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Versions: 00 01 02 03 04 05 RFC 5675

Network Working Group                                         V. Marinov
Internet-Draft                                          J. Schoenwaelder
Intended status: Standards Track                Jacobs University Bremen
Expires: August 14, 2009                               February 10, 2009


   Mapping Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) Notifications to
                            SYSLOG Messages
                  draft-ietf-opsawg-syslog-snmp-00.txt

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   This Internet-Draft will expire on August 14, 2009.

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Abstract

   This memo defines a mapping from Simple Network Management Protocol



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   (SNMP) notifications to SYSLOG notifications.


Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  3
     1.1.  Conventions  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  3
   2.  Background . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  3
     2.1.  SNMP Notifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  3
     2.2.  SYSLOG Notifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  5
   3.  Mapping SNMP Notifications to SYSLOG Notifications . . . . . .  5
     3.1.  SYSLOG Header  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  7
     3.2.  Structured Data  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  7
     3.3.  MSG Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  9
   4.  Usage Example  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  9
   5.  IANA Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
   6.  Security Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
   7.  Acknowledgments  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
   8.  References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
     8.1.  Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
     8.2.  Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
   Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14





























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1.  Introduction

   SNMP and SYSLOG are two widely used protocols to communicate event
   notifications.  Although co-existence of several management protocols
   in one operational environment is possible, certain environments
   require that all event notifications are collected by a single system
   daemon such as a SYSLOG collector or an SNMP notification receiver
   via a single management protocol.  In such environments, it is
   necessary to translate event notifications between management
   protocols.

   The latest version of SYSLOG, specified in
   [I-D.ietf-syslog-protocol], supports a structured data element
   format.  Structured data elements allow us to map between SNMP
   notifications and SYSLOG messages without losing information.  In
   this memo we specify a concrete mapping from SNMP event notifications
   [RFC3416] into SYSLOG messages [I-D.ietf-syslog-protocol].  We
   specify how the SYSLOG message format should be utilized to carry the
   information contained in an SNMP notification message.  A new SYSLOG
   structured data element is defined which carries the PDU portion of
   an SNMP notification message.

1.1.  Conventions

   A system which has the capability of receiving SNMP notification
   messages from an SNMP Notification Originator and sending the SNMP
   data contained inside in a SYSLOG message format to a SYSLOG receiver
   is referred in this memo as an "snmp-to-syslog translator".  By
   definition, such a system should have an SNMP Notification Receiver
   application and a SYSLOG sender application running in order to be
   able to perform the functions of an "snmp-to-syslog translator".

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
   document are to be interpreted as described in [RFC2119].


2.  Background

2.1.  SNMP Notifications

   A detailed introduction to the SNMP Management Framework can be found
   in [RFC3410].  The SNMP Management Architecture is described in
   [RFC3411].  Managed objects are accessed via a virtual information
   store, termed the Management Information Base or MIB [RFC3418].
   Objects in the MIB are defined using the mechanisms defined in the
   SMI [RFC2578].




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   An SNMP notification message is generated and transmitted by an SNMP
   entity on behalf of a Notification Originator application [RFC3413].
   SNMP notifications are often used to notify a Notification Receiver
   application at a logically remote SNMP entity that an event has
   occurred or that a certain condition is present.  There are two types
   of SNMP protocol operations that are associated with SNMP
   notification messages [RFC3416]:

   o  SNMPv2-Trap-PDU, an unconfirmed notification delivery mechanisms
   o  InformRequest-PDU, a confirmed notification delivery mechanism

   The scopedPDU portion of an SNMPv3 trap or inform message has the
   following format [RFC3412]:

          ScopedPDU ::= SEQUENCE {
              contextEngineID  OCTET STRING,
              contextName      OCTET STRING,
              data             ANY -- e.g., PDUs as defined in [RFC3416]
          }

   The data member of the SEQUENCE ScopedPDU carries a SNMPv2-Trap-PDU
   or an InformRequest-PDU.  They both have the same structure:

        PDUs ::= [7] IMPLICIT SEQUENCE {
            request-id           INTEGER,
            error-status         INTEGER,    -- ignored in notifications
            error-index          INTEGER,    -- ignored in notifications
            variable-bindings    VarBindList
        }

