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Versions: (draft-willis-p2psip-concepts) 00 01 02 03 04 05 06

P2PSIP Working Group                                            D. Bryan
Internet-Draft                                    SIPeerior Technologies
Intended status: Informational                               P. Matthews
Expires: January 8, 2009                                    Unaffiliated
                                                                 E. Shim
                                                Locus Telecommunications
                                                               D. Willis
                                                       Softarmor Systems
                                                              S. Dawkins
                                                            Huawei (USA)
                                                            July 7, 2008


             Concepts and Terminology for Peer to Peer SIP
                     draft-ietf-p2psip-concepts-02

Status of this Memo

   By submitting this Internet-Draft, each author represents that any
   applicable patent or other IPR claims of which he or she is aware
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   Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
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   This Internet-Draft will expire on January 8, 2009.

Abstract

   This document defines concepts and terminology for use of the Session
   Initiation Protocol in a peer-to-peer environment where the
   traditional proxy-registrar and message routing functions are
   replaced by a distributed mechanism implemented using a distributed
   hash table or other distributed data mechanism with similar external



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   properties.  This document includes a high-level view of the
   functional relationships between the network elements defined herein,
   a conceptual model of operations, and an outline of the related open
   problems being addressed by the P2PSIP working group.  As this
   document matures, it is expected to define the general framework for
   P2PSIP.


Table of Contents

   1.  Author's Notes and Changes To This Version . . . . . . . . . .  4
     1.1.  Author's Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  4
     1.2.  Changes from Previous Version  . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  4

   2.  Background . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  4

   3.  High Level Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  5
     3.1.  Services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  6
     3.2.  Clients  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  6
     3.3.  Protocol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  6
     3.4.  Relationship of Peer and Client Protocols  . . . . . . . .  7
     3.5.  Relationship Between P2PSIP and SIP  . . . . . . . . . . .  7
     3.6.  Relationship Between P2PSIP and Other AoR
           Dereferencing Approaches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  7
     3.7.  NAT Issues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  7

   4.  Reference Model  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  8

   5.  Definitions  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10

   6.  Discussion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
     6.1.  The Distributed Database Function  . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
     6.2.  Using the Distributed Database Function  . . . . . . . . . 16
     6.3.  NAT Traversal  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
     6.4.  Locating and Joining an Overlay  . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
     6.5.  Possible Client Behavior . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
     6.6.  Interacting with non-P2PSIP entities . . . . . . . . . . . 22
     6.7.  Architecture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23

   7.  Additional Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
     7.1.  Selecting between Multiple Peers offering the Same
           Service  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
     7.2.  Visibility of Messages to Intermediate Peers . . . . . . . 25
     7.3.  Using C/S SIP and P2PSIP Simultaneously in a Single UA . . 25
     7.4.  Clients, Peers, and Services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
     7.5.  Relationships of Domains to Overlays . . . . . . . . . . . 25

   8.  Security Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26



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   9.  IANA Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26

   10. Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26

   11. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
     11.1. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
     11.2. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27

   Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
   Intellectual Property and Copyright Statements . . . . . . . . . . 30









































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1.  Author's Notes and Changes To This Version

1.1.  Author's Notes

   The editors are currently considering a rather substantial revision
   to this document to better reflect the evolving direction of the
   working group.  This version incorporates only minor revisions from
   the -01 version of the document.

   In particular, the authors intend to make the following more
   substantial changes, and solicit the opinion of the WG on these
   changes, as well as to solicit suggestions for text for the new
   sections:

   o  Document the current view of the working group that the protocols
      being developed in P2PSIP should be more broadly applicable than
      just for peer-to-peer networks of SIP endpoints.

   o  The authors plan to add a section that documents the history of
      various design decisions, and at the same time remove this
      discussion from other parts of the text.  The authors feel that
      this historical information is important, but also feel that a
      reader needs to be able to quickly see what the current state of
      the P2PSIP work is today.  An exception would be an early
      explanation of the fact that P2PSIP doesn't use SIP for the peer
      protocol, a frequent source of confusion to many people new to the
      WG.

   o  The definition text is somewhat out of date, and should be revised
      (with some terms added and others eliminated, as appropriate)

   o  Incorporate the descriptions of the applications scenarios
      currently described in draft-bryan-p2psip-app-scenarios-00 into
      this document.

