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Versions: (draft-zeltsan-oauth-use-cases) 00 01 02 03

OAUTH WG                                                     G. Fletcher
Internet-Draft                                                       AOL
Intended status: Informational                            T. Lodderstedt
Expires: April 25, 2013                              Deutsche Telekom AG
                                                              Z. Zeltsan
                                                          Alcatel-Lucent
                                                        October 22, 2012


                            OAuth Use Cases
                     draft-ietf-oauth-use-cases-03

Abstract

   This document lists the OAuth use cases.  The provided list is based
   on the Internet Drafts of the OAUTH working group and discussions on
   the group's mailing list.

Status of this Memo

   This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the
   provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.

   Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
   Task Force (IETF).  Note that other groups may also distribute
   working documents as Internet-Drafts.  The list of current Internet-
   Drafts is at http://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/.

   Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
   and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any
   time.  It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
   material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."

   This Internet-Draft will expire on April 25, 2013.

Copyright Notice

   Copyright (c) 2012 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
   document authors.  All rights reserved.

   This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
   Provisions Relating to IETF Documents
   (http://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of
   publication of this document.  Please review these documents
   carefully, as they describe your rights and restrictions with respect
   to this document.  Code Components extracted from this document must
   include Simplified BSD License text as described in Section 4.e of
   the Trust Legal Provisions and are provided without warranty as



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   described in the Simplified BSD License.


Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  3
   2.  OAuth use cases  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  3
     2.1.  Web server . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  3
     2.2.  User-agent . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  5
     2.3.  Native Application . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  6
     2.4.  In-App-Payment (based on Native Application) . . . . . . .  8
     2.5.  Device with an input method  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
     2.6.  Client password (shared secret) credentials  . . . . . . . 12
     2.7.  Assertion  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
     2.8.  Access token exchange  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
     2.9.  Multiple access tokens . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
     2.10. Gateway for browser-based VoIP applets . . . . . . . . . . 17
     2.11. Signed Messages  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
     2.12. Signature with asymmetric secret . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
   3.  Authors of the use cases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
   4.  Security considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
   5.  IANA considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
   6.  Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
   7.  References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
     7.1.  Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
     7.2.  Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
   Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
























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1.  Introduction

   This document describes the use cases that have been discussed on the
   oauth WG mailing list and introduced by the Internet Drafts submitted
   to the group.  The selected use cases illustrate the use of the OAuth
   flows by the clients of the various profiles and types.  The document
   also includes those cases that are not directly supported by the
   OAuth 2.0 [I-D.ietf-oauth-v2], but were considered during its
   development.  The document provides a list of the requirements
   derived from the use cases.  The use cases supported by OAuth 2.0 are
   indicated.

   The document's objective is to help with understanding of the OAuth
   2.0 protocol design.

   The following section provides the abbreviated descriptions of the
   use cases.


2.  OAuth use cases

   This section describes the use cases that have been discussed by the
   oauth WG.

2.1.  Web server

   Description:

   Alice accesses an application running on a web server at
   www.printphotos.example and instructs it to print her photographs
   that are stored on a server www.storephotos.example.  The application
   at www.printphotos.example receives Alice's authorization for
   accessing her photographs without learning her authentication
   credentials with www.storephotos.example.

   Pre-conditions:

   o  Alice has registered with www.storephotos.example to enable
      authentication

   o  The application at www.printphotos.example has established
      authentication credentials with the application at
      www.storephotos.example

   Post-conditions:

   A successful procedure results in the application
   www.printphotos.example receiving an authorization code from



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   www.storephotos.example.  The code is bound to the application at
   www.printphotos.example and to the callback URL supplied by the
   application.  The application at www.printphotos.example uses the
   authorization code for obtaining an access token from
   www.storephotos.example.  The application at www.storephotos.example
   issues an access token after authenticating the application at
   www.printphotos.example and validating the authorization code that it
   has submitted.  The application at www.printphotos.example uses the
   access token for getting access to Alice's photographs at
   www.storephotos.example.

