectional dependency
   relation between the sessions used for forward and reverse
   reservation.  Typically, the dependency relation indicated by session
   binding is purely informative in nature and does not automatically
   trigger any implicit action in a QNE.  A QNE may use the dependency
   relation information for local resource optimization or to explicitly
   tear down reservations that are no longer useful.  However, by using
   an explicit binding code, see Section 5.1.3.4, it is possible to
   formalise this dependency relation, meaning that if the bound session
   (e.g., session with SID_B) is terminated also the binding session
   (e.g., the session with SID_A) must be terminated.

   A message may include more than one BOUND_SESSION_ID object.  This
   may happen, e.g., in certain aggregation and bi-directional
   reservation scenarios, where an end-to-end session has an
   unidirectional dependency relation with an aggregate session and at
   the same time it has an unidirectional dependency relation with
   another session used for the reverse path.

3.2.9.  Message Binding

   QoS NSLP supports binding of messages in order to allow for
   expressing dependencies between different messages.  The message
   binding can indicate either a unidirectional or bidirectional
   dependency relation between two messages by including in one of the
   message the MSG_ID object ("binding message") and in the other
   message ("bound message") the BOUND_MSG_ID object.  The
   unidirectional dependency means that only RESERVE messages are bound
   to each other whereas a bidirectional dependency means that there is
   also a dependency for the related RESPONSE messages.  The message
   binding can be used to speed up signaling by starting two signaling
   exchanges simultaneously that are synchronized later by using message
   IDs.  This can be used as an optimization technique for example in
   scenarios where aggregate reservations are used.  Section 4.6
   provides more details.

3.2.10.  Layering

   The QoS NSLP supports layered reservations.  Layered reservations may
   occur when certain parts of the network (domains) implement one or
   more local QoS models, or when they locally apply specific transport
   characteristics (e.g., GIST unreliable transfer mode instead of
   reliable transfer mode).  They may also occur when several per-flow
   reservations are locally combined into an aggregate reservation.







Manner, et al.           Expires August 2, 2010                [Page 17]

Internet-Draft                  QoS NSLP                    January 2010


3.2.10.1.  Local QoS Models

   A domain may have local policies regarding QoS model implementation,
   i.e., it may map incoming traffic to its own locally defined QoS
   models.  The QSPEC allows this functionality, and the operation is
   transparent to the QoS NSLP.  The use of local QoS models within a
   domain is performed in the RMF.

3.2.10.2.  Local Control Plane Properties

   The way signaling messages are handled is mainly determined by the
   parameters that are sent over GIST-NSLP API and by the domain
   internal configuration.  A domain may have a policy to implement
   local transport behavior.  It may, for instance, elect to use an
   unreliable transport locally in the domain while still keeping end-
   to-end reliability intact.

   The QoS NSLP supports this situation by allowing two sessions to be
   set up for the same reservation.  The local session has the desired
   local transport properties and is interpreted in internal QNEs.  This
   solution poses two requirements: the end-to-end session must be able
   to bypass intermediate nodes and the egress QNE needs to bind both
   sessions together.  Bypassing intermediate nodes is achieved with
   GIST.  The local session and the end-to-end session are bound at the
   egress QNE by means of the BOUND_SESSION_ID object.

3.2.10.3.  Aggregate Reservations

   In some cases it is desirable to create reservations for an
   aggregate, rather than on a per-flow basis, in order to reduce the
   amount of reservation state needed, as well as, the processing load
   for signaling messages.  Note that the QoS NSLP does not specify how
   reservations need to be combined in an aggregate or how end-to-end
   properties need to be computed but only provides signaling support
   for it.

   The essential difference with the layering approaches described in
   Section 3.2.10.1 and Section 3.2.10.2 is that the aggregate
   reservation needs a MRI that describes all traffic carried in the
   aggregate (e.g., a DSCP in case of IntServ over DiffServ).  The need
   for a different MRI mandates the use of two different sessions,
   similar to Section 3.2.10.3 and to the RSVP aggregation solution in
   RFC 3175 [RFC3175].

   Edge QNEs of the aggregation domain that want to maintain some end-
   to-end properties may establish a peering relation by sending the
   end-to-end message transparently over the domain (using the
   intermediate node bypass capability described above).  Updating the



Manner, et al.           Expires August 2, 2010                [Page 18]

Internet-Draft                  QoS NSLP                    January 2010


   end-to-end properties in this message may require some knowledge of
   the aggregated session (e.g., for updating delay values).  For this
   purpose, the end-to-end session contains a BOUND_SESSION_ID carrying
   the SESSION_ID of the aggregate session.

3.2.11.  Support for Request Priorities

   This specification acknowledges the fact that in some situations,
   some messages or some reservations may be more important than others
   and therefore foresees mechanisms to give these messages or
   reservations priority.

   Priority of certain signaling messages over others may be required in
   mobile scenarios when a message loss during call set-up is less
   harmful than during handover.  This situation only occurs when GIST
   or QoS NSLP processing is the congested part or scarce resource.

   Priority of certain reservations over others may be required when QoS
   resources are oversubscribed.  In that case, existing reservations
   may be preempted in order to make room for new higher-priority
   reservations.  A typical approach to deal with priority and
   preemption is through the specification of a setup priority and
   holding priority for each reservation.  The resource management
   function at each QNE then keeps track of the resource consumption at
   each priority level.  Reservations are established when resources, at
   their setup priority level, are still available.  They may cause
   preemption of reservations with a lower holding priority than their
   setup priority.

   Support of reservation priority is a QSPEC parameter and therefore
   outside the scope of this specification.  The GIST specification
   provides a mechanism to support a number of levels of message
   priority that can be requested over the NSLP-GIST API.

3.2.12.  Rerouting

   The QoS NSLP needs to adapt to route changes in the data path.  This
   assumes the capability to detect rerouting events, create a QoS
   reservation on the new path and optionally tear down reservations on
   the old path.

   From an NSLP perspective, rerouting detection can be performed in two
   ways.  It can either come through NetworkNotification from GIST, or
   from information seen at the NSLP.  In the latter case, the QoS NSLP
   node is able to detect changes in its QoS NSLP peers by keeping track
   of a Source Identification Information (SII) handle that provides
   information similar in nature to the RSVP_HOP object described in RFC
   2205 [RFC2205].  When a RESERVE message with an existing SESSION_ID



Manner, et al.           Expires August 2, 2010                [Page 19]

Internet-Draft                  QoS NSLP                    January 2010


   and a different SII is received, the QNE knows its upstream or
   downstream peer has changed, for sender-oriented and receiver-
   oriented reservations, respectively.

   Reservation on the new path happens when a RESERVE message arrives at
   the QNE beyond the point where the old and new paths diverge.  If the
   QoS NSLP suspects that a reroute has occurred, then a full RESERVE
   message (including the QSPEC) would be sent.  A refreshing RESERVE
   (with no QSPEC) will be identified as an error by a QNE on the new
   path which does not have the reservation installed (i.e. it was not
   on the old path) or which previously had a different previous-hop
   QNE.  It will send back an error message which results in a full
   RESERVE message being sent.  Rapid recovery at the NSLP layer
   therefore requires short refresh periods.  Detection before the next
   RESERVE message arrives is only possible at the IP layer or through
   monitoring of GIST peering relations (e.g., by TTL counting the
   number of GIST hops between NSLP peers or the observing changes in
   the outgoing interface towards GIST peer).  These mechanisms can
   provide implementation specific optimizations, and are outside the
   scope of this specification.

   When the QoS NSLP is aware of the route change, it needs to set up
   the reservation on the new path.  This is done by sending a new
   RESERVE message.  If the next QNE is, in fact, unchanged then this
   will be used to refresh/update the existing reservation.  Otherwise
   it will lead to the reservation being installed on the new path.

   Note that the operation for a receiver-initiated reservation session
   differs a bit from the above description.  If the routing changes in
   the middle of the path, the QNE that notices that its downstream path
   changed (indicated by a NetworkNotification from GIST), the
   divergence point, must send a QUERY with the R-flag downstream.  It
   will be processed as above, and at some point hits a QNE for which
   the path downstream towards the QNI remains (the convergence point).
   This node must then send a full RESERVE upstream to set up the
   reservation state along the new path.  It should not send the QUERY
   further downstream, since this would have no real use.  Similarly,
   when the QNE that sent the QUERY receives the RESERVE, it should not
   send the RESERVE further upstream.

   After the reservation on the new path is set up, the branching node
   may want to tear down the reservation on the old path (sooner than
   would result from normal soft-state time-out).  This functionality is
   supported by keeping track of the old SII-Handle provided over the
   GIST API.  This handle can be used by the QoS NSLP to route messages
   explicitly to the next node.

   If the old path is downstream, the QNE can send a tearing RESERVE



Manner, et al.           Expires August 2, 2010                [Page 20]

Internet-Draft                  QoS NSLP                    January 2010


   using the old SII-Handle.  If the old path is upstream, the QNE can
   send a NOTIFY with the code for "Route Change".  This is forwarded
   upstream until it hits a QNE that can issue a tearing RESERVE
   downstream.  A separate document discusses in detail the effect of
   mobility on the QoS NSLP signaling
   [I-D.ietf-nsis-applicability-mobility-signaling].

   A QNI or a branch node may wish to keep the reservation on the old
   branch.  This could for instance be the case when a mobile node has
   experienced a mobility event and wishes to keep reservation to its
   old attachment point in case it moves back there.  For this purpose,
   a REPLACE flag is provided in the QoS NSLP common header, which, when
   not set, indicates that the reservation on the old branch should be
   kept.

   Note that keeping old reservations affects the resources available to
   other nodes.  Thus, the operator of the access network must make the
   final decision on whether this behavior is allowed.  Also, the QNEs
   in the access network may add this flag even if the mobile node has
   not used the flag initially.

   The latency in detecting that a new down stream peer exist, or that
   truncation has happened depends on GIST.  The default Query message
   transmission interval is 30 seconds.  More details on how NSLPs are
   able to affect the discovery of new peers or rerouting can be found
   in the GIST specification.

3.2.12.1.  Last Node Behavior

   The design of the QoS NSLP allows reservations to be installed at a
   subset of the nodes along a path.  In particular, usage scenarios
   include cases where the data flow endpoints do not support the QoS
   NSLP.

   In the case where the data flow receiver does not support the QoS
   NSLP, some particular considerations must be given to node discovery
   and rerouting at the end of the signaling path.

   There are three cases for the last node on the signaling path: 1)
   Last node is the data receiver 2) Last node is a configured proxy for
   the data receiver 3) Last node is not the data receiver and is not
   explicitly configured to act as a signaling proxy on behalf of the
   data receiver.

   Cases (1) and (2) can be handled by the QoS NSLP itself during the
   initial path setup, since the QNE knows that it should terminate the
   signaling.  Case (3) requires some assistance from GIST which
   provides messages across the API to indicate that no further QoS NSLP



Manner, et al.           Expires August 2, 2010                [Page 21]

Internet-Draft                  QoS NSLP                    January 2010


   supporting GIST nodes are present downstream, and downstream route
   change probing needs to continue once the reservation is installed to
   detect any changes in this situation.

   Two particular scenarios need to be considered in this third case.
   In the first, referred to as "Path Extension", rerouting occurs such
   that an additional QNE is inserted into the signaling path between
   the old last node and the data receiver, as shown in Figure 4.

           /-------\   Initial route
          /         v
              /-\
           /--|B|--\                +-+
          /   \-/   \               |x| = QoS NSLP aware
       +-+           /-\            +-+
   ----|A|           |D|
       +-+           \-/            /-\
          \   +-+   /               |x| = QoS NSLP unaware
           \--|C|--/                \-/
              +-+
          \         ^
           \-------/   Updated route

                         Figure 4: Path Extension

   When rerouting occurs, the data path changes from A-B-D to A-C-D.
   Initially the signaling path ends at A. Despite initially being the
   last node, node A needs to continue to attempt to send messages
   downstream to probe for path changes, unless it has been explicitly
   configured as a signaling proxy for the data flow receiver.  This is
   required so that the signaling path change is detected, and C will
   become the new last QNE.

   In a second case, referred to as "Path Truncation", rerouting occurs
   such that the QNE that was the last node on the signaling path is no
   longer on the data path.  This is shown in Figure 5.















Manner, et al.           Expires August 2, 2010                [Page 22]

Internet-Draft                  QoS NSLP                    January 2010


           /-------\   Initial route
          /         v
              +-+
           /--|B|--\                 +-+
          /   +-+   \                |x| = QoS NSLP aware
       +-+           /-\             +-+
   ----|A|           |D|
       +-+           \-/             /-\
          \   /-\   /                |x| = QoS NSLP unaware
           \--|C|--/                 \-/
              \-/
          \         ^
           \-------/   Updated route

                         Figure 5: Path Truncation

   When rerouting occurs, the data path again changes from A-B-D to A-C-
   D. The signaling path initially ends at B, but this node is not on
   the new path.  In this case, the normal GIST path change detection
   procedures at A will detect the path change and notify the QoS NSLP.
   GIST will also notify the signaling application that no downstream
   GIST nodes supporting the QoS NSLP are present.  Node A will take
   over as the last node on the signaling path.

3.2.12.2.  Handling Spurious Route Change Notifications

   The QoS NSLP is notified by GIST (with the NetworkNotification
   primitive) when GIST believes that a rerouting event may have
   occurred.  In some cases, events that are detected as possible route
   changes will turn out not to be.  The QoS NSLP will not always be
   able to detect this, even after receiving messages from the 'new'
   peer.

   As part of the RecvMessage API primitive, GIST provides an SII-Handle
   which can be used by the NSLP to direct a signaling message to a
   particular peer.  The current SII-Handle will change if the signaling
   peer changes.  However, it is not guaranteed to remain the same after
   a rerouting event where the peer does not change.  Therefore, the QoS
   NSLP mechanism for reservation maintenance after a route change
   includes robustness mechanisms to avoid accidentally tearing down a
   reservation in situations where the peer QNE has remained the same
   after a 'route change' notification from GIST.

   A simple example that illustrates the problem is shown in Figure 6
   below.






Manner, et al.           Expires August 2, 2010                [Page 23]

Internet-Draft                  QoS NSLP                    January 2010


           (1)                         +-+
         /-----\                       |x| = QoS NSLP aware
       +-+     /-\ (3) +-+             +-+
   ----|A|     |B|-----|C|----
       +-+     \-/     +-+             /-\
         \-----/                       |x| = QoS NSLP unaware
           (2)                         \-/

                    Figure 6: Spurious reroute alerting

   In this example the initial route A-B-C uses links (1) and (3).
   After link (1) fails, the path is rerouted using links (2) and (3).
   The set of QNEs along the path is unchanged (it is A-C in both cases,
   since B does not support the QoS NSLP).

   When the outgoing interface at A has changes, GIST may signal across
   its API to the NSLP with a NetworkNotification.  The QoS NSLP at A
   will then attempt to repair the path by installing the reservation on
   the path (2),(3).  In this case, however, the old and new paths are
   the same.

   To install the new reservation A will send a RESERVE message, which
   GIST will transport to C (discovering the new next peer as
   appropriate).  The RESERVE also requests a RESPONSE from the QNR.
   When this RESERVE message is received through the RecvMessage API
   call from GIST at the QoS NSLP at C, the SII-Handle will be unchanged
   from its previous communications from A.

   A RESPONSE message will be sent by the QNR, and be forwarded from C
   to A. This confirms that the reservation was installed on the new
   path.  The SII-Handle passed with the RecvMessage call from GIST to
   the QoS NSLP will be different to that seen previously, since the
   interface being used on A has changed.

   At this point A can attempt to tear down the reservation on the old
   path.  The RESERVE message with the TEAR flag set is sent down the
   old path by using the GIST explicit routing mechanism and specifying
   the SII-Handle relating to the 'old' peer QNE.

   If RSNs were being incremented for each of these RESERVE and RESERVE-
   with-TEAR messages the reservation would be torn down at C and any
   QNEs further along the path.  To avoid this the RSN is used in a
   special way.  The RESERVE down the new path is sent with the new
   current RSN set to the old RSN plus 2.  The RESERVE-with-TEAR down
   the old path is sent with an RSN set to the new current RSN minus 1.
   This is the peer from which it was receiving RESERVE messages (see
   Section 5.2.5.2 for more details).




Manner, et al.           Expires August 2, 2010                [Page 24]

Internet-Draft                  QoS NSLP                    January 2010


3.2.13.  Pre-emption

   The QoS NSLP provides building blocks to implement pre-emption.  This
   specification does not define how pre-emption should work, but only
   provides signaling mechanisms that can be used by QoS Models.  For
   example, an INFO_SPEC object can be added to messages to indicate
   that the signaled session was pre-empted.  A BOUND_SESSION_ID object
   can carry the Session ID of the flow that caused the pre-emption to
   happen for the signaled session.  How these are used by QoS Models is
   out of scope of the QoS NSLP specification.

3.3.  GIST Interactions

   The QoS NSLP uses GIST for delivery of all its messages.  Messages
   are passed from the NSLP to GIST via an API (defined in Appendix B of
   [I-D.ietf-nsis-ntlp]), which also specifies additional information,
   including an identifier for the signaling application (e.g., 'QoS
   NSLP'), session identifier, MRI, and an indication of the intended
   direction - towards data sender or receiver.  On reception, GIST
   provides the same information to the QoS NSLP.  In addition to the
   NSLP message data itself, other meta-data (e.g. session identifier
   and MRI) can be transferred across this interface.

   The QoS NSLP keeps message and reservation state per session.  A
   session is identified by a Session Identifier (SESSION_ID).  The
   SESSION_ID is the primary index for stored NSLP state and needs to be
   constant and unique (with a sufficiently high probability) along a
   path through the network.  The QoS NSLP picks a value for Session-ID.

   This value is subsequently used by GIST and the QoS NSLP to refer to
   this session.

   Currently, the QoS NSLP specification considers mainly the path-
   coupled MRM.  However, extensions may specify how other types of MRMs
   may be applied in combination with the QoS NSLP.

   When GIST passes the QoS NSLP data to the NSLP for processing, it
   must also indicate the value of the 'D' (Direction) flag for that
   message in the MRI.

   The QoS NSLP does not provide any method of interacting with
   firewalls or Network Address Translators (NATs).  It assumes that a
   basic NAT traversal service is provided by GIST.

3.3.1.  Support for Bypassing Intermediate Nodes

   The QoS NSLP may want to restrict the handling of its messages to
   specific nodes.  This functionality is needed to support layering



Manner, et al.           Expires August 2, 2010                [Page 25]

Internet-Draft                  QoS NSLP                    January 2010


   (explained in Section 3.2.10), when only the edge QNEs of a domain
   process the message.  This requires a mechanism at GIST level (which
   can be invoked by the QoS NSLP) to bypass intermediate nodes between
   the edges of the domain.

   The intermediate nodes are bypassed using multiple levels of the
   router alert option.  In that case, internal routers are configured
   to handle only certain levels of router alerts.  This is accomplished
   by marking the signaling messages, i.e., modifying the QoS NSLP
   default NSLP-ID value to another NSLP-ID predefined value.  The
   marking is accomplished by the ingress edge by modifying the QoS NSLP
   default NSLP-ID value to a NSLP-ID predefined value, see Section 6.6.
   The egress stops this marking process by reassigning the QoS NSLP
   default NSLP-ID value to the original RESERVE message.  The exact
   operation of modifying the NSLP-ID must be specified in the relevant
   QoS model specification.