1.2.  Changes from Previous Version

   Changes to this version include removal of the prefix "P2PSIP" before
   each definition, and clarification on the issue of clients,
   reflecting the consensus of the WG.


2.  Background

   One of the fundamental problems in multimedia communication between
   Internet nodes is that of discovering the host at which a given user
   can be reached.  In the Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) [RFC3261]
   this problem is expressed as the problem of mapping an Address of



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   Record (AoR) for a user into one or more Contact URIs [RFC3986].  The
   AoR is a name for the user that is independent of the host or hosts
   where the user can be contacted, while a Contact URI indicates the
   host where the user can be contacted.

   In the common SIP-using architectures that we refer to as
   "Conventional SIP" or "Client/Server SIP", there is a relatively
   fixed hierarchy of SIP routing proxies and SIP user agents.  To
   deliver a SIP INVITE to the host or hosts at which the user can be
   contacted, a SIP UA follows the procedures specified in [RFC3263] to
   determine the IP address of a SIP proxy, and then sends the INVITE to
   that proxy.  The proxy will then, in turn, deliver the SIP INVITE to
   the hosts where the user can be contacted.

   This document gives a high-level description of an alternative
   solution to this problem.  In this alternative solution, the
   relatively fixed hierarchy of Client/Server SIP is replaced by a
   peer-to-peer overlay network.  In this peer-to-peer overlay network,
   the various AoR to Contact URI mappings are not centralized at proxy/
   registrar nodes but are instead distributed amongst the peers in the
   overlay.

   The details of this alternative solution are currently being worked
   out in the P2PSIP working group.  This document describes the basic
   concepts of such a peer-to-peer overlay, and lists the open questions
   that still need to be resolved.  As the work proceeds, it is expected
   that this document will develop into a high-level architecture
   document for the solution.


3.  High Level Description

   A P2PSIP Overlay is a collection of nodes organized in a peer-to-peer
   fashion for the purpose of enabling real-time communication using the
   Session Initiation Protocol (SIP).  Collectively, the nodes in the
   overlay provide a distributed mechanism for mapping names to overlay
   locations.  This provides for the mapping of Addresses of Record
   (AoRs) to Contact URIs, thereby providing the "location server"
   function of [RFC3261].  An Overlay also provides a transport function
   by which SIP messages can be transported between any two nodes in the
   overlay.

   A P2PSIP Overlay consists of one or more nodes called Peers.  The
   peers in the overlay collectively run a distributed database
   algorithm.  This distributed database algorithm allows data to be
   stored on peers and retrieved in an efficient manner.  It may also
   ensure that a copy of a data item is stored on more than one peer, so
   that the loss of a peer does not result in the loss of the data item



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   to the overlay.

   One use of this distributed database is to store the information
   required to provide the mapping between AoRs and Contact URIs for the
   distributed location function.  This provides a location function
   within each overlay that is an alternative to the location functions
   described in [RFC3263].  However, the model of [RFC3263] is used
   between overlays.

3.1.  Services

   The nature of peer-to-peer computing is that each peer offers
   services to other peers to allow the overlay to collectively provide
   larger functions.  In P2PSIP, peers offer storage and transport
   services to allow the distributed database function and distributed
   transport function to be implemented.  It is expected that individual
   peers may also offer other services.  Some of these additional
   services (for example, a STUN server service
   [I-D.ietf-behave-rfc3489bis]) may be required to allow the overlay to
   form and operate, while others (for example, a voicemail service) may
   be enhancements to the basic P2PSIP functionality.

   To allow peers to offer these additional services, the distributed
   database may need to store information about services.  For example,
   it may need to store information about which peers offer which
   services, and perhaps what sort of capacity each peer has for
   delivering each listed service.