   Note: When an access token expires, the service at
   www.printphotos.example needs to repeat the OAuth procedure for
   getting Alice's authorization to access her photographs at
   www.storephotos.example.  Alternatively, if Alice wants to grant the
   application a long lasting access to her resources at
   www.storephotos.example, the authorization server associated with
   www.storephotos.example may issue the long-living tokens.  Those
   tokens can be exchanged for short-living access tokens required to
   access www.storephotos.example.

   Requirements:

   o  The server www.printphotos.example, which hosts an OAuth client,
      must be capable of issuing the HTTP redirect requests to Alice's
      user agent - a browser

   o  Application at www.storephotos.example must be able to
      authenticate Alice.  The authentication method is not in the OAuth
      scope

   o  Application at www.storephotos.example must obtain Alice's
      authorization of the access to her photos by
      www.printphotos.example

   o  Application at www.storephotos.example may identify to Alice the
      scope of access that www.printphotos.example has requested while
      asking for Alice's authorization

   o  Application at www.storephotos.example must be able to
      authenticate the application at www.printphotos.example and
      validate the authorization code before issuing an access token.
      The OAuth 2.0 protocol [I-D.ietf-oauth-v2] specifies one
      authentication method that MAY be used for such authentication -
      Client Password Authentication.

   o  Application at www.printphotos.example must provide a callback URL
      to the application at www.storephotos.example (note: the URL can



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      be pre-registered with www.storephotos.example)

   o  Application at www.storephotos.example is required to maintain a
      record that associates the authorization code with the application
      at www.printphotos.example and the callback URL provided by the
      application

   o  Access tokens are bearer's tokens (they are not associated with a
      specific application, such as www.printphotos.example) and should
      have a short lifespan

   o  Application at www.storephotos.example must invalidate the
      authorization code after its first use

   o  Alice's manual involvement in the OAuth authorization procedure
      (e.g., entering an URL or a password) should not be required.
      (Alice's authentication to www.storephotos.example is not in the
      OAuth scope.  Her registration with www.storephotos.example is
      required as a pre-condition)

   Note: OAuth 2.0 supports this use case

2.2.  User-agent

   Description:

   Alice has on her computer a gaming application.  She keeps her scores
   in a database of a social site at www.fun.example.  In order to
   upload Alice's scores, the application gets access to the database
   with her authorization.

   Pre-conditions:

   o  Alice uses a gaming application implemented in a scripting
      language (e.g., JavaScript) that runs in her browser and uses
      OAuth for accessing a social site at www.fun.example

   o  There is no a web site supporting this application and capable of
      handling the OAuth flow, so the gaming application needs to update
      the database itself

   o  The application is registered with the social site at
      www.fun.example and has an identifier

   o  Alice has registered with www.fun.example for identification and
      authentication





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   o  An auxiliary web server at www.help.example is reachable by
      Alice's browser and capable of providing a script that extracts an
      access token from an URL's fragment

   Post-conditions:

   A successful procedure results in Alice's browser receiving an access
   token.  The access token is received from www.fun.example as a
   fragment of a redirection URL of an auxiliary web server
   www.help.example.  Alice's browser follows the redirection, but
   retains the fragment.  From the auxiliary web server at
   www.help.example Alice's browser downloads a script that extracts
   access token from the fragment and makes it available to the gaming
   application.  The application uses the access token to gain access to
   Alice's data at www.fun.example.

   Requirements:

   o  Registration of the application running in the Alice's browser
      with the application running on www.fun.example is required for
      identification

   o  Alice's authentication with www.fun.example is required

   o  Application running at www.fun.example must be able to describe to
      Alice the request made by the gaming application running on her
      computer and obtain Alice's authorization for or denial of the
      requested access

   o  After obtaining Alice's authorization the application running at
      www.fun.example must respond with an access token and redirect
      Alice's browser to a web server (e.g., www.help.example) that is
      capable of retrieving an access token from an URL

   Note: OAuth 2.0 supports this use case

2.3.  Native Application

   Description:

   Alice wants to upload (or download) her photographs to (or from)
   storephotos.example using her smartphone.  She downloads and installs
   a photo app on her smartphone.  In order to enable the app to access
   her photographs, Alice needs to authorize the app to access the web
   site on her behalf.  The authorization shall be valid for a prolonged
   duration (e.g. several months), so that Alice does not need to
   authenticate and authorize access on every execution of the app.  It
   shall be possible to withdraw the app's authorization both on the



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   smartphone as well as on the site storephotos.example.