3.3.2.  Support for Peer Change Identification

   There are several circumstances where it is necessary for a QNE to
   identify the adjacent QNE peer, which is the source of a signaling
   application message; e.g., it may be to apply the policy that "state
   can only be modified by messages from the node that created it" or it
   might be that keeping track of peer identity is used as a (fallback)
   mechanism for rerouting detection at the NSLP layer.

   This functionality is implemented in GIST service interface with SII-
   handle.  As shown in the above example, we assume the SII- handling
   will support both own SII and peer SII.

   Keeping track of the SII of a certain reservation also provides a
   means for the QoS NSLP to detect route changes.  When a QNE receives
   a RESERVE referring to existing state but with a different SII, it
   knows that its upstream peer has changed.  It can then use the old
   SII to initiate a teardown along the old section of the path.  This
   functionality is supported in GIST service interface when the peer's
   SII which is stored on message reception is passed to GIST upon
   message transmission.

3.3.3.  Support for Stateless Operation

   Stateless or reduced state QoS NSLP operation makes the most sense
   when some nodes are able to operate in a stateless way at GIST level
   as well.  Such nodes should not worry about keeping reverse state,
   message fragmentation and reassembly (at GIST), congestion control or
   security associations.  A stateless or reduced state QNE will be able
   to inform the underlying GIST of this situation.  GIST service
   interface supports this functionality with the Retain-State attribute



Manner, et al.           Expires August 2, 2010                [Page 26]

Internet-Draft                  QoS NSLP                    January 2010


   in the MessageReceived primitive.

3.3.4.  Priority of Signaling Messages

   The QoS NSLP will generate messages with a range of performance
   requirements for GIST.  These requirements may result from a
   prioritization at the QoS NSLP (Section 3.2.11) or from the
   responsiveness expected by certain applications supported by the QoS
   NSLP.  GIST service interface supports this with the 'priority'
   transfer attribute.

3.3.5.  Knowledge of Intermediate QoS NSLP Unaware Nodes

   In some cases it is useful to know that there are routers along the
   path where QoS cannot be provided.  The GIST service interface
   supports this by keeping track of IP-TTL and Original-TTL in the
   RecvMessage primitive.  A difference between the two indicates the
   number of QoS NSLP unaware nodes.  In this case the QNE that detects
   this difference should set the "B" (BREAK) flag.  If a QNE generates
   a QUERY, RESERVE or RESPONSE message, after receiving a QUERY or
   RESERVE message with a "Break" flag set, it can set the "B" (BREAK)
   flag in these messages.  There are however, situations where the
   egress QNE in a local domain may have some other means to provide QoS
   [I-D.ietf-nsis-qspec].  For example, in an RMD-QOSM
   [I-D.ietf-nsis-rmd] (or RMD-QOSM like) aware local domain that uses
   either NTLP stateless nodes or NSIS unaware nodes the end to end
   RESERVE or QUERY message bypasses these NTLP stateless or NSIS
   unaware nodes.  However, the reservation within the local domain can
   be signaled by the RMD-QOSM (or RMD-QOSM like QOSM).  In such
   situations, the "B" (BREAK) flag in the end to end RESERVE or QUERY
   message should not be set by the edges of the local domain.


4.  Examples of QoS NSLP Operation

   The QoS NSLP can be used in a number of ways.  The examples given
   here give an indication of some of the basic processing.  However,
   they are not exhaustive and do not attempt to cover the details of
   the protocol processing.












Manner, et al.           Expires August 2, 2010                [Page 27]

Internet-Draft                  QoS NSLP                    January 2010


4.1.  Sender-initiated Reservation

   QNI        QNE        QNE        QNR
    |          |          |          |
    | RESERVE  |          |          |
    +--------->|          |          |
    |          | RESERVE  |          |
    |          +--------->|          |
    |          |          | RESERVE  |
    |          |          +--------->|
    |          |          |          |
    |          |          | RESPONSE |
    |          |          |<---------+
    |          | RESPONSE |          |
    |          |<---------+          |
    | RESPONSE |          |          |
    |<---------+          |          |
    |          |          |          |
    |          |          |          |

               Figure 7: Basic Sender Initiated Reservation

   To make a new reservation, the QNI constructs a RESERVE message
   containing a QSPEC object, from its chosen QoS model, which describes
   the required QoS parameters.

   The RESERVE message is passed to GIST which transports it to the next
   QNE.  There it is delivered to the QoS NSLP processing which examines
   the message.  Policy control and admission control decisions are
   made.  The exact processing also takes into account the QoS model
   being used.  The node performs appropriate actions (e.g., installing
   reservation) based on the QSPEC object in the message.

   The QoS NSLP then generates a new RESERVE message (usually based on
   the one received).  This is passed to GIST, which forwards it to the
   next QNE.

   The same processing is performed at further QNEs along the path, up
   to the QNR.  The determination that a node is the QNR may be made
   directly (e.g., that node is the destination for the data flow), or
   using GIST functionality to determine that there are no more QNEs
   between this node and the data flow destination.

   Any node may include a request for a RESPONSE in its RESERVE
   messages.  It does so by including a Request Identification
   Information (RII) object in the RESERVE message.  If the message
   already includes an RII, an interested QNE must not add a new RII
   object nor replace the old RII object.  Instead it needs to remember



Manner, et al.           Expires August 2, 2010                [Page 28]

Internet-Draft                  QoS NSLP                    January 2010


   the RII value so that it can match a RESPONSE message belonging to
   the RESERVE.  When it receives the RESPONSE, it forwards the RESPONSE
   upstream towards the RII originating node.

   In this example, the RESPONSE message is forwarded peer-to-peer along
   the reverse of the path that the RESERVE message took (using GIST
   path state), and so is seen by all the QNEs on this segment of the
   path.  It is only forwarded as far as the node which requested the
   RESPONSE originally.

   The reservation can subsequently be refreshed by sending further
   RESERVE messages containing the complete reservation information, as
   for the initial reservation.  The reservation can also be modified in
   the same way, by changing the QSPEC data to indicate a different set
   of resources to reserve.

   The overhead required to perform refreshes can be reduced, in a
   similar way to that proposed for RSVP in RFC 2961 [RFC2961].  Once a
   RESPONSE message has been received indicating the successful
   installation of a reservation, subsequent refreshing RESERVE messages
   can simply refer to the existing reservation, rather than including
   the complete reservation specification.

4.2.  Sending a Query

   QUERY messages can be used to gather information from QNEs along the
   path.  For example, they can be used to find out what resources are
   available before a reservation is made.

   In order to perform a query along a path, the QNE constructs a QUERY
   message.  This message includes a QSPEC containing the actual query
   to be performed at QNEs along the path.  It also contains an RII
   object used to match the response back to the query, and an indicator
   of the query scope (next node, whole path, proxy).  The QUERY message
   is passed to GIST to forward it along the path.

   A QNE receiving a QUERY message should inspect it and create a new
   message, based on that received with the query objects modified as
   required.  For example, the query may request information on whether
   a flow can be admitted, and so a node processing the query might
   record the available bandwidth.  The new message is then passed to
   GIST for further forwarding (unless it knows it is the QNR, or is the
   limit for the scope in the QUERY).

   At the QNR, a RESPONSE message must be generated if the QUERY message
   includes a Request Identification Information (RII) object.  Various
   objects from the received QUERY message have to be copied into the
   RESPONSE message.  It is then passed to GIST to be forwarded peer-to-



Manner, et al.           Expires August 2, 2010                [Page 29]

Internet-Draft                  QoS NSLP                    January 2010


   peer back along the path.

   Each QNE receiving the RESPONSE message should inspect the RII object
   to see if it 'belongs' to it (i.e., it was the one that originally
   created it).  If it does not then it simply passes the message back
   to GIST to be forwarded upstream.

   If there was an error in processing a RESERVE, instead of an RII, the
   RESPONSE may carry an RSN.  Thus, a QNE must also be prepared to look
   for an RSN object if no RII was present, and act based on the error
   code set in the INFO_SPEC of the RESPONSE.

4.3.  Basic Receiver-initiated Reservation

   As described in the NSIS framework [RFC4080] in some signaling
   applications, a node at one end of the data flow takes responsibility
   for requesting special treatment - such as a resource reservation -
   from the network.  Both ends then agree whether sender or receiver-
   initiated reservation is to be done.  In case of a receiver initiated
   reservation, both ends agree whether a "One Pass With Advertising"
   (OPWA) [opwa95] model is being used.  This negotiation can be
   accomplished using mechanisms that are outside the scope of NSIS.

   To make a receiver-initiated reservation, the QNR constructs a QUERY
   message, which MUST contain a QSPEC object from its chosen QoS model
   (see Figure 8).  The QUERY must have the RESERVE-INIT flag set.  This
   QUERY message does not need to trigger a RESPONSE message and
   therefore, the QNI must not include the RII object (Section 5.4.2) in
   the QUERY message.  The QUERY message may be used to gather
   information along the path, which is carried by the QSPEC object.  An
   example of such information is the "One Pass With Advertising" (OPWA)
   [opwa95].  This QUERY message causes GIST reverse-path state to be
   installed.


















Manner, et al.           Expires August 2, 2010                [Page 30]

Internet-Draft                  QoS NSLP                    January 2010


    QNR        QNE        QNE        QNI
   sender                          receiver
     |          |          |          |
     | QUERY    |          |          |
     +--------->|          |          |
     |          | QUERY    |          |
     |          +--------->|          |
     |          |          | QUERY    |
     |          |          +--------->|
     |          |          |          |
     |          |          | RESERVE  |
     |          |          |<---------+
     |          | RESERVE  |          |
     |          |<---------+          |
     | RESERVE  |          |          |
     |<---------+          |          |
     |          |          |          |
     | RESPONSE |          |          |
     +--------->|          |          |
     |          | RESPONSE |          |
     |          +--------->|          |
     |          |          | RESPONSE |
     |          |          +--------->|
     |          |          |          |

              Figure 8: Basic Receiver Initiated Reservation

   The QUERY message is transported by GIST to the next downstream QoS
   NSLP node.  There it is delivered to the QoS NSLP processing which
   examines the message.  The exact processing also takes into account
   the QoS model being used and may include gathering information on
   path characteristics that may be used to predict the end-to-end QoS.

   The QNE generates a new QUERY message (usually based on the one
   received).  This is passed to GIST, which forwards it to the next
   QNE.  The same processing is performed at further QNEs along the
   path, up to the flow receiver.  The receiver detects that this QUERY
   message carries the RESERVE-INIT flag and by using the information
   contained in the received QUERY message, such as the QSPEC,
   constructs a RESERVE message.

   The RESERVE is forwarded peer-to-peer along the reverse of the path
   that the QUERY message took (using GIST reverse path state).  Similar
   to the sender-initiated approach, any node may include an RII in its
   RESERVE messages.  The RESPONSE is sent back to confirm the resources
   are set up.  The reservation can subsequently be refreshed with
   RESERVE messages in the upstream direction.




Manner, et al.           Expires August 2, 2010                [Page 31]

Internet-Draft                  QoS NSLP                    January 2010


4.4.  Bidirectional Reservations

   The term "bidirectional reservation" refers to two different cases
   that are supported by this specification:

   o Binding two sender-initiated reservations together, e.g., one
   sender-initiated reservation from QNE A to QNE B and another one from
   QNE B to QNE A ( Figure 9).

   o Binding a sender-initiated and a receiver-initiated reservation
   together, e.g., a sender-initiated reservation from QNE A towards QNE
   B, and a receiver-initiated reservation from QNE A towards QNE B for
   the data flow in the opposite direction (from QNE B to QNE A).  This
   case is particularly useful when one end of the communication has all
   required information to set up both sessions ( Figure 10).

   Both ends have to agree on which bi-directional reservation type they
   need to use.  This negotiation can be accomplished using mechanisms
   that are outside the scope of NSIS.

   The scenario with two sender-initiated reservations is shown in
   Figure 9.  Note that RESERVE messages for both directions may visit
   different QNEs along the path because of asymmetric routing.  Both
   directions of the flows are bound by inserting the BOUND_SESSION_ID
   object at the QNI and QNR.  RESPONSE messages are optional and not
   shown in the picture for simplicity.

      A          QNE        QNE        B
      |          |  FLOW-1  |          |
      |===============================>|
      |RESERVE-1 |          |          |
   QNI+--------->|RESERVE-1 |          |
      |          +-------------------->|QNR
      |          |          |          |
      |          |  FLOW-2  |          |
      |<===============================|
      |          |          |RESERVE-2 |
      |  RESERVE-2          |<---------+QNI
   QNR|<--------------------+          |
      |          |          |          |

      Figure 9: Bi-directional reservation for sender+sender scenario

   The scenario with a sender-initiated and a receiver-initiated
   reservation is shown in Figure 10.  In this case, QNI A sends out two
   RESERVE messages, one for the sender-initiated and one for the
   receiver-initiated reservation.  Note that the sequence of the two
   RESERVE messages may be interleaved.



Manner, et al.           Expires August 2, 2010                [Page 32]

Internet-Draft                  QoS NSLP                    January 2010


          A          QNE        QNE        B
          |          |  FLOW-1  |          |
          |===============================>|
          |RESERVE-1 |          |          |
       QNI+--------->|RESERVE-1 |          |
          |          +-------------------->|QNR
          |          |          |          |
          |          |  FLOW-2  |          |
          |<===============================|
          |          |          |  QUERY-2 |
          |          |  QUERY-2 |<---------+QNR
       QNI|<--------------------+          |
          |          |          |          |
          |RESERVE-2 |          |          |
       QNI+--------->|RESERVE-2 |          |
          |          +-------------------->|QNR
          |          |          |          |

    Figure 10: Bi-directional reservation for sender+receiver scenario

4.5.  Aggregate Reservations

   In order to reduce signaling and per-flow state in the network, the
   reservations for a number of flows may be aggregated.



























Manner, et al.           Expires August 2, 2010                [Page 33]

Internet-Draft                  QoS NSLP                    January 2010


   QNI        QNE      QNE/QNI'     QNE'    QNR'/QNE      QNR
                     aggregator           deaggregator
    |          |          |          |          |          |
    | RESERVE  |          |          |          |          |
    +--------->|          |          |          |          |
    |          | RESERVE  |          |          |          |
    |          +--------->|          |          |          |
    |          |          | RESERVE  |          |          |
    |          |          +-------------------->|          |
    |          |          | RESERVE' |          |          |
    |          |          +=========>| RESERVE' |          |
    |          |          |          +=========>| RESERVE  |
    |          |          |          |          +--------->|
    |          |          |          | RESPONSE'|          |
    |          |          | RESPONSE'|<=========+          |
    |          |          |<=========+          |          |
    |          |          |          |          | RESPONSE |
    |          |          |          | RESPONSE |<---------+
    |          |          |<--------------------+          |
    |          | RESPONSE |          |          |          |
    |          |<---------+          |          |          |
    | RESPONSE |          |          |          |          |
    |<---------+          |          |          |          |
    |          |          |          |          |          |
    |          |          |          |          |          |

         Figure 11: Sender Initiated Reservation with Aggregation

   An end-to-end per-flow reservation is initiated with the messages
   shown in Figure 11 as "RESERVE".

   At the aggregator a reservation for the aggregated flow is initiated
   (shown in Figure 11 as "RESERVE'").  This may use the same QoS model
   as the end-to-end reservation but has an MRI identifying the
   aggregated flow (e.g., tunnel) instead of for the individual flows.

   This document does not specify how the QSPEC of the aggregate session
   can be derived from the QSPECs of the end-to-end sessions.

   The messages used for the signaling of the individual reservation
   need to be marked such that the intermediate routers will not inspect
   them.  In the QoS NSLP the following marking possibility is applied,
   see also RFC3175.

   All routers use essentially the same algorithm for which messages
   they process, i.e. all messages at aggregation level 0.  However,
   messages have their aggregation level incremented on entry to an
   aggregation region and decremented on exit.  In this technique the



Manner, et al.           Expires August 2, 2010                [Page 34]

Internet-Draft                  QoS NSLP                    January 2010


   interior routers are not required to do any rewriting of the RAO
   values.  However, the aggregating/deaggregating routers must be
   configured with which of their interfaces lie at which aggregation
   level, and also requires consistent message rewriting at these
   boundaries.

   In particular, the Aggregator performs the marking by modifying the
   QoS NSLP default NSLP-ID value to a NSLP-ID predefined value, see
   Section 6.6.  A RAO value is then uniquely derivable from each
   predefined NSLP-ID.  However, the RAO does not have to have a one-to-
   one relation to a specific NSLP-ID.


             Aggregator                    Deaggregator

                +---+     +---+     +---+     +---+
                |QNI|-----|QNE|-----|QNE|-----|QNR|         aggregate
                +---+     +---+     +---+     +---+         reservation

   +---+     +---+     .....     .....     +---+     +---+
   |QNI|-----|QNE|-----.   .-----.   .-----|QNE|-----|QNR|  end-to-end
   +---+     +---+     .....     .....     +---+     +---+  reservation

                    Figure 12: Reservation aggregation

   The deaggregator acts as the QNR for the aggregate reservation.
   Session binding information carried in the RESERVE message enables
   the deaggregator to associate the end-to-end and aggregate
   reservations with one another (using the BOUND_SESSION_ID).

   The key difference between this example and the one shown in Section
   4.1 is that the flow identifier for the aggregate is expected to be
   different to that for the end-to-end reservation.  The aggregate
   reservation can be updated independently of the per-flow end-to-end
   reservations.

4.6.  Message Binding

   Section 4.5 sketches the interaction of an aggregated end-to-end flow
   and an aggregate.  For this scenario, and probably others, it is
   useful to have a method for synchronizing signaling message exchanges
   of different sessions.  This can be used to speed up signaling,
   because some message exchanges can be started simultaneously and can
   be processed in parallel until further processing of a message from
   one particular session depends on another message from a different
   session.  For instance, in Figure 11 there is a case where inclusion
   of a new reservation requires to increase the capacity of the
   encompassing aggregate first.  So the RESERVE (bound message) for the



Manner, et al.           Expires August 2, 2010                [Page 35]

Internet-Draft                  QoS NSLP                    January 2010


   individual flow arriving at the deaggregator should wait until the
   RESERVE' (binding message) for the aggregate arrived successfully
   (otherwise the individual flow could not be included into the
   existing aggregate and cannot be admitted).  Another alternative
   would be to increase the aggregate first and then to reserve
   resources for a set of aggregated individual flows.  In this case the
   binding and synchronization between the (RESERVE and RESERVE')
   messages is not needed.

   A message binding may be used (depending an the aggregators policy)
   as follows: a QNE (aggregator QNI' in Figure 14) generates randomly a
   128-bit MSG_ID (same rules apply as for generating a SESSION_ID) and
   includes it as BOUND_MSG_ID object into the bound signaling message
   (RESERVE (1) in Figure 13) that should wait for the arrival of a
   related binding signaling message (RESERVE' (3) in Figure 13) that
   carries the associated MSG_ID object.  The BOUND_SESSION_ID should
   also be set accordingly.  Only one MSG_ID or BOUND_MSG_ID object per
   message is allowed.  If the dependency relation between the two
   messages is bidirectional then the Message_Binding_Type flag is SET
   (value is 1).  Otherwise, the Message_Binding_Type flag is UNSET.  In
   most cases an RII object must be included in order to get a
   corresponding RESPONSE back.