3.2.  Clients

   An overlay may or may not also include one or more nodes called
   clients.  The role of a client in the P2PSIP model is still under
   discussion, with a number of suggestions for roles being put forth.
   The group has reached consensus that clients will be able to store
   and retrieve information from the overlay.  Section 6.5 discusses the
   possible roles of a client in more detail.

3.3.  Protocol

   Peers in an overlay need to speak some protocol between themselves to
   maintain the overlay and to store and retrieve data.  Until a better
   name is found, this protocol has been dubbed the P2PSIP Peer
   Protocol.  While the use of SIP for this protocol was proposed as the
   working group was forming, the group is currently working toward a
   new protocol.






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3.4.  Relationship of Peer and Client Protocols

   To allow clients to communicate with peers, another protocol is
   required.  Until a better name is found, this protocol has been
   dubbed the P2PSIP Client Protocol.  The details of this protocol are
   also very much under debate.  However, if the client protocol exists,
   then it is agreed that it should be a logical subset of the peer
   protocol.  In other words, the syntax of the peer and client
   protocols may be completely different, but any operation supported by
   client protocol is also supported by the peer protocol.  This implies
   that clients cannot do anything that peers cannot also do.

3.5.  Relationship Between P2PSIP and SIP

   Since P2PSIP is about peer-to-peer networks for real-time
   communication, it is expected that most (if not all) peers and
   clients will be coupled with SIP entities.  For example, one peer
   might be coupled with a SIP UA, another might be coupled with a SIP
   proxy, while a third might be coupled with a SIP-to-PSTN gateway.
   For such nodes, we think of the peer or client portion of the node as
   being distinct from the SIP entity portion.  However, there is no
   hard requirement that every P2PSIP node (peer or client) be coupled
   to a SIP entity, and some proposed architectures include peer nodes
   that have no SIP function whatsoever.

3.6.  Relationship Between P2PSIP and Other AoR Dereferencing Approaches

   As noted above, the fundamental task of P2PSIP is turning an AoR into
   a Contact.  This task might be approached using zeroconf techniques
   such as multicast DNS and DNS Service Discovery (as in Apple's
   Bonjour protocol), link-local multicast name resolution [RFC4795],
   and dynamic DNS [RFC2136].

   These alternatives were discussed in the P2PSIP Working Group, and
   not pursued as a general solution for a number of reasons related to
   scalability, the ability to work in a disconnected state, partition
   recovery, and so on.  However, there does seem to be some continuing
   interest in the possibility of using DNS-SD and mDNS for
   bootstrapping of P2PSIP overlays.

3.7.  NAT Issues

   Network Address Translators (NATs) are impediments to establishing
   and maintaining peer-to-peer networks, since NATs hinder direct
   communication between peers.  Some peer-to-peer network architectures
   avoid this problem by insisting that all peers exist in the same
   address space.  However, in the P2PSIP model, it has been agreed that
   peers can live in multiple address spaces interconnected by NATs.



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   This implies that Peer Protocol connections must be able to traverse
   NATs.  It also means that the peers must collectively provide a
   distributed transport function that allows a peer to send a SIP
   message to any other peer in the overlay - without this function two
   peers in different IP address spaces might not be able to exchange
   SIP messages.


4.  Reference Model

   The following diagram shows a P2PSIP Overlay consisting of a number
   of Peers, one Client, and an ordinary SIP UA.  It illustrates a
   typical P2PSIP overlay but does not limit other compositions or
   variations; for example, Proxy Peer P might also talk to a ordinary
   SIP proxy as well.  The figure is not intended to cover all possible
   architecture variations in this document.



