   Pre-conditions:

   o  Alice has installed a (native) photo app application on her
      smartphone

   o  The installed application is registered with the social site at
      storephotos.example and has an identifier

   o  Alice holds an account with storephotos.example

   o  Authentication and authorization shall be performed in an
      interactive, browser-based process.  The smartphone's browser is
      used for authenticating Alice and for enabling her to authorize
      the request by the Mobile App

   Post-conditions:

   A successful procedure results in Alice's app receiving the access
   and refresh tokens.  The app obtains the tokens by utilizing the
   Authorization Code flow.  The application uses the access token to
   gain access to Alice's data at storephotos.example.  The refresh
   tokens are persistently stored on the device for use in subsequent
   app executions.  If a refresh token exists on app startup, the app
   directly uses the refresh token to obtain a new access token.

   Requirements:

   o  Alice's authentication with storephotos.example is required

   o  Registration of the application running on Alice's smartphone is
      required for identification and registration and may be carried
      out on a per installation base

   o  The application at storephotos.example provides a capability to
      view and delete the apps' authorizations.  This implies that the
      different installations of the same app on the different devices
      can be distinguished (e.g., by a device name or a telephone
      number)

   o  The app must provide Alice an option to logout.  The logout must
      result in revocation of the refresh tokens on the authorization
      server

   Note: OAuth 2.0 supports this use case





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2.4.  In-App-Payment (based on Native Application)

   Description:

   Alice has installed on her computer a gaming application (e.g.,
   running as native code or as a widget).  At some point she wants to
   play the next level of the game and needs to purchase an access to
   the advanced version of the game from her service provider at
   www.sp.example.  With Alice's authorization the application accesses
   her account at www.sp.example and enables her to make the payment.

   Pre-conditions:

   o  Alice has registered and has an account with her service provider
      at www.sp.example

   o  The application is registered with the service provider at
      www.sp.example.  This enables the server provider to provide Alice
      with all necessary information about the gaming application
      (including the information about the purchasing price)

   o  Alice has a Web user-agent (e.g., a browser or a widget runtime)
      installed on her computer

   Post-conditions:

   A successful procedure results in the gaming application invoking the
   user browser and directing it to the authorization server of the
   service provider.  The HTTP message includes information about the
   gaming application's request to access Alice's account.  The
   authorization server presents to Alice the authentication and
   authorization interfaces.  The authorization interface shows Alice
   the information about the application's request including the
   requested charge to her account.  After Alice successfully
   authenticates and authorizes the request, the authorization server
   enables Alice to save the transaction details including the
   authorization code issued for the gaming application.  Then the
   authorization server redirects Alice's browser to a custom scheme URI
   (registered with the operating system).  This redirection request
   contains a one-time authorization code and invokes a special
   application that is able to extract the authorization code and
   present it to the gaming application.  The gaming application
   presents the authorization code to the authorization server and
   exchanges it for a one-time access token.  The gaming application
   then uses the access token to get access to Alice's account and post
   the charges at www.sp.example.

   Requirements:



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   Note: The focus is on the requirements that are specific to this use
   case.  The requirements that are common to the native applications
   are listed in the preceding use case.

   o  An authorization server associated with the server at
      www.sp.example must be able to provide Alice with information
      about the access request that the gaming application has made
      (including the amount that is to be charged to her account with
      the service provider and the purpose for the charge) over a secure
      transport

   o  An authorization server associated with the server at
      www.sp.example must be able to obtain Alice's authorization
      decision on the request over a secure transport

   o  An authorization server associated with the server at
      www.sp.example must be able to generate on demand a one-time
      authorization code and a one-time access token according to the
      scope authorized by Alice

   o  An authorization server associated with the server at
      www.sp.example must be able to call back to the gaming application
      with the authorization result over a secure transport

   o  An authorization server associated with the server at
      www.sp.example must enable the gaming application to exchange an
      authorization code for an access token over a secure transport

   o  An authorization server associated with the server at
      www.sp.example must verify the authorization code and invalidate
      it after its first use

   o  An authorization server associated with the server at
      www.sp.example must enable Alice to save the details of the
      requested transaction, including the authorization code

   o  An authorization server associated with the server at
      www.sp.example must keep a record linking the requested
      transaction with the authorization code and the respective access
      token

   o  An authorization server associated with the server at
      www.sp.example must enable the resource server www.sp.example to
      obtain the transaction information that is linked to the issued
      access token

   o  Resource server at www.sp.example must verify access token and
      invalidate it after its first use



