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IETF Internet Draft NSIS Working Group                           G. Ash
Internet Draft                                                     AT&T
<draft-ietf-nsis-qspec-13.txt>                                 A. Bader
Expiration Date: June 2007                                     Ericsson
                                                             C. Kappler
                                                     Siemens GmbH&Co KG
                                                                D. Oran
                                                    Cisco Systems, Inc.

                                                          December 2006


                         QoS NSLP QSPEC Template

Status of this Memo

   By submitting this Internet-Draft, each author represents that any
   applicable patent or other IPR claims of which he or she is aware
   have been or will be disclosed, and any of which he or she becomes
   aware will be disclosed, in accordance with Section 6 of BCP 79.

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   This Internet-Draft will expire on June 21, 2007.

Copyright Notice

   Copyright (C) The IETF Trust (2006).

Abstract

   The QoS NSLP protocol is used to signal QoS reservations and is
   independent of a specific QoS model (QOSM) such as IntServ or
   DiffServ.  Rather, all information specific to a QOSM is encapsulated
   in a separate object, the QSPEC.  This document defines a template
   for the QSPEC including a number of QSPEC parameters.  The QSPEC
   parameters provide a common language to be re-used in several QOSMs

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   and thereby aim to ensure the extensibility and interoperability of
   QoS NSLP.  The node initiating the NSIS signaling adds an initiator
   QSPEC, which indicates the QSPEC parameters that must be interpreted
   by the downstream nodes less the reservation fails, thereby ensuring
   the intention of the NSIS initiator is preserved along the signaling
   path.

Table of Contents

   1. Contributors  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
   2. Introduction  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
   3. Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
   4. QSPEC Framework . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
      4.1 QoS Models  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
      4.2 QSPEC Objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
      4.3 QSPEC Parameters  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
          4.3.1 Traffic Model Parameter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
          4.3.2 Constraints Parameters  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
          4.3.3 Traffic Handling Directives . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
          4.3.4 Traffic Classifiers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
      4.4 Example of QSPEC Processing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
   5. QSPEC Processing & Procedures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
      5.1 Local QSPEC Definition & Processing . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
      5.2 Reservation Success/Failure, QSPEC Error Codes, & INFO_SPEC
          Notification  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
          5.2.1 Reservation Failure & Error E-Flag  . . . . . . . . . 18
          5.2.2 QSPEC Parameter Not Supported N-Flag  . . . . . . . . 19
          5.2.3 INFO_SPEC Coding of Reservation Outcome . . . . . . . 19
          5.2.4 QNE Generation of a RESPONSE message  . . . . . . . . 20
          5.2.5 Special Case of Local QSPEC . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
      5.3 QSPEC Procedures  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
          5.3.1 Sender-Initiated Reservations . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
          5.3.2 Receiver-Initiated Reservations . . . . . . . . . . . 23
          5.3.3 Resource Queries  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
          5.3.4 Bidirectional Reservations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
          5.3.5 Preemption  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
      5.4 QSPEC Extensibility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
   6. QSPEC Functional Specification  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
      6.1 General QSPEC Formats . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
      6.2 QSPEC Parameter Coding  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
          6.2.1 <TMOD-1> Parameter  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
          6.2.2 <TMOD-2> Parameter  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
          6.2.3 <Path Latency> Parameter  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
          6.2.4 <Path Jitter> Parameter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
          6.2.5 <Path PLR> Parameter  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
          6.2.6 <Path PER> Parameter  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
          6.2.7 <Slack Term> Parameter  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
          6.2.8 <Preemption Priority> & <Defending Priority>
                Parameters  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
          6.2.9 <Admission Priority> Parameter  . . . . . . . . . . . 34
          6.2.10 <RPH Priority> Parameter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34

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          6.2.11 <Excess Treatment> Parameter . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
          6.2.12 <PHB Class> Parameter  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
          6.2.13 <DSTE Class Type> Parameter  . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
          6.2.14 <Y.1541 QoS Class> Parameter . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
   7. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
   8. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
   9. Acknowledgements  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
   10. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
   11. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
   12. Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
   Appendix A. Mapping of QoS Desired, QoS Available and QoS Reserved
               of NSIS onto AdSpec, TSpec and RSpec of RSVP IntServ . 47
   Appendix B. Change History & Open Issues . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
               B.1 Change History (since Version -04) . . . . . . . . 48
               B.2 Open Issues  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
   Intellectual Property Statement  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
   Full Copyright Statement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52

Conventions Used in This Document

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
   document are to be interpreted as described in RFC 2119 [RFC2119].

1. Contributors

   This document is the result of the NSIS Working Group effort.  In
   addition to the authors/editors listed in Section 12, the following
   people contributed to the document:

   Chuck Dvorak
   AT&T
   Room 2A37
   180 Park Avenue, Building 2
   Florham Park, NJ 07932
   Phone: + 1 973-236-6700
   Fax:+1 973-236-7453
   Email: cdvorak@research.att.com

   Yacine El Mghazli
   Alcatel
   Route de Nozay
   91460 Marcoussis cedex
   FRANCE
   Phone: +33 1 69 63 41 87
   Email: yacine.el_mghazli@alcatel.fr

   Georgios Karagiannis
   University of Twente
   P.O. BOX 217

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   7500 AE Enschede
   The Netherlands
   Email: g.karagiannis@ewi.utwente.nl

   Andrew McDonald
   Siemens/Roke Manor Research
   Roke Manor Research Ltd.
   Romsey, Hants SO51 0ZN
   UK
   Email: andrew.mcdonald@roke.co.uk

   Al Morton
   AT&T
   Room D3-3C06
   200 S. Laurel Avenue
   Middletown, NJ 07748
   Phone: + 1 732 420-1571
   Fax: +.1 732 368-1192
   Email: acmorton@att.com

   Percy Tarapore
   AT&T
   Room D1-33
   200 S. Laurel Avenue
   Middletown, NJ 07748
   Phone: + 1 732 420-4172
   Email: tarapore@.att.com

   Lars Westberg
   Ericsson Research
   Torshamnsgatan 23
   SE-164 80 Stockholm, Sweden
   Email: Lars.Westberg@ericsson.com

2. Introduction

   The QoS NSIS signaling layer protocol (NSLP) [QoS-SIG] establishes
   and maintains state at nodes along the path of a data flow for the
   purpose of providing forwarding resources (QoS) for that flow.  The
   design of QoS NSLP is conceptually similar to RSVP [RFC2205], and
   meets the requirements of [RFC3726].

   A QoS-enabled domain supports a particular QoS model (QOSM), which is
   a method to achieve QoS for a traffic flow.  A QOSM incorporates QoS
   provisioning methods and a QoS architecture.  It defines the behavior
   of the resource management function (RMF) defined in [QoS-SIG],
   including inputs and outputs. Examples of QOSMs are IntServ, DiffServ
   admission control, and those specified in [Y.1541-QOSM, CL-QOSM,
   RMD-QOSM].

   The QoS NSLP protocol is used to signal QoS reservations and supports

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   signaling for different QOSMs.  All information specific to a QOSM is
   encapsulated in the QoS specification (QSPEC) object, and this
   document defines a template for the QSPEC.

   QSPEC parameters include, for example, a mandatory traffic model
   (TMOD) parameter, constraints parameters, such as path latency and
   path jitter, traffic handling directives, such as excess treatment,
   and traffic classifiers such as PHB class.

   QSPEC objects loosely correspond to the TSpec, RSpec and AdSpec
   objects specified in RSVP and may contain, respectively, a
   description of QoS desired, QoS reserved, and QoS available.
   Going beyond RSVP functionality, the QSPEC also allows indicating
   a range of acceptable QoS by defining a QSPEC object denoting
   minimum QoS.  Usage of these QSPEC objects is not bound to particular
   message types thus allowing for flexibility.  A QSPEC object
   collecting information about available resources may travel in any
   QoS NSLP message, for example a QUERY message or a RESERVE message.
   The QSPEC travels in QoS NSLP messages but is opaque to the QoS NSLP,
   and is only interpreted by the RMF.

   Interoperability between QoS NSIS entities (QNEs) in different
   domains is enhanced by the definition of a common set of QSPEC
   parameters.  A QoS NSIS initiator (QNI) initiating the QoS NSLP
   signaling adds an initiator QSPEC object containing parameters
   describing the desired QoS, normally based on the QOSM it supports.
   QSPEC parameters flagged by the QNI must be interpreted by all QNEs
   in the path, else the reservation fails.  In contrast, QSPEC
   parameters not flagged by the QNI may be skipped if not understood.
   Additional QSPEC parameters can be defined by QOSM specification
   documents, and thereby ensure the extensibility and flexibility of
   QoS NSLP.

   A local QSPEC can be defined in a local domain with the initiator
   QSPEC encapsulated, which is functionally consistent with the
   initiator QSPEC in terms of defined source traffic (TMOD parameter)
   and other constraints.  A local QSPEC, for example, can enable
   simpler processing by QNEs within the local domain.

   In Section 4.4 a worked example of QSPEC processing is provided.

3. Terminology

   Initiator QSPEC: A QSPEC Type.  The initiator QSPEC is included into
   a QoS NSLP message by the QNI/QNR.  It travels end-to-end to the
   QNR/QNI and is never removed.

   Local QSPEC: A QSPEC Type.  A local QSPEC is used in a local domain
   and is domain specific.  It encapsulates the initiator QSPEC and is
   removed at the egress of the local domain.


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   Minimum QoS: Minimum QoS is a QSPEC object that MAY be supported by
   any QNE.  Together with a description of QoS Desired or QoS
   Available, it allows the QNI to specify a QoS range, i.e. an upper
   and lower bound.  If the QoS Desired cannot be reserved, QNEs are
   going to decrease the reservation until the minimum QoS is hit.

   QNE: QoS NSIS Entity, a node supporting QoS NSLP.

   QNI: QoS NSIS Initiator, a node initiating QoS NSLP signaling.

   QNR: QoS NSIS Receiver, a node terminating QoS NSLP signaling.

   QoS Available: QSPEC object containing parameters describing the
   available resources.  They are used to collect information along a
   reservation path.

   QoS Desired: QSPEC object containing parameters describing the
   desired QoS for which the sender requests reservation.

   QoS Model (QOSM): a method to achieve QoS for a traffic flow, e.g.,
   IntServ Controlled Load; specifies what sub-set of QSPEC QoS
   constraints & traffic handling directives a QNE implementing that
   QOSM is capable of supporting & how resources will be managed by the
   RMF.

   QoS Reserved: QSPEC object containing parameters describing the
   reserved resources and related QoS parameters.

   QSPEC: QSPEC is the object of QoS NSLP containing all QoS-specific
   information.

   QSPEC parameter: Any parameter appearing in a QSPEC; for
   example, traffic model (TMOD), path latency, and excess treatment
   parameters.

   QSPEC Object: Main building blocks containing a QSPEC parameter set
   that is input or output of an RMF operation.

   Resource Management Function (RMF): Functions that are related to
   resource management and processing of QSPEC parameters.

4. QSPEC Framework

   The overall framework for the QoS NSLP is that [QoS-SIG] defines QoS
   signaling and semantics, the QSPEC template defines the container and
   semantics for QoS parameters and objects, and QOSM specifications
   define QoS methods and procedures for using QoS signaling and QSPEC
   parameters/objects within specific QoS deployments.  QoS NSLP is a
   generic QoS signaling protocol that can signal for many QOSMs.


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4.1 QoS Models

   A QOSM is a method to achieve QoS for a traffic flow, e.g., IntServ
   controlled load [CL-QOSM], resource management with DiffServ
   [RMD-QOSM], and QoS signaling for Y.1541 QoS classes [Y.1541-QOSM].
   A QOSM specifies a set of QSPEC parameters that describe the QoS
   desired and how resources will be managed by the RMF.  The RMF
   implements functions that are related to resource management and
   processes the QSPEC parameters.

   QOSMs affect the operation of the RMF in NSIS-capable nodes, the
   information carried in QSPEC objects, and may under some
   circumstances (e.g. aggregation) cause a separate NSLP session to be
   instantiated by having the RMF as a QNI. QOSMs all utilize the common
   data, state machines, and APIs of the underlying NSIS protocols and
   are not expected to re-define or extend these in any way.

   The QOSM specification includes how the requested QoS resources will
   be described and how they will be managed by the RMF.  For this
   purpose, the QOSM specification defines a set of QSPEC parameters it
   uses to describe the desired QoS and resource control in the RMF, and
   it may define additional QSPEC parameters.

   When a QoS NSLP message travels through different domains, it may
   encounter different QOSMs. Since QOSM use different QSPEC parameters
   for describing resources, the QSPEC parameters included by the QNI
   may not be understood in other domains. The QNI therefore can flag
   those QSPEC parameters it considers vital with the M-flag. QSPEC
   parameters with the M-flag set must be interpreted by the downstream
   QNEs, or the reservation fails.  QSPEC parameters without the M-flag
   set should be interpreted by the downstream QNEs, but may be ignored
   if not understood.

