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Versions: (draft-gupta-ospf-ospfv3-auth) 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 RFC 4552

   Network Working Group                                       M. Gupta
   Internet Draft                                                 Nokia
   Document: draft-ietf-ospf-ospfv3-auth-07.txt                N. Melam
   Expires: August 2005                                           Nokia
                                                          February 2005


                 Authentication/Confidentiality for OSPFv3


Status of this Memo

   By submitting this Internet-Draft, each author represents that any
   applicable patent or other IPR claims of which he or she is aware
   have been or will be disclosed, and any of which he or she becomes
   aware will be disclosed, in accordance with Section 6 of RFC 3668.

   Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
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   Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
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   The list of Internet-Draft Shadow Directories can be accessed at
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Abstract

   This document describes means/mechanisms to provide
   authentication/confidentiality to OSPFv3 using an IPv6 AH/ESP
   Extension Header.


Copyright Notice
   Copyright (C) The Internet Society. (2004)


Conventions used in this document

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED",  "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
   document are to be interpreted as described in RFC-2119 [N7].


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Table of Contents

   1. Introduction...................................................2
   2. Transport Mode vs Tunnel Mode..................................2
   3. Authentication.................................................3
   4. Confidentiality................................................3
   5. Distinguishing OSPFv3 from OSPFv2..............................4
   6. IPsec Requirements.............................................4
   7. Key Management.................................................5
   8. SA Granularity and Selectors...................................7
   9. Virtual Links..................................................7
   10. Rekeying......................................................8
      10.1 Rekeying Procedure........................................8
      10.2 KeyRolloverInterval.......................................9
      10.3 Rekeying Interval.........................................9
   11. IPsec rules..................................................10
   12. Entropy of manual keys.......................................11
   13. Replay Protection............................................11
   Security Considerations..........................................11
   Normative References.............................................12
   Informative References...........................................13
   Acknowledgments..................................................13
   Authors' Addresses...............................................14


1. Introduction

   OSPF (Open Shortest Path First) Version 2 [N1] defines fields AuType
   and Authentication in its protocol header in order to provide
   security.  In OSPF for IPv6 (OSPFv3) [N2], both of the authentication
   fields were removed from OSPF headers.  OSPFv3 relies on the IPv6
   Authentication Header (AH) and IPv6 Encapsulating Security Payload
   (ESP) to provide integrity, authentication and/or confidentiality.

   This document describes how IPv6 AH/ESP extension headers can be used
   to provide authentication/confidentiality to OSPFv3.

   It is assumed that the reader is familiar with OSPFv3 [N2], AH [N5],
   ESP [N4], the concept of security associations, tunnel and transport
   mode of IPsec and the key management options available for AH and ESP
   (manual keying [N3] and Internet Key Exchange (IKE)[I1]).


2. Transport Mode vs Tunnel Mode

   Transport mode Security Association (SA) is generally used between
   two hosts or routers/gateways when they are acting as hosts.  SA must


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   be a tunnel mode SA if either end of the security association is a
   router/gateway.  Two hosts MAY establish a tunnel mode SA between
   themselves.  OSPFv3 packets are exchanged between the routers but as
   the packets are destined to the routers, the routers act like hosts
   in this case.  All implementations confirming to this specification
   MUST support Transport mode SA to provide required IPsec security to
   OSPFv3 packets.  They MAY also support Tunnel mode SA to provide
   required IPsec security to OSPFv3 packets.


3. Authentication

   Implementations conforming to this specification MUST support
   Authentication for OSPFv3.

   In order to provide authentication to OSPFv3, ESP MUST be supported
   and AH MAY be supported by the implementation.

   If ESP in transport mode is used, it will provide authentication to
   only OSPFv3 protocol headers but not to the IPv6 header, extension
   headers and options.

   If AH in transport mode is used, it will provide authentication to
   OSPFv3 protocol headers, selected portions of IPv6 header, selected
   portions of extension headers and selected options.

   When OSPFv3 authentication is enabled,

      O OSPFv3 packets that are not protected with AH or ESP MUST be
        silently discarded.

      O OSPFv3 packets that fail the authentication checks MUST be
        silently discarded.


4. Confidentiality

   Implementations conforming to this specification SHOULD support
   confidentiality for OSPFv3.

   If confidentiality is provided, ESP MUST be used.

   When OSPFv3 confidentiality is enabled,

      O OSPFv3 packets that are not protected with ESP MUST be silently
        discarded.

      O OSPFv3 packets that fail the confidentiality checks MUST be
        silently discarded.