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   o  A resource server at www.sp.example must enable the gaming
      application to post charges to Alice's account according to the
      access token presented over a secure transport

   o  The gaming application must provide a custom scheme URI to the
      authorization server associated with www.sp.example (note: it can
      be preregistered with the authorization server)

   o  Alice's manual involvement in the OAuth authorization procedure
      (e.g., entering an URL or a password) should not be required.
      (Alice's authentication to www.sp.example is not in the OAuth
      scope)

   Note: OAuth 2.0 does not directly support this use case

2.5.  Device with an input method

   Description:

   Alice has a device, such as a gaming console, that does not support
   an easy data-entry method.  She also has access to a computer with a
   browser.  The application running on the Alice's device gets
   authorized access to a protected resource (e.g., photographs) stored
   on a server at www.storephotos.example

   Pre-conditions:

   o  Alice uses a gaming console, which does not have an easy data-
      entry method, for accessing her photographs at
      www.storephotos.example

   o  Alice is able to connect to www.storephotos.example using a
      computer that runs a browser

   o  Auhtorization server associated with www.storephotos.example is
      able to generate an authorization code that is suitable for
      reading and writing by a human (e.g., an alphanumeric string that
      is not too long)

   o  The gaming device supports input of the characters that can be
      found in an authorization code

   o  Alice has registered with the authorization server associated with
      www.storephotos.example for identification and authentication

   Post-conditions:





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   o  Alice, interacting with an authorization server associated with
      www.storephotos.example, authorizes access to her photographs by
      her gaming console.  She uses her browser-equipped computer for
      OAuth authorization

   o  The authorization server associated with www.storephotos.example
      responds to Alice's authorization by displaying an authorization
      code in her browser's window

   o  Alice enters the displayed code into an input field on the gaming
      console

   o  The gaming console exchanges with the authorization server the
      authorization code for an access token

   o  Alice's gaming console uses the access token to access the
      photographs on www.storephotos.example

   Requirements:

   o  Alice's authentication with the authorization server is required

   o  Alice is required to perform authorization of her gaming console
      by interacting with the authorization server associated with
      www.storephotos.example.  To that end she has to direct her
      browser to the authorization server

   o  After authorizing the access and getting an authorization code
      displayed in her browser, Alice has to enter the displayed code
      into an input field on the gaming console

   o  The gaming console should be able to exchange the authorization
      code for an access token through interaction with the
      authorization server associated with www.storephotos.example

   o  The URL of the authorization server and the authorization code
      must be suitable for manual entry

   o  The authorization code must be composed of the characters that are
      appropriate for input to the gaming console

   o  Because the authorization code is relatively short and its
      character set is limited, the code's lifetime should be configured
      appropriately

   Note: OAuth 2.0 supports this use case





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2.6.  Client password (shared secret) credentials

   Description:

   The company GoodPay prepares the employee payrolls for the company
   GoodWork.  In order to do that the application at www.GoodPay.example
   gets authenticated access to the employees' attendance data stored at
   www.GoodWork.example.

   Pre-conditions:

   o  The application at www.GoodPay.example has established through a
      registration an identifier and a shared secret with the
      application running at www.GoodWork.example

   o  The scope of the access by the application at www.GoodPay.example
      to the data stored at www.GoodWork.example has been defined

   Post-conditions:

   A successful procedure results in the application at
   www.GoodPay.example receiving an access token after authenticating to
   the application running at www.GoodWork.example.