        -- variable binding

        VarBind ::= SEQUENCE {
            name ObjectName,

            CHOICE {
                value          ObjectSyntax,
                unSpecified    NULL,    -- in retrieval requests
                                        -- exceptions in responses
                noSuchObject   [0] IMPLICIT NULL,
                noSuchInstance [1] IMPLICIT NULL,
                endOfMibView   [2] IMPLICIT NULL
            }
        }

        -- variable-binding list

        VarBindList ::= SEQUENCE (SIZE (0..max-bindings)) OF VarBind



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   The first two variable bindings in the variable binding list of an
   SNMPv2-Trap-PDU or InformRequest-PDU are sysUpTime.0 [RFC3418] and
   snmpTrapOID.0 [RFC3418] respectively.  If the OBJECTS clause is
   present in the invocation of the corresponding NOTIFICATION-TYPE
   macro, then each corresponding variable, as instantiated by this
   notification, is copied, in order, to the variable-bindings field.
   If any additional variables are being included (at the option of the
   generating SNMP entity), then each is copied to the variable-bindings
   field.

   In the case of SNMPv1 or SNMPv2c notifications, the contextEngineID
   and the contextName parameters are not present in notification
   messages.  In general, we assume that notifications from an SNMP
   version preceding SNMPv3 are mapped into the notification format used
   by SNMPv3 according to the coexistance rules defined in RFC 3584
   [RFC3584].

2.2.  SYSLOG Notifications

   The SYSLOG protocol is defined in [I-D.ietf-syslog-protocol].  The
   message contains a global header and a number of structured data
   elements.  The ABNF [RFC4234] representation of a SYSLOG message is
   defined in RFC XXXX [I-D.ietf-syslog-protocol].  The relevant
   productions for structured data elements are:

         STRUCTURED-DATA = NILVALUE / 1*SD-ELEMENT
         SD-ELEMENT      = "[" SD-ID *(SP SD-PARAM) "]"
         SD-PARAM        = PARAM-NAME "=" %d34 PARAM-VALUE %d34
         SD-ID           = SD-NAME
         PARAM-NAME      = SD-NAME
         PARAM-VALUE     = UTF-8-STRING ; characters '"', '\' and
                                        ; ']' MUST be escaped.
         SD-NAME         = 1*32PRINTUSASCII
                           ; except '=', SP, ']', %d34 (")

         UTF-8-STRING    = *OCTET ; Any VALID UTF-8 String
                           ; "shortest form" MUST be used

         OCTET           = %d00-255
         SP              = %d32
         PRINTUSASCII    = %d33-126
         NILVALUE        = "-"


3.  Mapping SNMP Notifications to SYSLOG Notifications

   In this section, we define how the scopedPDU portion from a SNMP
   notification message is used to generate a message in the SYSLOG



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   format.  The notification receiver application at the snmp-to-syslog
   translator is listening for incoming notifications.  After a
   notification is received by the SNMP engine the data portion is
   forwarded to the notification receiver application.  The data portion
   contains the scopedPDU portion of the message which is used by the
   SYSLOG sender on the snmp-to-syslog translator to generate a SYSLOG
   notification and send it to a SYSLOG receiver.  A common scenario is
   the following:



                        +-------------------+ snmp        +------------+
                        |                   |notification |snmp        |
 +---------+ syslog     |  +-------------+  |-------------|notification|
 |syslog   |notification|  |syslog sender|  |             |originator  |
 |collector|------------|  +-------------+  |             +------------+
 |         |            |  +------------+   | snmp        +------------+
 |         |            |  |snmp        |   |notification |snmp        |
 +---------+            |  |notification|   |-------------|notification|
                        |  |receiver    |   |             |originator  |
                        |  +------------+   |             +------------+
                        |  snmp-to-syslog   |snmp         +------------+
                        |    translator     |notification |snmp        |
                        |                   |-------------|notification|
                        +-------------------+             |originator  |
                                                          +------------+

   There can be many SNMP notification originators which send SNMP event
   notifications to a snmp-to-syslog translator.  The snmp-to-syslog
   translator extracts the data portion of the notification, generates a
   SYSLOG message, and send the SYSLOG message to a SYSLOG collector,
   which is responsible for collecting and storing all notification
   messages.