   Depending on the arrival sequence of the bound signaling message
   (RESERVE (1) in Figure 13) and the "triggering" binding signaling
   message (RESERVE' (3) in Figure 13) different situations can be
   identified:

   o  The bound signaling (RESERVE (1)) arrives first.  The receiving
      QNE enqueues (probably after some pre-processing) the signaling
      (RESERVE (1)) message for the corresponding session.  It also
      starts a MsgIDWait timer in order to discard the message in case
      the related "triggering" message (RESERVE' in Figure 13) does not
      arrive.  The timeout period for this time SHOULD be set to the
      default retransmission timeout period (QOSNSLP_REQUEST_RETRY).  In
      case a retransmitted RESERVE message arrives before the timeout it
      will simply override the waiting message (i.e. the latter is
      discarded and the new message is now waiting with the MsgIDWait
      timer being reset).

   At the same time, the "triggering" message including a MSG_ID object,
   carrying the same value as the BOUND_MSG_ID object is sent by the
   same initiating QNE (QNI' in Figure 13).  The intermediate QNE' sees
   the MSG_ID object, but can determine that it is not the endpoint for
   the session (QNR') and therefore simply forwards the message after
   normal processing.  The receiving QNE (QNR') as endpoint for the
   aggregate session (i.e., deaggregator) interprets the MSG_ID object
   and looks for a corresponding waiting message with a BOUND_MSG_ID of



Manner, et al.           Expires August 2, 2010                [Page 36]

Internet-Draft                  QoS NSLP                    January 2010


   the same value whose waiting condition is satisfied now.  Depending
   on successful processing of the RESERVE' (3), processing of the
   waiting RESERVE will be resumed and the MsgIDWait timer will be
   stopped as soon as the related RESERVE' arrived.

      QNI        QNE      QNE/QNI'     QNE'    QNR'/QNE      QNR
                        aggregator           deaggregator
       |          |          |          |          |          |
       | RESERVE  |          |          |          |          |
       +--------->|          |          |          |          |
       |          | RESERVE  |          |          |          |
       |          +--------->|          |          |          |
       |          |          | RESERVE  |          |          |
       |          |          |   (1)    |          |          |
       |          |          +-------------------->|          |
       |          |          | RESERVE' |          |          |
       |          |          |   (2)    |          |          |
       |          |          +=========>| RESERVE' |          |
       |          |          |          |   (3)    |          |
       |          |          |          +=========>| RESERVE  |
       |          |          |          |          |   (4)    |
       |          |          |          |          +--------->|
       |          |          |          | RESPONSE'|          |
       |          |          | RESPONSE'|<=========+          |
       |          |          |<=========+          |          |
       |          |          |          |          | RESPONSE |
       |          |          |          | RESPONSE |<---------+
       |          |          |<--------------------+          |
       |          | RESPONSE |          |          |          |
       |          |<---------+          |          |          |
       | RESPONSE |          |          |          |          |
       |<---------+          |          |          |          |
       |          |          |          |          |          |
       |          |          |          |          |          |


   (1):     RESERVE:  SESSION_ID=F, BOUND_MSG_ID=x, BOUND_SESSION_ID=A
   (2)+(3): RESERVE': SESSION_ID=A, MSG_ID=x
   (4):     RESERVE:  SESSION_ID=F  (MSG_ID object was removed)

               Figure 13: Example for using message binding

   Several further cases have to be considered in this context:

   o  "Triggering message" (3) arrives before waiting (bound) message
      (1): In this case the processing of the triggering message depends
      on the value of the Message_Binding_Type flag.  If
      Message_Binding_Type is UNSET (value is 0) then the triggering



Manner, et al.           Expires August 2, 2010                [Page 37]

Internet-Draft                  QoS NSLP                    January 2010


      message can be processed normally, but the MSG_ID and the result
      (success or failure) should be saved for the waiting message.
      Thus the RESPONSE' can be sent by the QNR' immediately.  If the
      waiting message (1) finally arrives at the QNR', it can be
      detected that the waiting condition was already satisfied, because
      the triggering message already arrived earlier.  If
      Message_Binding_Type is SET (value is 1) then the triggering
      message interprets the MSG_ID object and looks for the
      corresponding waiting message with a BOUND_MSG_ID of the same
      value, which in this case has not yet arrived.  It then starts a
      MsgIDWait timer in order to discard the message in case the
      related message (RESERVE (1) in Figure 14) does not arrive.
      Depending on successful processing of the RESERVE (1), processing
      of the waiting RESERVE' will be resumed, the MsgIDWait timer will
      be stopped as soon as the related RESERVE arrived and the
      RESPONSE' can be sent by the QNR' towards the QNI'.
   o  The "triggering message" (3) does not arrive at all: this may be
      the case due to message loss (which will cause a retransmission by
      the QNI' if the RII object is included) or due to a reservation
      failure at an intermediate node (QNE' in the example).  The
      MsgIDWait timeout will then simply discard the waiting message at
      QNR'.  In this case the QNR' MAY send a RESPONSE message towards
      the QNI informing that the synchronisation of the two messages has
      failed.
   o  Retransmissions should use the same MSG_ID, because usually only
      one message of the two related messages is retransmitted.  As
      mentioned above: retransmissions will only occur if the RII object
      is set in the RESERVE.  If a retransmitted message with a MSG_ID
      arrives while a bound message with the same MSG_ID is still
      waiting, the retransmitted message will replace the bound message.

   For a receiving node there are conceptually two lists indexed by
   message IDs.  One list contains the IDs and results of triggering
   messages (those carrying a MSG_ID object), the other list contains
   the IDs and message contents of the bound waiting messages (those who
   carried a BOUND_MSG_ID).  The former list is used when a triggering
   message arrives before the bound message.  The latter list is used
   when a bound message arrives before a triggering message.

4.7.  Reduced State or Stateless Interior Nodes

   This example uses a different QoS model within a domain, in
   conjunction with GIST and NSLP functionality which allows the
   interior nodes to avoid storing GIST and QoS NSLP state.  As a result
   the interior nodes only store the QSPEC-related reservation state, or
   even no state at all.  This allows the QoS model to use a form of
   "reduced-state" operation, where reservation states with a coarser
   granularity (e.g., per-class) are used, or a "stateless" operation



Manner, et al.           Expires August 2, 2010                [Page 38]

Internet-Draft                  QoS NSLP                    January 2010


   where no QoS NSLP state is needed (or created).  This is usefull e.g.
   for measurement-based admission control schemes.

   The key difference between this example and the use of different QoS
   models in Section 4.5 is that the transport characteristics for the
   reservation, i.e., GIST can be used in a different way for the edge-
   to-edge and hop-by-hop sessions.  The reduced state reservation can
   be updated independently of the per-flow end-to-end reservations.

4.7.1.  Sender-initiated Reservation

   The QNI initiates a RESERVE message (see Fig. 14).  At the QNEs on
   the edges of the stateless or reduced-state region the processing is
   different and the nodes support two QoS models.  At the ingress the
   original RESERVE message is forwarded but ignored by the stateless or
   reduced-state nodes.  This is accomplished by marking this message,
   i.e., modifying the QoS NSLP default NSLP-ID value to another NSLP-ID
   predefined value (see Section 4.6).  The marking must be accomplished
   by the ingress by modifying the QoS_NSLP default NSLP-ID value to a
   NSLP-ID predefined value.  The egress must reassign the QoS NSLP
   default NSLP-ID value to the original end-to-end RESERVE message.  An
   example of such operation is given in [I-D.ietf-nsis-rmd].

   The egress node is the next QoS NSLP hop for the end-to-end RESERVE
   message.  Reliable GIST transfer mode can be used between the ingress
   and egress without requiring GIST state in the interior.  At the
   egress node the RESERVE message is then forwarded normally.

   At the ingress a second RESERVE' message is also built (Fig. 14).
   This makes use of a QoS model suitable for a reduced state or
   stateless form of operation (such as the RMD per hop reservation).
   Since the original RESERVE and the RESERVE' messages are addressed
   identically, the RESERVE' message also arrives at the same egress QNE
   that was also traversed by the RESERVE message.  Message binding is
   used to synchronize the messages.

   When processed by interior (stateless) nodes the QoS NSLP processing
   exercises its options to not keep state wherever possible, so that no
   per flow QoS NSLP state is stored.  Some state, e.g., per class, for
   the QSPEC related data may be held at these interior nodes.  The QoS
   NSLP also requests that GIST use different transport characteristics
   (e.g., sending of messages in unreliable GIST transfer mode).  It
   also requests the local GIST processing not to retain messaging
   association state or reverse message routing state.

   Nodes, such as those in the interior of the stateless or reduced-
   state domain, that do not retain reservation state cannot send back
   RESPONSE messages (and so cannot use the refresh reduction



Manner, et al.           Expires August 2, 2010                [Page 39]

Internet-Draft                  QoS NSLP                    January 2010


   extension).

   At the egress node the RESERVE' message is interpreted in conjunction
   with the reservation state from the end-to-end RESERVE message (using
   information carried in the message to correlate the signaling flows).
   The RESERVE message is only forwarded further if the processing of
   the RESERVE' message was successful at all nodes in the local domain,
   otherwise the end-to-end reservation is regarded as having failed to
   be installed.  This can be realized by using the message binding
   functionality described in Section 4.6 to synchronize the arrival of
   the bound signaling message (end-to-end RESERVE) and the binding
   signaling message (local RESERVE').

           QNE             QNE             QNE            QNE
         ingress         interior        interior        egress
     GIST stateful  GIST stateless  GIST stateless  GIST stateful
            |               A               B              |
    RESERVE |               |               |              |
   -------->| RESERVE       |               |              |
            +--------------------------------------------->|
            | RESERVE'      |               |              |
            +-------------->|               |              |
            |               | RESERVE'      |              |
            |               +-------------->|              |
            |               |               | RESERVE'     |
            |               |               +------------->|
            |               |               |  RESPONSE'   |
            |<---------------------------------------------+
            |               |               |              | RESERVE
            |               |               |              +-------->
            |               |               |              | RESPONSE
            |               |               |              |<--------
            |               |               |     RESPONSE |
            |<---------------------------------------------+
    RESPONSE|               |               |              |
   <--------|               |               |              |

    Figure 14: Sender-initiated reservation with Reduced State Interior
                                   Nodes

   Resource management errors in the example above are reflected in the
   QSPEC and QoS Model processing.  For example, if the RESERVE' fails
   at QNE A, it can no send an error message back to the ingress QNE.
   Thus, the RESERVE' is forwarded along the intended path, but the
   QSPEC includes information for subsequent QNEs telling them an error
   happened upstream.  It is up to the QoS model to determine what to
   do.  Eventually, the RESERVE' will reach the egress QNE, and again,
   the QoS model then determines the response.



Manner, et al.           Expires August 2, 2010                [Page 40]

Internet-Draft                  QoS NSLP                    January 2010


4.7.2.  Receiver-initiated Reservation

   Since NSLP neighbor relationships are not maintained in the reduced-
   state region, only sender-initiated signaling can be supported within
   the reduced state region.  If a receiver-initiated reservation over a
   stateless or reduced state domain is required this can be implemented
   as shown in Figure 15.

           QNE            QNE            QNE
         ingress        interior        egress
     GIST stateful  GIST stateless  GIST stateful
            |               |               |
    QUERY   |               |               |
   -------->| QUERY         |               |
            +------------------------------>|
            |               |               | QUERY
            |               |               +-------->
            |               |               | RESERVE
            |               |               |<--------
            |               |      RESERVE  |
            |<------------------------------+
            | RESERVE'      | RESERVE'      |
            |-------------->|-------------->|
            |               |     RESPONSE' |
            |<------------------------------+
    RESERVE |               |               |
   <--------|               |               |

   Figure 15: Receiver-initiated reservation with Reduced State Interior
                                   Nodes

   The RESERVE message that is received by the egress QNE of the
   stateless domain is sent transparently to the ingress QNE (known as
   the source of the QUERY message).  When the RESERVE message reaches
   the ingress, the ingress QNE needs to send a sender- initiated
   RESERVE' over the stateless domain.  The ingress QNE needs to wait
   for a RESPONSE'.  If the RESPONSE' notifies that the reservation was
   accomplished successfully then the ingress QNE sends a RESERVE
   message further upstream.

4.8.  Proxy Mode

   Besides the sender- and receiver-initiated reservations, the QoS NSLP
   includes a functionality we refer to as Proxy Mode.  Here a QNE is
   set by administrator assignment to work as a proxy QNE (P-QNE) for a
   certain region, e.g., for an administrative domain.  A node
   initiating the signaling may set the PROXY scope flag to indicate
   that the signaling is meant to be confined within the area controlled



Manner, et al.           Expires August 2, 2010                [Page 41]

Internet-Draft                  QoS NSLP                    January 2010


   by the proxy, e.g., the local access network.

   The Proxy Mode has two uses.  First it allows to confine the QoS NSLP
   signaling to a pre-defined section of the path.  Secondly, it allows
   a node to make reservations for an incoming data flow.

   For outgoing data flows and sender-initiated reservations, the end
   host is the QNI, and sends a RESERVE with the PROXY scope flag set.
   The P-QNE is the QNR, it will receive the RESERVE, notice the PROXY
   scope flag is set and reply with a RESPONSE (if requested).  This
   operation is the same as illustrated in Figure 7.  The receiver-
   oriented reservation for outgoing flows works the same way as in
   Figure 8, the P-QNE is the QNI.

   For incoming data flows, the end host is the QNI, and it sends a
   RESERVE towards the data sender with the PROXY scope flag set.  Here
   the end host sets the MRI so that it indicates the end host as the
   receiver of the data, and sets the D-flag.

   GIST is able to send messages towards the data sender if there is
   existing message routing state or it is able to use the Upstream Q-
   mode Encapsulation.  In some cases GIST will be unable to determine
   the appropriate next hop for the message, and so will indicate a
   failure to deliver it (by sending an error message).  This may occur,
   for example, if GIST attempts to determine an upstream next hop and
   there are multiple possible inbound routes that could be used.

   Bi-directional reservations, as discussed in Section 4.4.  The P-QNE
   will be the QNR or QNI for reservations.

   If the PROXY scope flag is set in an incoming QoS NSLP message, the
   QNE must set the same flag in all QoS NSLP messages it sends that are
   related to this session.


5.  QoS NSLP Functional Specification

5.1.  QoS NSLP Message and Object Formats

   A QoS NSLP message consists of a common header, followed by a body
   consisting of a variable number of variable-length, typed "objects".
   The common header and other objects are encapsulated together in a
   GIST NSLP-Data object.  The following subsections define the formats
   of the common header and each of the QoS NSLP message types.  In the
   message formats, the common header is denoted as COMMON_HEADER.

   For each QoS NSLP message type, there is a set of rules for the
   permissible choice of object types.  These rules are specified using



Manner, et al.           Expires August 2, 2010                [Page 42]

Internet-Draft                  QoS NSLP                    January 2010


   the Augmented Backus-Naur Form (ABNF) specified in RFC 5234
   [RFC5234].  The ABNF implies an order for the objects in a message.
   However, in many (but not all) cases, object order makes no logical
   difference.  An implementation SHOULD create messages with the
   objects in the order shown here, but MUST accept the objects in any
   order.

5.1.1.  Common Header

   All GIST NSLP-Data objects for the QoS NSLP MUST contain this common
   header as the first 32 bits of the object (this is not the same as
   the GIST Common Header).

    0                   1                   2                   3
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   | Message Type  | Message Flags |      Generic Flags            |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

   The fields in the common header are as follows:

   Msg Type: 8 bits

   1 = RESERVE

   2 = QUERY

   3 = RESPONSE

   4 = NOTIFY

   Message-specific flags: 8 bits

   These flags are defined as part of the specfication of individual
   messages, and, thus, are different with each message type.

   Generic flags: 16 bits

   Generic flags have the same meaning for all message types.  There
   exist currently four generic flags, the (next hop) Scoping flag (S),
   the Proxy scope flag (P), the Acknowledgement Requested flag (A), and
   the Break flag (B).

   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |         Reserved      |B|A|P|S|
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

   SCOPING (S) - when set, indicates that the message is scoped and



Manner, et al.           Expires August 2, 2010                [Page 43]

Internet-Draft                  QoS NSLP                    January 2010


   should not travel down the entire path but only as far as the next
   QNE (scope="next hop").  By default, this flag is not set (default
   scope="whole path").

   PROXY (P) - when set, indicates that the message is scoped, and
   should not travel down the entire path but only as far as the P-QNE.
   By default, this flag is not set.

   ACK-REQ (A) - when set, indicates that the message should be
   acknowledged by the receiving peer.  The flag is only used between
   stateful peers, and only used with RESERVE and QUERY messages.
   Currently, the flag is only used with refresh messages.  By default
   the flag is not set.

   BREAK (B) - when set, indicates that there are routers along the path
   where QoS cannot be provided.

   The set of appropriate flags depends on the particular message being
   processed.  Any bit not defined as a flag for a particular message
   MUST be set to zero on sending and MUST be ignored on receiving.

   The ACK-REQ flag is useful when a QNE wants to make sure the messages
   received by the downstream QNE are truly processed by the QoS NSLP,
   not just delivered by GIST.  This is useful for faster dead peer
   diagnostics on the NSLP layer.  This liveliness test can only be used
   with refresh RESERVE messages.  The ACK-REQ-flag must not be set for
   RESERVE messages that already include an RII object, since a
   confirmation has already been requested from the QNR.  Reliable
   transmission of messages between two QoS NSLP peer should be handled
   by GIST, not the NSLP by itself.

5.1.2.  Message Formats

5.1.2.1.  RESERVE

   The format of a RESERVE message is as follows:

      RESERVE = COMMON_HEADER
                RSN [ RII ] [ REFRESH_PERIOD ] [ *BOUND_SESSION_ID ]
                [ SESSION_ID_LIST [ RSN_LIST ] ]
                [ MSG_ID / BOUND_MSG_ID ] [ INFO_SPEC ]
                [ [ PACKET_CLASSIFIER ] QSPEC ]

   The RSN is the only mandatory object and MUST always be present in
   all cases.  A QSPEC MUST be included in the initial RESERVE sent
   towards the QNR.  A PACKET_CLASSIFIER MAY be provided.  If the
   PACKET_CLASSIFIER is not provided, then the full set of information
   provided in the GIST MRI for the session should be used for packet



Manner, et al.           Expires August 2, 2010                [Page 44]

Internet-Draft                  QoS NSLP                    January 2010


   classification purposes.

   Subsequent RESERVE messages meant as reduced refreshes, where no
   QSPEC is provided, MUST NOT include a PACKET_CLASSIFIER either.

   There are no requirements on transmission order, although the above
   order is recommended.

   Two message-specific flags are defined for use in the common header
   with the RESERVE message.  These are:

   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |Reserved   |T|R|
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

   TEAR (T) - when set, indicates that reservation state and QoS NSLP
   operation state should be torn down.  The former is indicated to the
   RMF.  Depending on the QoS model, the tear message may include a
   QSPEC to further specify state removal, e.g., for an aggregation, the
   QSPEC may specify the amount of resources removed from the aggregate.

   REPLACE (R) - when set the flag has two uses.  First, it indicates
   that a RESERVE with different MRI (but same SID) replaces an existing
   one, so the old one MAY be torn down immediately.  This is the
   default situation.  This flag may be unset to indicate a desire from
   an upstream node to keep an existing reservation on an old branch in
   place.  Second, this flag is also used to indicate whether the
   reserved resources on the old branch should be torn down or not when
   a data path change happens.  In this case, the MRI is the same and
   only the route path changes.

   If the REFRESH_PERIOD is not present, a default value of 30 seconds
   is assumed.

   If the session of this message is bound to another session, then the
   RESERVE message MUST include the SESSION_ID of that other session in
   a BOUND_SESSION_ID object.  In the situation of aggregated tunnels,
   the aggregated session MAY not include the SESSION_ID of its bound
   sessions in BOUND_SESSION_ID(s).