   A QOSM specification MUST include the following:

   - role of QNEs, e.g., location, frequency, statefulness, etc.
   - QSPEC definition including QSPEC parameters
   - QSPEC procedures applicable to this QOSM
   - QNE processing rules describing how QSPEC information is treated
     and interpreted in the RMF, e.g.,
     admission control, scheduling, policy control, QoS parameter
     accumulation (e.g., delay).
   - at least one bit-level QSPEC example
   - QSPEC parameter behavior for new QSPEC parameters the QOSM
     specification defines
   - define what happens in case of preemption if the default QNI
     behavior (tear down preempted reservation) is not followed (see
     Section 5.3.5)

   A QOSM specification MAY include the following:


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   - define additional QOSM-specific error codes, as discussed in
     Section 5.2.3
   - can state which QoS-NSLP options a QOSM wants to use, when
     several options are available for a QOSM (e.g., local QSPEC to
     either be a) tunneled or b) encapsulate initiator QSPEC).

4.2 QSPEC Objects

   The QSPEC is the object of QoS NSLP containing QSPEC objects and
   parameters.  QSPEC objects are the main building blocks of the QSPEC
   parameter set that is input or output of an RMF operation.  QSPEC
   parameters are the parameters appearing in a QSPEC, which must
   include traffic (TMOD), and may optionally include constraints (e.g.,
   path latency), traffic handling directives (e.g., excess treatment),
   and traffic classifiers (e.g., PHB class).  The RMF implements
   functions that are related to resource management and processes the
   QSPEC parameters.

   The QSPEC consists of a QSPEC version number and QSPEC objects.
   Later QSPEC versions MUST be backward compatible with earlier QSPEC
   versions.  That is, a version n+1 device must support a version n
   (or earlier) QSPEC parameters.  A new QSPEC version MUST be defined
   whenever this document is reissued, for example, whenever a new QSPEC
   parameter is added.  QSPEC parameters in a new QSPEC version MUST be
   a superset of those in the previous QSPEC version.  QSPEC version is
   assigned by IANA.

   This document provides a template for the QSPEC in order to promote
   interoperability between QOSMs.  Figure 1 illustrates how the QSPEC
   is composed of up to four QSPEC objects, namely QoS Desired, QoS
   Available, QoS Reserved and Minimum QoS.  Each of these QSPEC objects
   consists of a number of QSPEC parameters.  A given QSPEC may contain
   only a subset of the QSPEC objects, e.g. QoS Desired.  The QSPEC
   objects QoS Desired, QoS Available and QoS Reserved MUST be supported
   by QNEs.  Minimum QoS MAY be supported.


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   +---------------------------------------+
   |            QSPEC Objects              |
   +---------------------------------------+

   \________________ ______________________/
                    V
   +----------+----------+---------+-------+
   |QoS Desir.|QoS Avail.|QoS Rsrv.|Min QoS|
   +----------+----------+---------+-------+

   \____ ____/\___ _____/\___ ____/\__ ___/
        V         V          V        V

   +-------------+...     +-------------+...
   |QSPEC Para. 1|        |QSPEC Para. n|
   +-------------+...     +-------------+...

        Figure 1: Structure of the QSPEC

   The QoS Desired Object describe the resources the QNI desires to
   reserve and hence this is a read-only QSPEC object in that the QSPEC
   parameters carried in the object may not be overwritten.  QoS Desired
   is always included in a RESERVE message.

   The QoS Available Object travels in a RESERVE or QUERY message and
   collects information on the resources currently available on the
   path.  Hence QoS Available in this case is a read-write object, which
   means the QSPEC parameters contained in QoS Available may be updated,
   but they cannot be deleted).     Each
   QNE MUST inspect all parameters of this QSPEC object, and if
   resources available to this QNE are less than what a particular
   parameter says currently, the QNE MUST adapt this parameter
   accordingly.  Hence when the message arrives at the recipient of the
   message, <QoS Available> reflects the bottleneck of the resources
   currently available on a path.  It can be used in a QUERY message,
   for example, to collect the available resources along a data path.

   When QoS Available travels in a RESPONSE message, it in fact just
   transports the result of a previous measurement performed by a
   RESERVE or QUERY message back to the initiator.  Therefore in this
   case, QoS Available is read-only.

   QoS Reserved reflects the resources that were reserved. It is a
   read-only object.

   Minimum QoS does not have an equivalent in RSVP.  It allows the QNI
   to define a range of acceptable QoS levels by including both the
   desired QoS value and the minimum acceptable QoS in the same message.
   Parameters cannot be overwritten in this QSPEC object.  The desired
   QoS is included with a QoS Desired and/or a QoS Available QSPEC
   object seeded to the desired QoS value.  The minimum acceptable QoS

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   value MAY be coded in the Minimum QoS QSPEC object.  As the message
   travels towards the QNR, QoS Available is updated by QNEs on the
   path.  If its value drops below the value of Minimum QoS the
   reservation fails and is aborted.  When this method is employed, the
   QNR SHOULD signal back to the QNI the value of QoS Available
   attained in the end, because the reservation MAY need to be adapted
   accordingly.

   Note that the relationship of QSPEC objects to RSVP objects is
   covered in Appendix A.

4.3 QSPEC Parameters

   QSPEC parameters provide a common language for building QSPEC
   objects.  This document defines a number of QSPEC parameters,
   additional parameters may be defined in separate QOSM specification
   documents.  For example, QSPEC parameters are defined in [RMD-QOSM]
   and [Y.1541-QOSM].

   One QSPEC parameter, <TMOD>, is special.  It provides a description
   of the traffic for which resources are reserved.  This parameter must
   be included by the QNI and it must be interpreted by all QNEs.  All
   other QSPEC parameters are populated by a QNI if they are applicable
   to the underlying QoS desired.  For these QSPEC parameters, the QNI
   sets the M-flag if they must be interpreted by downstream QNEs.  If
   QNEs cannot interpret the parameter the reservation fails.  QSPEC
   parameters populated by a QNI without the M-flag set should be
   interpreted by downstream QNEs, but may be ignored if not understood.

   In this document the term 'interpret' means, in relation to RMF
   processing of QSPEC parameters, that the RMF processes the QSPEC
   parameter according to the commonly accepted normative procedures
   specified by references given for each QSPEC parameter.  Note that a
   QNE need only interpret a QSPEC parameter if it is populated in the
   QSPEC object by the QNI; if not populated in the QSPEC, the QNE does
   not interpret it of course.

   Note that when an ingress QNE in a local domain defines a local QSPEC
   and encapsulates the initiator QSPEC, the QNEs in the interior local
   domain need only process the local QSPEC and can ignore the initiator
   (encapsulated) QSPEC.  However, edge QNEs in the local domain indeed
   must interpret the QSPEC parameters populated in the initiator QSPEC
   with the M-flag set and should interpret QSPEC parameters populated
   in the initiator QSPEC without the M-flag set.

   As described in the previous section, QoS parameters may be
   overwritten depending on which QSPEC object, and which message, they
   appear in.

4.3.1 Traffic Model Parameter


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  The <Traffic Model> (TMOD) parameter is mandatory for the QNI to
  include in the initiator QSPEC and mandatory for downstream QNEs to
  interpret.  The traffic description specified by the TMOD parameter
  is a container consisting of 4 sub-parameters:

   o rate (r)
   o bucket size (b)
   o peak rate (p)
   o minimum policed unit (m)

   All 4 of the sub-parameters MUST be included in the TMOD parameter.
   The TMOD parameter is a mathematically complete way to describe the
   traffic source [WROCLAWSKI].  If, for example, TMOD is set to specify
   bandwidth only, then set r = peak rate = p, b = large, m = large.  As
   another example if TMOD is set for TCP traffic, then set r = average
   rate, b = large, p = large.

   When the TMOD parameter in included in QoS Available, it provides
   information, for example, about the TMOD resources available along
   the path followed by a data flow.  The value of TMOD at a QNE is an
   estimate of the TMOD resources the QNE has available for packets
   following the path up to the next QNE, including its outgoing link,
   if this link exists.  Furthermore, the QNI MUST account for the
   resources of the ingress link, if this link exists.  Computation of
   the value of this parameter SHOULD take into account all information
   available to the QNE about the path, taking into consideration
   administrative and policy controls, as well as physical resources.

   The composed value is the minimum of the QNE's value and the
   previously composed value for r, b, and p, and the maximum of the
   QNE's value and the previously composed value for m.  This quantity,
   when composed end-to-end, informs the QNR (or QNI in a RESPONSE
   message) of the minimal TMOD resources along the path from QNI to
   QNR.

4.3.2 Constraints Parameters

   <Path Latency>, <Path Jitter>, <Path PLR>, and <Path PER> are QSPEC
   parameters describing the desired path latency, path jitter and path
   bit error rate respectively.  Since these parameters are cumulative,
   an individual QNE cannot decide whether the desired path latency,
   etc., is available, and hence they cannot decide whether a
   reservation fails.  Rather, when these parameters are included in
   <Desired QoS>, the QNI SHOULD also include corresponding parameters
   in a QoS Available QSPEC object in order to facilitate collecting
   this information.

   The <Path Latency> parameter accumulates the latency of the packet
   forwarding process associated with each QNE, where the latency is
   defined to be the mean packet delay added by each QNE.  This delay
   results from speed-of-light propagation delay, from packet processing

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   limitations, or both.  The mean delay reflects the variable queuing
   delay that may be present.  Each QNE MUST add the propagation delay
   of its outgoing link, if this link exists.  Furthermore, the QNI MUST
   add the propagation delay of the ingress link, if this link exists.
   The composition rule for the <Path Latency> parameter is summation
   with a clamp of (2**32 - 1) on the maximum value.  This quantity,
   when composed end-to-end, informs the QNR (or QNI in a RESPONSE
   message) of the minimal packet delay along the path from QNI to QNR.
   The purpose of this parameter is to provide a minimum path latency
   for use with services which provide estimates or bounds on additional
   path delay [RFC2212].

   The <Path Jitter> parameter accumulates the jitter of the packet
   forwarding process associated with each QNE, where the jitter is
   defined to be the nominal jitter added by each QNE.  IP packet
   jitter, or delay variation, is defined in [RFC3393], Section 3.4
   (Type-P-One-way-ipdv), and where the selection function includes the
   packet with minimum delay such that the distribution is equivalent to
   2-point delay variation in [Y.1540]. The suggested evaluation
   interval is 1 minute.  This jitter results from packet processing
   limitations, and includes any variable queuing delay which may be
   present.  Each QNE MUST add the jitter of its outgoing link, if this
   link exists.  Furthermore, the QNI MUST add the jitter of the ingress
   link, if this link exists.  The composition method for the <Path
   Jitter> parameter is the combination of several statistics describing
   the delay variation distribution with a clamp on the maximum value
   (note that the methods of accumulation and estimation of nominal QNE
   jitter are specified in clause 8 of [Y.1541]).  This quantity, when
   composed end-to-end, informs the QNR (or QNI in a RESPONSE message)
   of the nominal packet jitter along the path from QNI to QNR.  The
   purpose of this parameter is to provide a nominal path jitter for use
   with services that provide estimates or bounds on additional path
   delay [RFC2212].

   The <Path PLR> parameter accumulates the packet loss rate (PLR) of
   the packet forwarding process associated with each QNE, where the PLR
   is defined to be the PLR added by each QNE.  Each QNE MUST add the
   PLR of its outgoing link, if this link exists.  Furthermore, the QNI
   MUST add the PLR of the ingress link, if this link exists.  The
   composition rule for the <Path PLR> parameter is summation with a
   clamp on the maximum value (this assumes sufficiently low PLR values
   such that summation error is not significant, however a more accurate
   composition function is specified in clause 8 of [Y.1541]).  This
   quantity, when composed end-to-end, informs the QNR (or QNI in a
   RESPONSE message) of the minimal packet PLR along the path from QNI
   to QNR.

   The <Path PER> parameter accumulates the packet error rate (PER) of
   the packet forwarding process associated with each QNE, where the PER
   is defined to be the PER added by each QNE.  Each QNE MUST add the
   PER of its outgoing link, if this link exists.  Furthermore, the QNI

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   MUST add the PER of the ingress link, if this link exists.  The
   composition rule for the <Path PER> parameter is summation with a
   clamp on the maximum value (this assumes sufficiently low PER values
   such that summation error is not significant, however a more accurate
   composition function is specified in clause 8 of [Y.1541]).  This
   quantity, when composed end-to-end, informs the QNR (or QNI in a
   RESPONSE message) of the minimal packet PER along the path from QNI
   to QNR.

   The slack term parameter is the difference between desired delay and
   delay obtained by using bandwidth reservation, and which is used to
   reduce the resource reservation for a flow [RFC2212].  This is an
   QSPEC parameter.

   The <Preemption Priority> parameter is the priority of the new flow
   compared with the <Defending Priority> of previously admitted flows.
   Once a flow is admitted, the preemption priority becomes irrelevant.
   The <Defending Priority> parameter is used to compare with the
   preemption priority of new flows.  For any specific flow, its
   preemption priority MUST always be less than or equal to the
   defending priority.  <Admission Priority> and <RPH Priority> provide
   an essential way to differentiate flows for emergency services, ETS,
   E911, etc., and assign them a higher admission priority than normal
   priority flows and best-effort priority flows.

4.3.3 Traffic Handling Directives

   The <Excess Treatment> parameter describes how the QNE will process
   excess traffic, that is, out-of-profile traffic.  Excess traffic MAY
   be dropped, shaped and/or remarked. The excess treatment parameter is
   initially set by the QNI and cannot be overwritten.