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5. Distinguishing OSPFv3 from OSPFv2

   The IP/IPv6 Protocol Type for OSPFv2 and OSPFv3 is same (89) and
   OSPF distinguishes them based on the OSPF header version number.
   However current IPsec standards do not allow using arbitrary protocol
   specific header fields as the selectors.  Therefore, in order to
   distinguish OSPFv3 packets from the OSPFv2 packets, OSPF version
   field in the OSPF header cannot be used.  As OSPFv2 is only for IPv4
   and OSPFv3 is only for IPv6, version field in IP header can be used
   to distinguish OSPFv3 packets from OSPFv2 packets.


6. IPsec Requirements

   In order to implement this specification, the following IPsec
   capabilities are required.

   Transport Mode
      IPsec in transport mode MUST be supported. [N3]

   Traffic Selectors
      The implementation MUST be able to use interface index, source
      address, destination address, protocol and direction for choosing
      the right security action.

   Manual key support
      Manually configured keys MUST be able to secure the specified
      traffic. [N3]

   Encryption and Authentication Algorithms

      The implementation MUST NOT allow the user to choose stream
      ciphers as the encryption algorithm for securing OSPFv3 packets
      as the stream ciphers are not suitable for manual keys.

      Except when in conflict with the above statement, Keywords
      "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHOULD" and "SHOULD NOT" that
      appear in the [N6] document for algorithms to be supported are to
      be interpreted as described in [N7] for OSPFv3 support too.

   Dynamic IPsec rule configuration
      Routing module SHOULD be able to configure, modify and delete
      IPsec rules on the fly.  This is needed mainly for securing
      virtual links.

   Encapsulation of ESP packet



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      IP encapsulation of ESP packets MUST be supported.  For
      simplicity, UDP encapsulation of ESP packets SHOULD NOT be used.

   Different SAs for different DSCPs
      As per [N3], IPsec implementation MUST support the establishment
      and maintenance of multiple SAs between given sender and receiver,
      with the same selectors.  This allows the implementation to put
      traffic of different classes, but with same selector values, on
      different SAs to support QoS appropriately.


7. Key Management

   OSPFv3 exchanges both multicast and unicast packets.  While running
   OSPFv3 over a broadcast interface, the authentication/confidentiality
   required is "one to many".  Since IKE is based on the Diffie-Hellman
   key agreement protocol and works only for two communicating parties,
   it is not possible to use IKE for providing the required "one to
   many" authentication/confidentiality.  This specification mandates
   the usage of Manual Keying to work with the current IPsec
   implementations.  Future specifications can explore the usage of
   protocols like KINK/GSAKMP as and when they are widely available.  In
   manual keying SAs are statically installed on the routers and these
   static SAs are used to authenticate/encrypt the packets.

   The following discussion explains that it is not scalable and
   practically infeasible to use different security associations for
   inbound and outbound traffic in order to provide the required "one to
   many" security.  Therefore, the implementations MUST use manually
   configured keys with same SA for inbound and outbound traffic (as
   shown in Figure 3).




       A                  |
     SAa     ------------>|
     SAb     <------------|
                          |
       B                  |
     SAb     ------------>|
     SAa     <------------|                 Figure: 1
                          |
       C                  |
     SAa/SAb ------------>|
     SAa/SAb <------------|
                          |
                      Broadcast
                       Network


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   If we consider communication between A and B in Figure 1, everything
   seems to be fine.  A uses security association SAa for outbound
   packets and B uses the same for inbound packets and vice versa.  Now
   if we include C in the group and C sends a packet out using SAa then
   only A will be able to understand it or if C sends the packets out
   using SAb then only B will be able to understand it.  Since the
   packets are multicast packets and they are going to be processed by
   both A and B, there is no SA for C to use so that A and B both can
   understand it.

       A                  |
     SAa     ------------>|
     SAb     <------------|
     SAc     <------------|
                          |
       B                  |
     SAb     ------------>|
     SAa     <------------|                 Figure: 2
     SAc     <------------|
                          |
       C                  |
     SAc     ------------>|
     SAa     <------------|
     SAb     <------------|
                          |
                      Broadcast
                       Network


   The problem can be solved by configuring SAs for all the nodes on all
   the nodes as shown in Figure 2.  So A, B and C will use SAa, SAb and
   SAc respectively for outbound traffic.  Each node will lookup the SA
   to be used based on the source (A will use SAb and SAc for packets
   received from B and C respectively).  This solution is not scalable
   and practically infeasible because every node will need to be
   configured with a large number of SAs and addition of a node in the
   network will cause addition of another SA on all the nodes.