   The snmp-to-syslog translator is not transparent for a SYSLOG
   receiver.  The global header of the SYSLOG message generated by the
   snmp-to-syslog translator is filled with parameters that are specific
   for the system running the snmp-to-syslog translator such as its
   hostname, time stamp, etc.  The data portion (scopedPDU for SNMPv3 or
   PDU for SNMPv1/SNMPv2c) of the SNMP notification message is contained
   in the structured data of the SYSLOG message.

   Implementations MUST drop invalid SNMP messages before they are
   passed to the snmp-to-syslog translator.







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3.1.  SYSLOG Header

   The snmp-to-syslog translator fills the HEADER field of a SYSLOG
   message with parameters specific to the system on which it is
   running.  The default facility level for SYSLOG messages containing
   SNMP notifications should be 3, which corresponds to messages
   generated by system daemons.  The default severity level should be 5,
   which correponds to "Notice: normal but significant condition".  If
   the snmp-to-syslog translator has a notion of the type of
   notification that has been received it might choose other values for
   facility and severity level.

   The VERSION, TIMESTAMP, HOSTNAME, APP-NAME, PROCID and MSGID fields
   in the SYSLOG message header are filled with values that are specific
   to the system on which the snmp-to-syslog translator is running.  The
   character set used in the HEADER MUST be seven-bit ASCII in an eight-
   bit field as described in [I-D.ietf-syslog-protocol].

3.2.  Structured Data

   The STRUCTURED-DATA field of a SYSLOG message will contain the
   ScopedPDU (or PDU) portion of the SNMP notification message.  For the
   purpose of carrying SNMP notification data, a new SD-ID element is
   defined.  The ABNF [RFC4234] representation of the new structured
   element is:

     SNMP-SD-ELEMENT = "[" SNMP-SD-ID [CTX] *VARBIND "]"
     SNMP-SD-ID      = %x73.6E.6D.70         ; snmp
     CTX             = CTXENGINE CTXNAME
     CTXENGINE       = SP "ctxEngine=" %d34 HEXSTRING %d34
     CTXNAME         = SP "ctxName=" %d34 PARAM-VALUE %d34
     VARBIND         = SP VARNAME SP [VARLABEL SP] VARVALUE
     VARNAME         = "v=" %d34 OID %d34
     VARLABEL        = "l=" %d34 PARAM-VALUE %d34
     VARVALUE        = VALOID / VALSTRING / VALCOUNTER32 / VALCOUNTER64
                       / VALUNSIGNED32 / VALINTEGER32 / VALIP / VALNULL
                       / VALOPAQUE / VALTIMETICKS

     VALOID          = "o=" %d34 OID %d34
     VALSTRING       = "x=" %d34 HEXSTRING %d34
     VALCOUNTER32    = "c=" %d34 UNSIGNED32 %d34
     VALCOUNTER64    = "C=" %d34 UNSIGNED64 %d34
     VALUNSIGNED32   = "u=" %d34 UNSIGNED32 %d34
     VALINTEGER32    = "d=" %d34 INTEGER32 %d34
     VALIP           = "i=" %d34 IPV4ADDRESS %d34
     VALNULL         = "n=" %d34 NULL %d34
     VALOPAQUE       = "p=" %d34 HEXSTRING %d34
     VALTIMETICKS    = "t=" %d34 UNSIGNED32 %d34



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     OID             = OIDSTART *("." OIDSUBID)
     OIDSTART        = (("0." / "1.")[%d49-51] DIGIT) / ("2." OIDSUBID)
     OIDSUBID        = ZERO / (NONZERODIGIT *DIGIT)