4.3.4 Traffic Classifiers

   An application MAY like to reserve resources for packets with a
   particular DiffServ per-hop behavior (PHB) [RFC2475].  Note that PHB
   class is normally set by a downstream QNE to tell the QNI how to mark
   traffic to ensure treatment committed by admission control.  An
   application MAY like to reserve resources for packets with a
   particular QoS class, e.g. Y.1541 QoS class [Y.1541] or
   DiffServ-aware MPLS traffic engineering (DSTE) class type [RFC3564,
   RFC4124].  These parameters are useful in various QOSMs, e.g.,
   [RMD-QOSM], [Y.1541-QOSM], and other QOSMs yet to be defined (e.g.,
   DSTE-QOSM).  This is intended to provide guidelines to QOSMs on how
   to encode these parameters; use of the PHB class parameter is
   illustrated in the example in the following section.

4.4 Example of QSPEC Processing

   This section illustrates the operation and use of the QSPEC within
   the NSLP.  The example configuration in shown in Figure 2.

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+----------+      /-------\       /--------\       /--------\
| Laptop   |     |   Home  |     |  Cable   |     | DiffServ |
| Computer |-----| Network |-----| Network  |-----| Network  |----+
+----------+     | No QOSM |     |DQOS QOSM |     | RMD QOSM |    |
                  \-------/       \--------/       \--------/     |
                                                                  |
                  +-----------------------------------------------+
                  |
                  |    /--------\      +----------+
                  |   |  "X"G    |     | Handheld |
                  +---| Wireless |-----|  Device  |
                      | XG QOSM  |     +----------+
                       \--------/

      Figure 2: Example Configuration to Illustrate QoS-NSLP/QSPEC
                Operation

   In this configuration, a laptop computer and a handheld wireless
   device are the endpoints for some application that has QoS
   requirements.  Assume initially that the two endpoints are stationary
   during the application session, later we consider mobile endpoints.
   For this session, the laptop computer is connected to a home network
   that has no QoS support.  The home network is connected to a
   CableLabs-type cable access network with dynamic QoS (DQOS) support,
   such as specified in the [DQOS] for cable access networks.  That
   network is connected to a DiffServ core network that uses the RMD
   QOSM [RMD-QOSM].  On the other side of the DiffServ core is a
   wireless access network built on generation "X" technology with QoS
   support as defined by generation "X".  And finally the handheld
   endpoint is connected to the wireless access network.

   We assume that the Laptop is the QNI and handheld device is the QNR.

   The QNI will signal an initiator QSPEC object to achieve the QoS
   desired on the path.  The QNI would normally signal a reservation
   according to the requirements of its supported QOSM.  Furthermore,
   the QNI would most likely support the QOSM that matches its
   functionality.  For example, the default QOSM for mobile phones might
   be the XG-QOSM, while the CL-QOSM might be the default for
   workstations.

   The QNI sets QoS Desired, QoS Available and possibly Minimum
   QoS QSPEC objects in the initiator QSPEC, and initializes QoS
   Available to QoS Desired.  Each QNE on the path reads and
   interprets those parameters in the initiator QSPEC and checks to see
   if QoS Available resources can be reserved.  If not, the QNE reduces
   the respective parameter values in QoS Available and reserves these
   values.  The minimum parameter values are given in Minimum QoS, if
   populated, otherwise zero if Minimum QoS is not included.  If one or
   more parameters in QoS Available fails to satisfy the corresponding

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   minimum values in Minimum QoS, the QNE generates a RESPONSE message
   to the QNI and the reservation is aborted.  Otherwise, the QNR
   generates a RESPONSE to the QNI with the QoS Available for the
   reservation.  If a QNE cannot reserve QoS Desired resources, the
   reservation fails.

   The QNI populates QSPEC parameters to ensure correct treatment of its
   traffic in domains down the path.  Let us assume the QNI wants to
   achieve IntServ-Controlled Load-like QoS guarantees, and also is
   interested in what path latency it can achieve.  Additionally, to
   ensure correct treatment further down the path, the QNI includes <PHB
   Class> in <QoS Desired>.  The QNI therefore includes in the QSPEC

   QoS Desired = <TMOD> <PHB Class>
   QoS Available = <TMOD> <Path Latency>

   Since <Path Latency> and <QoS Class> are not vital parameters from
   the QNI's perspective, it does not raise their M-flags.

   There are three possibilities when a RESERVE message is received at a
   QNE at a domain border (we illustrate these possibilities in the
   example):

   - the QNE just leaves the QSPEC as-is.

   - the QNE can add a local QSPEC and encapsulate the initiator QSPEC
     (see discussion in Section 5.1; this is new in QoS NSLP, RSVP does
     not do this).

   - the QNE can tunnel the initiator RESERVE message through its domain
     and issue its own local RESERVE message.  For this new local
     RESERVE message, the QNE acts as the QNI, and the QSPEC in the
     domain is an initiator QSPEC.  A similar procedure is also used by
     RSVP in making aggregate reservations, in which case there is not a
     new intra-domain (aggregate) RESERVE for each newly arriving
     interdomain (per-flow) RESERVE, but the aggregate reservation is
     updated by the border QNE (QNI) as need be.  This is also how RMD
     works [RMD-QOSM].

   For example, at the RMD domain, a local RESERVE with its own RMD
   initiator QSPEC corresponding to the RMD-QOSM is generated based on
   the original initiator QSPEC according to the procedures described in
   Section 4.5 of [QoS-SIG] and in [RMD-QOSM].  For example, the ingress
   QNE to the RMD domain maps the TMOD parameters contained in the
   original initiator QSPEC into the equivalent TMOD parameter
   representing only the peak bandwidth in the local QSPEC.  The local
   RMD QSPEC for example also needs <PHB Class>, which in this case was
   provided by the QNI.

   Furthermore, the node at the egress to the RMD domain updates QoS
   Available on behalf of the entire RMD domain if it can.  If it

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   cannot (since the M-flag is not set for <Path Latency>) it raises the
   parameter-specific, 'not-supported' flag, warning the QNR that the
   final latency value in QoS Available is imprecise.

   In the XG domain, the initiator QSPEC is translated into a local
   QSPEC using a similar procedure as described above.  The local QSPEC
   becomes the current QSPEC used within the XG domain, that is, the
   it becomes the first QSPEC on the stack, and the initiator QSPEC is
   second.  This saves the QNEs within the XG domain the trouble of
   re-translating the initiator QSPEC, and simplifies processing in
   the local domain.  At the egress edge of the XG domain, the
   translated local QSPEC is popped, and the initiator QSPEC returns to
   the number one position.

   If the reservation was successful, eventually the RESERVE request
   arrives at the QNR (otherwise the QNE at which the reservation failed
   would have aborted the RESERVE and sent an error RESPONSE back to the
   QNI).  If the RII was included in the QoS NSLP message, the QNR
   generates a positive RESPONSE with QSPEC objects QoS Reserved and
   QoS Available.  The parameters appearing in QoS Reserved are the
   same as in QoS Desired, with values copied from QoS Available.
   Hence, the QNR includes the following QSPEC objects in the RESPONSE:

   QoS Reserved = <TMOD> <PHB Class>
   QoS Available = <TMOD> <Path Latency>

   If the handheld device on the right of Figure 2 is mobile, and moves
   through different "XG" wireless networks, then the QoS might change
   on the path since different XG wireless networks might support
   different QOSMs.  As a result, QoS NSLP/QSPEC processing will have to
   renegotiate the QoS Available on the path.  From a QSPEC
   perspective, this is like a new reservation on the new section of the
   path and is basically the same as any other rerouting event - to the
   QNEs on the new path it looks like a new reservation.  That is, in
   this mobile scenario, the new segment may support a different QOSM
   than the old segment, and the QNI would now signal a new reservation
   (explicitly, or implicitly with the next refreshing RESERVE message)
   to account for the different QOSM in the XG wireless domain.  Further
   details on rerouting are specified in [QoS-SIG].

   For bit-level examples of QSPECs see the documents specifying QOSMs
   [CL-QOSM, Y.1541-QOSM, RMD-QOSM].

5. QSPEC Processing & Procedures

   The QNI sets the M-flag for each QSPEC parameter it populates that
   must be interpreted by downstream QNEs.  If a QNE does not support
   parameter it sets the N-flag and fails the reservation.  If the QNE
   supports the parameter but cannot meet the resources requested by the
   parameter, it sets the E-flag and fails the reservation.


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   If the M-flag is not set, the downstream QNE SHOULD interpret the
   parameter.  If the QNE does not support the parameter it sets the
   N-flag and forwards the reservation.  If the QNE supports the
   parameter but cannot meet the resources requested by the parameter,
   it sets the E-flag and fails the reservation.

5.1 Local QSPEC Definition & Processing

   A QNE at the edge of a local domain may either a) translate the
   initiator QSPEC into a local QSPEC and encapsulate the initiator
   QSPEC in the RESERVE message, or b) tunnel the initiator QSPEC
   through the local domain and reserve resources by generating a new
   RESERVE message through the local domain containing the local QSPEC.
   In either case the initiator QSPEC parameters are interpreted at the
   local domain edges.

   A local QSPEC may allow a simpler control plane in a local domain.
   The edge nodes in the local domain must interpret the initiator
   QSPEC parameters.  They can either initiate a parallel session with
   local QSPEC or define a local QSPEC and encapsulate the initiator
   QSPEC, as illustrated in Figure 3.  As defined in Section 6, the
   QSPEC type identifies where the QSPEC is an initiator QSPEC or a
   local QSPEC.

   +--------------------------------+
   | QSPEC Type = Local QSPEC       | Common QSPEC Header
   +================================+\
   |  Local-QSPEC Parameter 1       | \
   +--------------------------------+  \
   |             ....               |   Local-QSPEC Parameters
   +--------------------------------+  /
   |  Local-QSPEC Parameter n       | /
   +--------------------------------+/
   | +----------------------------+ |
   | |QSPEC Type = Initiator QSPEC| |
   | +============================+ |
   | |                            | | Encapsulated Initiator QSPEC
   | |          ....              | |
   | +----------------------------+ |
   +--------------------------------+

   Figure 3. Defining a Local QSPEC

   Here the QoS-NSLP only sees and passes one QSPEC up to the RMF. The
   type of the QSPEC thus may change within a local domain.  Hence

   o the QNI signals its QoS requirements with the initiator QSPEC,
   o the ingress edge QNE in the local domain translates the
     initiator QSPEC parameters to equivalent parameters in the local
     QSPEC,
   o the QNEs in the local domain only interpret the local QSPEC

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     parameters
   o the egress QNE in the local domain processes the local QSPEC and
     also interprets the QSPEC parameters in the initiator QSPEC.

   The local QSPEC MUST be consistent with the initiator QSPEC.  That
   is, it MUST NOT specify a lower level of resources than specified
   by the initiator QSPEC.  For example, RMD can define a local QSPEC
   that contains TMOD = bandwidth (sets r=p, b/m to large).  This
   allows simple processing but may overprovision bandwidth.

5.2 Reservation Success/Failure, QSPEC Error Codes, & INFO_SPEC
    Notification

   A reservation may not be successful for several reasons:

   - a reservation may fail because the desired resources are not
     available.  This is a reservation failure condition.

   - a reservation may fail because the QSPEC is erroneous, or because
     of a QNE fault.  This is an error condition.

   A reservation may be successful even though some parameters could not
   be interpreted or updated properly:

   - a QSPEC parameter cannot be interpreted because it is an unknown
     QSPEC parameter type.  This is a QSPEC parameter not supported
     condition.  The reservation however does not fail.  The QNI can
     still decide whether to keep or tear down the reservation depending
     on the procedures specified by the QNI's QOSM.

   The following sections describe the handling of unsuccessful
   reservations and reservations where some parameters could not be met
   in more detail, as follows:

   - details on flags used inside the QSPEC to convey information on
     success or failure of individual parameters.  The formats and
     semantics of all flags are given in Section 6.
   - the content of the INFO_SPEC [QoS-SIG], which carries a code
     indicating the outcome of reservations.
   - the generation of a RESPONSE message to the QNI containing both
     QSPEC and INFO_SPEC objects.

5.2.1 Reservation Failure & Error E-Flag

   The QSPEC parameters each have a 'reservation failure error E-flag'
   to indicate which (if any) parameters could not be satisfied.  When a
   resource cannot be satisfied for a particular parameter, the QNE
   detecting the problem raises the E-flag in this parameter.  Note that
   all QSPEC parameters MUST be examined by the RMF and appropriately
   flagged.  Additionally, the E-flag in the corresponding QSPEC object
   MUST be raised.  If the reservation failure problem cannot be located

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   at the parameter level, only the E-flag in the QSPEC object is
   raised.

   When an RMF cannot interpret the QSPEC because the coding is
   erroneous, it raises corresponding reservation failure E-flags in the
   QSPEC.  Normally all QSPEC parameters MUST be examined by the RMF
   and the erroneous parameters appropriately flagged.  In some cases,
   however, an error condition may occur and the E-flag of the
   error-causing QSPEC parameter is raised (if possible), but the
   processing of further parameters may be aborted.

   Note that if the QSPEC and/or any QSPEC parameter is found to be
   erroneous, then any QSPEC parameters not satisfied are ignored and
   the E-Flags in the QSPEC object MUST NOT be set for those parameters
   (unless they are erroneous).