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                                                  --->PSTN
     +------+    N     +------+     +---------+  /
     |      |    A     |      |     | Gateway |-/
     |  UA  |####T#####|  UA  |#####|   Peer  |########
     | Peer |    N     | Peer |     |    G    |       #   P2PSIP
     |  E   |    A     |  F   |     +---------+       #   Client
     |      |    T     |      |                       #   Protocol
     +------+    N     +------+                       #    |
        #        A                                    #    |
      NATNATNATNAT                                    #    |
        #                                             #    |   \__/
      NATNATNATNAT                              +-------+  v   /  \
        #        N                              |       |=====/ UA \
     +------+    A       P2PSIP Overlay         | Peer  |    /Client\
     |      |    T                              |   Q   |    |___C__|
     |  UA  |    N                              |       |
     | Peer |    A                              +-------+
     |  D   |    T                                    #
     |      |    N                                    #
     +------+    A                                    # P2PSIP
        #        T                                    # Peer
        #        N    +-------+        +-------+      # Protocol
        #        A    |       |        |       |      #
        #########T####| Proxy |########| Redir |#######
                 N    | Peer  |        | Peer  |
                 A    |   P   |        |   R   |
                 T    +-------+        +-------+
                        |                 /
                        | SIP            /
                  \__/  /               /
                   /\  / ______________/ SIP
                  /  \/ /
                 / UA \/
                /______\
                SIP UA A


   Figure: P2PSIP Overlay Reference Model

   Here, the large perimeter depicted by "#" represents a stylized view
   of the Overlay (the actual connections could be a mesh, a ring, or
   some other structure).  Around the periphery of the Overlay
   rectangle, we have a number of Peers.  Each peer is labeled with its
   coupled SIP entity -- for example, "Proxy Peer P" means that peer P
   which is coupled with a SIP proxy.  In some cases, a peer or client
   might be coupled with two or more SIP entities.  In this diagram we
   have a PSTN gateway coupled with peer "G", three peers ("D", "E" and
   "F") which are each coupled with a UA, a peer "P" which is coupled



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   with a SIP proxy, an ordinary peer "Q", and one peer "R" which is
   coupled with a SIP Redirector.  Note that because these are all
   Peers, each is responsible for storing Resource Records and
   transporting messages around the Overlay.

   To the left, two of the peers ("D" and "E") are behind network
   address translators (NATs).  These peers are included in the P2PSIP
   overlay and thus participate in storing resource records and routing
   messages, despite being behind the NATs.

   Below the Overlay, we have a conventional SIP UA "A" which is not
   part of the Overlay, either directly as a peer or indirectly as a
   client.  It speaks neither the Peer nor Client protocols.  Instead,
   it uses SIP to interact with the Overlay.

   On the right side, we have a client "C", which uses the Client
   Protocol depicted by "=" to communicate with Proxy Peer "Q".  The
   Client "C" could communicate with a different peer, for example peer
   "F", if it establishes a connection to "F" instead of or in addition
   to "Q".  The exact role that this client plays in the network is
   still under discussion (see Section 6.5).

   Both the SIP proxy coupled with peer "P" and the SIP redirector
   coupled with peer "R" can serve as adapters between ordinary SIP
   devices and the Overlay.  Each accepts standard SIP requests and
   resolves the next-hop by using the P2PSIP overlay Peer Protocol to
   interact with the routing knowledge of the Overlay, then processes
   the SIP requests as appropriate (proxying or redirecting towards the
   next-hop).  Note that proxy operation is bidirectional - the proxy
   may be forwarding a request from an ordinary SIP device to the
   Overlay, or from the P2PSIP overlay to an ordinary SIP device.

   The PSTN Gateway at peer "G" provides a similar sort of adaptation to
   and from the public switched telephone network (PSTN).


5.  Definitions

   This section defines a number of concepts that are key to
   understanding the P2PSIP work.

   Overlay Network:  An overlay network is a computer network which is
      built on top of another network.  Nodes in the overlay can be
      thought of as being connected by virtual or logical links, each of
      which corresponds to a path, perhaps through many physical links,
      in the underlying network.  For example, many peer-to-peer
      networks are overlay networks because they run on top of the
      Internet.  Dial-up Internet is an overlay upon the telephone



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      network. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/P2P_overlay>

   P2P Network:  A peer-to-peer (or P2P) computer network is a network
      that relies primarily on the computing power and bandwidth of the
      participants in the network rather than concentrating it in a
      relatively low number of servers.  P2P networks are typically used
      for connecting nodes via largely ad hoc connections.  Such
      networks are useful for many purposes.  Sharing content files (see
      <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File_sharing>) containing audio,
      video, data or anything in digital format is very common, and
      realtime data, such as telephony traffic, is also exchanged using
      P2P technology. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Peer-to-peer>.  A
      P2P Network may also be called a "P2P Overlay" or "P2P Overlay
      Network" or "P2P Network Overlay", since its organization is not
      at the physical layer, but is instead "on top of" an existing
      Internet Protocol network.