     PARAM-VALUE     = UTF-8-STRING ; characters '"', '\' and
                                    ; ']' MUST be escaped.
     UTF-8-STRING    = *OCTET ; Any VALID UTF-8 String
                              ; "shortest form" MUST be used
     HEXSTRING       = *HEX
     INTEGER32       = ["-"] NONZERODIGIT 0*DIGIT
     UNSIGNED32      = NONZERODIGIT 0*DIGIT
     UNSIGNED64      = NONZERODIGIT 0*DIGIT
     NULL            = ""
     IPV4ADDRESS     = d8 "." d8 "." d8 "." d8

     d8              = DIGIT               ; 0-9
                       / %d49-57 DIGIT       ; 10-99
                       / "1" 2DIGIT          ; 100-199
                       / "2" %d48-52 DIGIT   ; 200-249
                       / "25" %d48-53        ; 250-255

     HEX             = DIGIT / %x41-46 / %x61-66       ; 0-9 / A-F / a-f
     NONZERODIGIT    = %d49-57
     ZERO            = %d48
     DIGIT           = ZERO / NONZERODIGIT
     SP              = %d32

   Each SNMP-SD-ELEMENT starts with a SD-ID="snmp".  The first two
   PARAM-NAME elements are "ctxEngine" and "ctxName".  They must be
   present in an SNMPv3 notification and therefore they must be present
   in a SYSLOG message generated by an snmp-to-syslog translator.  The
   contexdEngineID is encoded as as hexadecimal string and the
   contextName is encoded as a hexadecimal string.

   The remaining parameters correspond to the varbind list elements.
   The name of a varbind is encoded as an OID in dotted notation and the
   values are encoded according to the rules shown in Table 1:














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      +--------------------+------------+--------------------------+
      | SNMP Type          | PARAM-NAME | Value Encoding           |
      +--------------------+------------+--------------------------+
      | OBJECT IDENTIFIER  |      o     | dotted-decimal notation  |
      | OCTET STRING       |      x     | hexadecimal string       |
      | Counter32          |      c     | unsigned decimal number  |
      | Counter64          |      C     | unsigned decimal number  |
      | Unsigned32         |      u     | unsigned decimal number  |
      | INTEGER, Integer32 |      d     | signed decimal number    |
      | IpAddress          |      i     | dotted quad notation     |
      | Opaque             |      p     | hexadecimal (BER) string |
      | TimeTicks          |      t     | unsigned decimal number  |
      | NULL               |      n     | zero-length string       |
      +--------------------+------------+--------------------------+

                Table 1: Mapping of SNMP Types to SD Params

   The SYSLOG message generated by the snmp-to-syslog translator may
   include other structured data elements in its structured part in
   addition to the SNMP-SD-ELEMENT.  These structured data elements are
   included in the SYSLOG message by the SYSLOG sender at the snmp-to-
   syslog translator and must be compliant to the specification in
   [I-D.ietf-syslog-protocol].

   In particular, the parameters in the "origin" SD-ID should identify
   the originator of the SNMP notification.  A suitable value for the
   "ip" parameter may be taken from the snmpTrapAddress varbind if
   present and a suitable value for the "enterpriseId" parameter may be
   extracted from snmpTrapOID varbind.

3.3.  MSG Data

   The MSG part of the SYSLOG message is optional and may contain a
   free-form message that provides a textual description of the SNMP
   event notification.  The character set used in MSG SHOULD be UNICODE,
   encoded using UTF-8 as specified in [RFC3629].  If the sender can not
   encode the MSG in Unicode, it MAY use any other encoding.


4.  Usage Example

   Here we provide an example how an SNMP linkUp trap message is mapped
   into a SYSLOG message by using the mappings defined in Section 3.1
   and Section 3.2.

   The linkUp notification is defined in [RFC2863]:





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 linkUp NOTIFICATION-TYPE
     OBJECTS { ifIndex, ifAdminStatus, ifOperStatus }
     STATUS  current
     DESCRIPTION
             "A linkUp trap signifies that the SNMP entity, acting in an
             agent role, has detected that the ifOperStatus object for
             one of its communication links left the down state and
             transitioned into some other state (but not into the
             notPresent state).  This other state is indicated by the
             included value of ifOperStatus."
     ::= { snmpTraps 4 }

   The scopedPDU portion of an SNMP linkUp trap sent using the SNMPv3
   message format is show below (left columns shows the BER encoding
   while the right column indicates the corresponding ASN.1
   definitions):