   Whether E-flags denote reservation failure or error can be determined
   by the corresponding error code in the INFO_SPEC in QoS NSLP, as
   discussed below.

5.2.2 QSPEC Parameter Not Supported N-Flag

   Each QSPEC parameter has an associated 'not supported N-flag'.  If
   the not supported N-flag is set, then at least one QNE along the data
   transmission path between the QNI and QNR cannot interpret the
   specified QSPEC parameter.  A QNE MUST set the not supported N-flag
   if it cannot interpret the QSPEC parameter.  If the M-flag for the
   parameter is not set, the message should continue to be forwarded but
   with the N-flag set, and the QNI has the option of tearing the
   reservation.

   If a QNE in the path does not support a QSPEC parameter, e.g.,
   <Path Latency>, and sets the N-flag, then downstream QNEs that
   support the parameter SHOULD still update the parameter, even if the
   N-flag is set.  However, the presence of the N-flag will make the
   cumulative value unreliable, and the QNI/QNR decides whether or not
   to accept the reservation with the N-flag set.

5.2.3 INFO_SPEC Coding of Reservation Outcome

   As prescribed by [QoS-SIG], the RESPONSE message always contains the
   INFO_SPEC with an appropriate 'error' code.  It usually also contains
   a QSPEC with QSPEC objects, as described in Section 5.3 on QSPEC
   Procedures.  The RESPONSE message MAY omit the QSPEC in case of a
   successful reservation.

   The following guidelines are provided in setting the error codes in
   the INFO_SPEC, based on the codes provided in Section 5.1.3.6 of
   [QoS-SIG]:

   - INFO_SPEC error class 0x02 (Success) / 0x01 (Reservation Success):

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     This code is set when all QSPEC parameters have been satisfied.  In
     this case no E-Flag is set, however one or more N-flags may be set.

   - INFO_SPEC error class 0x04 (Transient Failure) / 0x08 (Reservation
     Failure):
     This code is set when at least one QSPEC parameter could not be
     satisfied, or when a QSPEC parameter with M-flag could not be
     interpreted.  E-flags are set for the parameters that could not be
     satisfied up to the QNE issuing the RESPONSE message. The N-flag is
     set for those parameters that could not be interpreted by at least
     one QNE.  In this case QNEs receiving the RESPONSE message MUST
     remove the corresponding reservation.

   - INFO_SPEC error class 0x03 (Protocol Error) / 0x0c (Malformed
     QSPEC):
     Some QSPEC parameters had associated errors, E-Flags are set for
     parameters that had errors, and the QNE where the error was found
     rejects the reservation.

   - INFO_SPEC error class 0x06 (QoS Model Error):
     QOSM error codes can be defined by QOSM specification documents.  A
     registry is defined in Section 8 IANA Considerations.

5.2.4 QNE Generation of a RESPONSE message

   - Successful Reservation Condition

   When a RESERVE message arrives at a QNR and no E-Flag is set, the
   reservation is successful.  A RESPONSE message may be generated with
   INFO_SPEC code 'Reservation Success' as described above and in the
   QSPEC Procedures described in Section 5.3.

   - Reservation Failure Condition

   When a QNE detects that a reservation failure occurs for at least one
   parameter, the QNE sets the E-Flags for the QSPEC parameters and
   QSPEC object that failed to be satisfied.  According to [QoS-SIG],
   the QNE behavior depends on whether it is stateful or not.  When a
   stateful QNE determines the reservation failed, it formulates a
   RESPONSE message that includes an INFO_SPEC with the 'reservation
   failure' error code and QSPEC object.  The QSPEC in the RESPONSE
   message includes the failed QSPEC parameters marked with the E-Flag
   to clearly identify them.

   The default action for a stateless QoS NSLP QNE that detects a
   reservation failure condition is that it MUST continue to forward the
   RESERVE  message to the next stateful QNE, with the E-Flags
   appropriately set for each QSPEC parameter.  The next stateful QNE
   then formulates the RESPONSE message as described above.

   - Malformed QSPEC Error Condition

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   When a stateful QNE detects that one or more QSPEC parameters are
   erroneous, the QNE sets the error code 'malformed QSPEC' in the
   INFO_SPEC.  In this case the QSPEC object with the E-Flags
   appropriately set for the erroneous parameters is returned within
   the INFO_SPEC object.  The QSPEC object can be truncated or fully
   included within the INFO_SPEC.

   According to [QoS-SIG], the QNE behavior depends on whether it is
   stateful or not.  When a stateful QNE determines a malformed QSPEC
   error condition, it formulates a RESPONSE message that includes an
   INFO_SPEC with the 'malformed QSPEC' error code and QSPEC object.
   The QSPEC in the RESPONSE message includes, if possible, only the
   erroneous QSPEC parameters and no others.  The erroneous QSPEC
   parameter(s) are marked with the E-Flag to clearly identify them.  If
   QSPEC parameters are returned in the INFO-SPEC that are not marked
   with the E-flag, then any values of these parameters are irrelevant
   and MUST be ignored by the QNI.

   The default action for a stateless QoS NSLP QNE that detects a
   Malformed QSPEC error condition is that it MUST continue to forward
   the RESERVE message to the next stateful QNE, with the E-Flags
   appropriately set for each QSPEC parameter.  The next stateful QNE
   will then act as described in [QoS-SIG].

   A 'malformed QSPEC' error code takes precedence over the 'reservation
   failure' error code, and therefore the case of reservation failure
   and QSPEC/RMF error conditions are disjoint and the same E-Flag can
   be used in both cases without ambiguity.

5.2.5 Special Case of Local QSPEC

   When an unsuccessful reservation problem occurs inside a local domain
   where a local QSPEC is used, only the topmost (local) QSPEC is
   affected (e.g. E-flags are raised, etc.).  The encapsulated
   initiator QSPEC is untouched.  When the message (RESPONSE in case of
   stateful QNEs, RESERVE in case of stateless QNEs) however reaches the
   edge of the local domain, the local QSPEC is removed.  The edge QNE
   must update the initiator QSPEC on behalf of the entire domain,
   reflecting the information received in the local QSPEC.  This update
   concerns both parameter values and flags.

5.3 QSPEC Procedures

   While the QSPEC template aims to put minimal restrictions on usage of
   QSPEC objects, interoperability between QNEs and between QOSMs must
   be ensured.  We therefore give below an exhaustive list of QSPEC
   object combinations for the message sequences described in QoS NSLP
   [QoS-SIG].  A specific QOSM may prescribe that only a subset of the
   procedures listed below may be used.


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   Note that QoS NSLP does not mandate the usage of a RESPONSE message.
   In fact, a RESPONSE message will only be generated if the QNI
   includes an RII (Request Identification Information) in the RESERVE
   message.  Some of the QSPEC procedures below, however, are only
   meaningful when a RESPONSE message is possible.  The QNI SHOULD in
   these cases include an RII.

5.3.1 Sender-Initiated Reservations

   Here the QNI issues a RESERVE message, which may be replied to by a
   RESPONSE message.  The following 3 cases for QSPEC object usage
   exist:

   ID | RESERVE                           | RESPONSE
   ---------------------------------------------------------------
   1 | QoS Desired                       | QoS Reserved
   2 | QoS Desired, QoS Avail.           | QoS Reserved, QoS Avail.
   3 | QoS Desired, QoS Avail., Min. QoS | QoS Reserved, QoS Avail.

   Case 1:

   If only QoS Desired is included in the RESERVE message, the implicit
   assumption is that exactly these resources must be reserved.  If this
   is not possible the reservation fails.  The parameters in QoS
   Reserved are copied from the parameters in QoS Desired.  If the
   reservation is successful, the RESPONSE message can be omitted in
   this case.  If a RESPONSE message was requested by a QNE on the
   path, the QSPEC in the RESPONSE message can be omitted.

   Case 2:

   When QoS Available is included in the RESERVE message also, some
   parameters will appear only in QoS Available and not in QoS Desired.
   It is assumed that the value of these parameters is collected for
   informational purposes only (e.g. path latency).

   However, some parameters in QoS Available can be the same as in QoS
   Desired.  For these parameters the implicit message is that the QNI
   would be satisfied by a reservation with lower parameter values than
   specified in QoS Desired.  For these parameters, the QNI seeds the
   parameter values in QoS Available to those in QoS Desired (except for
   cumulative parameters such as <path latency>).

   Each QNE interprets the parameters in QoS
   Available according to its current capabilities.  Reservations in
   each QNE are hence based on current parameter values in QoS Available
   (and additionally those parameters that only appear in QoS Desired).
   The drawback of this approach is that, if the resulting resource
   reservation becomes gradually smaller towards the QNR, QNEs close to
   the QNI have an oversized reservation, possibly resulting in
   unnecessary costs for the user.  Of course, in the RESPONSE the QNI

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   learns what the actual reservation is (from the QoS RESERVED object)
   and can immediately issue a properly sized refreshing RESERVE.  The
   advantage of the approach is that the reservation is performed in
   half-a-roundtrip time.

   The QSPEC parameter IDs and values included in the QoS Reserved
   object in the RESPONSE message MUST be the same as those in the QoS
   Desired object in the RESERVE message.  For those QSPEC parameters
   that were also included in the QoS Available object in the RESERVE
   message, their value is copied into the QoS Desired object.  For the
   other QSPEC parameters, the value is copied from the QoS Desired
   object (the reservation would fail if the corresponding QoS could
   not be reserved).

   All parameters in the QoS Available object in the RESPONSE message
   are copied with their values from the QoS Available object in the
   RESERVE message (irrespective of whether they have also been copied
   into the QoS Desired object).  Note that the parameters in the QoS
   Available object can be overwritten in the RESERVE message, whereas
   they cannot be overwritten in the RESPONSE message.

   In this case, the QNI SHOULD request a RESPONSE message since it will
   otherwise not learn what QoS is available.

   Case 3:

   This case is handled as case 2, except that the reservation fails
   when QoS Available becomes less than Minimum QoS for one parameter.
   If a parameter appears in the QoS Available object but not in the
   Minimum QoS object it is assumed that there is no minimum value for
   this parameter.

5.3.2 Receiver-Initiated Reservations

   Here the QNR issues a QUERY message which is replied to by the QNI
   with a RESERVE message if the reservation was successful.  The QNR in
   turn sends a RESPONSE message to the QNI.  The following 3 cases for
   QSPEC object usage exist:

   ID| QUERY            | RESERVE                    | RESPONSE
   ---------------------------------------------------------------------
   1 |QoS Des.          | QoS Des.                   | QoS Res.
   2 |QoS Des.,Min. QoS | QoS Des.,QoS Avl.,(Min QoS)| QoS Res.,QoS Avl.
   3 |Qos Des.,QoS Avl. | QoS Des.,QoS Avl.          | QoS Res.

   Cases 1 and 2:

   The idea is that the sender (QNR in this scenario) needs to inform
   the receiver (QNI in this scenario) about the QoS it desires.  To
   this end the sender sends a QUERY message to the receiver including a
   QoS Desired QSPEC object.  If the QoS is negotiable it additionally

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   includes a (possibly zero) Minimum QoS object, as in Case 2.

   The RESERVE message includes the QoS Available object if the sender
   signaled that QoS is negotiable (i.e. it included the Minimum QoS
   object).  If the Minimum QoS object received from the sender is
   included in the QUERY message, the QNR also includes the Minimum QoS
   object in the RESERVE message.

   For a successful reservation, the RESPONSE message in case 1 is
   optional (as is the QSPEC inside).  In case 2 however, the RESPONSE
   message is necessary in order for the QNI to learn about the QoS
   available.

   Case 4:

   This is the 'RSVP-style' scenario.  The sender (QNR in this scenario)
   issues a QUERY message with a QoS Desired object informing the
   receiver (QNI in this scenario) about the QoS it desires as above.
   It also includes a QoS Available object to collect path properties.
   Note that here path properties are collected with the QUERY message,
   whereas in the previous case 2 path properties were collected in the
   RESERVE message.

   Some parameters in the QoS Available object may the same as in the
   QoS Desired object.  For these parameters the implicit message is
   that the sender would be satisfied by a reservation with lower
   parameter values than specified in QoS Desired.

   It is possible for the QoS Available object to contain parameters
   that do not appear in the QoS Desired object.  It is assumed that the
   value of these parameters is collected for informational purposes
   only (e.g. path latency).  Parameter values in the QoS Available
   object are seeded according to the sender's capabilities.  Each QNE
   remaps or approximately interprets the parameter values according to
   its current capabilities.

   The receiver (QNI in this scenario) signals the QoS Desired object as
   follows: For those parameters that appear in both the QoS Available
   object and QoS Desired object in the QUERY message, it takes the
   (possibly remapped) QSPEC parameter values from the QoS Available
   object.  For those parameters that only appear in the QoS Desired
   object, it adopts the parameter values from the QoS Desired object.

   The parameters in the QoS Available QSPEC object in the RESERVE
   message are copied with their values from the QoS Available QSPEC
   object in the QUERY message.  Note that the parameters in the QoS
   Available object can be overwritten in the QUERY message, whereas
   they are cannot be overwritten in the RESERVE message.