   The negotiation of whether to perform sender or receiver-initiated
   signaling is done outside the QoS NSLP.  Yet, in theory, it is
   possible that a "reservation collision" may occur if the sender
   believes that a sender-initiated reservation should be performed for
   a flow, whilst the other end believes that it should be starting a
   receiver- initiated reservation.  If different session identifiers
   are used then this error condition is transparent to the QoS NSLP
   though it may result in an error from the RMF, otherwise the removal



Manner, et al.           Expires August 2, 2010                [Page 45]

Internet-Draft                  QoS NSLP                    January 2010


   of the duplicate reservation is left to the QNIs/QNRs for the two
   sessions.

   If a reservation is already installed and a RESERVE message is
   received with the same session identifier from the other direction
   (i.e., going upstream where the reservation was installed by a
   downstream RESERVE message, or vice versa) then an error indicating
   "RESERVE received from wrong direction" MUST be sent in a RESPONSE
   message to the signaling message source for this second RESERVE.

   A refresh right along the path can be forced by requesting a RESPONSE
   from the far end (i.e., by including an RII object in the RESERVE
   message).  Without this, a refresh RESERVE would not trigger RESERVE
   messages to be sent further along the path, as each hop has its own
   refresh timer.

   A QNE may ask for confirmation of tear operation by including an RII
   object.  QoS NSLP retransmissions SHOULD be disabled.  A QNE sending
   a tearing RESERVE with an RII included MAY ask GIST to use reliable
   transport.  When the QNE sends out a tearing RESERVE, it MUST NOT
   send refresh messages anymore.

   If the routing path changed due to mobility and the mobile node's IP
   address changed, and it sent a Mobile IP binding update, the
   resulting refresh is a new RESERVE.  This RESERVE includes a new MRI
   and will be propagated end-to-end; there is no need to force end-to-
   end forwarding by including an RII.

   Note: It is possible for a host to use this mechanism to constantly
   force the QNEs on the path to send refreshing RESERVE messages.  It
   may, therefore, be appropriate for QNEs to perform rate limiting on
   the refresh messages that they send.

5.1.2.2.  QUERY

   The format of a QUERY message is as follows:
      QUERY = COMMON_HEADER
              [ RII ][ *BOUND_SESSION_ID ]
              [ PACKET_CLASSIFIER ] [ INFO_SPEC ] QSPEC [ QSPEC ]

   QUERY messages MUST always include a QSPEC.  QUERY messages MAY
   include a PACKET_CLASSIFIER when the message is used to trigger a
   receiver-initiated reservation.  If a PACKET_CLASSIFIER is not
   included then the full GIST MRI should be used for packet
   classification purposes in the subsequent RESERVE.  A QUERY message
   MAY contain a second QSPEC object.

   A QUERY message for requesting information about network resources



Manner, et al.           Expires August 2, 2010                [Page 46]

Internet-Draft                  QoS NSLP                    January 2010


   MUST contain an RII object to match an incoming RESPONSE to the
   QUERY.

   The QSPEC object describes what is being queried for and may contain
   objects that gather information along the data path.  There are no
   requirements on transmission order, although the above order is
   recommended.

   One message-specific flags are defined for use in the common header
   with the QUERY message.  This is:

   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |Reserved     |R|
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

   RESERVE-INIT (R) - when this is set, the QUERY is meant as a trigger
   for the recipient to make a resource reservation by sending a
   RESERVE.

   If the session of this message is bound to another session, then the
   RESERVE message MUST include the SESSION_ID of that other session in
   a BOUND_SESSION_ID object.  In the situation of aggregated tunnels,
   the aggregated session MAY not include the SESSION_ID of its bound
   sessions in BOUND_SESSION_ID(s).

5.1.2.3.  RESPONSE

   The format of a RESPONSE message is as follows:

      RESPONSE = COMMON_HEADER
                 [ RII / RSN ] INFO_SPEC [SESSION_ID_LIST [ RSN_LIST ] ]
                 [ QSPEC ]

   A RESPONSE message MUST contain an INFO_SPEC object which indicates
   the success of a reservation installation or an error condition.
   Depending on the value of the INFO_SPEC, the RESPONSE MAY also
   contain a QSPEC object.  The value of an RII or an RSN object was
   provided by some previous QNE.  There are no requirement on
   transmission order, although the above order is recommended.

   No message-specific flags are defined for use in the common header
   with the RESPONSE message.

5.1.2.4.  NOTIFY

   The format of a NOTIFY message is as follows:

      NOTIFY = COMMON_HEADER



Manner, et al.           Expires August 2, 2010                [Page 47]

Internet-Draft                  QoS NSLP                    January 2010


               INFO_SPEC [ QSPEC ]

   A NOTIFY message MUST contain an INFO_SPEC object indicating the
   reason for the notification.  Depending on the INFO_SPEC value, it
   MAY contain a QSPEC object providing additional information.

   No message-specific flags are defined for use with the NOTIFY
   message.

5.1.3.  Object Formats

   The QoS NSLP uses a Type-Length-Value (TLV) object format similar to
   that used by GIST.  Every object consists of one or more 32-bit words
   with a one-word header.  For convenience the standard object header
   is shown here:

    0                   1                   2                   3
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |A|B|r|r|         Type          |r|r|r|r|        Length         |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

   The value for the Type field comes from the shared NSLP object type
   space, the various objects are presented in subsequent sections.  The
   Length field is given in units of 32 bit words and measures the
   length of the Value component of the TLV object (i.e., it does not
   include the standard header).

   The bits marked 'A' and 'B' are flags used to signal the desired
   treatment for objects whose treatment has not been defined in the
   protocol specification (i.e., whose Type field is unknown at the
   receiver).  The following four categories of object have been
   identified, and are described here.

   AB=00 ("Mandatory"): If the object is not understood, the entire
   message containing it MUST be rejected, and an error message sent
   back.

   AB=01 ("Ignore"): If the object is not understood, it MUST be deleted
   and the rest of the message processed as usual.

   AB=10 ("Forward"): If the object is not understood, it MUST be
   retained unchanged in any message forwarded as a result of message
   processing, but not stored locally.

   AB=11 ("Refresh"): If the object is not understood, it should be
   incorporated into the locally stored QoS NSLP signaling application
   operational state for this flow/session, forwarded in any resulting



Manner, et al.           Expires August 2, 2010                [Page 48]

Internet-Draft                  QoS NSLP                    January 2010


   message, and also used in any refresh or repair message which is
   generated locally.  The contents of this object does not need to be
   interpreted, and should only be stored as bytes on the QNE.

   The remaining bits marked 'r' are reserved.  These SHALL be set to 0
   and SHALL be ignored on reception.  The extensibility flags AB are
   similar to those used in the GIST specification.  All objects defined
   in this specification MUST be understood by all QNEs, thus, they MUST
   have the AB-bits set to "00".  A QoS NSLP implementation must
   recognize objects of the following types: RII, RSN, REFRESH_PERIOD,
   BOUND_SESSION_ID, INFO_SPEC, and QSPEC.

   The object header is followed by the Value field, which varies for
   different objects.  The format of the Value field for currently
   defined objects is specified below.

   The object diagrams here use '//' to indicate a variable sized field.

5.1.3.1.  Request Identification Information (RII)

   Type: 0x01

   Length: Fixed - 1 32-bit word

   Value: An identifier which MUST be (probabilistically) unique within
   the context of a SESSION_ID, and SHOULD be different every time a
   RESPONSE is desired.  Used by a QNE to match back a RESPONSE to a
   request in a RESERVE or QUERY message.

    0                   1                   2                   3
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |            Request Identification Information (RII)           |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

5.1.3.2.  Reservation Sequence Number (RSN)

   Type: 0x02

   Length: Fixed - 2 32-bit words

   Value: An incrementing sequence number that indicates the order in
   which state modifying actions are performed by a QNE, and an epoch
   identifier to allow the identification of peer restarts.  The RSN has
   local significance only, i.e., between a QNE and its downstream
   stateful peers.  The RSN is not reset when the downstream peer
   changes.




Manner, et al.           Expires August 2, 2010                [Page 49]

Internet-Draft                  QoS NSLP                    January 2010


    0                   1                   2                   3
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |               Reservation Sequence Number (RSN)               |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                       Epoch Identifier                        |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

5.1.3.3.  Refresh Period (REFRESH_PERIOD)

   Type: 0x03

   Length: Fixed - 1 32-bit word

   Value: The refresh timeout period R used to generate this message; in
   milliseconds.

    0                   1                   2                   3
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                      Refresh Period (R)                       |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

5.1.3.4.  Bound Session ID (BOUND_SESSION_ID)

   Type: 0x04

   Length: Fixed - 5 32-bit words

   Value: contains an 8-bit Binding_Code that indicates the nature of
   binding.  The rest specifies the SESSION_ID (as specified in GIST
   [I-D.ietf-nsis-ntlp]) of the session that MUST be bound to the
   session associated with the message carrying this object.

    0                   1                   2                   3
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                  RESERVED                     |  Binding Code |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                                                               |
   +                                                               +
   |                                                               |
   +                          Session ID                           +
   |                                                               |
   +                                                               +
   |                                                               |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+




Manner, et al.           Expires August 2, 2010                [Page 50]

Internet-Draft                  QoS NSLP                    January 2010


   Currently defined Binding Codes are:

   o 0x01 - Tunnel and end-to-end sessions

   o 0x02 - Bi-directional sessions

   o 0x03 - Aggregate sessions

   o 0x04 - Dependent sessions (binding session is alive only if the
   other session is also alive)

   o 0x05 - Indicated session caused pre-emption

   More binding codes maybe defined based on the above four atomic
   binding actions.  Note a message may include more than one
   BOUND_SESSION_ID object.  This may be needed in case one needs to
   define more specifically the reason for binding, or if the session
   depends on more than one other session (with possibly different
   reasons).  Note that a session with e.g., SID_A (the binding session)
   can express its unidirectional dependency relation to another session
   with e.g., SID_B (the bound session) by including a BOUND_SESSION_ID
   object containing SID_B in its messages.

5.1.3.5.  Packet Classifier (PACKET_CLASSIFIER)

   Type: 0x05

   Length: Variable

   Value: Contains a variable length MRM-specific data

    0                   1                   2                   3
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   //          Method-specific classifier data (variable)         //
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

   At this stage, the QoS NSLP only uses the path-coupled routing MRM.
   The method-specific classifier data is four bytes long and consists
   of a set of flags:

    0                   1                   2                   3
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-++-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |X|Y|P|T|F|S|A|B|                      Reserved                |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-++-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

   The flags are:



Manner, et al.           Expires August 2, 2010                [Page 51]

Internet-Draft                  QoS NSLP                    January 2010


   X - Source Address and Prefix

   Y - Destination Address and Prefix

   P - Protocol

   T - DiffServ Code Point

   F - Flow Label

   S - SPI

   A - Source Port

   B - Destination Port

   The flags indicate which fields from the MRI MUST be used by the
   packet classifier.  This allows a subset of the information in the
   MRI to be used for identifying the set of packets which are part of
   the reservation.  Flags MUST only be set if the data is present in
   the MRI (i.e., where there is a corresponding flag in the GIST MRI,
   the flag can only be set if the corresponding GIST MRI flag is set).
   It should be noted that some flags in the PACKET_CLASSIFIER (X and Y)
   relate to data that is always present in the MRI, but are optional to
   use for QoS NSLP packet classification.  The appropriate set of flags
   set may depend, to some extent, on the QoS model being used.

   As mentioned earlier in this section, the QoS NSLP is currently only
   defined for use with the Path-Coupled Message Routing Mechanism (MRM)
   in GIST.  Future work may extend the QoS NSLP to additional routing
   mechanisms.  Such MRMs must include sufficient information in the MRI
   to allow the subset of packets for which QoS is to be provided to be
   identified.  When QoS NSLP is extended to support a new MRM,
   appropriate method-specific classifier data for the PACKET_CLASSIFIER
   object MUST be defined.

5.1.3.6.  Information Object (INFO_SPEC) and Error Codes

   Type: 0x06

   Length: Variable

   Value: Contains 8-bit reserved bits, a 8-bit error code, a 4-bit
   error class, a 4-bit error source identifier type, and an 8-bit error
   source identifier length (in 32-bit words), an error source
   identifier and optionally variable length error-specific information.





Manner, et al.           Expires August 2, 2010                [Page 52]

Internet-Draft                  QoS NSLP                    January 2010


    0                   1                   2                   3
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |    Reserved   |  Error Code   |E-Class|ESI Typ|   ESI-Length  |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   //                   Error Source Identifier                   //
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   //             Optional error-specific information             //
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

   Class Field:

   The four E-Class bits of the object indicate the error severity
   class.  The currently defined severity classes are:

   o 0x1 - Informational

   o 0x2 - Success

   o 0x3 - Protocol Error

   o 0x4 - Transient Failure

   o 0x5 - Permanent Failure

   o 0x6 - QoS Model Error

   Error field:

   Within each error severity class a number of Error Code values are
   defined.

   o Informational:

   * 0x01 - Unknown BOUND_SESSION_ID: the message refers to an unknown
   SESSION_ID in its BOUND_SESSION_ID object.

   * 0x02 - Route Change: possible route change occurred on downstream
   path.

   * 0x03 - Reduced refreshes not supported, full QSPEC required.

   * 0x04 - Congestion situation: Possible congestion situation occurred
   on downstream path.

   * 0x05 - Unknown SESSION ID in SESSION_ID_LIST

   * 0x06 - Mismatching RSN in RSN LIST



Manner, et al.           Expires August 2, 2010                [Page 53]

Internet-Draft                  QoS NSLP                    January 2010


   o Success:

   * 0x01 - Reservation successful

   * 0x02 - Tear down successful

   * 0x03 - Acknowledgement

   * 0x04 - Refresh successful

   o Protocol Error:

   * 0x01 - Illegal message type: the type given in the Message Type
   field of the common header is unknown.

   * 0x02 - Wrong message length: the length given for the message does
   not match the length of the message data.

   * 0x03 - Bad flags value: an undefined flag or combination of flags
   was set in the generic flags

   * 0x04 - Bad flags value: an undefined flag or combination of flags
   was set in the message-specific flags

   * 0x05 - Mandatory object missing: an object required in a message of
   this type was missing.

   * 0x06 - Illegal object present: an object was present which must not
   be used in a message of this type.

   * 0x07 - Unknown object present: an object of an unknown type was
   present in the message.

   * 0x08 - Wrong object length: the length given for the object did not
   match the length of the object data present.

   * 0x09 - RESERVE received from wrong direction.

   * 0x0a - Unknown object field value: a field in an object had an
   unknown value.

   * 0x0b - Duplicate object present.

   * 0x0c - Malformed QSPEC.

   * 0x0d - Unknown MRI.

   * 0x0e - Erroneous value in the TLV object's value field.



Manner, et al.           Expires August 2, 2010                [Page 54]

Internet-Draft                  QoS NSLP                    January 2010


   * 0x0f - Incompatible QSPEC

   o Transient Failure:

   * 0x01 - No GIST reverse-path forwarding state

   * 0x02 - No path state for RESERVE, when doing a receiver- oriented
   reservation

   * 0x03 - RII conflict

   * 0x04 - Full QSPEC required

   * 0x05 - Mismatch synchronization between end-to-end RESERVE and
   intra-domain RESERVE

   * 0x06 - Reservation preempted

   * 0x07 - Reservation failure

   * 0x08 - Path truncated - Next peer dead

   o Permanent Failure:

   * 0x01 - Internal or system error

   * 0x02 - Authorization failure

   o QoS Model Error:

   This error class can be used by QoS Models to add error codes
   specific to the QoS Model being used.  All these errors and events
   are created outside the QoS NSLP itself.  The error codes in this
   class are defined in QoS model specifications.  Note that this error
   class may also include codes that are not purely errors, but rather
   some non-fatal information.

   Error Source Identifier

   The Error Source Identifier is for diagnostic purposes and its
   inclusion is OPTIONAL.  It is suggested that implementations use this
   for the IP address, host name or other identifier of the QNE
   generating the INFO_SPEC to aid diagnostic activities.  A QNE SHOULD
   NOT be used in any other purpose other than error logging or
   presenting to the user as part of any diagnostic information.  A QNE
   SHOULD NOT attempt to send a message to that address.

   If no Error Source Identifier is included, the Error Source



Manner, et al.           Expires August 2, 2010                [Page 55]

Internet-Draft                  QoS NSLP                    January 2010


   Identifier Type field must be zero.

   Currently three Error Source Identifiers have been defined: IPv4,
   IPv6 and FQDN.

   Error Source Identifier: IPv4

   Error Source Identifier Type: 0x1

    0                   1                   2                   3
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                      32-bit IPv4 address                      |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

   Error Source Identifier: IPv6

   Error Source Identifier Type: 0x2

   0 1 2 3 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0
   1

   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                                                               |
   +                                                               +
   |                                                               |
   +                      128-bit IPv6 address                     +
   |                                                               |
   +                                                               +
   |                                                               |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

   Error Source Identifier: FQDN name in UTF-8

   Error Source Identifier Type: 0x3

    0                   1                   2                   3
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   //                            FQDN Name                        //
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

   If the length of the FQDN name is not a multiple of 32-bits, the
   field is padded with zero octets to the next 32-bit boundary.

   If a QNE encounters protocol errors, it MAY include additional
   information, mainly for diagnostic purposes.  Additional information
   MAY be included if the type of an object is erroneous, or a field has



Manner, et al.           Expires August 2, 2010                [Page 56]

Internet-Draft                  QoS NSLP                    January 2010


   an erroneous value.

   If the type of an object is erroneous, the following Optional error-
   specific information may be included at the end of the INFO_SPEC.

   Object Type Info:

    0                   1                   2                   3
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |         Object Type           |           Reserved            |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

   This object provides information about the type of object which
   caused the error.

   If a field in an object had an incorrect value, the following
   Optional error-specific information may be added at the end of the
   INFO_SPEC.

   Object Value Info:


   0                   1                   2                   3
   0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   | Rsvd  |  Real Object Length   |            Offset             |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   //                           Object                            //
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

   Real Object Length: Since the length in the original TLV header may
   be inaccurate, this field provides the actual length of the object
   (including the TLV Header) included in the error message.

   Offset: Indicates which part of the erroneous object is included.
   When this field is set to "0", the complete object is included.  If
   Offset is bigger than "0", the erroneous object from offset
   (calculated from the beginning of the object) up to the end of the
   object is included.

   Object: The invalid TLV object (including the TLV Header).

   This object carries information about a TLV object which was found to
   be invalid in the original message.  An error message may contain
   more than one Object Value Info object.





Manner, et al.           Expires August 2, 2010                [Page 57]

Internet-Draft                  QoS NSLP                    January 2010


5.1.3.7.  SESSION ID List (SESSION_ID_LIST)

   Type: 0x07

   Length: Variable

   Value: A list of 128-bit SESSION IDs used in summary refresh and
   summary tear messages.  All SESSION IDs are concatenated together.

    0                   1                   2                   3
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                                                               |
   +                                                               +
   |                                                               |
   +                          Session ID 1                         +
   |                                                               |
   +                                                               +
   |                                                               |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   :                                                               :
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                                                               |
   +                                                               +
   |                                                               |
   +                          Session ID n                         +
   |                                                               |
   +                                                               +
   |                                                               |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

5.1.3.8.  Reservation Sequence Number (RSN) List (RSN_LIST)

   Type: 0x08

   Length: Variable

   Value: A list of 32-bit Reservation Sequence Number (RSN) values.
   All RSN are concatenated together.