   P2PSIP:  A suite of communications protocols related to the Session
      Initiation Protocol (SIP) [RFC3261] that enable SIP to use peer-
      to-peer techniques for resolving the targets of SIP requests,
      providing SIP message transport, and providing other SIP-related
      functions.  The exact contents of this protocol suite are still
      under discussion, but is likely to include the P2PSIP Peer
      Protocol and may include a P2PSIP Client Protocol (see definitions
      below).

   User:  A human that interacts with the overlay through SIP UAs
      located on peers and clients (and perhaps other ways).

      The following terms are defined here only within the scope of
      P2PSIP.  These terms may have conflicting definitions in other
      bodies of literature.  Some earlier versions of this document
      prefixed each term with "P2PSIP" to clarify the term's scope.
      This prefixing has been eliminated from the text; however the
      scoping still applies.

   Overlay Name:  A human-friendly name that identifies a specific
      P2PSIP Overlay.  This is in the format of (a portion of) a URI,
      but may or may not have a related record in the DNS.

   Peer:  A node participating in a P2PSIP Overlay that provides storage
      and transport services to other nodes in that P2PSIP Overlay.
      Each Peer has a unique identifier, known as a Peer-ID, within the
      Overlay.  Each Peer may be coupled to one or more SIP entities.
      Within the Overlay, the peer is capable of performing several
      different operations, including: joining and leaving the overlay,
      transporting SIP messages within the overlay, storing information
      on behalf of the overlay, putting information into the overlay,



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      and getting information from the overlay.

   Peer-ID:  Information that uniquely identifies each Peer within a
      given Overlay.  This value is not human-friendly -- in a DHT
      approach, this is a numeric value in the hash space.  These Peer-
      IDs are completely independent of the identifier of any user of a
      user agent associated with a peer.  (Note: This is often called a
      "Node-ID" in the P2P literature).

   Client:  A node participating in a P2PSIP Overlay that is less
      capable than a Peer in some way.  The role of a Client is still
      under debate, with a number of competing proposals (see the
      discussion on this later in the document).  It has been agreed
      that they do have the ability to add, modify, inspect, and delete
      information in the overlay.  Note that the term client does not
      imply that this node is a SIP UAC.  Some have suggested that the
      word 'client' be changed to something else to avoid both this
      confusion and the implication of a client-server relationship.

   User Name:  A human-friendly name for a user.  This name must be
      unique within the overlay, but may be unique in a wider scope.
      User Names are formatted so that they can be used within a URI
      (likely a SIP URI), perhaps in combination with the Overlay Name.

   Service:  A capability contributed by a peer to an overlay or to the
      members of an overlay.  It is expected that not all peers and
      clients will offer the same set of services, so a means of finding
      peers (and perhaps clients) that offer a particular service is
      required.  Services might include routing of requests, storing of
      routing data, storing of other data, STUN discovery, STUN relay,
      and many other things.  This model posits a requirement for a
      service locator function, possibly including supporting
      information such as the capacity of a peer to provide a specific
      service or descriptions of the policies under which a peer will
      provide that service.  We currently expect that we will need to be
      able to search for available service providers within each
      overlay.  We think we might need to be able to make searches based
      on network locality or path minimalization.

   Service Name:  A unique, human-friendly, name for a service.

   Resource:  Anything about which information can be stored in the
      overlay.  Both Users and Services are examples of Resources.