   Requirements:

   o  Authentication of the application at www.GoodPay.example to the
      application at www.GoodWork.example is required

   o  The authentication method must be based on the identifier and
      shared secret, which the application running at
      www.GoodPay.example submits to the application at
      www.GoodWork.example in the initial HTTP request

   o  Because in this use case GoodPay gets access to GoodWork's
      sensitive data, GoodWork shall have a pre-established trust with
      GoodPay on the security policy and the authorization method's
      implementation

   Note: OAuth 2.0 supports this use case

2.7.  Assertion

   Description:

   Company GoodPay prepares the employee payrolls for the company
   GoodWork.  In order to do that the application at www.GoodPay.example
   gets authenticated access to the employees' attendance data stored at



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   www.GoodWork.example.
   This use case describes an alternative solution to the one described
   by the use case Client password credentials.

   Pre-conditions:

   o  The application at www.GoodPay.example has obtained an
      authentication assertion from a party that is trusted by the
      application at www.GoodWork.example

   o  The scope of the access by the application at www.GoodPay.example
      to the data stored at www.GoodWork.example has been defined

   o  The application at www.GoodPay.example has established trust
      relationship with the asserting party and is capable of validating
      its assertions

   Post-conditions:

   A successful procedure results in the application at
   www.GoodPay.example receiving an access token after authenticating to
   the application running at www.GoodWork.example by presenting an
   assertion (e.g., SAML assertion).

   Requirements:

   o  Authentication of the application at www.GoodPay.example to the
      application at www.GoodWork.example is required

   o  The application running at www.GoodWork.example must be capable of
      validating assertion presented by the application running at
      www.GoodPay.example

   o  Because in this use case GoodPay gets access to GoodWork's
      sensitive data, GoodWork shall establish trust with GoodPay on the
      security policy and the authorization method's implementation

   Note: OAuth 2.0 supports this use case

2.8.  Access token exchange

   Description:

   Alice uses an application running on www.printphotos.example for
   printing her photographs that are stored on a server at
   www.storephotos.example.  The application running on
   www.storephotos.example, while serving the request of the application
   at www.printphotos.example, discovers that some of the requested



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   photographs have been moved to www.storephotos1.example.  The
   application at www.storephotos.example retrieves the missing
   photographs from www.storephotos1.example and provides access to all
   requested photographs to the application at www.printphotos.example.
   The application at www.printphotos.example carries out Alice's
   request.

   Pre-conditions:

   o  The application running on www.printphotos.example is capable of
      interacting with Alice's browser

   o  Alice has registered with and can be authenticated by
      authorization server

   o  The applications at www.storephotos.example has registered with
      authorization server

   o  The applications at www.storephotos1.example has registered with
      authorization server

   o  The application at www.printphotos.example has registered with
      authorization server

   Post-conditions:

   A successful procedure results in the application at
   www.printphotos.example receiving an access token that allows access
   to Alice's photographs.  This access token is used for the following
   purposes:

   o  By the application running at www.printphotos.example to get
      access to the photographs at www.storephotos.example

   o  By the application running at www.storephotos.example to obtain
      from authorization server another access token that allows it to
      retrieve the additional photographs stored at
      www.storephotos1.example

   As the result, there are two access token issued for two different
   applications.  The tokens may have different properties (e.g., scope,
   permissions, and expiration dates).

   Requirements:

   o  The applications at www.printphotos.example and
      www.storephotos.example require different access tokens




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   o  The application at www.printphotos.example is required to provide
      its callback URL to the application at www.storephotos.example

   o  Authentication of the application at www.printphotos.example to
      the authorization server is required

   o  Alice's authentication by the authorization server is required

   o  The authorization server must be able to describe to Alice the
      request of the application at www.printphotos.example and obtain
      her authorization (or rejection)

   o  If Alice has authorized the request, the authorization server must
      be able to issue an access token that enables the application at
      www.printphotos.example to get access to Alice's photographs at
      www.storephotos.example

   o  The authorization server must be able, based on the access token
      presented by the application at www.printphotos.example, to
      generate another access token that allows the application at
      www.storephotos.example to get access to the photographs at
      www.storephotos1.example.  In this context the authorization
      server must validate the authorization of the application at
      www.storephotos.example to obtain the token.

   o  The application at www.storephotos.example must be able to
      validate an access token presented by the application running at
      www.printphotos.example

   o  The application at www.storephotos1.example must be able to
      validate the access token presented by the application running at
      www.storephotos.example