Manner, et al.           Expires August 2, 2010                [Page 58]

Internet-Draft                  QoS NSLP                    January 2010


    0                   1                   2                   3
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                       Epoch Identifier                        |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |             Reservation Sequence Number 1 (RSN1)              |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   :                                                               :
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |             Reservation Sequence Number n (RSNn)              |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

5.1.3.9.  Message ID (MSG_ID)

   Type: 0x09

   Length: Fixed - 5 32-bit words

   Value: contains an 1-bit Message_Binding_Type (D) that indicates the
   dependency relation of a message binding.  The rest specifies a 128
   bit randomly generated value that "uniquely" identifies this
   particular message.

       0                   1                   2                   3
       0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
      |                  RESERVED                                   |D|
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
      |                                                               |
      +                                                               +
      |                                                               |
      +                          Message ID                           +
      |                                                               |
      +                                                               +
      |                                                               |
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

   The Message Binding Codes are:

   * 0 - Unidirectional binding dependency

   * 1 - Bi-directional binding dependency

5.1.3.10.  Bound Message ID (BOUND_MSG_ID)

   Type: 0x0A

   Length: Fixed - 5 32-bit words



Manner, et al.           Expires August 2, 2010                [Page 59]

Internet-Draft                  QoS NSLP                    January 2010


   Value: contains an 1-bit Message_Binding_Type (D) that indicates the
   dependency relation of a message binding.  The rest specifies a 128
   bit randomly generated value that refers to a Message ID in another
   message.














       0                   1                   2                   3
       0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
      |                  RESERVED                                   |D|
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
      |                                                               |
      +                                                               +
      |                                                               |
      +                        Bound Message ID                       +
      |                                                               |
      +                                                               +
      |                                                               |
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

   The Message Binding Codes are:

   * 0 - Unidirectional binding dependency

   * 1 - Bi-directional binding dependency

5.1.3.11.  QoS Specification (QSPEC)

   Type: 0x0B

   Length: Variable

   Value: Variable length QSPEC (QoS specification) information, which
   is QoS Model dependent.

   The contents and encoding rules for this object are specified in



Manner, et al.           Expires August 2, 2010                [Page 60]

Internet-Draft                  QoS NSLP                    January 2010


   other documents.  See [I-D.ietf-nsis-qspec].

    0                   1                   2                   3
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                                                               |
   //                         QSPEC Data                          //
   |                                                               |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

5.2.  General Processing Rules

   This section provides the general processing rules used by QoS-NSLP.
   The triggers communicated between RM/QOSM and QoS-NSLP
   functionalities are given in Appenices A.1, A.2 and A.3.

5.2.1.  State Manipulation

   The processing of a message and its component objects involves
   manipulating the QoS NSLP and reservation state of a QNE.

   For each flow, a QNE stores (RMF-related) reservation state which
   depends on the QoS model / QSPEC used and QoS NSLP operation state
   which includes non-persistent state (e.g., the API parameters while a
   QNE is processing a message) and persistent state which is kept as
   long as the session is active.

   The persistent QoS NSLP state is conceptually organized in a table
   with the following structure.  The primary key (index) for the table
   is the SESSION_ID:

   SESSION_ID

   A 128-bit identifier.

   The state information for a given key includes:

   Flow ID

   Based on GIST MRI.  Several entries are possible in case of mobility
   events.

   SII-Handle for each upstream and downstream peer

   The SII-Handle is a local identifier generated by GIST and passed
   over the API.  It is a handle that allows to refer to a particular
   GIST next hop.  See SII-Handle in [I-D.ietf-nsis-ntlp] for more
   information.



Manner, et al.           Expires August 2, 2010                [Page 61]

Internet-Draft                  QoS NSLP                    January 2010


   RSN from the upstream peer

   The RSN is a 32 bit counter.

   The latest local RSN

   A 32 bit counter.

   List of RII for outstanding responses with processing information.

   The RII is a 32 bit number.

   State lifetime

   The state lifetime indicates how long the state that is being
   signaled for remains valid.

   List of bound sessions

   A list of BOUND_SESSION_ID 128-bit identifiers for each session bound
   to this state.

   Scope of the signaling

   If the Proxy scope is used, a flag is needed to identify all
   signaling of this session as being scoped.

   Adding the state requirements of all these items gives an upper bound
   on the state to be kept by a QNE.  The need to keep state depends on
   the desired functionality at the NSLP layer.

5.2.2.  Message Forwarding

   QoS NSLP messages are sent peer-to-peer along the path.  The QoS NSLP
   does not have the concept of a message being sent directly to the end
   of the path.  Instead, messages are received by a QNE, which may then
   send another message (which may be identical to the received message,
   or contain some subset of objects from it) to continue in the same
   direction (i.e., towards QNI or QNR) as the message received.

   The decision on whether to generate a message to forward may be
   affected by the value of the SCOPING or PROXY flags, or by the
   presence of an RII object.

5.2.3.  Standard Message Processing Rules

   If a mandatory object is missing from a message then the receiving
   QNE MUST NOT propagate the message any further.  It MUST construct a



Manner, et al.           Expires August 2, 2010                [Page 62]

Internet-Draft                  QoS NSLP                    January 2010


   RESPONSE message indicating the error condition and send it back to
   the peer QNE that sent the message.

   If a message contains an object of an unrecognised type, then the
   behavior depends on the AB extensibility flags.

   If the Proxy scope flag was set in an incoming QoS NSLP message, the
   QNE must set the same flag in all QoS NSLP messages it sends that are
   related to this session.

5.2.4.  Retransmissions

   Retransmissions may happen end-to-end, e.g., between QNI and QNR
   (using an RII object), or peer-to-peer, between two adjacent QNEs.
   When a QNE transmits a RESERVE with an RII object set, it waits for a
   RESPONSE from the responding QNE.  QoS NSLP messages for which a
   response is requested by including an RII object, but fail to elicit
   a response are retransmitted.  Similarly, a QNE may include the ACK-
   REQ-flag to request confirmation of a refresh message reception from
   its immediate peer.  The retransmitted message should be exactly the
   same as the original message, e.g., the RSN is not modified with each
   retransmission.

   The initial retransmission occurs after a QOSNSLP_REQUEST_RETRY wait
   period.  Retransmissions MUST be made with exponentially increasing
   wait intervals (doubling the wait each time).  QoS NSLP messages
   SHOULD be retransmitted until either a RESPONSE (which might be an
   error) has been obtained, or until QOSNSLP_RETRY_MAX seconds after
   the initial transmission.  In the latter case, a failure SHOULD be
   indicated to the signaling application.  The default values for the
   above-mentioned timers are:

   QOSNSLP_REQUEST_RETRY: 2 seconds Wait interval before initial
   retransmit of the message

   QOSNSLP_RETRY_MAX: 30 seconds Give up retrying to send the message

   Retransmissions SHOULD be disabled for tear messages.

5.2.5.  Rerouting

5.2.5.1.  Last Node Behavior

   As discussed in Section 3.2.12 some care needs to be taken to handle
   cases where the last node on the path may change.

   A node that is the last node on the path, but not the data receiver
   (or an explicitly configured proxy for it), MUST continue to attempt



Manner, et al.           Expires August 2, 2010                [Page 63]

Internet-Draft                  QoS NSLP                    January 2010


   to send messages downstream to probe for path changes.  This must be
   done in order to handle the "Path Extension" case described in
   Section 3.2.12.1.

   A node on the path, that was not previously the last node, MUST take
   over as the last node on the signaling path if GIST path change
   detection identifies that there are no further downstream nodes on
   the path.  This must be done in order to handle the "Path Truncation"
   case described in Section 3.2.12.1.

5.2.5.2.  Avoiding Mistaken Teardown

   In order to handle the spurious route change problem described in
   Section 3.2.12.2, the RSN must be used in a particular way when
   maintaining the reservation after a route change is believed to have
   occurred.

   We assume that the current RSN (RSN[current]) is initially RSN0.

   When a route change is believed to have occurred, the QNE SHOULD send
   a RESERVE message, including the full QSPEC.  This must contain an
   RSN which is RSN[current] = RSN0 + 2.  It SHOULD include an RII, to
   request a response from the QNR.  An SII-Handle MUST NOT be specified
   when passing this message over the API to GIST, so that it is
   correctly routed to the new peer QNE.

   When the QNE receives the RESPONSE message that relates to the
   RESERVE message sent down the new path, it SHOULD send a RESERVE
   message with the TEAR flag sent down the old path.  To do so, it MUST
   request GIST to use its explicit routing mechanism and the QoS NSLP
   MUST supply an SII-Handle relating to the old peer QNE.  When sending
   this RESERVE message it MUST contain an RSN which is RSN[current] -
   1.  (RSN[current] remains unchanged).

   If the RESPONSE received after sending the RESERVE down the new path
   contains the code "Refresh successful" in the INFO_SPEC, then the QNE
   MAY elect not to send the tearing RESERVE, since this indicates that
   the path is unchanged.

5.2.5.3.  Upstream Route Change Notification

   GIST may notify the QoS NSLP that a possible upstream route change
   has occurred over the GIST API.  On receiving such a notification,
   the QoS NSLP SHOULD send a NOTIFY message with Informational code
   0x02 for signaling sessions associated with the identified MRI.  If
   this is sent, it MUST be sent to the old peer using the GIST explicit
   routing mechanism through the use of the SII-Handle.




Manner, et al.           Expires August 2, 2010                [Page 64]

Internet-Draft                  QoS NSLP                    January 2010


   On receiving such a NOTIFY message, the QoS NSLP SHOULD use the
   InvalidateRoutingState API call to inform GIST that routing state may
   be out of date.  The QoS NSLP SHOULD send a NOTIFY message upstream.
   The NOTIFY message should be propagated back to the QNI or QNR.

5.2.5.4.  Route Change Oscillation

   In some circumstances a route change may occur, but the path then
   falls back to the original route.

   After a route change the routers on the old path will continue to
   refresh the reservation until soft state times out, or an explicit
   TEAR is received.

   After detecting an upstream route change a QNE SHOULD consider the
   new upstream peer as current and not fall back to the old upstream
   peer unless:

   - it stops receiving refreshes from the old upstream peer for at
   least the soft state timeout period and then starts receiving
   messages from the old upstream peer again

   - or, it stops receiving refreshes from the new upstream peer for at
   least the soft state timeout period.

   GIST routing state keeps track of the latest upstream peer it has
   seen, and so may spuriously indicate route changes occur when the old
   upstream peer refreshes its routing state until the state at that
   node is explicitly torn down or times out.

5.3.  Object Processing

   This section presents processing rules for individual QoS NSLP
   objects.

5.3.1.  Reservation Sequence Number (RSN)

   A QNE's own RSN is a sequence number which applies to a particular
   signaling session (i.e., with a particular SESSION_ID).  It MUST be
   incremented for each new RESERVE message where the reservation for
   the session changes.  The RSN is manipulated using the serial number
   arithmetic rules from [RFC1982], which also defines wrapping rules
   and the meaning of 'equals', 'less than' and 'greater than' for
   comparing sequence numbers in a circular sequence space.

   The RSN starts at zero.  It is stored as part of the per-session
   state and it carries on incrementing (i.e., it is not reset to zero)
   when a downstream peer change occurs.  (Note that section 5.2.5.2



Manner, et al.           Expires August 2, 2010                [Page 65]

Internet-Draft                  QoS NSLP                    January 2010


   provides some particular rules for use when a downstream peer
   changes.)

   The RSN object also contains an Epoch Identifier, which provides a
   method for determining when a peer has restarted (e.g., due to node
   reboot or software restart).  The exact method for providing this
   value is implementation defined.  Options include storing a serial
   number which is incremented on each restart, picking a random value
   on each restart or using the restart time.

   On receiving a RESERVE message a QNE examines the Epoch Identifier to
   determine if the peer sending the message has restarted.  If the
   Epoch Identifier is different to that stored for the reservation then
   the RESERVE message MUST be treated as an updated reservation (even
   if the RSN is less than the current stored value), and the stored RSN
   and Epoch Identifier MUST be updated to the new values.

   When receiving a RESERVE message a QNE uses the RSN given in the
   message to determine whether the state being requested is different
   to that already stored.  If the RSN is equal to that stored for the
   current reservation the current state MUST be refreshed.  If the RSN
   is greater than the current stored value, the current reservation
   MUST be modified appropriately as specified in the QSPEC (provided
   that admission control and policy control succeed), and the stored
   RSN value updated to that for the new reservation.  If the RSN is
   greater than the current stored value and the RESERVE was a reduced
   refresh, the QNE SHOULD send upstream a transient error message "Full
   QSPEC required".  If the RSN is less than the current value, then it
   indicates an out-of-order message and the RESERVE message MUST be
   discarded.

   If the QNE does not store per-session state (and so does not keep any
   previous RSN values) then it MAY ignore the value of the RSN.  It
   MUST also copy the same RSN into the RESERVE message (if any) it
   sends as a consequence of receiving this one.

5.3.2.  Request Identification Information (RII)

   A QNE sending QUERY or RESERVE messages may require a response to be
   sent.  It does so by including a Request Identification Information
   (RII) object.  When creating an RII object the QNE MUST select the
   value for the RII such that it is probabilistically unique within the
   given session.  A RII object is typically set by the QNI.

   A number of choices are available when implementing this.
   Possibilities might include using a random value, or a node
   identifier together with a counter.  If the value collides with one
   selected by another QNE for a different QUERY then RESPONSE messages



Manner, et al.           Expires August 2, 2010                [Page 66]

Internet-Draft                  QoS NSLP                    January 2010


   may be incorrectly terminated, and may not be passed back to the node
   that requested them.

   The node that created the RII object MUST remember the value used in
   the RII to match back any RESPONSE it will receive.  The node SHOULD
   use a timer to identify situations where it has taken too long to
   receive the expected RESPONSE.  If the timer expires without
   receiving a RESPONSE it MAY perform a retransmission as discussed in
   Section 5.2.4.  In this case this QNE MUST NOT generate any RESPONSE
   or NOTIFY message to notify this error.

   If an intermediate QNE wants to receive a response for an outgoing
   message, but the message already included an RII when it arrived, the
   QNE MUST NOT add a new RII object nor replace the old RII object, but
   MUST simply remember this RII to match a later RESPONSE message.
   When it receives the RESPONSE, it forwards the RESPONSE upstream
   towards the RII originating node.  Note that only the node that
   originally created the RII can set up a retransmission timer.  Thus,
   if an intermediate QNE decides to use the RII already contained in
   the message, it MUST NOT set up a retransmission timer, but rely on
   the retransmission timer set up by the QNE that inserted the RII.

   When receiving a message containing an RII object the node MUST send
   a RESPONSE if

   o The SCOPING flag is set ('next hop' scope),

   o The PROXY scope flag is set and the QNE is the P-QNE, or

   o This QNE is the last one on the path for the given session.

   and the QNE keeps per-session state for the given session.

   In the rare event that the QNE wants to request a response for a
   message that already included an RII, and this RII value conflicts
   with an existing RII value on the QNE, the node should interrupt the
   processing the message, and send an error message upstream to
   indicate an RII collision, and request a retry with a new RII value.

5.3.3.  BOUND_SESSION_ID

   As shown in the examples in Section 4, the QoS NSLP can relate
   multiple sessions together.  It does this by including the SESSION_ID
   from one session in a BOUND_SESSION_ID object in messages in another
   session.

   When receiving a message with a BOUND_SESSION_ID object, a QNE MUST
   copy the BOUND_SESSION_ID object into all messages it sends for the



Manner, et al.           Expires August 2, 2010                [Page 67]

Internet-Draft                  QoS NSLP                    January 2010


   same session.  A QNE that stores per-session state MUST store the
   value of the BOUND_SESSION_ID.

   The BOUND_SESSION_ID is only indicative in nature.  However, a QNE
   implementation may use BOUND_SESSION_ID information to optimize
   resource allocation, e.g., for bidirectional reservations.  When
   receiving a tear down message (e.g., a RESERVE message with tear down
   semantic) for an aggregate reservation, it may use this information
   to initiate a tear down for end-to-end sessions bound to the
   aggregate.  A QoS NSLP implementation MUST be ready to process more
   than one BOUND_SESSION_ID object within a single message.

5.3.4.  REFRESH_PERIOD

   Refresh timer management values are carried by the REFRESH_PERIOD
   object which has local significance only.  At the expiration of a
   "refresh timeout" period, each QNE independently examines its state
   and sends a refreshing RESERVE message to the next QNE peer where it
   is absorbed.  This peer-to-peer refreshing (as opposed to the QNI
   initiating a refresh which travels all the way to the QNR) allows
   QNEs to choose refresh intervals as appropriate for their
   environment.  For example, it is conceivable that refreshing
   intervals in the backbone, where reservations are relatively stable,
   are much larger than in an access network.  The "refresh timeout" is
   calculated within the QNE and is not part of the protocol; however,
   it must be chosen to be compatible with the reservation lifetime as
   expressed by the REFRESH_PERIOD, and an assessment of the reliability
   of message delivery.

   The details of timer management and timer changes (slew handling and
   so on) are identical to the ones specified in Section 3.7 of RFC 2205
   [RFC2205].

   There are two time parameters relevant to each QoS NSLP state in a
   node: the refresh period R between generation of successive refreshes
   for the state by the neighbor node, and the local state's lifetime L.
   Each RESERVE message may contain a REFRESH_PERIOD object specifying
   the R value that was used to generate this (refresh) message.  This R
   value is then used to determine the value for L when the state is
   received and stored.  The values for R and L may vary from peer to
   peer.

5.3.5.  INFO_SPEC

   The INFO_SPEC object is carried by the RESPONSE and NOTIFY messages
   and it is used to report a successful, an unsuccessful, or an error
   situation.  In case of an error situation the error messages SHOULD
   be generated even if no RII object is included in the RESERVE or in



Manner, et al.           Expires August 2, 2010                [Page 68]

Internet-Draft                  QoS NSLP                    January 2010


   the QUERY messages.  Note that when the TEAR flag is set in the
   RESERVE message an error situation SHOULD NOT trigger the generation
   of a RESPONSE message.

   Six classes of INFO_SPEC objects are identified and specified in
   Section 5.1.3.6.  The message processing rules for each class are
   defined below.

   A RESPONSE message MUST carry INFO_SPEC objects towards the QNI.  The
   RESPONSE message MUST be forwarded unconditionally up to the QNI.
   The actions that SHOULD be undertaken by the QNI that receives the
   INFO_SPEC object are specified by the local policy of the QoS model
   supported by this QNE.  The default action is that the QNI that
   receives the INFO_SPEC object SHOULD NOT trigger any other QoS NSLP
   procedure.

   The Informational INFO_SPEC class MUST be generated by a stateful QoS
   NSLP QNE when an Informational error class is caught.  The
   Informational INFO-SPEC object MUST be carried by a RESPONSE or a
   NOTIFY message.

   In case of an unidirectional reservation, the Success INFO_SPEC class
   MUST be generated by a stateful QoS NSLP QNR when a RESERVE message
   is received and the reservation state installation or refresh
   succeeded.  In case of a bi-directional reservation the INFO-SPEC
   object SHOULD be generated by a stateful QoS NSLP QNE when a RESERVE
   message is received and the reservation state installation or refresh
   succeeded.  The Success INFO-SPEC object MUST be carried by a
   RESPONSE or a NOTIFY message.