   The advantage of this model compared to the sender-initiated
   reservation is that the situation of over-reservation in QNEs close

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   to the QNI as described above does not occur.  On the other hand, the
   QUERY message may find, for example, a particular bandwidth is not
   available.  When the actual reservation is performed, however, the
   desired bandwidth may meanwhile have become free.  That is, the 'RSVP
   style' may result in a smaller reservation than necessary.

   The sender includes all QSPEC parameters it cares about in the QUERY
   message.  Parameters that can be overwritten are updated by QNEs as
   the QUERY message travels towards the receiver.  The receiver
   includes all QSPEC parameters arriving in the QUERY message also in
   the RESERVE message, with the value they had when arriving at the
   receiver.  Again, QOSM-specific QSPEC parameters and procedures may
   be defined in QOSM specification documents.

   Also in this scenario, the QNI SHOULD request a RESPONSE message
   since it will otherwise not learn what QoS is available.

5.3.3 Resource Queries

   Here the QNI issues a QUERY message in order to investigate what
   resources are currently available. The QNR replies with a RESPONSE
   message.

   ID | QUERY                | RESPONSE
   --------------------------------------------
   1  | QoS Available        | QoS Available

   Note that the QoS Available object when traveling in the QUERY
   message can be overwritten, whereas in the RESPONSE message cannot be
   overwritten.

5.3.4 Bidirectional Reservations

   On a QSPEC level, bidirectional reservations are no different from
   uni-directional reservations, since QSPECs for different directions
   never travel in the same message.

5.3.5 Preemption

   A flow can be preempted by a QNE based on the values of the QSPEC
   Priority parameter (see Section 6.2.8).  In this case the reservation
   state for this flow is torn down in this QNE, and the QNE sends a
   NOTIFY message to the QNI, as described in [QoS-SIG].  The NOTIFY
   message carries an INFO_SPEC with the error code as described in
   [QOS-SIG].  A QOSM specification document may specify whether a
   NOTIFY message also carries a QSPEC object.  The QNI would normally
   tear down the preempted reservation by sending a RESERVE message with
   the TEAR flag set using the SII of the preempted reservation.
   However, the QNI can follow other procedures as specified in its QOSM
   specification document.


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5.4 QSPEC Extensibility

   The set of QSPEC parameters defined herein is at this point in time
   considered complete.  Additional QSPEC parameters may be defined in
   the future.  However, since this requires an update of all QNEs, this
   should be considered carefully.  The definition of new QSPEC
   parameter requires standards action and an update of this document.
   Such an update also needs a new QSPEC version number.  Furthermore,
   all QOSM definitions must be updated to include how the new QSPEC
   parameter is to be interpreted in the respective QOSM.

   Additional QSPEC parameters MAY need to be defined in the future
   and are defined in separate informational documents specific to a
   given QOSM.  For example, QSPEC parameters are defined in
   [RMD-QOSM] and [Y.1541-QOSM].

   Guidelines on the technical criteria to be followed in evaluating
   requests for new codepoint assignments for QSPEC objects and QSPEC
   parameters are given in Section 8 (IANA Considerations).

   Guidelines on the technical criteria to be followed in evaluating
   requests for new codepoint assignments beyond QSPEC objects and
   QSPEC parameters for the NSIS protocol suite are given in a separate
   NSIS extensibility document [NSIS-EXTENSIBILITY].

6. QSPEC Functional Specification

   This section defines the encodings of the QSPEC parameters.  We first
   give the general QSPEC formats and then the formats of the QSPEC
   objects and parameters.

   Network byte order ('big-endian') for all 16- and 32-bit integers, as
   well as 32-bit floating point numbers, are as specified in [RFC1832,
   IEEE754, NETWORK-BYTE-ORDER].

6.1 General QSPEC Formats

   The format of the QSPEC closely follows that used in GIST [GIST] and
   QoS NSLP [QoS-SIG].  Every object (and parameter) has the following
   general format:

   o The overall format is Type-Length-Value (in that order).

   o Some parts of the type field are set aside for control flags.

   o Length has the units of 32-bit words, and measures the length of
     Value.  If there is no Value, Length=0.  The Object length
     excludes the header.

   o Value is a whole number of 32-bit words.  If there is any padding
     required, the length and location MUST be defined by the

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     object-specific format information; objects that contain variable
     length types may need to include additional length subfields to do
     so.

   o Any part of the object used for padding or defined as reserved("r")
     MUST be set to 0 on transmission and MUST be ignored on reception.

   o Empty QSPECs and empty QSPEC Objects MUST NOT be used.

   o Duplicate objects, duplicate parameters, and/or multiple
     occurrences of a parameter MUST NOT be used.

    0                   1                   2                   3
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                      Common QSPEC Header                      |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   //                       QSPEC Objects                         //
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

   The Common QSPEC Header is a fixed 4-byte long object containing the
   QOSM ID and an identifier for the QSPEC Procedure (see Section 5.3):

    0                   1                   2                   3
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   | Vers. |  QSPEC Type   |  QSPEC Proc.  |      Reserved         |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

   Note that a length field is not necessary since the overall length of
   the QSPEC is contained in the higher level QoS NSLP data object.

   Vers.: Identifies the QSPEC version number.  It is assigned by IANA.

   QSPEC Type: Identifies the particular type of QSPEC, e.g., initiator
               QSPEC or local QSPEC.

   QSPEC Proc.: Identifies the QSPEC procedure and is composed of two
                times 4 bits.  The first set of bits identifies the
                Message Sequence, the second set identifies the QSPEC
                Object Combination used for this particular message
                sequence:

                 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
                +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
                |Mes.Sq |Obj.Cmb|
                +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

                The Message Sequence field can attain the following
                values:


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                0: Sender-Initiated Reservations
                1: Receiver-Initiated Reservations
                2: Resource Queries

                The Object Combination field can take the values between
                1 and 3 indicated in the tables in Section 5.3:
                Message Sequence: 0
                Object Combination: 1, 2, 3
                Semantic: see table in Section 5.3.1
                Message Sequence: 1
                Object Combination: 1, 2, 3
                Semantic: see table in Section 5.3.2
                Message Sequence: 2
                Object Combination: 1, 2, 3
                Semantic: see table in Section 5.3.3

   The QSPEC Objects field is a collection of
   QSPEC objects (QoS Desired, QoS Available, etc.), which share a
   common format and each contain several parameters.

   QSPEC objects share a common header format:

    0                   1                   2                   3
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |E|r|r|r|       Object Type     |r|r|r|r|         Length        |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

   E Flag: Set if an error occurs on object level
   Object Type = 0: QoS Desired (parameters cannot be overwritten)
               = 1: QoS Available (parameters may be overwritten; see
                    Section 4.3)
               = 2: QoS Reserved (parameters cannot be overwritten)
               = 3: Minimum QoS (parameters cannot be overwritten)

   The r bits are reserved.

   Each QSPEC or QSPEC parameter within an object is similarly
   encoded in TLV format using a similar parameter header:

    0                   1                   2                   3
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |M|E|N|r|     Parameter ID      |r|r|r|r|         Length        |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

   M Flag: When set indicates the subsequent parameter MUST be
           interpreted. Otherwise the parameter can be ignored if not
           understood.
   E Flag: When set indicates either a) a reservation failure where the
           QSPEC parameter is not met, or b) an error occurred when this

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           parameter was being interpreted (see Section 5.2.1).
   N Flag: Not-supported QSPEC parameter flag (see Section 5.2.2).
           For QSPEC parameters the value of this flag is always zero.
   Parameter ID: Assigned to each parameter (see below)

   Parameters are usually coded individually, for example, the <Excess
   Treatment> parameter (Section 6.2.11).  However, it is also possible
   to combine several sub-parameters into one parameter field, which is
   called 'container coding'.  This coding is useful if either a) the
   sub-parameters always occur together, as for example the several
   sub-parameters that jointly make up the TMOD, or b) in order
   to make coding more efficient when the length of each sub-parameter
   value is much less than a 32-bit word (as for example described in
   [RMD-QOSM]) and to avoid header overload.  When a container is
   defined, the Parameter ID and the M, E, and N flags refer to the
   container.  Examples of container parameters are <TMOD> (specified
   below) and the PHR container parameter specified in [RMD-QOSM].

6.2 QSPEC Parameter Coding

6.2.1 <TMOD-1> Parameter

   <TMOD-1> = <r> <b> <p> <m> [RFC2210, RFC2215]

   The above notation means that the 4 <TMOD-1> sub-parameters must all
   be populated in the <TMOD-1> parameter.  Note that a second TMOD
   QSPEC parameter <TMOD-2> is specified below in Section 6.2.2.  The
   references in the following sections point to the normative
   procedures for processing the <TMOD> sub-parameters.

   The coding for the <TMOD-1> parameter is as follows:

    0                   1                   2                   3
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |1|E|0|r|           1           |r|r|r|r|          4            |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |  TMOD Rate-1 [r] (32-bit IEEE floating point number)          |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |  TMOD Size-1 [b] (32-bit IEEE floating point number)          |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |  Peak Data Rate-1 [p] (32-bit IEEE floating point number)     |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |  Minimum Policed Unit-1 [m] (32-bit unsigned integer)         |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

   The <TMOD> parameters are represented by three floating point
   numbers in single-precision IEEE floating point format followed by
   one 32-bit integer in network byte order.  The first floating point
   value is the rate (r), the second floating point value is the bucket
   size (b), the third floating point is the peak rate (p), and the

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   first unsigned integer is the minimum policed unit (m).

   When r, b, and p terms are represented as IEEE floating point values,
   the sign bit MUST be zero (all values MUST be non-negative).
   Exponents less than 127 (i.e., 0) are prohibited.  Exponents greater
   than 162 (i.e., positive 35) are discouraged, except for specifying a
   peak rate of infinity.  Infinity is represented with an exponent of
   all ones (255) and a sign bit and mantissa of all zeroes.

6.2.2 <TMOD-2> Parameter [RFC2215]

   A second, QSPEC <TMOD-2> parameter is specified, as could be needed
   for example to support DiffServ applications.

   Parameter Values:

    0                   1                   2                   3
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |M|E|N|r|           2           |r|r|r|r|          4            |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |  TMOD Rate-2 [r] (32-bit IEEE floating point number)          |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |  TMOD Size-2 [b] (32-bit IEEE floating point number)          |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |  Peak Data Rate-2 [p] (32-bit IEEE floating point number)     |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |  Minimum Policed Unit-2 [m] (32-bit unsigned integer)         |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

   When r, b, and p terms are represented as IEEE floating point values,
   the sign bit MUST be zero (all values MUST be non-negative).
   Exponents less than 127 (i.e., 0) are prohibited.  Exponents greater
   than 162 (i.e., positive 35) are discouraged, except for specifying a
   peak rate of infinity.  Infinity is represented with an exponent of
   all ones (255) and a sign bit and mantissa of all zeroes.

6.2.3 <Path Latency> Parameter [RFC2210, RFC2215]

    0                   1                   2                   3
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |M|E|N|r|           3           |r|r|r|r|          1            |
   +---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+
   |                Path Latency (32-bit integer)                  |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

   The Path Latency is a single 32-bit integer in network byte order.
   The composition rule for the <Path Latency> parameter is summation
   with a clamp of (2**32 - 1) on the maximum value.  The latencies are
   average values reported in units of one microsecond. A system with

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   resolution less than one microsecond MUST set unused digits to zero.
   An individual QNE can advertise a latency value between 1 and 2**28
   (somewhat over two minutes) and the total latency added across all
   QNEs can range as high as (2**32)-2. If the sum of the different
   elements delays exceeds (2**32)-2, the end-to-end advertised delay
   SHOULD be reported as indeterminate.  A QNE that cannot accurately
   predict the latency of packets it is processing MUST raise the
   not-supported flagand either leave the value of Path Latency as is,
   or add its best estimate of its lower bound.  A raised not-supported
   flagflag indicates the value of Path Latency is a lower bound of the
   real Path Latency.  The distinguished value (2**32)-1 is taken to
   mean indeterminate latency because the composition function limits
   the composed sum to this value, it indicates the range of the
   composition calculation was exceeded.

6.2.4 <Path Jitter> Parameter

    0                   1                   2                   3
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |M|E|N|r|           4           |r|r|r|r|          4            |
   +---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+
   |          Path Jitter STAT1(variance) (32-bit integer)         |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |          Path Jitter STAT2(99.9%-ile) (32-bit integer)        |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |       Path Jitter STAT3(minimum Latency) (32-bit integer)     |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |       Path Jitter STAT4(Reserved)        (32-bit integer)     |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

   The Path Jitter is a set of four 32-bit integers in network byte
   order.  The Path Jitter parameter is the combination of four
   statistics describing the Jitter distribution with a clamp of
   (2**32 - 1) on the maximum of each value. The jitter STATs are
   reported in units of one microsecond. A system with resolution less
   than one microsecond MUST set unused digits to zero.  An individual
   QNE can advertise jitter values between 1 and 2**28 (somewhat over
   two minutes) and the total jitter computed across all QNEs can range
   as high as (2**32)-2. If the combination of the different element
   values exceeds (2**32)-2, the end-to-end advertised jitter SHOULD be
   reported as indeterminate.  A QNE that cannot accurately predict the
   jitter of packets it is processing MUST raise the not-supported flag
   and either leave the value of Path Jitter as is, or add its best
   estimate of its STAT values.  A raised not-supported flag indicates
   the value of Path Jitter is a lower bound of the real Path Jitter.
   The distinguished value (2**32)-1 is taken to mean indeterminate
   jitter.  A QNE that cannot accurately predict the jitter of packets
   it is processing SHOULD set its local path jitter parameter to this
   value.  Because the composition function limits the total to this
   value, receipt of this value at a network element or application

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   indicates that the true path jitter is not known.  This MAY happen
   because one or more network elements could not supply a value, or
   because the range of the composition calculation was exceeded.