   Resource-ID:  A non-human-friendly value that uniquely identifies a
      resource and which is used as a key for storing and retrieving
      data about the resource.  One way to generate a Resource-ID is by
      applying a mapping function to some other unique name (e.g., User



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      Name or Service Name) for the resource.  The Resource-ID is used
      by the distributed database algorithm to determine the peer or
      peers that are responsible for storing the data for the overlay.

   Resource Record:  A block of data, stored using distributed database
      mechanism of the Overlay, that includes information relevant to a
      specific resource.  We presume that there may be multiple types of
      resource records.  Some may hold data about Users, and others may
      hold data about Services, and the working group may define other
      types.  The types, usages, and formats of the records are a
      question for future study.

   Responsible Peer  The Peer that is responsible for storing the
      Resource Record for a Resource.  In the literature, the term "Root
      Peer" is also used for this concept.

   Peer Protocol:  The protocol spoken between P2PSIP Overlay peers to
      share information and organize the P2PSIP Overlay Network.

   Client Protocol:  The protocol spoken between Clients and Peers.  It
      is used to store and retrieve information from the P2P Overlay.
      The nature of this protocol, and even its existence, is under
      discussion.  However, if it exists, it has been agreed that the
      Client Protocol is a functional subset of the P2P Peer Protocol,
      but may differ in syntax and protocol implementation (i.e., may
      not be syntactically related).

   Peer Protocol Connection / P2PSIP Client Protocol Connection:  The
      TCP, UDP or other transport layer protocol connection over which
      the Peer Protocol (or respectively the Client protocol) is
      transported.

   Neighbors:  The set of P2PSIP Peers that either a Peer or Client know
      of directly and can reach without further lookups.

   Joining Peer:  A node that is attempting to become a Peer in a
      particular Overlay.

   Bootstrap Peer:  A Peer in the Overlay that is the first point of
      contact for a Joining Peer.  It selects the peer that will serve
      as the Admitting Peer and helps the joining peer contact the
      admitting peer.

   Admitting Peer:  A Peer in the Overlay which helps the Joining Peer
      join the Overlay.  The choice of the admitting peer may depend on
      the joining peer (e.g., depend on the joining peer's Peer-ID).
      For example, the admitting peer might be chosen as the peer which
      is "closest" in the logical structure of the overlay to the future



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      position of the joining peer.  The selection of the admitting peer
      is typically done by the bootstrap peer.  It is allowable for the
      bootstrap peer to select itself as the admitting peer.

   Bootstrap Server:  A network node used by Joining Peers to locate a
      Bootstrap Peer.  A Bootstrap Server may act as a proxy for
      messages between the Joining Peer and the Bootstrap Peer.  The
      Bootstrap Server itself is typically a stable host with a DNS name
      that is somehow communicated (for example, through configuration)
      to peers that want to join the overlay.  A Bootstrap Server is NOT
      required to be a peer or client, though it may be if desired.

   Peer Admission:  The act of admitting a node (the "Joining Peer")
      into an Overlay as a Peer.  After the admission process is over,
      the joining peer is a fully-functional peer of the overlay.
      During the admission process, the joining peer may need to present
      credentials to prove that it has sufficient authority to join the
      overlay.

   Resource Record Insertion:  The act of inserting a P2PSIP Resource
      Record into the distributed database.  Following insertion, the
      data will be stored at one or more peers.  The data can be
      retrieved or updated using the Resource-ID as a key.


6.  Discussion

6.1.  The Distributed Database Function

   A P2PSIP Overlay functions as a distributed database.  The database
   serves as a way to store information about things called Resources.
   A piece of information, called a Resource Record, can be stored by
   and retrieved from the database using a key associated with the
   Resource Record called its Resource-ID.  Each Resource must have a
   unique Resource-ID.  In addition to uniquely identifying the
   Resource, the Resource-ID is also used by the distributed database
   algorithm to determine the peer or peers that store the Resource
   Record in the overlay.

   It is expected that the P2PSIP working group will standardize the
   way(s) certain types of resources are represented in the distributed
   database.