   In case of an unidirectional reservation, the Protocol Error
   INFO_SPEC class MUST be generated by a stateful QoS NSLP QNE when a
   RESERVE or QUERY message is received by the QNE and a protocol error
   is caught.  In case of a bi-directional reservation, the Protocol
   Error INFO_SPEC class SHOULD be generated by a stateful QoS NSLP QNE
   when a RESERVE or QUERY message is received by the QNE and a protocol
   error is caught.  A RESPONSE message MUST carry this object, which
   MUST be forwarded unconditionally towards the upstream QNE that
   generated the RESERVE or QUERY message that triggered the generation
   of this INFO_SPEC object.  The default action for a stateless QoS
   NSLP QNE that detects such an error is that none of the QoS NSLP
   objects SHOULD be processed and the RESERVE or QUERY message SHOULD
   be forwarded downstream.

   In case of an unidirectional reservation, the Transient Failure
   INFO_SPEC class MUST be generated by a stateful QoS NSLP QNE when a
   RESERVE or QUERY message is received by the QNE and one Transient
   failure error code is caught, or when an event happens that causes a



Manner, et al.           Expires August 2, 2010                [Page 69]

Internet-Draft                  QoS NSLP                    January 2010


   transient error.  In case of a bi-directional reservation, the
   Transient Failure INFO_SPEC class SHOULD be generated by a stateful
   QoS NSLP QNE when a RESERVE or QUERY message is received by the QNE
   and one Transient failure error code is caught.

   A RESPONSE message MUST carry this object, which MUST be forwarded
   unconditionally towards the upstream QNE that generated the RESERVE
   or QUERY message that triggered the generation of this INFO_SPEC
   object.  The transient RMF-related error MAY also be carried by a
   NOTIFY message.  The default action is that the QNE that receives
   this INFO_SPEC object SHOULD re-trigger the retransmission of the
   RESERVE or QUERY message that triggered the generation of the
   INFO_SPEC object.  The default action for a stateless QoS NSLP QNE
   that detects such an error is that none of the QoS NSLP objects
   SHOULD be processed and the RESERVE or QUERY message SHOULD be
   forwarded downstream.

   In case of an unidirectional reservation, the Permanent Failure
   INFO_SPEC class MUST be generated by a stateful QoS NSLP QNE when a
   RESERVE or QUERY message is received by a QNE and an internal or
   system error occured, or authorization failed.  In case of a bi-
   directional reservation, the Permanent Failure INFO_SPEC class SHOULD
   be generated by a stateful QoS NSLP QNE when a RESERVE or QUERY
   message is received by a QNE and an internal or system error occured,
   or authorization failed.  A RESPONSE message MUST carry this object,
   which MUST be forwarded unconditionally towards the upstream QNE that
   generated the RESERVE or QUERY message that triggered this protocol
   error.  The permanent RMF-related, the internal or system errors MAY
   also be carried by a NOTIFY message.  The default action for a
   stateless QoS NSLP QNE that detects such an error is that none of the
   QoS NSLP objects SHOULD be processed and the RESERVE or QUERY message
   SHOULD be forwarded downstream.

   The QoS-specific error class may be used when errors outside the QoS
   NSLP itself occur that are related to the particular QoS Model being
   used.  The processing rules of these errors are not specified in this
   document.

5.3.6.  SESSION_ID_LIST

   A SESSION_ID_LIST is carried in RESERVE messages.  It is used in two
   cases, to refresh or to tear down the indicated sessions.  A
   SESSION_ID_LIST carries information about sessions that should be
   refreshed or torn down, in addition to the main (primary) session
   indicated in the RESERVE.

   If the primary SESSION_ID is not understood, the SESSION_ID_LIST
   object MUST NOT be processed.



Manner, et al.           Expires August 2, 2010                [Page 70]

Internet-Draft                  QoS NSLP                    January 2010


   When a stateful QNE goes through the SESSION_ID_LIST, if it finds one
   or more unknown SESSION ID values, it SHOULD construct an
   informational RESPONSE message back to the upstream stateful QNE with
   error code for unknown SESSION ID in SESSION_ID_LIST, and include all
   uknown SESSION IDs in a SESSION_ID_LIST.

   If the RESERVE is a tear, for each session in the SESSION_ID_LIST,
   the stateful QNE MUST inform the RMF that the reservation is no
   longer required.  RSN values MUST also be interpreted in order to
   distinguish whether the tear down is valid, or whether it is refering
   to an old state, and, thus, should be silently discarded.

   If the RESERVE is a refresh, the stateful QNE MUST also process the
   RSN_LIST object as detailed in the next section.

   If the RESERVE is a tear, for each session in the SESSION_ID_LIST,
   the QNE MUST inform the RMF that the reservation is no longer
   required.  RSN values MUST be interpreted.

   Note that a stateless QNE can not support summary or single reduced
   refreshes, and always needs full single refreshes.

5.3.7.  RSN_LIST

   An RSN_LIST MUST be carried in RESERVE messages when a QNE wants to
   perform a refresh or tear-down of several sessions with a single NSLP
   message.  The RSN_LIST object MUST be populated with RSN values of
   the same sessions and in the same order as indicated in the
   SESSION_ID_LIST.  Thus, entries in both objects at position X refer
   to the same session.

   If the primary session and RSN reference in the RESERVE were not
   understood, the stateful QNE MUST NOT process the RSN_LIST.  Instead
   an error RESPONSE SHOULD be sent back to the upstream stateful QNE.

   On receiving an RSN_LIST object, the stateful QNE should check
   whether the number of items in the SESSION_ID_LIST and RSN_LIST
   objects match.  If there is a mismatch, the stateful QNE SHOULD send
   back a protocol error indicating a bad value in the object.

   While matching the RSN_LIST values to the SESSION_ID_LIST values, if
   one or more RSN values in the RSN_LIST are not in synch with the
   local values, the stateful QNE SHOULD construct an informational
   RESPONSE message with an error code for RSN mismatch in RSN_LIST.
   The stateful QNE MUST include the erroneous SESSION ID and RSN values
   in SESSION_ID_LIST and RSN_LIST objects in the RESPONSE.

   If no errors were found in processing the RSN_LIST, the stateful QNE



Manner, et al.           Expires August 2, 2010                [Page 71]

Internet-Draft                  QoS NSLP                    January 2010


   refreshes the reservation states of all sessions, both the primary
   single session indicated in the refresh, and all sessions in the
   SESSION_ID_LIST.

   For each successfully processed session in the RESERVE, the stateful
   QNE performs a refresh of the reservation state.  Thus, even if some
   sessions were not in synch, the remaining sessions in the
   SESSION_ID_LIST and RSN_LIST are refreshed.

5.3.8.  QSPEC

   The contents of the QSPEC depends on the QoS model being used.  A
   template for QSPEC objects can be found in [I-D.ietf-nsis-qspec].

   Upon reception, the complete QSPEC is passed to the Resource
   Management Function (RMF), along with other information from the
   message necessary for the RMF processing.  A QNE may also receive an
   INFO_SPEC that includes a partial or full QSPEC.  This will also be
   passed to the RMF.

5.4.  Message Processing Rules

   This section provides rules for message processing.  Not all possible
   error situations are considered.  A general rule for dealing with
   erroneous messages is that a node should evaluate the situation
   before deciding how to react.  There are two ways to react to
   erroneous messages:

   a) Silently drop the message, or

   b) Drop the message, and reply with an error code to the sender.

   The default behavior, in order to protect the QNE from a possible DoS
   attack, is to silently drop the message.  However, if the QNE is able
   to authenticate the sender, e.g., through GIST, the QNE may send a
   proper error message back to the neighbor QNE in order to let it know
   that there is an inconsistency in the states of adjacent QNEs.

5.4.1.  RESERVE Messages

   The RESERVE message is used to manipulate QoS reservation state in
   QNEs.  A RESERVE message may create, refresh, modify or remove such
   state.  A QNE sending a RESERVE MAY require a response to be sent by
   including a Request Identification Information (RII) object, see
   Section 5.3.2.

   RESERVE messages MUST only be sent towards the QNR.  A QNE that
   receives a RESERVE message checks the message format.  In case of



Manner, et al.           Expires August 2, 2010                [Page 72]

Internet-Draft                  QoS NSLP                    January 2010


   malformed messages, the QNE MAY send a RESPONSE message with the
   appropriate INFO_SPEC.

   Before performing any state changing actions a QNE MUST determine
   whether the request is authorized.  The way to do this check depends
   on the authorization model being used.

   When the RESERVE is authorized, a QNE checks the COMMON_HEADER flags.
   If the TEAR flag is set, the message is a tearing RESERVE which
   indicates complete QoS NSLP state removal (as opposed to a
   reservation of zero resources).  On receiving such a RESERVE message
   the QNE MUST inform the RMF that the reservation is no longer
   required.  The RSN value MUST be processed.  After this, there are
   two modes of operation:

   1.  If the tearing RESERVE did not include an RII, i.e., the QNI did
   not want a confirmation, the QNE SHOULD remove the QoS NSLP state.
   It MAY signal to GIST (over the API) that reverse path state for this
   reservation is no longer required.  Any errors in processing the
   tearing RESERVE SHOULD NOT be sent back towards the QNI since the
   upstream QNEs will already have removed their session states, thus,
   they are unable to do anything to the error.

   2.  If an RII was included, the stateful QNE SHOULD still keep the
   NSLP operational state until a RESPONSE for the tear going towards
   the QNI is received.  This operational state SHOULD be kept for one
   refresh interval, after which the NSLP operational state for the
   session is removed.  Depending on the QoS model, the tear message MAY
   include a QSPEC to further specify state removal.  If the QoS model
   requires a QSPEC, and none is provided, the QNE SHOULD reply with an
   error message, and SHOULD NOT remove the reservation.

   If the tearing RESERVE includes a QSPEC, but none is required by the
   QoS model, the QNE MAY silently discard the QSPEC and proceed as if
   it did not exist in the message.  In general, a QoS NSLP
   implementation should carefully consider, when an error message
   should be sent, and when not.  If the tearing RESERVE did not include
   an RII, then the upstream QNE has removed the RMF and NSLP states,
   and will not be able to do anything to the error.  If an RII was
   included, the upstream QNE may still have the NSLP operational state,
   but no RMF state.

   If a QNE receives a tearing RESERVE for a session it still has the
   operational state, but the RMF state was removed, the QNE SHOULD
   accept the message and forward it downstream as if all is well.

   If the tearing RESERVE includes a SESSION_ID_LIST, the stateful QNE
   MUST process the object as described earlier in this document, and



Manner, et al.           Expires August 2, 2010                [Page 73]

Internet-Draft                  QoS NSLP                    January 2010


   for each identified session, indicate to the RMF that the reservation
   is no longer required.

   If a QNE receives a refreshing RESERVE for a session it still has the
   operational state, but the RMF state was removed, the QNE MUST
   silently drop the message and not forward it downstream.

   As discussed in Section 5.2.5.2, to avoid incorrect removal of state
   after a rerouting event, a node receiving a RESERVE message with the
   TEAR flag set which does not come from the current peer QNE,
   identified by its SII, MUST be ignored and MUST NOT be forwarded.

   If the QNE has reservations which are bound and dependent to this
   session (they contain the SESSION_ID of this session in their
   BOUND_SESSION_ID object and use Binding Code: 0x04), it MUST send a
   NOTIFY message for each of the reservations with an appropriate
   INFO_SPEC.  If the QNE has reservations which are bound, but which
   they are not dependent to this session (the Binding Code in the
   BOUND_SESSION_ID object has one of the values: 0x01, 0x02, 0x03), it
   MAY send a NOTIFY message for each of the reservations with an
   appropriate INFO_SPEC.  The QNE MAY elect to send RESERVE messages
   with the TEAR flag set for these reservations.

   The default behavior of a QNE that receives a RESERVE with a
   SESSION_ID for which it already has state installed but with a
   different flow ID is to replace the existing reservation (and tear
   down the reservation on the old branch if the RESERVE is received
   with a different SII).

   In some cases, this may not be the desired behavior.  In that case,
   the QNI or a QNE MAY set the REPLACE flag in the common header to
   zero to indicate that the new session does not replace the existing
   one.

   A QNE that receives a RESERVE with the REPLACE flag set to zero but
   with the same SII, will indicate REPLACE=0 to the RMF (where it will
   be used for the resource handling).  Furthermore, if the QNE
   maintains a QoS NSLP state then it will also add the new flow ID in
   the QoS NSLP state.  If the SII is different, this means that the QNE
   is a merge point.  In that case, in addition to the operations
   specified above, the value REPLACE=0 is also indicating that a
   tearing RESERVE SHOULD NOT be sent on the old branch.

   When a QNE receives a RESERVE message with an unknown SESSION_ID and
   this message contains no QSPEC because it was meant as a refresh then
   the node MUST send a RESPONSE message with an INFO_SPEC that
   indicates a missing QSPEC to the upstream peer ("Full QSPEC
   required").  The upstream peer SHOULD send a complete RESERVE (i.e.,



Manner, et al.           Expires August 2, 2010                [Page 74]

Internet-Draft                  QoS NSLP                    January 2010


   one containing a QSPEC) on the new path (new SII).

   At a QNE, resource handling is performed by the RMF.  For sessions
   with the REPLACE flag set to zero, we assume that the QoS model
   includes directions to deal with resource sharing.  This may include,
   adding the reservations, or taking the maximum of the two or more
   complex mathematical operations.

   This resource handling mechanism in the QoS Model is also applicable
   to sessions with different SESSION_ID but related through the
   BOUND_SESSION_ID object.  Session replacement is not an issue here,
   but the QoS Model may specify whether to let the sessions that are
   bound together share resources on common links or not.

   Finally, it is possible that a RESERVE is received with no QSPEC at
   all.  This is the case of a reduced refresh.  In this case, rather
   than sending a refreshing RESERVE with the full QSPEC, only the
   SESSION_ID and the RSN are sent to refresh the reservation.  Note
   that this mechanism just reduces the message size (and probably eases
   processing).  One RESERVE per session is still needed.  Such a
   reduced refresh may further include a SESSION_ID_LIST and RSN_LIST,
   which indicate further sessions to be refreshed along the primary
   session.  The processing of these objects were described earlier in
   this document.

   If the REPLACE flag is set, the QNE SHOULD update the reservation
   state according to the QSPEC contained in the message (if the QSPEC
   is missing the QNE SHOULD indicate this error by replying with a
   RESPONSE containing the corresponding INFO_SPEC "Full QSPEC
   required").  It MUST update the lifetime of the reservation.  If the
   REPLACE flag is not set, a QNE SHOULD NOT remove the old reservation
   state if the SII which is passed by GIST over the API is different
   than the SII that was stored for this reservation.  The QNE MAY elect
   to keep sending refreshing RESERVE messages.

   If a stateful QoS NSLP QNE receives a RESERVE message with the BREAK
   flag set then the BREAK flag of new generated messages (e.g., RESERVE
   or RESPONSE) MUST be set.  When a stateful QoS NSLP QNE receives a
   RESERVE message with the BREAK flag not set then the IP-TTL and
   Original-TTL values in GIST RecvMessage primitive MUST be monitored.
   If they differ, it is RECOMMENDED to set the BREAK flag in new
   generated messages (e.g., RESERVE or RESPONSE).  In situations where
   a QNE or a domain is able to provide QoS using other means, see
   Section 3.3.5, then the BREAK flag SHOULD NOT be set.

   If the RESERVE message included an RII, and any of the following are
   true, the QNE MUST send a RESPONSE message:




Manner, et al.           Expires August 2, 2010                [Page 75]

Internet-Draft                  QoS NSLP                    January 2010


   o If the QNE is configured, for a particular session, to be a QNR,

   o the SCOPING flag is set,

   o the Proxy scope flag is set and the QNE is a P-QNE, or

   o the QNE is the last QNE on the path to the destination.

   When a QNE receives a RESERVE message, its processing may involve
   sending out another RESERVE message.

   If a QNE has received a RESPONSE mandating the use of full refreshes
   from its downstream peer for a session, the QNE MUST continue to use
   full refresh messages.

   If the session of this message is bound to another session, then the
   RESERVE message MUST include the SESSION_ID of that other session in
   a BOUND_SESSION_ID object.  In the situation of aggregated tunnels,
   the aggregated session MAY not include the SESSION_ID of its bound
   sessions in BOUND_SESSION_ID(s).

   In case of receiver-initiated reservations, the RESERVE message must
   follow the same path that has been followed by the QUERY message.
   Therefore, GIST is informed, over the QoS NSLP/GIST API, to pass the
   message upstream, i.e., by setting GIST "D" flag, see GIST
   [I-D.ietf-nsis-ntlp].

   The QNE MUST create a new RESERVE and send it to its next peer, when:

   - A new resource set up was done,

   - A new resource set up was not done, but the QOSM still defines that
   a RESERVE must be propagated,

   - The RESERVE is a refresh and includes new MRI, or

   - If the RESERVE-INIT flag is included in an arrived QUERY.

   If the QNE sent out a refresh RESERVE with the ACK-REQ-flag set, and
   did not receive a RESPONSE from its immediate stateful peer within
   the retransmission period of QOSNSLP_RETRY_MAX, the QNE SHOULD send a
   NOTIFY to its immediate upstream sateful peer and indicate "Path
   truncated - Next peer dead" in the INFO_SPEC.  The ACK-REQ-flag
   SHOULD NOT be added to a RESERVE that already include an RII object,
   since a confirmation from the QNR has already been requested.

   Finally, if a received RESERVE requested acknowledgement through the
   ACK-REQ-flag in the COMMON HEADER flags and the processing of the



Manner, et al.           Expires August 2, 2010                [Page 76]

Internet-Draft                  QoS NSLP                    January 2010


   message was successul, the stateful QNE SHOULD send back a RESPONSE
   with an INFO_SPEC carrying the acknowledgement success code.  The QNE
   MAY include the ACK-REQ-flag in the next refresh message it will send
   for the session.  The use of the ACK-REQ-flag for diagnostics
   purposes is a policy issue, i.e., using an acknowledged refresh
   message as a hint to further probe the end-to-end path can be used
   simply as a hint to check that the end-to-end path is still intact.

5.4.2.  QUERY Messages

   A QUERY message is used to request information about the data path
   without making a reservation.  This functionality can be used to
   'probe' the network for path characteristics or for support of
   certain QoS models, or for initiating a receiver-initiated
   reservation.

   A QNE sending a QUERY indicates a request for a response by including
   a Request Identification Information (RII) object, see Section 5.3.2.
   A request to initiate a receiver-initiated reservation is done
   through the RESERVE-INIT flag, see Section 5.1.2.2.

   When a QNE receives a QUERY message the QSPEC is passed to the RMF
   for processing.  The RMF may return a modified QSPEC that is used in
   any QUERY or RESPONSE message sent out as a result of the QUERY
   processing.

   When processing a QUERY message, a QNE checks whether the RESERVE-
   INIT flag is set.  If the flag is set, the QUERY is used to install
   reverse path state.  In this case, if the QNE is not the QNI, it
   creates a new QUERY message to send downstream.  The QSPEC MUST be
   passed to the RMF where it may be modified by the QoS Model specific
   QUERY processing.  If the QNE is the QNI, the QNE creates a RESERVE
   message, which contains a QSPEC received from the RMF and which may
   be based on the received QSPEC.  If this node was not expecting to
   perform a receiver-initiated reservation then an error MUST be sent
   back along the path.

   If an RII object is present, and if the QNE is the QNR, the SCOPING
   flag is set or the PROXY scope flag is set and the QNE is a P-QNE,
   the QNE MUST generate a RESPONSE message and pass it back along the
   reverse of the path used by the QUERY.