   NOTE: The Jitter composition function makes use of the <Path Latency>
   parameter.  Composition functions for loss, latency and jitter may be
   found in [Y.1541].

6.2.5 <Path PLR> Parameter

    0                   1                   2                   3
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |M|E|N|r|           5           |r|r|r|r|          1            |
   +---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+
   |             Path Packet Loss Ratio (32-bit floating point)    |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

   The Path PLR is a single 32-bit single precision IEEE floating point
   number in network byte order.  The composition rule for the <Path
   PLR> parameter is summation with a clamp of 10^-1 on the maximum
   value.  The PLRs are reported in units of 10^-11.  A system with
   resolution less than one microsecond MUST set unused digits to zero.
   An individual QNE can advertise a PLR value between zero and 10^-2
   and the total PLR added across all QNEs can range as high as 10^-1.
   If the sum of the different elements values exceeds 10^-1, the
   end-to-end advertised PLR SHOULD be reported as indeterminate.  A QNE
   that cannot accurately predict the PLR of packets it is processing
   MUST raise the not-supported flag and either leave the value of Path
   PLR as is, or add its best estimate of its lower bound.  A raised
   not-supported flag indicates the value of Path PLR is a lower bound
   of the real Path PLR.  The distinguished value 10^-1 is taken to mean
   indeterminate PLR.  A QNE which cannot accurately predict the PLR of
   packets it is processing SHOULD set its local path PLR parameter to
   this value.  Because the composition function limits the composed sum
   to this value, receipt of this value at a network element or
   application indicates that the true path PLR is not known.  This MAY
   happen because one or more network elements could not supply a value,
   or because the range of the composition calculation was exceeded.

6.2.6 <Path PER> Parameter

    0                   1                   2                   3
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |M|E|N|r|           6           |r|r|r|r|          1            |
   +---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+
   |             Path Packet Error Ratio (32-bit floating point)   |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

   The Path PER is a single 32-bit single precision IEEE floating point

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   number in network byte order.  The composition rule for the <Path
   PER> parameter is summation with a clamp of 10^-1 on the maximum
   value.  The PERs are reported in units of 10^-11.  A system with
   resolution less than one microsecond MUST set unused digits to zero.
   An individual QNE can advertise a PER value between zero and 10^-2
   and the total PER added across all QNEs can range as high as 10^-1.
   If the sum of the different elements values exceeds 10^-1, the
   end-to-end advertised PER SHOULD be reported as indeterminate.  A QNE
   that cannot accurately predict the PER of packets it is processing
   MUST raise the not-supported flag and either leave the value of Path
   PER as is, or add its best estimate of its lower bound.  A raised
   not-supported flag indicates the value of Path PER is a lower bound
   of the real Path PER.  The distinguished value 10^-1 is taken to mean
   indeterminate PER.  A QNE which cannot accurately predict the PER of
   packets it is processing SHOULD set its local path PER parameter to
   this value.  Because the composition function limits the composed sum
   to this value, receipt of this value at a network element or
   application indicates that the true path PER is not known.  This MAY
   happen because one or more network elements could not supply a value,
   or because the range of the composition calculation was exceeded.

6.2.7 <Slack Term> Parameter [RFC2212, RFC2215]

    0                   1                   2                   3
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |M|E|N|r|           7           |r|r|r|r|          1            |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |  Slack Term [S]  (32-bit integer)                             |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

   Slack term S MUST be nonnegative and is measured in microseconds.
   The Slack term, S, is represented as a 32-bit integer.  Its value
   can range from 0 to (2**32)-1 microseconds.

6.2.8 <Preemption Priority> & <Defending Priority> Parameters
      [RFC3181]

   The coding for the <Preemption Priority> & <Defending Priority>
   sub-parameters is as follows:

    0                   1                   2                   3
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |M|E|0|r|           8           |r|r|r|r|          1            |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |    Preemption Priority        |      Defending Priority       |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

   Preemption Priority: The priority of the new flow compared with the
   defending priority of previously admitted flows.  Higher values

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   represent higher priority.

   Defending Priority: Once a flow is admitted, the preemption priority
   becomes irrelevant.  Instead, its defending priority is used to
   compare with the preemption priority of new flows.

   As specified in [RFC3181], <Preemption Priority> and <Defending
   Priority> are 16-bit integer values and both MUST be populated if the
   parameter is used.

6.2.9 <Admission Priority> Parameter [Y.1571]

   The coding for the <Admission Priority> parameter is as follows:

    0                   1                   2                   3
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |M|E|0|r|           9           |r|r|r|r|          1            |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   | Admis.Priority|                  (Reserved)                   |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

   High priority flows, normal priority flows, and best-effort priority
   flows can have access to resources depending on their admission
   priority value, as described in [Y.1571], as follows:

   Admission Priority:

   0 - best-effort priority flow
   1 - normal priority flow
   2 - high priority flow
   255 - not used

   A reservation without an <Admission Priority> parameter (i.e.,
   set to 255) MUST be treated as a reservation with an <Admission
   Priority> = 1.

6.2.10 <RPH Priority> Parameter [RFC4412]

   The coding for the <RPH Priority> parameter is as follows:

    0                   1                   2                   3
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |M|E|0|r|           10          |r|r|r|r|          1            |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |         RPH Namespace         | RPH Priority  |   (Reserved)  |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

   [RFC4412] defines a resource priority header (RPH) with parameters
   "RPH Namespace" and "RPH Priority" combination, and if populated is

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   applicable only to flows with high admission priority, as follows:

   RPH Namespace:

   0 - dsn
   1 - drsn
   2 - q735
   3 - ets
   4 - wps
   255 - not used

   RPH Priority:
   Each namespace has a finite list of relative priority-values.  Each
   is listed here in the order of lowest priority to highest priority
   (note that dsn and drsn priority values are TBD):

   4 - q735.4
   3 - q735.3
   2 - q735.2
   1 - q735.1
   0 - q735.0

   4 - ets.4
   3 - ets.3
   2 - ets.2
   1 - ets.1
   0 - ets.0

   4 - wps.4
   3 - wps.3
   2 - wps.2
   1 - wps.1
   0 - wps.0

   Note that the <Admission Priority> parameter MAY be used in
   combination with the <RPH Priority> parameter, which depends on the
   supported QOSM.  Furthermore, if more then one RPH namespace is
   supported by a QOSM, then the QOSM MUST specify how the mapping
   between the priorities belonging to the different RPH namespaces are
   mapped to each other.

   Note also that additional work is needed to communicate these flow
   priority values to bearer-level network elements
   [VERTICAL-INTERFACE].

   For the 4 priority parameters, the following cases are permissible
   (procedures specified in references):

   1 parameter: <Admission Priority> [Y.1571]

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   2 parameters: <Admission Priority>, <RPH Priority> [RFC4412]
   2 parameters: <Preemption Priority>, <Defending Priority> [RFC3181]
   3 parameters: <Preemption Priority>, <Defending Priority>,
                 <Admission Priority> [3GPP-1, 3GPP-2, 3GPP-3]
   4 parameters:  <Preemption Priority>, <Defending Priority>,
                 <Admission Priority>, <RPH Priority> [3GPP-1, 3GPP-2,
                 3GPP-3]

   It is permissible to have <Admission Priority> without <RPH
   Priority>, but not permissible to have <RPH Priority> without
   <Admission Priority> (alternatively <RPH Priority> is ignored in
   instances without <Admission Priority>).

   eMLPP-like functionality (as defined in [3GPP-1, 3GPP-2]) specifies
   use of <Admission Priority> corresponding to the 'queuing allowed'
   part of eMLPP as well as <Preemption/Defending Priority>
   corresponding to the 'preemption capable' and 'may be preempted'
   parts of eMLPP.

6.2.11 <Excess Treatment> Parameter

    0                   1                   2                   3
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |M|E|0|r|           11          |r|r|r|r|          1            |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   | Excess Trtmnt | Remark Value  |         Reserved              |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

   Excess Treatment: Indicates how the QNE SHOULD process out-of-profile
   traffic, that is, traffic not covered by the <Traffic> parameter.
   The excess treatment parameter is set by the QNI.  It cannot be
   overwritten.  Allowed values are as follows:

   0: drop
   1: shape
   2: remark
   3: no metering or policing is permitted

   The default excess treatment in case that none is specified is that
   there are no guarantees to excess traffic, i.e. a QNE can do whatever
   it finds suitable.

   When excess treatment is set to 'drop', all marked traffic MUST be
   dropped by the QNE/RMF.

   When excess treatment is set to 'shape', it is expected that the
   QoS Desired object carries a TMOD parameter.  Excess traffic
   is to be shaped to this TMOD.  When the shaping causes
   unbounded queue growth at the shaper traffic can be dropped.


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   When excess treatment is set to 'remark', the excess treatment
   parameter MUST carry the remark value, and the remark values and
   procedures MUST be specified in the QOSM specification document.
   For example, packets may be remarked to drop remarked to pertain to a
   particular QoS class".  In the latter case, remarking relates to a
   DiffServ-type model, where packets arrive marked as belonging to a
   certain QoS class, and when they are identified as excess, they
   should then be remarked to a different QoS Class.

   If 'no metering or policing is permitted' is signaled, the QNE should
   accept the excess treatment parameter set by the sender with special
   care so that excess traffic should not cause a problem.  To request
   the Null Meter [RFC3290] is especially strong, and should be used
   with caution.

   A NULL metering application [RFC2997] would not include the traffic
   profile, and conceptually it should be possible to support this with
   the QSPEC.  A QSPEC without a traffic profile is not excluded by the
   current specification.  However, note that the traffic profile is
   important even in those cases when the excess treatment is not
   specified, e.g., in negotiating bandwidth for the best effort
   aggregate.  However, a "NULL Service QOSM" would need to be specified
   where the desired QNE Behavior and the corresponding QSPEC format are
   described.

   As an example behavior for a NULL metering, in the properly
   configured DiffServ router, the resources are shared between the
   aggregates by the scheduling disciplines.  Thus, if the incoming rate
   increases, it will influence the state of a queue within that
   aggregate, while all the other aggregates will be provided sufficient
   bandwidth resources.  NULL metering is useful for best effort and
   signaling data, where there is no need to meter and police this data
   as it will be policed implicitly by the allocated bandwidth and,
   possibly, active queue management mechanism.

6.2.12 <PHB Class> Parameter [RFC3140]

   The coding for the <PHB Class> parameter is as follows:

    0                   1                   2                   3
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |M|E|0|r|           12          |r|r|r|r|          1            |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   | DSCP      |0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0|            (Reserved)         |
   +---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+

   As prescribed in RFC 3140, the encoding for a single PHB is the
   recommended DSCP value for that PHB, left-justified in the 16 bit
   field, with bits 6 through 15 set to zero.


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   The encoding for a set of PHBs is the numerically smallest of the set
   of encodings for the various PHBs in the set, with bit 14 set to 1.
   (Thus for the AF1x PHBs, the encoding is that of the AF11 PHB, with
   bit 14 set to 1.)

    0                   1
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   | DSCP      |0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 X 0|
   +---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+

   PHBs not defined by standards action, i.e., experimental or local use
   PHBs as allowed by [RFC2474].  In this case an arbitrary 12 bit PHB
   identification code, assigned by the IANA, is placed left-justified
   in the 16 bit field.  Bit 15 is set to 1, and bit 14 is zero for a
   single PHB or 1 for a set of PHBs.  Bits 12 and 13 are zero.

    0                   1
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |      PHD ID CODE      |0 0 X 0|
   +---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+

   Bits 12 and 13 are reserved either for expansion of the PHB
   identification code, or for other use, at some point in the future.

   In both cases, when a single PHBID is used to identify a set of PHBs
   (i.e., bit 14 is set to 1), that set of PHBs MUST constitute a PHB
   Scheduling Class (i.e., use of PHBs from the set MUST NOT cause
   intra-microflow traffic reordering when different PHBs from the set
   are applied to traffic in the same microflow).  The set of AF1x PHBs
   [RFC2597] is an example of a PHB Scheduling Class.  Sets of PHBs
   that do not constitute a PHB Scheduling Class can be identified by
   using more than one PHBID.

   The registries needed to use RFC 3140 already exist, see
   [DSCP-REGISTRY, PHBID-CODES-REGISTRY].  Hence, no new registry needs
   to be created for this purpose.

6.2.13 <DSTE Class Type> Parameter [RFC4124]

   The coding for the <DSTE Class Type> parameter is as follows:

    0                   1                   2                   3
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |M|E|0|r|           13          |r|r|r|r|          1            |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |DSTE Cls. Type |                (Reserved)                     |
   +---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+


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   DSTE Class Type: Indicates the DSTE class type.  Values currently
   allowed are 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7.  A value of 255 (all 1's) means
   that the <DSTE Class Type> parameter is not used.