      A                   |
     SAs     ------------>|
     SAs     <------------|
                          |
      B                   |
     SAs     ------------>|
     SAs     <------------|                 Figure: 3
                          |


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      C                   |
     SAs     ------------>|
     SAs     <------------|
                          |
                      Broadcast
                       Network

   The problem can also be solved by using the same SA for inbound and
   outbound traffic as shown in Figure 3.


8. SA Granularity and Selectors

   The user SHOULD be given a choice to share the same SA among multiple
   interfaces or using unique SA per interface.

   OSPFv3 supports running multiple instances over one interface using
   the "Instance Id" field contained in the OSPFv3 header.  As IPsec
   does not support arbitrary fields in protocol header to be used as
   the selectors, it is not possible to use different SAs for different
   instances of OSPFv3 running over the same interface.  Therefore, all
   the instances of OSPFv3 running over the same interface will have to
   use the same SA.  In OSPFv3 RFC terminology, SAs are per-link and not
   per-interface.


9. Virtual Links

   Different SA than the SA of underlying interface MUST be provided for
   virtual links.  Packets sent out on virtual links use unicast non-
   link local IPv6 addresses as the IPv6 source address and all the
   other packets use multicast and unicast link local addresses.  This
   difference in the IPv6 source address is used in order to
   differentiate the packets sent on interfaces and virtual links.

   As the end point IP addresses of the virtual links are not known at
   the time of configuration, the secure channel for these packets needs
   to be set up dynamically.  The end point IP addresses of virtual
   links are learned during the routing table build up process.  The
   packet exchange over the virtual links starts only after the
   discovery of end point IP addresses.  In order to provide security to
   these exchanges, the routing module should setup a secure IPsec
   channel dynamically once it acquires the required information.

   According to the OSPFv3 RFC [N2], the virtual neighbor's IP address
   is set to the first prefix with the "LA-bit" set from the list of
   prefixes in intra-area-prefix-LSAs originated by the virtual
   neighbor.  But when it comes to choosing the source address for the
   packets that are sent over the virtual link, the RFC simply suggests


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   using one of the router's own site-local or global IPv6 addresses.
   In order to install the required security rules for virtual links,
   the source address also needs to be predictable.  So the routers that
   implement this specification MUST change the way the source and
   destination addresses are chosen for the packets exchanged over
   virtual links when the security is enabled on that virtual link.

   The first IPv6 address with the "LA-bit" set in the list of prefixes
   advertised in intra-area-prefix-LSAs in the transit area MUST be used
   as the source address for packets exchanged over the virtual link.
   When multiple intra-area-prefix-LSAs are originated they are
   considered as being concatenated and are ordered by ascending Link
   State ID.

   The first IPv6 address with the "LA-bit" set in the list of prefixes
   received in intra-area-prefix-LSAs from the virtual neighbor in the
   transit area MUST be used as the destination address for packets
   exchanged over the virtual link.  When multiple intra-area-prefix-
   LSAs are received they are considered as being concatenated and are
   ordered by ascending Link State ID.

   This makes both the source and destination addresses of the packets
   exchanged over the virtual link, predictable on both the routers for
   security purposes.


10. Rekeying

   To maintain the security of a link, the authentication and encryption
   key values SHOULD be changed from time to time.

10.1 Rekeying Procedure

   The following three-step procedure SHOULD be provided to rekey the
   routers on a link without dropping OSPFv3 protocol packets or
   disrupting the adjacency.

   (1) For every router on the link, create an additional inbound SA for
       the interface being rekeyed using a new SPI and the new key.

   (2) For every router on the link, replace the original outbound SA
       with one using the new SPI and key values.  The SA replacement
       operation should be atomic with respect to sending OSPFv3 packets
       on the link so that no OSPFv3 packets are sent without
       authentication/encryption.

   (3) For every router on the link, remove the original inbound SA.




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   Note that all the routers on the link must complete step 1 before any
   begin step 2.  Likewise, all the routers on the link must complete
   step 2 before any begin step 3.

   One way to control the progression from one step to the next is for
   each router to have a configurable time constant KeyRolloverInterval.
   After the router begins step 1 on a given link, it waits for this
   interval and then moves to step 2.  Likewise, after moving to step 2,
   it waits for this interval and then moves to step 3.

   In order to achieve smooth key transition, all the routers on a link
   should use the same value for KeyRolloverInterval, and should
   initiate the key rollover process within this time period.

   At the end of this procedure, all the routers will have a single
   inbound and outbound SA for OSPFv3 on the link with the new SPI and
   key values.

10.2 KeyRolloverInterval

   The configured value of KeyRolloverInterval should be long enough to
   allow the administrator to change keys on all the involved routers.
   As this value can vary significantly depending upon the
   implementation and the deployment, it is left to the administrator to
   choose the appropriate value.