   In other cases, the QNE MUST generate a QUERY message which is then
   forwarded further along the path using the same MRI, Session ID and
   Direction as provided when the QUERY was received over the GIST API.

   The QSPEC to be used is that provided by the RMF as described
   previously.  When generating a QUERY to send out to pass the query



Manner, et al.           Expires August 2, 2010                [Page 77]

Internet-Draft                  QoS NSLP                    January 2010


   further along the path, the QNE MUST copy the RII object (if present)
   unchanged into the new QUERY message.  A QNE that is also interested
   in the response to the query keeps track of the RII to identify the
   RESPONSE when it passes through it.

   Note that QUERY messages with the RESERVE-INIT flag set MUST be
   answered by the QNR.  This feature may be used, e.g., following
   handovers, to set up new path state in GIST, and request the other
   party to send a RESERVE back on this new GIST path.

   If a stateful QoS NSLP QNE receives a QUERY message with the RESERVE-
   INIT flag and BREAK flag set then the BREAK flag of new generated
   messages (e.g., QUERY, RESERVE or RESPONSE) MUST be set.  When a
   stateful QoS NSLP QNE receives a QUERY message with the RESERVE-INIT
   flag set and BREAK flag not set then the IP-TTL and Original-TTL
   values in GIST RecvMessage primitive MUST be monitored.  If they
   differ, it is RECOMMENDED to set the BREAK flag in new generated
   messages (e.g., QUERY, RESERVE or RESPONSE).  In situations where a
   QNE or a domain is able to provide QoS using other means, see Section
   3.3.5, then the BREAK flag SHOULD NOT be set.

   Finally, if a received QUERY requested acknowledgement through the
   ACK-REQ-flag in the COMMON HEADER flags and the processing of the
   message was successul, the stateful QNE SHOULD send back a RESPONSE
   with an INFO_SPEC carrying the acknowledgement success code.

5.4.3.  RESPONSE Messages

   The RESPONSE message is used to provide information about the result
   of a previous QoS NSLP message, e.g., confirmation of a reservation
   or information resulting from a QUERY.  The RESPONSE message does not
   cause any state to be installed, but may cause state(s) to be
   modified, e.g., if the RESPONSE contains information about an error.

   A RESPONSE message MUST be sent when the QNR processes a RESERVE or
   QUERY message containing an RII object or if the QNE receives a
   scoped RESERVE or a scoped QUERY.  In this case, the RESPONSE message
   MUST contain the RII object copied from the RESERVE or the QUERY.
   Also, if there is an error in processing a received RESERVE, a
   RESPONSE is sent indicating the nature of the error.  In this case,
   the RII and RSN, if available, MUST be included in the RESPONSE.

   On receipt of a RESPONSE message containing an RII object, the
   stateful QoS NSLP QNE MUST attempt to match it to the outstanding
   response requests for that signaling session.  If the match succeeds,
   then the RESPONSE MUST NOT be forwarded further along the path if it
   contains an INFO_SPEC class informational or success.  If the QNE did
   not insert this RII itself, if must forward the RESPONSE to the next



Manner, et al.           Expires August 2, 2010                [Page 78]

Internet-Draft                  QoS NSLP                    January 2010


   peer.  Thus, for RESPONSES indicating success, forwarding should only
   stop if the QNE inserted the RII by itself, If the RESPONSE carries
   an INFO_SPEC indicating an error, forwarding SHOULD continue upstream
   towards the QNI by using RSNs as described in the next paragraph.

   On receipt of a RESPONSE message containing an RSN object, a stateful
   QoS NSLP QNE MUST compare the RSN to that of the appropriate
   signaling session.  If the match succeeds then the INFO_SPEC MUST be
   processed.  If the INFO_SPEC object is used to notify errors then the
   node MUST use the stored upstream peer RSN value, associated with the
   same session, and forward the RESPONSE message further along the path
   towards the QNI.

   If the INFO_SPEC is not used to notify error situations, see above,
   then if the RESPONSE message carries an RSN, the message MUST NOT be
   forwarded further along the path.

   If there is no match for RSN, the message SHOULD be silently dropped.

   On receipt of a RESPONSE message containing neither an RII nor an RSN
   object, the RESPONSE MUST NOT be forwarded further along the path.

   In the typical case RESPONSE messages do not change the states
   installed in intermediate QNEs.  However, depending on the QoS model,
   there may be situations where states are affected, e.g.,

   - if the RESPONSE includes an INFO_SPEC describing an error situation
   resulting in reservations to be removed, or

   - the QoS model allows a QSPEC to define [min,max] limits on the
   resources requested, and downstream QNEs gave less resources than
   their upstream nodes, which means that the upstream nodes may release
   a part of the resource reservation.

   If a stateful QoS NSLP QNE receives a RESPONSE message with the BREAK
   flag set then the BREAK flag of new generated message (e.g.,
   RESPONSE) MUST be set.

5.4.4.  NOTIFY Messages

   NOTIFY messages are used to convey information to a QNE
   asynchronously.  NOTIFY messages do not cause any state to be
   installed.  The decision to remove state depends on the QoS model.
   The exact operation depends on the QoS model.  A NOTIFY message does
   not directly cause other messages to be sent.  NOTIFY messages are
   sent asynchronously, rather than in response to other messages.  They
   may be sent in either direction (upstream or downstream).




Manner, et al.           Expires August 2, 2010                [Page 79]

Internet-Draft                  QoS NSLP                    January 2010


   A special case of synchronous NOTIFY is when the upstream QNE asked
   to use reduced refresh by setting the appropriate flag in the
   RESERVE.  The QNE receiving such a RESERVE MUST reply with a NOTIFY
   and a proper INFO_SPEC code whether the QNE agrees to use reduced
   refresh between the upstream QNE.

   The Transient error code 0x07 "Reservation preempted" is sent to the
   QNI whose resources were preempted.  The NOTIFY message carries
   information to the QNI that one QNE no longer has a reservation for
   the session.  It is up to the QNI to decide what to do based on the
   QoS Model being used.  The QNI would normally tear down the preempted
   reservation by sending a RESERVE with the TEAR flag set using the SII
   of the preempted reservation.  However, the QNI can follow other
   procedures as specified in its QoS Model.  More discussion on
   preemption can be found in the QSPEC Template [I-D.ietf-nsis-qspec]
   and the individual QoS Model specifications.


6.  IANA Considerations

   This section provides guidance to the Internet Assigned Numbers
   Authority (IANA) regarding registration of values related to the QoS
   NSLP, in accordance with BCP 26 RFC 5226 [RFC5226].

   The QoS NSLP requires IANA to create a number of new registries:

   - QoS NSLP Message Types

   - QoS NSLP Binding Codes

   - QoS NSLP Error Classes and Error Codes

   It also requires registration of new values in a number of
   registries:

   - NSLP Object Types - GIST NSLP-ID - Router Alert Option Values (IPv4
   and IPv6)

6.1.  QoS NSLP Message Type

   The QoS NSLP Message Type is an 8 bit value.  This specification
   defines four QoS NSLP message types, which form the initial contents
   of this registry: RESERVE (0x01), QUERY (0x02), RESPONSE (0x03) and
   NOTIFY (0x04).

   The value 0 is reserved.  Values 1-239 are to be allocated by IETF
   Review.  Values 240 to 255 are for Experimental/Private Use.




Manner, et al.           Expires August 2, 2010                [Page 80]

Internet-Draft                  QoS NSLP                    January 2010


   When a new message type is defined, any message flags used with it
   must also be defined.

6.2.  NSLP Message Objects

   [Delete this part if already done by another NSLP:

   A new registry is to be created for NSLP Message Objects.  This is a
   12-bit field (giving values from 0 to 4095).  This registry is shared
   between a number of NSLPs.  Allocation policies are as follows:

   0: Reserved

   1-1023: IETF Review

   1024-1999: Specification Required

   2000-2047: Private/Experimental Use

   2048-4095: Reserved

   When a new object is defined, the extensbility bits (A/B) must also
   be defined.]

   This document defines eleven new NSLP objects.  These are described
   in Section 5.1.3: RII (0x01), RSN (0x02), REFRESH_PERIOD (0x03),
   BOUND_SESSION_ID (0x04), PACKET_CLASSIFIER (0x05), INFO_SPEC (0x06),
   SESSION ID LIST (0x07), RSN LIST (0x08), MSG_ID (0x09), BOUND_MSG_ID
   (0x0A), and QSPEC (0x0B).

   Values are to be assigned from the IETF Review section of the NSLP
   Object Type registry.

6.3.  QoS NSLP Binding Codes

   A new registry is to be created for the 8-bit Binding Codes used in
   the BOUND_SESSION_ID object.  The initial values for this registry
   are listed in Section 5.1.3.4.

   Value 0 is reserved.  Values 1 to 127 are to be assigned based on a
   policy of Specification Required.  Values 128 to 159 are for
   Exerimental/Private Use. Other values are Reserved.

6.4.  QoS NSLP Error Classes and Error Codes

   In addition Error Classes and Error Codes for the INFO_SPEC object
   are defined.  These are described in Section 5.1.3.6.




Manner, et al.           Expires August 2, 2010                [Page 81]

Internet-Draft                  QoS NSLP                    January 2010


   The Error Class is 4-bits in length.  The initial values are:

   0: Reserved

   1: Informational

   2: Success

   3: Protocol Error

   4: Transient Failure

   5: Permanent Failure

   6: QoS Model Error

   7-15: Reserved

   New values are to be assigned based on IETF Review.

   The Error Code is 8 bits in length.  Each Error Codes are assigned
   within a particular Error Class.  This requires the creation of a
   registry for Error Codes in each Error Class.  The error code 0 in
   each class is Reserved.

   Policies for the error code registries are as follows:

   0-63: IETF Review

   64-127: Specification Required

   128-191: Experimental/Private Use

   192-255: Reserved

   The initial assignments for the Error Code registries are given in
   Section 5.1.3.6.  Experimental and Reserved values are relevant to
   all Error classes.

6.5.  QoS NSLP Error Source Identifiers

   Section 5.1.3.6 defines Error Source Identifiers, the type of which
   is identified by a 4 bit value.

   The value 0 is reserved.

   Values 1-3 are given in Section 5.1.3.6.




Manner, et al.           Expires August 2, 2010                [Page 82]

Internet-Draft                  QoS NSLP                    January 2010


   Values 4-13 are assigned on a basis of Specification Required.

   Values 14 and 15 are for Experimental/Private Use.

6.6.  NSLP IDs and Router Alert Option Values

   This specification defines an NSLP for use with GIST.  Furthermore it
   specifies that a number of NSLP-ID values are used for the support of
   bypassing intermediary nodes.  Consequently, new identifiers must be
   assigned for them from the GIST NSLP identifier registry.  The QoS
   NSLP requires that 32 NSLP-ID values be assigned, corresponding to
   QoS NSLP Aggregation Levels 0 to 31.

   The GIST specification also requires that NSLP-IDs be associated with
   specific Router Alert Option (RAO) values (although multiple NSLP-IDs
   may be associated with the same value).  For the purposes of the QoS
   NSLP, each of its NSLP-ID values should be associated with a
   different RAO value.  This requires that a block of 32 new IPv4 RAO
   values and a block of 32 new IPv6 RAO values be assigned,
   corresponding to QoS NSLP Aggregation Levels 0 to 31.


7.  Security Considerations

   The security requirement for the QoS NSLP is to protect the signaling
   exchange for establishing QoS reservations against identified
   security threats.  For the signaling problem as a whole, these
   threats have been outlined in NSIS threats [RFC4081]; the NSIS
   framework [RFC4080] assigns a subset of the responsibility to GIST
   and the remaining threats need to be addressed by NSLPs.  The main
   issues to be handled can be summarized as:

   Authorization:

   The QoS NSLP must assure that the network is protected against theft-
   of-service by offering mechanisms to authorize the QoS reservation
   requester.  A user requesting a QoS reservation might want proper
   resource accounting and protection against spoofing and other
   security vulnerabilities which lead to denial of service and
   financial loss.  In many cases authorization is based on the
   authenticated identity.  The authorization solution must provide
   guarantees that replay attacks are either not possible or limited to
   a certain extent.  Authorization can also be based on traits which
   enables the user to remain anonymous.  Support for user identity
   confidentiality can be accomplished.

   Message Protection:




Manner, et al.           Expires August 2, 2010                [Page 83]

Internet-Draft                  QoS NSLP                    January 2010


   Signaling message content should be protected against modification,
   replay, injection and eavesdropping while in transit.  Authorization
   information, such as authorization tokens, need protection.  This
   type of protection at the NSLP layer is necessary to protect messages
   between NSLP nodes.

   Rate Limitation:

   QNEs should perform rate limiting on the refresh messages that they
   send.  An attacker could send erroneous messages on purpose, forcing
   the QNE to constantly reply with an error message.  Authentication
   mechanisms would help in figuring out if error situations should be
   reported to the sender, or silently ignored.  If the sender is
   authenticated, the QNE should reply promptly.

   Prevention of Denial of Service Attacks:

   GIST and QoS NSLP nodes have finite resources (state storage,
   processing power, bandwidth).  The protocol mechanisms in this
   document try to minimize exhaustion attacks against these resources
   when performing authentication and authorization for QoS resources.

   To some extent the QoS NSLP relies on the security mechanisms
   provided by GIST which by itself relies on existing authentication
   and key exchange protocols.  Some signaling messages cannot be
   protected by GIST and hence should be used with care by the QoS NSLP.
   An API must ensure that the QoS NSLP implementation is aware of the
   underlying security mechanisms and must be able to indicate which
   degree of security is provided between two GIST peers.  If a level of
   security protection for QoS NSLP messages is required which goes
   beyond the security offered by GIST or underlying security
   mechanisms, additional security mechanisms described in this document
   must be used.  The different usage environments and the different
   scenarios where NSIS is used make it very difficult to make general
   statements without reducing its flexibility.

7.1.  Trust Relationship Model

   This specification is based on a model which requires trust between
   neighboring NSLP nodes to establish a chain-of-trust along the QoS
   signaling path.  The model is simple to deploy, was used in previous
   QoS authorization environments (such as RSVP) and seems to provide
   sufficiently strong security properties.  We refer to this model as
   the New Jersey Turnpike.

   On the New Jersey Turnpike, motorists pick up a ticket at a toll
   booth when entering the highway.  At the highway exit the ticket is
   presented and payment is made at the toll booth for the distance



Manner, et al.           Expires August 2, 2010                [Page 84]

Internet-Draft                  QoS NSLP                    January 2010


   driven.  For QoS signaling in the Internet this procedure is roughly
   similar.  In most cases the data sender is charged for transmitted
   data traffic where charging is provided only between neighboring
   entities.


      +------------------+  +------------------+  +------------------+
      |          Network |  |          Network |  |          Network |
      |             X    |  |             Y    |  |             Z    |
      |                  |  |                  |  |                  |
      |              ----------->          ----------->              |
      |                  |  |                  |  |                  |
      |                  |  |                  |  |                  |
      +--------^---------+  +------------------+  +-------+----------+
               |                                          .
               |                                          .
               |                                          v
            +--+---+  Data                   Data      +--+---+
            | Node |  ==============================>  | Node |
            |  A   |  Sender                Receiver   |  B   |
            +------+                                   +------+

        Legend:

        ----> Peering relationship which allows neighboring
              networks/entities to charge each other for the
              QoS reservation and data traffic

        ====> Data flow

        .... Communication to the end host

                   Figure 16: New Jersey Turnpike Model

   The model shown in Figure 16 uses peer-to-peer relationships between
   different administrative domains as a basis for accounting and
   charging.  As mentioned above, based on the peering relationship a
   chain-of-trust is established.  There are several issues which come
   to mind when considering this type of model:

   o The model allows authorization on a request basis or on a per-
   session basis.  Authorization mechanisms are elaborated in Section
   4.9.  The duration for which the QoS authorization is valid needs to
   be controlled.  Combining the interval with the soft-state interval
   is possible.  Notifications from the networks also seem to be viable
   approach.

   o The price for a QoS reservation needs to be determined somehow and



Manner, et al.           Expires August 2, 2010                [Page 85]

Internet-Draft                  QoS NSLP                    January 2010


   communicated to the charged entity and to the network where the
   charged entity is attached.  Protocols providing Advice of Charge
   functionality are out of scope.

   o This architecture is simple enough to allow a scalable solution
   (ignoring reverse charging, multicast issues and price distribution).

   Charging the data sender as performed in the model simplifies
   security handling by demanding only peer-to-peer security protection.
   Node A would perform authentication and key establishment.  The
   established security association (together with the session key)
   would allow the user to protect QoS signaling messages.  The identity
   used during the authentication and key establishment phase would be
   used by Network X (see Figure 16) to perform the so-called policy-
   based admission control procedure.  In our context this user
   identifier would be used to establish the necessary infrastructure to
   provide authorization and charging.  Signaling messages later
   exchanged between the different networks are then also subject to
   authentication and authorization.  The authenticated entity thereby
   is, however, the neighboring network and not the end host.

   The New Jersey Turnpike model is attractive because of its
   simplicity.  S. Schenker et. al. [shenker] discuss various accounting
   implications and introduced the edge pricing model.  The edge pricing
   model shows similarity to the model described in this section with
   the exception that mobility and the security implications itself are
   not addressed.

7.2.  Authorization Model Examples

   Various authorization models can be used in conjunction with the QoS
   NSLP.

7.2.1.  Authorization for the Two Party Approach

   The two party approach (Figure 17) is conceptually the simplest
   authorization model.

   +-------------+  QoS request     +--------------+
   |  Entity     |----------------->| Entity       |
   |  requesting |                  | authorizing  |
   |  resource   |granted / rejected| resource     |
   |             |<-----------------| request      |
   +-------------+                  +--------------+
             ^                           ^
             +...........................+
                     compensation




Manner, et al.           Expires August 2, 2010                [Page 86]

Internet-Draft                  QoS NSLP                    January 2010


                       Figure 17: Two party approach

   In this example the authorization decision only involves the two
   entities, or makes use of previous authorization using an out-of-band
   mechanism to avoid the need for active participation of an external
   entity during the NSIS protocol execution.

   This type of model may be applicable, e.g., between two neighboring
   networks (inter-domain signaling) where a long-term contract (or
   other out-of-band mechanisms) exists to manage charging and provides
   sufficient information to authorize individual requests.

7.2.2.  Token-based Three Party Approach

   An alternative approach makes use of tokens, such as those described
   in RFC 3520 [RFC3520] and RFC 3521 [RFC3521] or used as part of the
   Open Settlement Protocol [osp].  Authorization tokens are used to
   associate two different signaling protocols runs (e.g., SIP and NSIS)
   and their authorization decision with each other.  The latter is a
   form of assertion or trait.  As an example, with the authorization
   token mechanism, some form of authorization is provided by the SIP
   proxy, which acts as the resource authorizing entity in Figure 18.
   If the request is authorized, then the SIP signaling returns an
   authorization token which can be included in the QoS signaling
   protocol messages to refer to the previous authorization decision.
   The tokens themselves may take a number of different forms, some of
   which may require the entity performing the QoS reservation to query
   external state.























Manner, et al.           Expires August 2, 2010                [Page 87]

Internet-Draft                  QoS NSLP                    January 2010


     Authorization
     Token Request   +--------------+
     +-------------->| Entity  C    | financial settlement
     |               | authorizing  | <..................+
     |               | resource     |                    .
     |        +------+ request      |                    .
     |        |      +--------------+                    .
     |        |                                          .
     |        |Authorization                             .
     |        |Token                                     .
     |        |                                          .
     |        |                                          .
     |        |                                          .
     |        |      QoS request                         .
   +-------------+ + Authz. Token   +--------------+     .
   |  Entity     |----------------->| Entity B     |     .
   |  requesting |                  | performing   |     .
   |  resource   |granted / rejected| QoS          |  <..+
   |      A      |<-----------------| reservation  |
   +-------------+                  +--------------+

                Figure 18: Token based three party approach

   For the digital money type of systems (e.g., OSP tokens), the token
   represents a limited amount of credit.  So, new tokens must be sent
   with later refresh messages once the credit is exhausted.

