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Versions: 00 01 02 RFC 5674

Network Working Group                                        S. Chisholm
Internet-Draft                                                    Nortel
Intended status: Standards Track                             R. Gerhards
Expires: November 27, 2009                                  Adiscon GmbH
                                                            May 26, 2009


                            Alarms in SYSLOG
                 draft-ietf-opsawg-syslog-alarm-02.txt

Status of this Memo


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   Copyright (c) 2009 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
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Abstract

   This document describes how to send alarm information in syslog.  It
   includes the mapping of ITU perceived severities onto syslog message
   fields and a number of alarm-specific SD-PARAM definitions from X.733
   and the IETF Alarm MIB.


Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  3
   2.  Severity Mapping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  4
   3.  Alarm STRUCTURED-DATA Elements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  5
     3.1.  resource . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  5
     3.2.  probableCause  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  5
     3.3.  perceivedSeverity  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  5
     3.4.  eventType  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  6
     3.5.  trendIndication  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  6
     3.6.  resourceURI  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  6
   4.  Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  8
   5.  Security Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  9
   6.  IANA Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
   7.  Acknowledgments  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
   8.  References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
     8.1.  Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
     8.2.  Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
   Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
   Intellectual Property and Copyright Statements . . . . . . . . . . 14























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1.  Introduction

   In addition to sending out alarm information asynchronously via
   protocols such as SNMP or Netconf, many implementations also log
   alarms via syslog.  This memo defines a set of SD-PARAM to support
   logging and defines a mapping of syslog severity to the severity of
   the alarm.

   The Alarm MIB (RFC 3877) included mandatory alarm fields from X.733
   as well as information from X.736.  In additional, the Alarm MIB
   introduced its own alarm fields.  This memo reuses terminology and
   fields from the Alarm MIB.

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
   document are to be interpreted as described in [RFC2119].

   Alarm related terminology is defined in [RFC3877].

































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2.  Severity Mapping

   The Alarm MIB [RFC3877] defines ITU perceived severities which are
   useful to be able to relate to the syslog message fields,
   particularly in the case where alarms are being logged.  This memo
   describes the representation of ITU perceived severities in
   appropriate syslog fields described in [RFC5424].  Syslog offers both
   a so-called SEVERITY as well as STRUCTURED-DATA.  Due to constraints
   in syslog, there is no one-to-one mapping possible for SEVERITY.  A
   STRUCTURED-DATA element is defined to allow inclusion of the
   unmodified ITU perceived severity.

   Syslog supports severity values different from ITU perceived
   severities.  These are defined in section 6.2.1 of [RFC5424].  The
   mapping shown in table 1 below SHOULD be used to map ITU perceived
   severities to syslog severities.

           ITU Perceived Severity      syslog SEVERITY (Name)
           Critical                    1 (Alert)
           Major                       2 (Critical)
           Minor                       3 (Error)
           Warning                     4 (Warning)
           Indeterminate               5 (Notice)
           Cleared                     5 (Notice)

        Table 1. ITUPerceivedSeverity to syslog SEVERITY mapping.

























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3.  Alarm STRUCTURED-DATA Elements

   STRUCTURED-DATA allows to include any structured information into a
   syslog message.  The following are defined to support structuring
   alarm information.

   o  Resource Under Alarm

   o  Probable Cause

   o  Event Type

   o  Perceived Severity

   o  Trend Indication

   o  Resource URI

   Support of the "alarm" SD-ID is optional, but once supported some of
   the SD-PARARMS are mandatory.

3.1.  resource

   If the "alarm" SD-ID is supported, the "resource" SD-PARAM MUST be
   supported.  This item uniquely identifies the resource under alarm
   within the scope of a network element.

3.2.  probableCause

   If the "alarm" SD-ID is supported, the "probableCause" SD-PARAM MUST
   be supported.  This parameter is the mnemonic associated with the
   IANAItuProbableCause object defined within [RFC3877] and any
   subsequent extensions defined by IANA.  For example,
   IANAItuProbableCause defines a transmission failure to a probable
   cause of 'transmissionError (10)'.  The value of the parameter in
   this case would be 'transmissionError'"

3.3.  perceivedSeverity

   If the "alarm" SD-ID is supported, the "perceivedSeverity" SD-PARAM
   MUST be supported.  Similar to the definition of perceived severity
   in [X.736] and [RFC3877], this object can take the following values:

   o  cleared

   o  indeterminate





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   o  critical

   o  major

   o  minor

   o  warning

   See section 2 for the relationship between this severity and syslog
   severity.

3.4.  eventType

   If the "alarm" SD-ID is supported, the "eventType" SD-PARAM SHOULD be
   supported.  This parameter is the mnemonic associated with the
   IANAItuEventType object defined within [RFC3877] and any subsequent
   extensions defined by IANA.  For example, IANAItuEventType defines a
   environmental alarm to a event type of 'environmentalAlarm (6)'.  The
   value of the parameter in this case would be 'environmentalAlarm'"

3.5.  trendIndication

   If the "alarm" SD-ID is supported, the "trendIndication" SD-PARAM
   SHOULD be supported.  Similar to the definition of perceived severity
   in [X.733] and [RFC3877], this object can take the following values:

   o  moreSevere

   o  noChange

   o  lessSevere

3.6.  resourceURI

   If the "alarm" SD-ID is supported, the "resourceURI" SD-PARAM SHOULD
   be supported.  This item uniquely identifies the resource under
   alarm.