   30:7C                                         SEQUENCE {
      04:08:80:00:02:B8:04:61:62:63                800002b804616263
      04:04:63:74:78:31                            "ctx1"
      A7:6A                                        SNMPv2-Trap-PDU {
         02:03:6D:08:67                              INTEGER 7145575
         02:01:00                                    INTEGER 0
         02:01:00                                    INTEGER 0
         30:5D                                       SEQUENCE OF {
            30:0F                                      SEQUENCE {
               06:08:2B:06:01:02:01:01:03:00             sysUpTime.0
               43:03:01:72:8C                            94860 }
            30:17                                      SEQUENCE {
               06:0A:2B:06:01:06:03:01:01:04:01:00       snmpTrapOID.0
               06:09:2B:06:01:06:03:01:01:05:04          linkUp }
            30:0F                                      SEQUENCE {
               06:0A:2B:06:01:02:01:02:02:01:01:03       ifIndex.3
               02:01:03                                  3 }
            30:0F                                      SEQUENCE {
               06:0A:2B:06:01:02:01:02:02:01:07:03       ifAdminStatus.3
               02:01:01                                  up(1) }
            30:0F                                      SEQUENCE {
               06:0A:2B:06:01:02:01:02:02:01:08:03       ifOperStatus.3
               02:01:01                                  up(1) } } } }

   The corresponding SYSLOG message generated by the snmp-to-syslog
   translator is shown below.  (SYSLOG examples should be considered to
   be on one line.  They are wrapped on multiple lines in this document
   for readability purposes only.)






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 <29>1 2003-10-11T22:14:15.003Z mymachine.example.com snmptrapd - ID47
   [snmp ctxEngine="800002b804616263" ctxName="ctx1"
     v="1.3.6.1.2.1.1.3.0" l="sysUpTime.0" d="94860"
     v="1.3.6.1.6.3.1.1.4.1.0" l="snmpTrapOID.0" o="1.3.6.1.6.3.1.1.5.4"
     v="1.3.6.1.2.1.2.2.1.1.3" d="3"
     v="1.3.6.1.2.1.2.2.1.7.3" d="1"
     v="1.3.6.1.2.1.2.2.1.8.3" d="1"]

   The corresponding SYSLOG message has a priority value of 29 which
   means a facility level of 3 (system daemons) and a severity level of
   5 (Notice: Normal but significant condition) according to the
   algorithm for calculation of priority value specified in section
   6.2.1 of [I-D.ietf-syslog-protocol].  The rest of the fields in the
   header of the SYSLOG message are parameters that are specific to the
   system running the snmp-to-syslog translator.  The SYSLOG version is
   1 and the message was generated at 22:14:15.003Z on 2003-10-11T by
   the host "mymachine.example.com".  The application on the snmp-to-
   syslog translator that generated the message was "snmptrapd", there
   is no information about the process id and the message on the snmp-
   to-syslog system is identified with the MSGID of ID47.

   The SYSLOG message contains one structured data element with a SD-ID
   of "snmp" which means that this is the scopedPDU portion of an SNMP
   event notification message.  The data which is contained in the
   notification is associated with the ContextEngineID "123456" and
   ContextName "ctx1".  The request-id of the SNMP notification message
   was "7145575".  Then follows the data portion of the scopedPDU.  The
   first two variables contained in the data portion are always the
   sysUpTime.0 and snmpTrapOID.0.  An snmpTrapOID.0 with a value of
   "1.3.6.1.6.3.1.1.5.4" means that this is a linkUp trap.  The
   parameters v="1.3.6.1.2.1.2.2.1.1.3" d="3" mean that the SNMP
   notification message is carrying the ifIndex object which has a type
   INTEGER and has a value of 3.  The parameters
   v="1.3.6.1.2.1.2.2.1.7.3" d="1" mean that the SNMP notification
   message is carrying the object ifAdminStatus which has type INTEGER
   and a value of 1.  The parameters v="1.3.6.1.2.1.2.2.1.8.3" d="1"
   mean that the SNMP notification message is carrying the object
   ifOperStatus which has type INTEGER and a value of "1".