6.2.14 <Y.1541 QoS Class> Parameter [Y.1541]

   The coding for the <Y.1541 QoS Class> parameter is as follows:

    0                   1                   2                   3
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |M|E|0|r|           14          |r|r|r|r|          1            |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |Y.1541 QoS Cls.|                (Reserved)                     |
   +---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+

   Y.1541 QoS Class: Indicates the Y.1541 QoS Class. Values currently
   allowed are 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7.  A value of 255 (all 1's) means
   that the <Y.1541 QoS Class> parameter is not used.

   Class 0:
   Mean delay <= 100 ms, delay variation <= 50 ms, loss ratio <= 10^-3.
   Real-time, highly interactive applications, sensitive to jitter.
   Application examples include VoIP, Video Teleconference.

   Class 1:
   Mean delay <= 400 ms, delay variation <= 50 ms, loss ratio <= 10^-3.
   Real-time, interactive applications, sensitive to jitter.
   Application examples include VoIP, Video Teleconference.

   Class 2:
   Mean delay <= 100 ms, delay variation unspecified, loss ratio <=
   10^-3.  Highly interactive transaction data.  Application examples
   include signaling.

   Class 3:
   Mean delay <= 400 ms, delay variation unspecified, loss ratio <=
   10^-3.  Interactive transaction data.  Application examples include
   signaling.

   Class 4:
   Mean delay <= 1 sec, delay variation unspecified, loss ratio <=
   10^-3.  Low Loss Only applications.  Application examples include
   short transactions, bulk data, video streaming.

   Class 5:
   Mean delay unspecified, delay variation unspecified, loss ratio
   unspecified.  Unspecified applications.  Application examples include
   traditional applications of default IP networks.

   Class 6:

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   Mean delay <= 100 ms, delay variation <= 50 ms, loss ratio <= 10^-5.
   Applications that are highly sensitive to loss, such as television
   transport, high-capacity TCP transfers, and TDM circuit emulation.

   Class 7:
   Mean delay <= 400 ms, delay variation <= 50 ms, loss ratio <= 10^-5.
   Applications that are highly sensitive to loss, such as television
   transport, high-capacity TCP transfers, and TDM circuit emulation.

7. Security Considerations

   The priority parameter raises possibilities for theft of service
   attacks because users could claim an emergency priority for their
   flows without real need, thereby effectively preventing serious
   emergency calls to get through. Several options exist for countering
   such attacks, for example

   - only some user groups (e.g. the police) are authorized to set the
   emergency priority bit

   - any user is authorized to employ the emergency priority bit for
   particular destination addresses (e.g. police)

8. IANA Considerations

   This section defines the registries and initial codepoint assignments
   for the QSPEC template, in accordance with BCP 26 RFC 2434 [RFC2434].
   It also defines the procedural requirements to be followed by IANA in
   allocating new codepoints.

   This specification creates the following registries with the
   structures as defined below:

   Object Types (12 bits):
   The following values are allocated by this specification:
   0-4: assigned as specified in Section 6:
   Object Type = 0: QoS Desired
               = 1: QoS Available
               = 2: QoS Reserved
               = 3: Minimum QoS
   The allocation policies for further values are as follows:
   5-63: Standards Action
   64-127: Private/Experimental Use
   128-4095: Reserved
   (Note: 'Reserved' just means 'do not give these out'.)

   QSPEC Version (4 bits):
   The following value is allocated by this specification:
   0: assigned to Version 0 QSPEC
   The allocation policies for further values are as follows:
   1-15: Standards Action

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   A specification is required to depreciate, delete, or modify QSPEC
   versions.

   QSPEC Type (8 bits):
   The following values are allocated by this specification:
   0: Initiator QSPEC
   1: Local QSPEC
   The allocation policies for further values are as follows:
   2-63: Standards Action
   64-255: Reserved

   QSPEC Procedure (8 bits):
   Broken down into
   Message Sequence (4 bits):
   The following values are allocated by this specification:
   0-2: assigned as specified in Section 6.1:
   Message Sequence 0:
   Semantic: QSPEC Procedure = Sender-Initiated Reservations
             (see Section 5.3.1)
   Message Sequence 1:
   Semantic: QSPEC Procedure = Receiver-Initiated Reservations
             (see Section 5.3.2)
   Message Sequence 2:
   Semantic: QSPEC Procedure = Resource Queries (see Section 6.4.3)
   The allocation policies for further values are as follows:
   3-15: Standards Action
   Object Combination (4 bits):
   The following values are allocated by this specification:
   The Object Combination field can take the values between
   1 and 3 indicated in the tables in Section 6:
   Message Sequence: 0
   Object Combination: 1, 2, 3
   Semantic: see table in Section 5.3.1
   Message Sequence: 1
   Object Combination: 1, 2, 3
   Semantic: see table in Section 5.3.2
   Message Sequence: 2
   Object Combination: 1, 2, 3
   Semantic: see table in Section 5.3.3
   The allocation policies for further values are as follows:
   3-15: Standards Action
   A specification is required to depreciate, delete, or modify QSPEC
   Procedures.

   Error Code (16 bits)
   The allocation policies are as follows:
   0-127: Specification Required
   128-255: Private/Experimental Use
   255-65535: Reserved
   A specification is required to depreciate, delete, or modify Error
   Codes.

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   Parameter ID (12 bits):
   The following values are allocated by this specification:
   1-14: assigned as specified in Section 6.2:
   Parameter ID 1: <TMOD-1>
                2: <TMOD-2>
                3: <Path Latency>
                4: <Path Jitter>
                5: <Path PLR>
                6: <Path PER>
                7: <Slack Term>
                8: <Preemption Priority> & <Defending Priority>
                9: <Admission Priority>
                10: <RPH Priority>
                11: <Excess Treatment>
                12: <PHB Class>
                13: <DSTE Class Type>
                14: <Y.1541 QoS Class>

   The allocation policies for further values are as follows:
   15-63: Standards Action (for QSPEC parameters)
   64-127: Specification Required (for QSPEC parameters)
   128-255: Private/Experimental Use
   255-4095: Reserved

   A specification is required to depreciate, delete, or modify
   Parameter IDs.  Note that if additional QSPEC parameters are
   defined in the future, this requires a standards action equivalent to
   reissuing this document as a QSPEC-bis.

   Admission Priority Parameter (8 bits):
   The following values are allocated by this specification:
   0-2: assigned as specified in Section 6.2.9:
   Admission Priority 0: best-effort priority flow
                      1: normal priority flow
                      2: high priority flow
                      255: admission priority not used
   The allocation policies for further values are as follows:
   3-63: Standards Action
   64-254: Reserved

   RPH Namespace Parameter (16 bits):
   Note that [RFC4412] creates a registry for RPH Namespace and Priority
   values already (see Section 12.6 of [RFC4412]).  A QSPEC registry is
   also created because the assigned values are being mapped to QSPEC
   parameter values.  The following values are allocated by this
   specification:
   0-5: assigned as specified in Section 6.2.10:
   The allocation policies for further values are as follows:
   6-63: Standards Action
   64-65535: Reserved

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   RPH Priority Parameter (8 bits):
   dsn namespace:
   The allocation policies are as follows:
   0-63: Standards Action
   64-255: Reserved
   drsn namespace:
   The allocation policies are as follows:
   0-63: Standards Action
   64-255: Reserved
   Q735 namespace:
   The following values are allocated by this specification:
   0-4: assigned as specified in Section 6.2.10:
   Q735 priority 4: q735.4
                 3: q735.3
                 2: q735.2
                 1: q735.1
                 0: q735.0
   The allocation policies for further values are as follows:
   5-63: Standards Action
   64-255: Reserved
   ets namespace:
   The following values are allocated by this specification:
   0-4: assigned as specified in Section 6.2.10:
   ETS priority 4: ets.4
                3: ets.3
                2: ets.2
                1: ets.1
                0: ets.0
   The allocation policies for further values are as follows:
   5-63: Standards Action
   64-255: Reserved
   wts namespace:
   The following values are allocated by this specification:
   0-4: assigned as specified in Section 6.2.10:
   WPS priority 4: wps.4
                3: wps.3
                2: wps.2
                1: wps.1
                0: wps.0
   The allocation policies for further values are as follows:
   5-63: Standards Action
   64-255: Reserved

   Excess Treatment Parameter (8 bits):
   The following values are allocated by this specification:
   0-3: assigned as specified in Section 6.2.11:
   Excess Treatment Parameter 0: drop
                              1: shape
                              2: remark
                              3: no metering or policing is

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                                 permitted
   The allocation policies for further values are as follows:
   4-63: Standards Action
   64-255: Reserved
   Remark Value (8 bits)
   The allocation policies are as follows:
   0-63: Specification Required
   64-127: Private/Experimental Use
   128-255: Reserved

   DSTE Class Type Parameter (8 bits):
   The following values are allocated by this specification:
   0-7: assigned as specified in Section 6.2.13:
   DSTE Class Type Parameter 0: DSTE Class Type 0
                             1: DSTE Class Type 1
                             2: DSTE Class Type 2
                             3: DSTE Class Type 3
                             4: DSTE Class Type 4
                             5: DSTE Class Type 5
                             6: DSTE Class Type 6
                             7: DSTE Class Type 7
   The allocation policies for further values are as follows:
   8-63: Standards Action
   64-255: Reserved

   Y.1541 QoS Class Parameter (8 bits):
   The following values are allocated by this specification:
   0-7: assigned as specified in Section 6.2.14:
   Y.1541 QoS Class Parameter 0: Y.1541 QoS Class 0
                              1: Y.1541 QoS Class 1
                              2: Y.1541 QoS Class 2
                              3: Y.1541 QoS Class 3
                              4: Y.1541 QoS Class 4
                              5: Y.1541 QoS Class 5
                              6: Y.1541 QoS Class 6
                              7: Y.1541 QoS Class 7
   The allocation policies for further values are as follows:
   8-63: Standards Action
   64-255: Reserved

9. Acknowledgements

   The authors would like to thank (in alphabetical order) David Black,
   Ken Carlberg, Anna Charny, Christian Dickman, Adrian Farrel, Ruediger
   Geib, Matthias Friedrich, Xiaoming Fu, Janet Gunn, Robert Hancock,
   Chris Lang, Jukka Manner, An Nguyen, Dave Oran, Tom Phelan, James
   Polk, Alexander Sayenko, John Rosenberg, Bernd Schloer, Hannes
   Tschofenig, and Sven van den Bosch for their very helpful
   suggestions.


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10. Normative References

   [3GPP-1] 3GPP TS 22.067 V7.0.0 (2006-03) Technical Specification, 3rd
   Generation Partnership Project; Technical Specification Group
   Services and System Aspects; enhanced Multi Level Precedence and
   Preemption service (eMLPP) - Stage 1 (Release 7).
   [3GPP-2] 3GPP TS 23.067 V7.1.0 (2006-03) Technical Specification, 3rd
   Generation Partnership Project; Technical Specification Group Core
   Network; enhanced Multi-Level Precedence and Preemption service
   (eMLPP) - Stage 2 (Release 7).
   [3GPP-3] 3GPP TS 24.067 V6.0.0 (2004-12) Technical Specification, 3rd
   Generation Partnership Project; Technical Specification Group Core
   Network; enhanced Multi-Level Precedence and Preemption service
   (eMLPP) - Stage 3 (Release 6).
   [DSCP-REGISTRY] http://www.iana.org/assignments/dscp-registry
   [PHBID-CODES-REGISTRY] http://www.iana.org/assignments/phbid-codes
   [GIST] Schulzrinne, H., Hancock, R., "GIST: General Internet
   Signaling Transport," work in progress.
   [QoS-SIG] Manner, J., et. al., "NSLP for Quality-of-Service
   Signaling," work in progress.
   [RFC1832] Srinivasan, R., "XDR: External Data Representation
   Standard," RFC 1832, August 1995.
   [RFC2119] Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
   Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997.
   [RFC2210] Wroclawski, J., "The Use of RSVP with IETF Integrated
   Services", RFC 2210, September 1997.
   [RFC2212] Shenker, S., et. al., "Specification of Guaranteed Quality
   of Service," September 1997.
   [RFC2215] Shenker, S., Wroclawski, J., "General Characterization
   Parameters for Integrated Service Network Elements", RFC 2215, Sept.
   1997.
   [RFC2475] Blake, S., et. al., "An Architecture for Differentiated
   Services", RFC 2475, December 1998.
   [RFC3140] Black, D., et. al., "Per Hop Behavior Identification
   Codes," June 2001.
   [RFC3181] Herzog, S., "Signaled Preemption Priority Policy Element,"
   RFC 3181, October 2001.
   [RFC3290] Bernet, Y., et. al., "An Informal Management Model for
   Diffserv Routers," RFC 3290, May 2002.
   [RFC4124] Le Faucheur, F., et. al., "Protocol Extensions for Support
   of Diffserv-aware MPLS Traffic Engineering," RFC 4124, June 2005.
   [RFC4412] Schulzrinne, H., Polk, J., "Communications Resource
   Priority for the Session Initiation Protocol(SIP)," RFC 4412,
   February 2006.
   [Y.1541] ITU-T Recommendation Y.1541, "Network Performance Objectives
   for IP-Based Services," February 2006.
   [Y.1571] ITU-T Recommendation Y.1571, "Admission Control Priority
   Levels in Next Generation Networks," July 2006.