   One type of resource representation that the working group is
   expected to standardize is information about users.  Users are humans
   that can use the overlay to do things like making and receiving
   calls.  Information stored in the resource record associated with a
   user might include things like the full name of the user and the



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   location of the UAs that the user is using.

   Before information about a user can be stored in the overlay, a user
   needs a User Name.  The User Name is a human-friendly identifier that
   uniquely identifies the user within the overlay.  The User Name is
   not a Resource-ID, rather the Resource-ID is derived from the User
   Name using some mapping function (often a cryptographic hash
   function) defined by the distributed database algorithm used by the
   overlay.

   The overlay may also require that the user have a set of credentials.
   Credentials may be required to authenticate the user and/or to show
   that the user is authorized to use the overlay.

   Another type of resource representation that the working group is
   expected to standardize is information about services.  Services
   represent actions that a peer (and perhaps a client) can do to
   benefit other peers and clients in the overlay.  Information that
   might be stored in the resource record associated with a service
   might include the peers (and perhaps clients) offering the service.

   Each service has a human-friendly Service Name that uniquely
   identifies the service.  Like User Names, the Service Name is not a
   resource-id, rather the resource-id is derived from the service name
   using some function defined by the distributed database algorithm
   used by the overlay.

   It is expected that the working group will standardize at least one
   service.  For each standardized service, the working group will
   likely specify the service name, the nature and format of the
   information stored in the resource record associated with the
   service, and the protocol used to access the service.

   The overlay may require that the peer (or client) have a set of
   credentials for a service.  For example, credentials might be
   required to show that the peer (or client) is authorized to offer the
   service, or to show that the peer (or client) is a providing a
   trustworthy implementation of the service.

   It is expected that the P2PSIP WG will not standardize how a User
   Name is obtained, nor how the credentials associated with a User Name
   or a Service Name are obtained, but merely standardize at least one
   acceptable format for each.  To ensure interoperability, it is
   expected that at least one of these formats will be specified as
   "mandatory-to-implement".

   A class of algorithms known as Distributed Hash Tables
   <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/P2P_overlay> are one way to implement



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   the Distributed Database.  In particular, both the Chord and Bamboo
   algorithms have been suggested as good choices for the distributed
   database algorithm.  However, no decision has been taken so far.

6.2.  Using the Distributed Database Function

   There are a number of ways the distributed database described in the
   previous section might be used to establish multimedia sessions using
   SIP.  In this section, we give four possibilities as examples.  It
   seems likely that the working group will standardize at least one way
   (not necessarily one of the four listed here), but no decisions have
   been taken yet.

   The first option is to store the contact information for a user in
   the resource record for the user.  A peer Y that is a contact point
   for this user adds contact information to this resource record.  The
   resource record itself is stored with peer Z in the network, where
   peer Z is chosen by the distributed database algorithm.

   When the SIP entity coupled with peer X has an INVITE message
   addressed to this user, it retrieves the resource record from peer Z.
   It then extracts the contact information for the various peers that
   are a contact point for the user, including peer Y, and forwards the
   INVITE onward.

   This exchange is illustrated in the following figure.  The notation
   "Put(U@Y)" is used to show the distributed database operation of
   updating the resource record for user U with the contract Y, and
   "Get(U)" illustrates the distributed database operation of retrieving
   the resource record for user U. Note that the messages between the
   peers X, Y and Z may actually travel via intermediate peers (not
   shown) as part of the distributed lookup process or so as to traverse
   intervening NATs.


   Peer X           Peer Z           Peer Y
    |                 |                |
    |                 |       Put(U@Y) |
    |                 |<---------------|
    |                 | Put-Resp(OK)   |
    |                 |--------------->|
    |                 |                |
    | Get(U)          |                |
    |---------------->|                |
    |    Get-Resp(U@Y)|                |
    |<----------------|                |
    | INVITE(To:U)    |                |
    |--------------------------------->|



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    |                 |                |


   The second option also involves storing the contact information for a
   user in the resource record of the user.  However, SIP entity at peer
   X, rather than retrieving the resource record from peer Z, instead
   forwards the INVITE message to the proxy at peer Z. The proxy at peer
   Z then uses the information in the resource record and forwards the
   INVITE onwards to the SIP entity at peer Y and the other contacts.