   The value of this field MUST conform to the URI definition in
   [RFC1738] and its updates.  In the case of an SNMP resource, the
   syntax in [RFC4088] MUST be used and "resourceURI" must point to the
   same resource as alarmActiveResourceId [RFC3877] for this alarm.

   Both the "resource" and the "resourceURI" parameters point at the
   resource experiencing the alarm, but the "resourceURI" has syntactic
   constraint requiring it to be a URI.  This makes it easy to correlate
   this syslog alarm with any alarms that are received via other
   protocols, such as SNMP or to use SNMP or other protocols to get



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   additional information about this resource.


















































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4.  Examples

   Example 1 - Mandatory Alarm Information

    <165>1 2003-10-11T22:14:15.003Z mymachine.example.com
    evntslog - ID47 [exampleSDID@32473 iut="3" eventSource=
    "Application" eventID="1011"][alarm resource="su root"
    probableCause="unauthorizedAccessAttempt"
    perceivedSeverity="major"]
    BOMAn application event log entry...

   In this example, extended from [Syslog], the VERSION is 1 and the
   Facility has the value of 4.  The severity is 2.  The message was
   created on 11 October 2003 at 10:14:15pm UTC, 3 milliseconds into the
   next second.  The message originated from a host that identifies
   itself as "mymachine.example.com".  The APP-NAME is "su" and the
   PROCID is unknown.  The MSGID is "ID47".  We have included both the
   structured data from the original example, a single element with the
   value "[exampleSDID@0 iut="3" eventSource="Application"
   eventID="1011"]" and a new one with the alarm information defined in
   this memo.  The alarm SD-ID contains the mandatory SD-PARAMS of
   resource, probableCause and preceivedSeverity.  The MSG itself is "An
   application event log entry..."  The BOM at the beginning of MSG
   indicates UTF-8 encoding.

   Example 2 - Additional Alarm Information

   <165>1 2004-11-10T20:15:15.003Z mymachine.example.com
   evntslog - ID48 [alarm resource="interface 42"
   probableCause="unauthorizedAccessAttempt"
   perceivedSeverity="major"
   eventType="communicationsAlarm"
   resourceURI ="snmp://example.com//1.3.6.1.2.1.2.2.1.1.42"]

   In this example, we include two optional alarm fields - eventType and
   resourceURI.















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5.  Security Considerations

   In addition to general syslog security considerations discussed in
   [RFC5424], the information contained with alarms may provide hackers
   with helpful information about parts of the system currently
   experiencing stress as well as general information about the system
   such as inventory.

   Users should not have access to information in alarms that their
   normal access permissions would not permit if the information was
   accessed in another manner.

   There is no standardized access control model for SYSLOG and hence
   the ability to filter alarms based on a notion of a receiver identity
   is at best implementation specific.




































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6.  IANA Considerations

   IANA is requested to register the SD-IDs and PARAM-NAMEs shown below:

   SD-ID              PARAM-NAME
   alarm                                 OPTIONAL
                      resource           MANDATORY
                      probableCause      MANDATORY
                      perceivedSeverity  MANDATORY
                      eventType          OPTIONAL
                      trendIndication    OPTIONAL
                      resourceURI        OPTIONAL







































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7.  Acknowledgments

   Thanks to members of the Syslog and OPSAWG work group who contributed
   to this specification.  We'd also like to thank Juergen
   Schoenwaelder, Dave Harrington, Wes Hardaker and Randy Presuhn for
   their reviews.













































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8.  References

8.1.  Normative References

   [RFC1738]  Berners-Lee, T., Masinter, L., and M. McCahill, "Uniform
              Resource Locators (URL)", RFC 1738, December 1994.

   [RFC2119]  Bradner, s., "Key words for RFCs to Indicate Requirements
              Levels", RFC 2119, March 1997.

   [RFC3877]  Chisholm, S. and D. Romascanu, "Alarm Management
              Information Base (MIB)", RFC 3877, September 2004.

   [RFC4088]  Black, D., McCloghrie, K., and J. Schoenwaelder, "Uniform
              Resource Identifier (URI) Scheme for the Simple Network
              Management Protocol (SNMP)", RFC 4088, June 2005.

   [RFC5424]  Gerhards, R., "The syslog Protocol", RFC 5424, March 2009.

8.2.  Informative References

   [X.733]    ITU-T, ""Information Technology - Open Systems
              Interconnection - System Management: Alarm Reporting
              Function"", ITU-T X.733, 1992.

   [X.736]    ITU-T, ""Information Technology - Open Systems
              Interconnection - System Management: Security Alarm
              Reporting Function"", ITU-T X.736, 1992.























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Authors' Addresses

   Sharon Chisholm
   Nortel
   3500 Carling Ave
   Nepean, Ontario  K2H 8E9
   Canada

   Email: schishol@nortel.com


   Rainer Gerhards
   Adiscon GmbH
   Mozartstrasse 21
   Grossrinderfeld, BW  97950
   Germany

   Email: rgerhards@adiscon.com

































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