7.2.3.  Generic Three Party Approach

   Another method is for the node performing the QoS reservation to
   delegate the authorization decision to a third party, as illustrated
   in Figure 19.  The authorization decision may be performed on a per-
   request basis, periodically, or on a per-session basis.


















Manner, et al.           Expires August 2, 2010                [Page 88]

Internet-Draft                  QoS NSLP                    January 2010


                                    +--------------+
                                    | Entity C     |
                                    | authorizing  |
                                    | resource     |
                                    | request      |
                                    +-----------+--+
                                       ^        |
                                   QoS |        | QoS
                                  authz|        |authz
                                   req.|        | res.
                      QoS              |        v
   +-------------+    request       +--+-----------+
   |  Entity     |----------------->| Entity B     |
   |  requesting |                  | performing   |
   |  resource   |granted / rejected| QoS          |
   |      A      |<-----------------| reservation  |
   +-------------+                  +--------------+

                      Figure 19: Three party approach

7.3.  Computing the Authorization Decision

   Whenever an authorization decision has to be made then there is the
   question which information serves as an input to the authorizing
   entity.  The following information items have been mentioned in the
   past for computing the authorization decision (in addition to the
   authenticated identity):

   Price

   QoS objects

   Policy rules

   Policy rules include attributes like time of day, subscription to
   certain services, membership, etc. into consideration when computing
   an authorization decision.

   The policies used to make the authorization are outside the scope of
   this document and implementation/deployment specific.


8.  Acknowledgments

   The authors would like to thank Eleanor Hepworth, Ruediger Geib,
   Roland Bless, Nemeth Krisztian, Markus Ott, Mayi Zoumaro-Djayoon,
   Martijn Swanink, and Ruud Klaver for their useful comments.  Roland,
   especially, has done deep reviews of the document, making sure the



Manner, et al.           Expires August 2, 2010                [Page 89]

Internet-Draft                  QoS NSLP                    January 2010


   protocol is well defined.  Bob Braden provided helpful comments and
   guidance which were gratefully received.


9.  Contributors

   This draft combines work from three individual drafts.  The following
   authors from these drafts also contributed to this document: Robert
   Hancock (Siemens/Roke Manor Research), Hannes Tschofenig and Cornelia
   Kappler (Siemens AG), Lars Westberg and Attila Bader (Ericsson) and
   Maarten Buechli (Dante) and Eric Waegeman (Alcatel).  In addition,
   Roland Bless has contributed considerable amounts of text all along
   the writing of this specification.

   Sven Van den Bosch was the first editor of the draft.  Since version
   06 of the draft, Jukka Manner has taken the editorship.  Yacine El
   Mghazli (Alcatel) contributed text on AAA.  Charles Shen and Henning
   Schulzrinne suggested the use of the reason field in the
   BOUND_SESSION_ID.


10.  References

10.1.  Normative References

   [I-D.ietf-nsis-ntlp]
              Schulzrinne, H. and M. Stiemerling, "GIST: General
              Internet Signalling Transport", draft-ietf-nsis-ntlp-20
              (work in progress), June 2009.

   [I-D.ietf-nsis-qspec]
              Bader, A., Kappler, C., and D. Oran, "QoS NSLP QSPEC
              Template", draft-ietf-nsis-qspec-24 (work in progress),
              January 2010.

   [RFC1982]  Elz, R. and R. Bush, "Serial Number Arithmetic", RFC 1982,
              August 1996.

   [RFC2119]  Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
              Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997.

10.2.  Informative References

   [I-D.ietf-nsis-applicability-mobility-signaling]
              Sanda, T., Fu, X., Jeong, S., Manner, J., and H.
              Tschofenig, "Applicability Statement of NSIS Protocols in
              Mobile Environments",
              draft-ietf-nsis-applicability-mobility-signaling-14 (work



Manner, et al.           Expires August 2, 2010                [Page 90]

Internet-Draft                  QoS NSLP                    January 2010


              in progress), January 2010.

   [I-D.ietf-nsis-rmd]
              Bader, A., Westberg, L., Karagiannis, G., Kappler, C.,
              Tschofenig, H., Phelan, T., Takacs, A., and A. Csaszar,
              "RMD-QOSM - The Resource Management in Diffserv QOS
              Model", draft-ietf-nsis-rmd-15 (work in progress),
              July 2009.

   [I-D.manner-nsis-nslp-auth]
              Manner, J., Stiemerling, M., Tschofenig, H., and R. Bless,
              "Authorization for NSIS Signaling Layer Protocols",
              draft-manner-nsis-nslp-auth-04 (work in progress),
              July 2008.

   [RFC1633]  Braden, B., Clark, D., and S. Shenker, "Integrated
              Services in the Internet Architecture: an Overview",
              RFC 1633, June 1994.

   [RFC2205]  Braden, B., Zhang, L., Berson, S., Herzog, S., and S.
              Jamin, "Resource ReSerVation Protocol (RSVP) -- Version 1
              Functional Specification", RFC 2205, September 1997.

   [RFC2210]  Wroclawski, J., "The Use of RSVP with IETF Integrated
              Services", RFC 2210, September 1997.

   [RFC2961]  Berger, L., Gan, D., Swallow, G., Pan, P., Tommasi, F.,
              and S. Molendini, "RSVP Refresh Overhead Reduction
              Extensions", RFC 2961, April 2001.

   [RFC3175]  Baker, F., Iturralde, C., Le Faucheur, F., and B. Davie,
              "Aggregation of RSVP for IPv4 and IPv6 Reservations",
              RFC 3175, September 2001.

   [RFC3520]  Hamer, L-N., Gage, B., Kosinski, B., and H. Shieh,
              "Session Authorization Policy Element", RFC 3520,
              April 2003.

   [RFC3521]  Hamer, L-N., Gage, B., and H. Shieh, "Framework for
              Session Set-up with Media Authorization", RFC 3521,
              April 2003.

   [RFC3726]  Brunner, M., "Requirements for Signaling Protocols",
              RFC 3726, April 2004.

   [RFC4080]  Hancock, R., Karagiannis, G., Loughney, J., and S. Van den
              Bosch, "Next Steps in Signaling (NSIS): Framework",
              RFC 4080, June 2005.



Manner, et al.           Expires August 2, 2010                [Page 91]

Internet-Draft                  QoS NSLP                    January 2010


   [RFC4081]  Tschofenig, H. and D. Kroeselberg, "Security Threats for
              Next Steps in Signaling (NSIS)", RFC 4081, June 2005.

   [RFC5226]  Narten, T. and H. Alvestrand, "Guidelines for Writing an
              IANA Considerations Section in RFCs", BCP 26, RFC 5226,
              May 2008.

   [RFC5234]  Crocker, D. and P. Overell, "Augmented BNF for Syntax
              Specifications: ABNF", STD 68, RFC 5234, January 2008.

   [lrsvp]    Manner, J. and K. Raatikainen, "Localized QoS Management
              for Multimedia Applications in Wireless Access Networks.
              IASTED, IMSA, August, 2004, pp. 193-200.".

   [opwa95]   Breslau, L., "Two Issues in Reservation Establishment,
              Proc. ACM SIGCOMM '95 , Cambridge , MA , August 1995.".

   [osp]      ETSI, ""Telecommunications and Internet protocol
              harmonization over networks (tiphon); open settlement
              protocol (osp) for inter- domain pricing, authorization,
              and usage exchange", Technical Specification 101 321,
              version 2.1.0.".

   [qos-auth]
              Tschofenig, H., "QoS NSLP Authorization Issues. Work in
              Progress.".

   [shenker]  Shenker, S. and et al., ""Pricing in computer networks:
              Reshaping the research agenda", Proc. of TPRC 1995,
              1995.".


Appendix A.  Abstract NSLP-RMF API

   This appendix is purely informational and provides an abstract API
   between the QoS NSLP and the RMF.  It should not be taken as a strict
   rule of implementors, but rather help clarify the interface between
   the NSLP and RMF.

A.1.  Triggers from QOS-NSLP towards RMF

   The QoS-NSLP triggers the RMF/QOSM functionality by using the
   sendrmf() primitive:

   int sendrmf(sid, nslp_req_type, qspec, authorization_info,
   NSLP_objects, filter, features_in, GIST_API_triggers,
   incoming_interface, outgoing_interface)




Manner, et al.           Expires August 2, 2010                [Page 92]

Internet-Draft                  QoS NSLP                    January 2010


   o  sid: SESSION_ID - The NSIS session identifier
   o  nslp_req_type: indicates type of request:
      *  RESERVE
      *  QUERY
      *  RESPONSE
      *  NOTIFY
   o  qspec: the QSPEC object, if present
   o  authorization_info: the AUTH_SESSION object, if present
   o  NSLP_objects: data structure that contains a list with received
      QoS-NSLP objects.  This list can be used by e.g., Local
      application, Management, Policy control:
      *  RII
      *  RSN
      *  BOUND_SESSION_ID list
      *  REFRESH_PERIOD
      *  SESSION_ID_LIST
      *  RSN_LIST
      *  INFO_SPEC
      *  MSG_ID
      *  BOUND_MSG_ID
   o  filter: the information for packet filtering, based on the MRI and
      the PACKET_CLASSIFIER object.
   o  features_in: it represents the flags included in the common header
      of the received QOS-NSLP message, but also additional
   o  triggers:
      *  BREAK
      *  REQUEST REDUCED REFRESHES
      *  RESERVE-INIT
      *  TEAR
      *  REPLACE
      *  ACK-REQ
      *  PROXY
      *  SCOPING
      *  synchronization_required: this attribute is set (see e.g.,
         Section 4.6 and 4.7.1) when the QoS-NSLP functionality
         supported by a QNE Egress receives a non tearing RESERVE
         message that includes a MSG_ID or a BOUND_MSG_ID object and the
         BINDING_CODE value of the BOUND_SESSION_ID object is equal to
         one of the following values:
         +  Tunnel and end-to-end sessions
         +  Aggregate sessions
      *  GIST_API_triggers: it represents the attributes that are
         provided by GIST to QoS-NSLP via the GIST API:
         +  NSLPID
         +  Routing-State-Check
         +  SII-Handle





Manner, et al.           Expires August 2, 2010                [Page 93]

Internet-Draft                  QoS NSLP                    January 2010


         +  Transfer-Attributes
         +  GIST-Hop-Count
         +  IP-TTL
         +  IP-Distance
   o  incoming_interface: the ID of the incoming interface.  Used only
      when the QNE reserves resources on incoming interface.  Default is
      0 (no reservations on incoming interface)
   o  outgoing_interface: the ID of the outgoing interface.  Used only
      when the QNE reserves resources on outgoing interface.  Default is
      0 (no reservations on outgoing interface)

A.2.  Triggers from RMF/QOSM towards QOS-NSLP

   The RMF triggers the QoS-NSLP functionality using the "recvrmf()" and
   "config()" primitives to perform either all or a subset of the
   features listed below.

   The recvrmf() primitive represents either a response to a request
   that has been sent via the API by the QoS-NSLP or an asynchronous
   notification.  Note that when the RMF/QOSM receives a request via the
   API from the QoS-NSLP function, then one or more than one "recvrmf()"
   response primitives can be sent via the API towards QoS-NSLP.  In
   this way the QOS-NSLP can generate one, or more than one, QoS-NSLP
   messages that can be for example, used in the situation that the
   arrival of one end-to-end RESERVE triggers the generation of two (or
   more) RESERVE messages, an end-to-end RESERVE message and one (or
   more) intra-domain (local) RESERVE message.

   The config() primitive is used to configure certain features, such as
   QNE type, statefullness, bypassing support.

   Note that the selection of the subset of triggers is controlled by
   the QoS Model.

   int recvrmf(sid, nslp_resp_type, qspec, authorization_info, status,
   NSLP_objects, filter, features_out, GIST_API_triggers
   incoming_interface, outgoing_interface)

   o  sid: SESSION_ID - The NSIS session identifier
   o  nslp_resp_type: indicates type of response:
      *  RESERVE
      *  QUERY
      *  RESPONSE
      *  NOTIFY
   o  qspec: the QSPEC object, if present
   o  authorization_info: the AUTHO_SESSION object, if present





Manner, et al.           Expires August 2, 2010                [Page 94]

Internet-Draft                  QoS NSLP                    January 2010


   o  status: boolean that notifies the status of the reservation and
      can be used by QOS-NSLP to include in the INFO_SPEC object:
      *  RESERVATION_SUCCESSFUL
      *  TEAR_DOWN_SUCCESSFUL
      *  NO RESOURCES
      *  RESERVATION_FAILURE
      *  RESERVATION_PREEMPTED: reservation was pre-empted
      *  AUTHORIZATION_FAILED: authorizing the request failed
      *  MALFORMED_QSPEC: request failed due to malformed qspec
      *  SYNCHRONISATION_FAILED: Mismatch synchronization between an
         end-to-end RESERVE and an intra-domain RESERVE (see Section 4.6
         and 4.7.1)
      *  CONGESTION_SITUATION: Possible congestion situation occurred on
         downstream path
      *  QOS Model Error
   o  NSLP_objects: data structure that contains a list with QoS-NSLP
      objects that can be used by QoS-NSLP, when the QNE is a QNI, QNR,
      QNI_Ingress, QNR_Ingress, QNI_Egress, QNR_Egress:
      *  RII
      *  RSN
      *  BOUND_SESSION_ID list
      *  REFRESH_PERIOD
      *  SESSION_ID_LIST
      *  RSN_LIST
      *  MSG_ID
      *  BOUND_MSG_ID
   o  filter: it represents the MRM related PACKET CLASSIFIER
   o  features_out: it represents among others the flags that can be
      used by the QOS-NSLP for new generated QoS-NSLP messages:
      *  BREAK
      *  REQUEST REDUCED REFRESHES
      *  RESERVE-INIT
      *  TEAR
      *  REPLACE
      *  ACK-REQ
      *  PROXY
      *  SCOPING
      *  BYPASSING: when the outgoing message should be bypassed then it
         includes the required bypassing level.  Otherwise it is empty.
         It can be set only by QNI_Ingress, QNR_Ingress, QNI_Egress,
         QNR_Egress.  It can be unset only by QNI_Ingress, QNR_Ingress,
         QNI_Egress, QNR_Egress.
      *  BINDING () when BINDING is required then it includes a
         BOUND_SESSION_ID list.  Otherwise it is empty.  It can only be
         requested by the following QNE types: QNI, QNR, QNI_Ingress,
         QNR_Ingress, QNI_Egress, QNR_Egress.





Manner, et al.           Expires August 2, 2010                [Page 95]

Internet-Draft                  QoS NSLP                    January 2010


      *  NEW_SID - it requests to generate a new session with a new
         SESSION_ID.  If the QoS-NSLP generates a new SESSION_ID then
         the QoS-NSLP has to return the value of this new SESSION_ID to
         the RMF/QOSM.  It can be requested by a QNI, QNR, QNI_Ingress,
         QNI_Egress, QNR_Ingress, QNR_Egress.
      *  NEW_RSN - it requests to generate a new RSN.  If the QoS-NSLP
         generates a new RSN then the QoS-NSLP has to return the value
         of this new RSN to the RMF/QOSM.
      *  NEW_RII - it requests to generate a new RII.  If the QoS-NSLP
         generates a new RII then the QoS-NSLP has to return the value
         of this new RII to the RMF/QOSM.
   o  GIST_API_triggers: it represents the attributes that are provided
      to GIST via QoS-NSLP via the GIST API
      *  NSLPID
      *  SII-Handle
      *  Transfer-Attributes
      *  GIST-Hop-Count
      *  IP-TTL
      *  ROUTING-STATE-CHECK (if set it requires from GIST to create a
         routing state)
   o  incoming_interface: the ID of the incoming interface.  Used only
      when the QNE reserves resources on incoming interface.  Default is
      0 (no reservations on incoming interface)
   o  outgoing_interface: the ID of the outgoing interface.  Used only
      when the QNE reserves resources on outgoing interface.  Default is
      0 (no reservations on outgoing interface)

A.3.  Configuration interface

   The config() function is meant for configuring per-session settings,
   from the RMF towards the NSLP.

   int config(sid, qne_type, state_type, bypassing_type)

   o  sid: SESSION_ID - The NSIS session identifier
   o  qne_type: it defines the type of a QNE
      *  QNI
      *  QNI_Ingress: the QNE is a QNI and an Ingress QNE
      *  QNE: the QNE is not a QNI or QNR
      *  QNE_Interior: the QNE is an Interior QNE, but it is not a QNI
         or QNR
      *  QNI_Egress: the QNE is a QNI and an Egress QNE
      *  QNR
      *  QNR_Ingress: the QNE is a QNR and an Ingress QNE
      *  QNR_Egress: the QNE is a QNR and an Egress QNE
   o  state_type: it defines if the QNE keeps QoS-NSLP operational
      states




Manner, et al.           Expires August 2, 2010                [Page 96]

Internet-Draft                  QoS NSLP                    January 2010


      *  STATEFULL
      *  STATELESS
   o  bypassing_type: it defines if a QNE bypasses end-to-end messages
      or not


Appendix B.  Glossary

   AAA: Authentication, Authorization and Accounting

   EAP: Extensible Authentication Protocol

   MRI: Message Routing Information (see [I-D.ietf-nsis-ntlp])

   NAT: Network Address Translator

   NSLP: NSIS Signaling Layer Protocol (see [RFC4080])

   NTLP: NSIS Transport Layer Protocol (see [RFC4080])

   OPWA: One Pass With Advertising

   OSP: Open Settlement Protocol

   PIN: Policy Ignorant Node

   QNE: an NSIS Entity (NE), which supports the QoS NSLP (see Section 2)

   QNI: the first node in the sequence of QNEs that issues a reservation
   request for a session (see Section 2)

   QNR: the last node in the sequence of QNEs that receives a
   reservation request for a session (see Section 2)

   QSPEC: Quality of Service Specification

   RII: Request Identification Information

   RMD: Resource Management for DiffServ

   RMF: Resource Management Function

   RSN: Reservation Sequence Number

   RSVP: Resource Reservation Protocol (see [RFC2205])

   SII: Source Identification Information




Manner, et al.           Expires August 2, 2010                [Page 97]

Internet-Draft                  QoS NSLP                    January 2010


   SIP: Session Initiation Protocol

   SLA: Service Level Agreement


Authors' Addresses

   Jukka Manner
   Aalto University
   Department of Communications and Networking (Comnet)
   P.O. Box 13000
   00076 Aalto
   Finland

   Phone: +358 9 470 22481
   Email: jukka.manner@tkk.fi


   Georgios Karagiannis
   University of Twente/Ericsson
   P.O. Box 217
   Enschede  7500 AE
   The Netherlands

   Email: karagian@cs.utwente.nl


   Andrew McDonald
   Siemens/Roke Manor Research
   Roke Manor Research Ltd.
   Romsey, Hants  S051 0ZN
   UK

   Email: andrew.mcdonald@roke.co.uk

















Manner, et al.           Expires August 2, 2010                [Page 98]


Html markup produced by rfcmarkup 1.109, available from https://tools.ietf.org/tools/rfcmarkup/