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11. Informative References

   [DQOS] Cablelabs, "PacketCable Dynamic Quality of Service
   Specification," CableLabs Specification PKT-SP-DQOS-I12-050812,
   August 2005.
   [IEEE754] Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, "IEEE
   Standard for Binary Floating-Point Arithmetic," ANSI/IEEE Standard
   754-1985, August 1985.
   [CL-QOSM] Kappler, C., "A QoS Model for Signaling IntServ
   Controlled-Load Service with NSIS," work in progress.
   [NETWORK-BYTE-ORDER] Wikipedia, "Endianness,"
   http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Endianness.
   [NSIS-EXTENSIBILITY]  Loughney, J., "NSIS Extensibility Model", work
   in progress.
   [Q.2630] ITU-T Recommendation Q.2630.3: "AAL Type 2 Signaling
   Protocol - Capability Set 3" Sep. 2003
   [RFC2205] Braden, B., et. al., "Resource ReSerVation Protocol (RSVP)
   -- Version 1 Functional Specification," RFC 2205, September 1997.
   [RFC2434] Narten, T., Alvestrand, H., "Guidelines for Writing an
   IANA Considerations Section in RFCs," RFC 3181, October 1998.
   [RFC2474] Nichols, K., et. al., "Definition of the Differentiated
   Services Field (DS Field) in the IPv4 and IPv6 Headers," RFC 2474,
   December 1998.
   [RFC2597] Heinanen, J., et. al., "Assured Forwarding PHB Group," RFC
   2597, June 1999.
   [RFC2997] Bernet, Y., et. al., "Specification of the Null Service
   Type," RFC 2997, November 2000.
   [RFC3140] Black, D., et. al., "Per Hop Behavior Identification
   Codes," RFC 3140, June 2001.
   [RFC3393] Demichelis, C., Chimento, P., "IP Packet Delay Variation
   Metric for IP Performance Metrics (IPPM), RFC 3393, November 2002.
   [RFC3564] Le Faucheur, F., et. al., Requirements for Support of
   Differentiated Services-aware MPLS Traffic Engineering, RFC 3564,
   July 2003
   [RFC3726] Brunner, M., et. al., "Requirements for Signaling
   Protocols", RFC 3726, April 2004.
   [RMD-QOSM] Bader, A., et. al., "RMD-QOSM - The Resource Management
   in Diffserv QOS Model," work in progress.
   [VERTICAL-INTERFACE] Dolly, M., Tarapore, P., Sayers, S., "Discussion
   on Associating of Control Signaling Messages with Media Priority
   Levels," T1S1.7 & PRQC, October 2004.
   [WROCLAWSKI] Wroclawski, J., TBD.
   [Y.1540] ITU-T Recommendation Y.1540, "Internet Protocol Data
   Communication Service - IP Packet Transfer and Availability
   Performance Parameters," December 2002.
   [Y.1541-QOSM] Ash, J., et. al., "Y.1541-QOSM -- Y.1541 QoS Model for
   Networks Using Y.1541 QoS Classes," work in progress.

12. Authors' Addresses

   Gerald Ash (Editor)

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   AT&T
   Room MT D5-2A01
   200 Laurel Avenue
   Middletown, NJ 07748, USA
   Phone: +1-(732)-420-4578
   Fax:   +1-(732)-368-8659
   Email: gash@att.com

   Attila Bader (Editor)
   Traffic Lab
   Ericsson Research
   Ericsson Hungary Ltd.
   Laborc u. 1 H-1037
   Budapest Hungary
   Email: Attila.Bader@ericsson.com

   Cornelia Kappler (Editor)
   Siemens GmbH&Co KG
   Siemensdamm 62
   Berlin 13627
   Germany
   Email: cornelia.kappler@siemens.com

   David R. Oran (Editor)
   Cisco Systems, Inc.
   7 Ladyslipper Lane
   Acton, MA 01720, USA
   Email:  oran@cisco.com

Appendix A. Mapping of QoS Desired, QoS Available and QoS Reserved of
NSIS onto AdSpec, TSpec and RSpec of RSVP IntServ

   The union of QoS Desired, QoS Available and QoS Reserved can provide
   all functionality of the objects specified in RSVP IntServ, however
   it is difficult to provide an exact mapping.

   In RSVP, the Sender TSpec specifies the traffic an application is
   going to send (e.g. TMOD). The AdSpec can collect path
   characteristics (e.g. delay). Both are issued by the sender. The
   receiver sends the FlowSpec which includes a Receiver TSpec
   describing the resources reserved using the same parameters as the
   Sender TSpec, as well as a RSpec which provides additional IntServ
   QoS Model specific parameters, e.g. Rate and Slack.

   The RSVP TSpec/AdSpec/RSpec seem quite tailored to receiver-initiated
   signaling employed by RSVP, and the IntServ QoS Model. E.g. to the
   knowledge of the authors it is not possible for the sender to specify
   a desired maximum delay except implicitly and mutably by seeding the
   AdSpec accordingly. Likewise, the RSpec is only meaningfully sent in
   the receiver-issued RSVP RESERVE message. For this reason our
   discussion at this point leads us to a slightly different mapping of

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   necessary functionality to objects, which should result in more
   flexible signaling models.

Appendix B. Change History & Open Issues

B.1 Change History (since Version -04)

   Version -05:

   - fixed <QOSM hops> in Sec. 5 and 6.2 as discussed at Interim Meeting
   - discarded QSPEC parameter <M> (Maximum packet size) since MTU
     discovery is expected to be handled by procedure currently defined
     by PMTUD WG
   - added "container QSPEC parameter" in Sec. 6.1 to augment encoding
     efficiency
   - added the 'tunneled QSPEC parameter flag' to Sections 5 and 6
   - revised Section 6.2.2 on SIP priorities
   - added QSPEC procedures for "RSVP-style reservation", resource
     queries and bidirectional reservations in Sec. 7.1
   - reworked Section 7.2

   Version -06:

   - defined "not-supported flag" and "tunneled parameter flag"
     (subsumes "QSPEC parameter flag")
   - defined "error flag" for error handling
   - updated bit error rate (BER) parameter to packet loss ratio (PLR)
     parameter
   - added packet error ratio (PER) parameter
   - coding checked by independent expert
   - coding updated to include RE flags in QSPEC objects and MENT flags
     in QSPEC parameters

   Version -07:

   - added text (from David Black) on DiffServ QSPEC example in Section
     6
   - re-numbered QSPEC parameter IDs to start with 0 (Section 7)
   - expanded IANA Considerations Section 9

   Version -08:

   - update to 'RSVP-style' reservation in Section 6.1.2 to mirror what
     is done in RSVP
   - modified text (from David Black) on DiffServ QSPEC example in
     Section 6.2
   - update to general QSPEC parameter formats in Section 7.1 (length
     restrictions, etc.)
   - re-numbered QSPEC parameter IDs in Section 7.2
   - modified <Excess Treatment> parameter values in Section 7.2.2
   - update to reservation priority Section 7.2.7

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   - specify the 3 "STATS" in the <Path Jitter> parameter, Section
     7.2.9.4
   - minor updates to IANA Considerations Section 9

   Version -09:

   - remove the DiffServ example in Section 6.2 (intent is use text as a
     basis for a separate DIFFSERV-QOSM I-D)
   - update wording in example in Section 4.3, to reflect use of default
     QOSM and QOSM selection by QNI
   - make minor changes to Section 7.2.7.2, per the exchange on the list
   - add comment on error codes, after the first paragraph in Section
     4.5.1

   Version -10:

   - rewrote Section 2.0 for clarity
   - added clarifications on QSPEC parameters in Section 4.2; added
     discussion of forwarding options when a domain supports a different
     QOSM than the QNI
   - expanded Section 4.5 on error code handling, including redefined
     E-Flag and editorial changes to the N-Flag and T-Flag discussions
   - made some editorial clarifications in Section 4.6 on defining new
     mandatory (QSPEC) parameters, and also reference the
     [NSIS-EXTENSIBILITY] document
   - Section 4.7 added to identify what a QOSM specification document
     must include
   - clarified the requirements in Section 5.0 for defining a new QSPEC
     Version
   - made editorial changes to Section 6, and added procedures for
     handling preemption
   - removed QOSM ID assignments in Section 9.0; clarified procedures
     for defining new QSPEC parameters; added registry of QOSM error
     codes

   Version -11:

   - 'QSPEC-1 parameter' replaces 'mandatory QSPEC parameter'
   - 'QSPEC-2 parameter' replaces 'optional QSPEC parameter'
   - R-flag ('remapped parameter flag') introduced to denote remapping,
     approximating, or otherwise not strictly interpreting a QSPEC
     parameter
   - T-flag ('tunneled parameter flag') eliminated and incorporated
     within the R-flag
   - Section 4 rewritten on QOSM concept, QSPEC processing, etc. to
     provide a more logical flow of information
   - read-write/read-only flag associated with QSPEC objects eliminated
     and object itself defined as rw or ro without a flag
   - <Non QOSM Hop> parameter redefined as non-QOSM-hop Q-flag
   - Section 7 on QSPEC parameter definitions revised to clearly
     separate QSPEC parameter coding from QSPEC parameter coding

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   - <Traffic>, <QoS Class>, and <Priority> QSPEC parameters mapped
     to container parameters
   - references updated to include normative references defining
     procedures to 'strictly interpret' each QSPEC parameter
   - Section 7.2.1 on PHB class updated to specify additional RFC 3140
     cases
   - Section 7.2.1 on excess treatment updated to specify excess
     treatment behaviors

   Version -12:

   - Sections 4, 5, 6: Many editorial changes and rearrangements
   - Moved example of QSPEC processing to Appendix A
   - Section 7.2.2: Changed <Traffic Parameter> from a variable
     length to a fixed length parameter

   Version -13:

   - notion of QOSMs played down
     o language e.g. 'QNSLP/QSPEC can signal for different QOSMs across
       multiple domains' replaced by notion that 'QNSLP/QSPEC allows
       QNEs on the path to implement different data plane QoS mechanisms
       that meet QSPEC constraints'
     o a QOSM describes common capabilities among QNEs to act
       consistently when requested to admit traffic & in treating
       admitted traffic
     o a QOSM ID need not be defined or signaled
     o a QNE need not support any particular QOSM although a  QNI
       normally includes a QSPEC corresponding to a particular QOSM
   - a 'QOSM specification'
     o still provides a rigorous specification of a QOSM & what it does
     o documents how a QNE interprets & treats various elements in QSPEC
     o can define additional QSPEC parameters
   - updated QOSM definition:
     a method to achieve QoS for a traffic flow, e.g., IntServ
     Controlled Load; specifies what sub-set of QSPEC QoS constraints &
     traffic handling directives a QNE implementing that QOSM is capable
     of supporting & how resources will be managed by the RMF
   - QSPEC1/QSPEC2 semantics replaced with following semantics:
     o source traffic description (mandatory to include by QNI &
       mandatory to interpret by downstream QNEs)
       > specified by traffic model (TMOD-1) parameter consisting of
         rate (r), bucket size (b), peak rate (p), minimum policed unit
        (m) (mathematically complete way to describe traffic source)
       > bandwidth only set r=p; b/m to large values (separate
         bandwidth parameter not needed)
       > TMOD-2 (optional to include)
     o constraints (optional to include):
       > Path Latency
       > Path Jitter
       > Path PLR

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       > Path PER
       > Slack Term
       > Priority (Preemption, Defending, Admission, RPH Priority)
     o handling directives (optional to include):
       > Excess Treatment
     o traffic classifiers (optional to include):
       > PHB Class (PHB class set by downstream QNE to tell QNI how to
         mark traffic to ensure treatment committed by admission
         control)
       > DSTE Class Type
       > Y.1541 QoS class
     o eliminated:
       > Bandwidth
       > Ctot, Dtot, Csum, Dsum
   - concept of remapping QSPEC parameters eliminated
   - redefine 'interpret' a QSPEC parameter to mean 'must conform to
     RFCs defining parameter & procedures (formerly called 'strictly
     interpret')
   - concept of local QSPECs retained
     o allows simpler control plane in a local domain
     o edge nodes
       > must interpret initiator QSPEC parameters
       > can either initiate parallel session with local QSPEC or
         define a local QSPEC with encapsulated initiator QSPEC
     o local QSPEC interpreted by local domain QNEs
     o local QSPEC must be consistent with initiator QSPEC
       > e.g., RMD can initiate a local QSPEC that contains TMOD =
         bandwidth (sets r=p, b/m to large)
   - QSPEC flags modified as follows:
     o QNI sets M flag for each QSPEC parameter it populates that must
       be interpreted or reservation fails
     o if M flag set
       > downstream QNE MUST interpret parameter or reservation fails
       > if QNE does not support parameter it sets N flag & rejects
         reservation
       > if QNE supports parameter but cannot meet parameter, it sets E
         flag & rejects reservation
     o if M flag not set
       > downstream QNE SHOULD interpret parameter
       > if QNE does not support parameter it sets the N flag &
         optionally accepts or rejects reservation
       > if QNE supports parameter but cannot meet parameter, it sets E
         flag & optionally accepts or rejects reservation
     o R (remapped parameter) flag & Q (non QOSM) flag eliminated

B.2 Open Issues

   None.


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