10.3 Rekeying Interval

   This section analyzes the security provided by the manual keying and
   recommends that the encryption and authentication keys SHOULD be
   changed at least every 90 days.

   The weakest security provided by the security mechanisms discussed in
   this specification is when NULL encryption (for ESP) or no encryption
   (for AH) is used with the HMAC-MD5 authentication.  Any other
   algorithm combinations will at least be as hard to break as the one
   mentioned above as shown by the following examples:

   O NULL Encryption and HMAC-SHA-1 Authentication will be more secure
   as HMAC-SHA-1 is considered to be more secure than HMAC-MD5

   O NON-NULL Encryption and NULL Authentication is not applicable as
   this specification mandates the authentication when OSPFv3 security
   is enabled

   O DES Encryption and HMAC-MD5 Authentication will be more secure
   because of the additional security provided by DES




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   O Other encryption algorithms like 3DES, AES will be more secure than
   DES

   RFC 3562 [I4] analyzes the rekeying requirements for the TCP MD5
   signature option.  The analysis provided in this RFC is also
   applicable to OSPFv3 security specification as the analysis is
   independent of data patterns.

11. IPsec rules

   The following set of transport mode rules can be installed in a
   typical IPsec implementation to provide the
   authentication/confidentiality to OSPFv3 packets.

   Outbound Rules for interface running OSPFv3 security:

   No.  source       destination      protocol               action
   1   fe80::/10        any             OSPF                 apply

   Outbound Rules for virtual links running OSPFv3 security:

   No.  source       destination      protocol               action
   2    src/128       dst/128           OSPF                 apply

   Inbound Rules for interface running OSPFv3 security:

   No.  source       destination      protocol                action
   3   fe80::/10        any       ESP/OSPF or AH/OSPF         apply
   4   fe80::/10        any             OSPF                  drop

   Inbound Rules for virtual links running OSPFv3 security:

   No.  source       destination      protocol                action
   5    src/128       dst/128     ESP/OSPF or AH/OSPF         apply
   6    src/128       dst/128           OSPF                  drop


   For outbound rules, action "apply" means encrypting/calculating ICV
   and adding ESP or AH header.  For inbound rules, action "apply" means
   decrypting/authenticating the packets and stripping ESP or AH header.

   Rules 4 and 6 are to drop the insecure OSPFv3 packets without ESP/AH
   headers.

   ESP/OSPF or AH/OSPF in rules 3 and 5 mean that it is an OSPF packet
   secured with ESP or AH.

   Rules 1, 3 and 4 are meant to secure the unicast and multicast OSPF
   packets that are not being exchanged over the virtual links.  These


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   rules MUST be installed only in the security policy database (SPD) of
   the interface running OSPFv3 security.

   Rules 2, 5 and 6 are meant to secure the packets being exchanged over
   virtual links.  These rules are dynamically installed after learning
   the end point IP addresses of a virtual link.  These rules MUST be
   installed on at least the interfaces that are connected to the
   transit area for the virtual link.  These rules MAY alternatively be
   installed on all the interfaces.  If these rules are not installed on
   all the interfaces, clear text or malicious OSPFv3 packets with same
   source and destination addresses as virtual link end point addresses
   will be delivered to OSPFv3.  Though OSPFv3 drops these packets
   because they were not received on the right interface, OSPFv3
   receives some clear text or malicious packets even when the security
   is on.  Installing these rules on all the interfaces insures that
   OSPFv3 does not receive these clear text or malicious packets when
   security is turned on.  On the other hand installing these rules on
   all the interfaces increases the processing overhead on the
   interfaces where there is no IPsec processing otherwise.  The
   decision of installing these rules on all the interfaces or on just
   the interfaces that are connected to the transit area is a private
   decision and doesn't affect the interoperability in any way.  So this
   decision is left to the implementers.


12. Entropy of manual keys
   The implementations MUST allow the administrator to configure the
   cryptographic and authentication keys in hexadecimal format instead
   of restricting it a subset of ASCII characters (letters, numbers
   etc).  Otherwise the entropy of the keys reduces significantly as
   discussed in [I2].

13. Replay Protection

   As it is not possible as per the current standards to provide
   complete replay protection while using manual keying, the proposed
   solution will not provide protection against replay attacks.

   Detailed analysis of various vulnerabilities of the routing protocols
   and OSPF in particular is discussed in [I3] and [I2], but it can be
   summarized that "Replay of OSPF packets can cause adjacencies to be
   disrupted, which can lead to DoS attack on the network. It can also
   cause database exchange process to occur continuously thus causing
   CPU overload as well as micro loops in the network".