   Note: This use case is indirectly supported by Assertion frmamework
   for OAuth 2.0 [I-D.ietf-oauth-assertions] and its extensions SAML 2.0
   Bearer Assertion Profiles for OAuth 2.0 [I-D.ietf-oauth-saml2-bearer]
   and JSON Web Token (JWT) Bearer Token Profiles for OAuth 2.0
   [I-D.ietf-oauth-jwt-bearer]

2.9.  Multiple access tokens

   Description:

   Alice uses a communicator application running on a web server at
   www.communicator.example to access her email service at
   www.email.example and her voice over IP service at www.voip.example.
   Email addresses and telephone numbers are obtained from Alice's
   address book at www.contacts.example.  Those web sites all rely on



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   the same authorization server, so the application at
   www.communicator.example can receive a single authorization from
   Alice for getting access to these three services on her behalf at
   once.
   The authorization server needs to issue different access tokens for
   the involved services due to security and privacy policy.  One
   typical reason is the use of the symmetric secrets for signing self-
   contained access tokens.  In this use case, using a particular token
   for more than a single service introduces a security risk.

   Note: This use case is especially useful for native applications
   since a web browser needs to be launched only once.

   Pre-conditions:

   o  The same authorization server serves Alice and all involved
      servers

   o  Alice has registered with the authorization server for
      authentication and for authorization of the requests of the
      communicator application running at www.communicator.example

   o  The email application at www.email.example has registered with the
      authorization server for authentication

   o  The VoIP application at www.voip.example has registered with the
      authorization server for authentication

   o  The address book at www.contacts.example has registered with the
      authorization server for authentication

   Post-conditions:

   A successful procedure results in the application at
   www.communicator.example receiving three different access tokens: one
   for accessing the email service at www.email.example, one for
   accessing the contacts at www.contacts.example, and one for accessing
   the VoIP service at www.voip.example.

   Requirements:

   o  The application running at www.communicator.example must be
      authenticated by the authorization server

   o  Alice must be authenticated by the authorization server

   o  The application running at www.communicator.example must be able
      to get a single Alice's authorization for access to the multiple



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      services (e.g., email and VoIP)

   o  The application running at www.communicator.example must be able
      to recognize that all three applications rely on the same
      authorization server

   o  A callback URL of the application running at
      www.communicator.example must be known to the authorization server

   o  The authorization server must be able to issue the separate
      service-specific tokens (with different, scope, permissions, and
      expiration dates) for access to the requested services (such as
      email and VoIP)

   Note: OAuth 2.0 does not support this use case

2.10.  Gateway for browser-based VoIP applets

   Description:

   Alice accesses a social site on a web server at www.social.example.
   Her browser loads a VoIP applet that enables her to make a VoIP call
   using her SIP server at www.sipservice.example.  The application at
   www.social.example gets Alice's authorization to use her account with
   www.sipservice.example without learning her authentication
   credentials with www.sipservice.example.

   Pre-conditions:

   o  Alice has registered with www.sipservice.example for
      authentication

   o  The application at www.social.example has established
      authentication credentials with the application at
      www.sipservice.example

   Post-conditions:

   A successful procedure results in the application at
   www.social.example receiving access token from www.sipservice.example
   with Alice's authorization.

   Requirements:

   o  The server at www.social.example must be able to redirect Alice's
      browser to www.sipservice.example





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   o  The application running at www.sipservice.example must be capable
      of authenticating Alice and obtaining her authorization of a
      request from www.social.example

   o  The server at www.sipservice.example must be able to redirect
      Alice's browser back to www.social.example

   o  The application at www.social.example must be able to translate
      the messages of the Alice's VoIP applet into SIP and RTP messages

   o  The application at www.social.example must be able to add the
      access token to the SIP requests that it sends to
      www.sipservice.example

   o  Application at www.sipservice.example must be able to authenticate
      the application at www.social.example and validate the access
      token

   o  Alice's manual involvement in the OAuth authorization procedure
      (e.g., entering an URL or a password) should not be required.
      (Alice's authentication to www.sipservice.example is not in the
      OAuth scope)

   Note: OAuth 2.0 does not support this use case

2.11.  Signed Messages

   Description:

   Alice manages all her personal health records in her personal health
   data store at a server at www.myhealth.example, which manages
   authorization of access to Alice's participating health systems.
   Alice's Primary Care Physician (PCP), which has a Web site at
   www.pcp.example, recommends her to see a sleep specialist
   (www.sleepwell.example).  Alice arrives at the sleep specialist's
   office and authorizes it to access her basic health data at her PCP's
   web site.  The application at www.pcp.example verifies that Alice has
   authorized www.sleepwell.example to access her health data as well as
   enforces that www.sleepwell.example is the only application that can
   retrieve that data with that specific authorization.

   Pre-conditions:

   o  Alice has a personal health data store that allows for discovery
      of her participating health systems (e.g. psychiatrist, sleep
      specialist, PCP, orthodontist, ophthalmologist, etc)





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   o  The application at www.myhealth.example manages authorization of
      access to Alice's participating health systems

   o  The application at www.myhealth.example can issue authorization
      tokens understood by Alice's participating health systems

   o  The application at www.pcp.example stores Alice's basic health and
      prescription records

   o  The application at www.sleepwell.com stores results of Alice's
      sleep tests

   Post-conditions:

   o  A successful procedure results in just the information that Alice
      authorized being transferred from the Primary Care Physician
      (www.pcp.example) to the sleep specialist (www.sleepwell.example)

   o  The transfer of health data only occurs if the application at
      www.pcp.example can verify that www.sleepwell.example is the party
      requesting access and that the authorization token presented by
      www.sleepwell.example is issued by the application at
      www.myhealth.example with a restricted audience of
      www.sleepwell.example

   Requirements:

   o  The application at www.sleepwell.example interacting with
      www.myhealth.example must be able to discover the location of the
      PCP system (e.g., XRD discovery)

   o  The application at www.sleepwell.example must be capable of
      requesting Alice's authorization of access to the application at
      www.pcp.example for the purpose of retrieving basic health data
      (e.g. date-of-birth, weight, height, etc).  The mechanism Alice
      uses to authorize this access is out of scope for this use case

   o  The application at www.myhealth.example must be capable of issuing
      a token bound to www.sleepwell.example for access to the
      application at www.pcp.example.  Note that a signed token (JWT)
      can be used to prove who issued the token

   o  The application at www.sleepwell.example must be capable of
      issuing a request (which includes the token issued by
      www.myhealth.example) to the application at www.pcp.example

   o  The application at www.sleepwell.example must sign the request
      before sending it to www.pcp.example



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   o  The application at www.pcp.example must be capable of receiving
      the request and verifying the signature

   o  The application at www.pcp.example must be capable of parsing the
      message and finding the authorization token

   o  The application at www.pcp.example must be capable of verifying
      the signature of the authorization token

   o  The application at www.pcp.example must be capable of parsing the
      authorization token and verifying that this token was issued to
      the application at www.sleepwell.com

   o  The application at www.pcp.example must be capable of retrieving
      the requested data and returning it to the application at
      www.sleepwell.example

   Note: OAuth 2.0 does not support this use case

2.12.  Signature with asymmetric secret

   Description:

   Alice accesses an application running on a web server at
   www.printphotos.example and instructs it to print her photographs
   that are stored on a server www.storephotos.example.  The application
   at www.printphotos.example, which does not have a shared secret with
   www.storephotos.example, receives Alice's authorization for accessing
   her photographs without learning her authentication credentials with
   www.storephotos.example.

   Pre-conditions:

   o  Alice has registered with www.storephotos.example to enable
      authentication

   o  The application at www.printphotos.example has a private and a
      matching public keys

   Post-conditions:

   A successful procedure results in the application at
   www.printphotos.example receiving an access token from
   www.storephotos.example for accessing the Alice's photographs.