5.  IANA Considerations

   IANA is requested to register the SD-ID value "snmp" together with
   the PARAM-NAME values specified in Section 3.2 in the registry for
   SYSLOG structured data id values according to section 9 in
   [I-D.ietf-syslog-protocol].





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           SD-ID           PARAM-NAME
           snmp                            OPTIONAL
                           ctxEngine       OPTIONAL
                           ctxName         OPTIONAL
                           v               OPTIONAL
                           l               OPTIONAL
                           o               OPTIONAL
                           x               OPTIONAL
                           c               OPTIONAL
                           C               OPTIONAL
                           u               OPTIONAL
                           d               OPTIONAL
                           i               OPTIONAL
                           n               OPTIONAL
                           p               OPTIONAL
                           t               OPTIONAL


6.  Security Considerations

   The security considerations discussed in [I-D.ietf-syslog-protocol]
   apply to this document.

   The SNMP architecture supports an access control mechanism ensuring
   that SNMP notifications are only sent to receivers who are authorized
   to receive the notification.  Users of this mapping of SNMP
   notifications to SYSLOG messages should enforce a consistent policy
   preventing people from accessing SNMP notifications via the SYSLOG
   mapping that would otherwise not be accessible.


7.  Acknowledgments

   The authors wish to thank Rainer Gerhards and all other people who
   commented on various versions of this proposal.


8.  References

8.1.  Normative References

   [I-D.ietf-syslog-protocol]
              Gerhards, R., "The syslog Protocol", Internet Draft (work
              in progress), September 2007.

   [RFC2119]  Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
              Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997.




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   [RFC3411]  Harrington, D., Presuhn, R., and B. Wijnen, "An
              Architecture for Describing Simple Network Management
              Protocol (SNMP) Management Frameworks", STD 62, RFC 3411,
              December 2002.

   [RFC3412]  Case, J., Harrington, D., Presuhn, R., and B. Wijnen,
              "Message Processing and Dispatching for the Simple Network
              Management Protocol (SNMP)", STD 62, RFC 3412,
              December 2002.

   [RFC3413]  Levi, D., Meyer, P., and B. Stewart, "Simple Network
              Management Protocol (SNMP) Applications", STD 62,
              RFC 3413, December 2002.

   [RFC3416]  Presuhn, R., "Version 2 of the Protocol Operations for the
              Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP)", STD 62,
              RFC 3416, December 2002.

   [RFC3418]  Presuhn, R., "Management Information Base (MIB) for the
              Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP)", STD 62,
              RFC 3418, December 2002.

   [RFC3584]  Frye, R., Levi, D., Routhier, S., and B. Wijnen,
              "Coexistence between Version 1, Version 2, and Version 3
              of the Internet-standard Network Management Framework.",
              BCP 74, RFC 3584, August 2003.

   [RFC4234]  Crocker, D. and P. Overell, "Augmented BNF for Syntax
              Specifications: ABNF", RFC 4234, October 2005.

8.2.  Informative References

   [RFC2578]  McCloghrie, K., Perkins, D., and J. Schoenwaelder,
              "Structure of Management Information Version 2 (SMIv2)",
              RFC 2578, STD 58, April 1999.

   [RFC2863]  McCloghrie, K. and F. Kastenholz, "The Interfaces Group
              MIB", RFC 2863, June 2000.

   [RFC3410]  Case, J., Mundy, R., Partain, D., and B. Stewart,
              "Introduction and Applicability Statements for Internet-
              Standard Management Framework", RFC 3410, December 2002.

   [RFC3629]  Yergeau, F., "UTF-8, a transformation format of ISO
              10646", STD 63, RFC 3629, November 2003.






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Internet-Draft    Mapping SNMP Notifications to SYSLOG     February 2009


Authors' Addresses

   Vladislav Marinov
   Jacobs University Bremen
   Campus Ring 1
   28725 Bremen
   Germany

   Email: v.marinov@jacobs-university.de


   Juergen Schoenwaelder
   Jacobs University Bremen
   Campus Ring 1
   28725 Bremen
   Germany

   Email: j.schoenwaelder@jacobs-university.de

































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