Security Considerations





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   This memo discusses the use of IPsec AH and ESP headers in order to
   provide security to OSPFv3 for IPv6.  Hence security permeates
   throughout this document.

   OSPF Security Vulnerabilities Analysis [I2] identifies OSPF
   vulnerabilities in two scenarios - One with no authentication or
   simple password authentication and the other with cryptographic
   authentication.  The solution described in this specification
   provides security against all the vulnerabilities identified for
   scenario with cryptographic authentication with the following
   exceptions:

   Limitations of manual key:
   This specification mandates the usage of manual keys.  The following
   are the known limitations of the usage of manual keys.

     O As the sequence numbers can not be negotiated, replay protection
       can not be provided.  This leaves OSPF insecure against all the
       attacks that can be performed by replaying OSPF packets.

     O Manual keys are usually long lived (changing them very often is
       a tedious task).  This gives an attacker enough time to discover
       the keys.

     O As the administrator is manually configuring the keys, there is
       a chance that the configured keys are weak (there are known weak
       keys for DES/3DES at least).

   Impersonating Attacks:
   The usage of the same key on all the routers on the same link for
   securing OSPF leaves it insecure against impersonating attacks if one
   of the routers is compromised, malfunctioning or misconfigured.

   Detailed analysis of various vulnerabilities of the routing protocols
   is discussed in [I3].


Normative References

  N1. Moy, J., "OSPF version 2", RFC 2328, April 1998.

  N2. Coltun, R., Ferguson, D. and J. Moy, "OSPF for IPv6", RFC 2740,
     December 1999.

  N3. Kent, S. and K. Seo, "Security Architecture for the Internet
     Protocol", RFC XXXX, date [Note to RFC-Editor: Replace XXXX with
     the number of the RFC 2401 replacement].




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  N4. Kent, S., "IP Encapsulating Security Payload (ESP)", RFC XXXY,
     date [Note to RFC-Editor: Replace XXXY with the number of the RFC
     2406 replacement].

  N5. Kent, S., "IP Authentication Header (AH)", RFC XXXZ, date [Note to
     RFC-Editor: Replace XXXZ with the number of the RFC 2402
     replacement].

  N6. Eastlake, D., "Cryptographic Algorithm Implementation Requirements
     For ESP And AH", RFC XXYY, date [Note to RFC-Editor: Replace XXYY
     with the number of the RFC that the draft draft-ietf-ipsec-esp-ah-
     algorithms-02.txt gets].

  N7. Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate Requirement
     Level", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997.

  N8. Frankel, S., Glenn, R. and S. Kelly, "The AES-CBC Cipher Algorithm
     and Its Use with IPsec", RFC 3602, September 2003.

  N9. Madson, C. and R. Glenn, "The Use of HMAC-SHA-1-96 within ESP and
     AH", RFC 2404, November 1998.

Informative References

  I1. Kaufman, C., "The Internet Key Exchange (IKEv2) Protocol", RFC
     XXZZ, date [Note to RFC-Editor: Replace XXZZ with the number of the
     RFC 2409 replacement].

  I2. Jones, E. and O. Moigne, "OSPF Security Vulnerabilities Analysis",
     draft-ietf-rpsec-ospf-vuln-01.txt, work in progress.

  I3. Barbir, A., Murphy, S. and Y. Yang, "Generic Threats to Routing
     Protocols", draft-ietf-rpsec-routing-threats-07.txt, work in
     progress.

  I4. Leech, M., "Key Management Considerations for the TCP MD5
     Signature Option", RFC 3562, July 2003.


Acknowledgments

   Authors would like to extend sincere thanks to Marc Solsona, Janne
   Peltonen, John Cruz, Dhaval Shah, Abhay Roy, Paul Wells and Vishwas
   Manral for providing useful information and critiques in order to
   write this memo.

   We would also like to thank IPsec and OSPF WG people to provide
   valuable review comments.



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Authors' Addresses

   Mukesh Gupta
   Nokia
   313 Fairchild Drive
   Mountain View, CA 94043
   Phone: 650-625-2264
   Email: Mukesh.Gupta@nokia.com

   Nagavenkata Suresh Melam
   Nokia
   313 Fairchild Drive
   Mountain View, CA 94043
   Phone: 650-625-2949
   Email: Nagavenkata.Melam@nokia.com


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   bring to its attention any copyrights, patents or patent
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   that may be required to implement this standard.  Please address the
   information to the IETF at ietf-ipr@ietf.org.















































M. Gupta/N. Melam        Expires - April 2005                [Page 15]


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