   Requirements:





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   o  The application at www.printphotos.example must be capable of
      issuing the HTTP redirect requests to Alice's user agent - a
      browser

   o  The application at www.storephotos.example must be able to
      authenticate Alice

   o  The application running at www.storephotos.example must be able to
      obtain the public key of the application at
      www.printphotos.example

   o  The application running at www.printphotos.example is required to
      sign using its private key the requests to the application at
      www.storephotos.example

   o  The application at www.storephotos.example must obtain Alice's
      authorization of the access to her photos by
      www.printphotos.example

   o  The application at www.storephotos.example is required to identify
      to Alice the scope of access that www.printphotos.example has
      requested while asking for Alice's authorization

   o  The application at www.storephotos.example must be able to
      authenticate the application at www.printphotos.example by
      validating a signature of its request using the public key of
      www.printphotos.example

   o  The application at www.printphotos.example must provide a callback
      URL to the application at www.storephotos.example (note: the URL
      can be pre-registered with www.storephotos.example)

   o  The application at www.storephotos.example must be capable of
      issuing the HTTP redirect requests to Alice's browser

   o  Alice's manual involvement in the OAuth authorization procedure
      (e.g., entering an URL or a password) should not be required.
      (Alice's authentication to www.storephotos.example is not in the
      OAuth scope)

   Note: OAuth 2.0 does not support this use case


3.  Authors of the use cases

   The major contributors of the use cases are as follows:

   W. Beck, Deutsche Telekom AG



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   G. Brail, Sonoa Systems
   B. de hOra
   B. Eaton, Google
   S. Farrell, NewBay Software
   G. Fletcher, AOL
   Y. Goland, Microsoft
   B. Goldman, Facebook
   E. Hammer-Lahav, Yahoo!
   D. Hardt
   R. Krikorian, Twitter
   T. Lodderstedt, Deutsche Telekom
   E. Maler, PayPal
   D. Recordon, Facebook
   L. Shepard, Facebook
   A. Tom, Yahoo!
   B. Vrancken, Alcatel-Lucent
   Z. Zeltsan, Alcatel-Lucent


4.  Security considerations

   The OAuth 2.0 specification [I-D.ietf-oauth-v2] provides the
   implementers with security guidelines for all OAuth 2.0 client
   profiles.  In addition, a comprehensive OAuth security model and
   background for the protocol design are provided by
   [I-D.ietf-oauth-v2-threatmodel].


5.  IANA considerations

   This Internet Draft includes no request to IANA.


6.  Acknowledgements

   The authors thank Igor Faynberg and Hui-Lan Lu for their invaluable
   help with preparing this document.  Special thanks are to the draft
   reviewers Thomas Hardjono and Melinda Shore, whose suggestions have
   helped to improve the draft.


7.  References

7.1.  Normative References

   [I-D.ietf-oauth-v2]
              Hardt, D., "The OAuth 2.0 Authorization Framework",
              draft-ietf-oauth-v2-31 (work in progress), August 2012.



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7.2.  Informative References

   [I-D.ietf-oauth-v2-threatmodel]
              Lodderstedt, T., McGloin, M., and P. Hunt, "OAuth 2.0
              Threat Model and Security Considerations",
              draft-ietf-oauth-v2-threatmodel-07 (work in progress),
              August 2012.

   [I-D.ietf-oauth-assertions]
              Campbell, B., Mortimore, C., Jones, M., and Y. Goland,
              "Assertion Framework for OAuth 2.0",
              draft-ietf-oauth-assertions-05 (work in progress),
              September 2012.

   [I-D.ietf-oauth-saml2-bearer]
              Campbell, B. and C. Mortimore, "SAML 2.0 Bearer Assertion
              Profiles for OAuth 2.0", draft-ietf-oauth-saml2-bearer-14
              (work in progress), September 2012.

   [I-D.ietf-oauth-jwt-bearer]
              Jones, M., Campbell, B., and C. Mortimore, "JSON Web Token
              (JWT) Bearer Token Profiles for OAuth 2.0",
              draft-ietf-oauth-jwt-bearer-02 (work in progress),
              September 2012.


Authors' Addresses

   George Fletcher
   AOL

   Email: gffletch@aol.com


   Torsten Lodderstedt
   Deutsche Telekom AG

   Email: torsten@lodderstedt.net













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   Zachary Zeltsan
   Alcatel-Lucent
   600 Mountain Avenue
   Murray Hill, New Jersey
   USA

   Phone: +1 908 582 2359
   Email: Zachary.Zeltsan@alcatel-lucent.com











































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