   Peer X           Peer Z           Peer Y
    |                 |                |
    |                 |       Put(U@Y) |
    |                 |<---------------|
    |                 | Put-Resp(OK)   |
    |                 |--------------->|
    |                 |                |
    | INVITE(To:U)    |                |
    |-----------------| INVITE(To:U)   |
    |                 |--------------->|
    |                 |                |


   The third option is for a single peer W to place its contact
   information into the resource record for the user (stored with peer
   Z).  A peer Y that is a contact point for the user retrieves the
   resource record from peer Z, extracts the contact information for
   peer W, and then uses the standard SIP registration mechanism
   [RFC3261] to register with peer W. When the SIP entity at peer X has
   to forward an INVITE request, it retrieves the resource record and
   extracts the contact information for W. It then forwards the INVITE
   to the proxy at peer W, which proxies it onward to peer Y and the
   other contacts.

















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   Peer X           Peer Z           Peer Y           Peer W
    |                 |                |                 |
    |                 |       Put(U@W) |                 |
    |                 |<---------------------------------|
    |                 | Put-Resp(OK)   |                 |
    |                 |--------------------------------->|
    |                 |                |                 |
    |                 |                |                 |
    |                 |                | REGISTER(To:U)  |
    |                 |                |---------------->|
    |                 |                |             200 |
    |                 |                |<----------------|
    |                 |                |                 |
    |                 |                |                 |
    | Get(U)          |                |                 |
    |---------------->|                |                 |
    |    Get-Resp(U@W)|                |                 |
    |<----------------|                |                 |
    | INVITE(To:U)    |                |                 |
    |--------------------------------------------------->|
    |                 |                |    INVITE(To:U) |
    |                 |                |<----------------|
    |                 |                |                 |


   The fourth option works as in option 3, with the exception that,
   rather than X retrieving the resource record from Z, peer X forwards
   the INVITE to a SIP proxy at Z, which proxies it onward to W and
   hence to Y.






















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   Peer X           Peer Z           Peer Y           Peer W
    |                 |                |                 |
    |                 |       Put(U@W) |                 |
    |                 |<---------------------------------|
    |                 | Put-Resp(OK)   |                 |
    |                 |--------------------------------->|
    |                 |                |                 |
    |                 |                |                 |
    |                 |                | REGISTER(To:U)  |
    |                 |                |---------------->|
    |                 |                |             200 |
    |                 |                |<----------------|
    |                 |                |                 |
    |                 |                |                 |
    | INVITE(To:U)    |                |                 |
    |---------------->| INVITE(To:U)   |                 |
    |                 |--------------------------------->|
    |                 |                |    INVITE(To:U) |
    |                 |                |<----------------|
    |                 |                |                 |


   The pros and cons of option 1 and 3 are briefly discussed in
   [Using-an-External-DHT].

6.3.  NAT Traversal

   Two approaches to NAT Traversal for P2PSIP Peer Protocol have been
   suggested.  The working group has not made any decision yet on the
   approach that will be selected.

   The first, the traditional approach adopted by most peer-to-peer
   networks today, divides up the peers in the network into two groups:
   those with public IP addresses and those without.  The networks then
   select a subset of the former group and elevate them to "super peer"
   status, leaving the remaining peers as "ordinary peers".  Since super
   peers all have public IP addresses, there are no NAT problems when
   communicating between them.  The network then associates each
   ordinary peer with (usually just one) super peer in a client-server
   relationship.  Once this is done, an ordinary peer X can communicate
   with another ordinary peer Y by sending the message to X's super
   peer, which forwards it to Y's super peer, which forwards it to Y.
   The connection between an ordinary peer and its super peer is
   initiated by the ordinary peer, which makes it easy to traverse any
   intervening NATs.  In this approach, the number of hops between two
   peers is at most 3.

   The second approach treats all peers as equal and establishes a



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   partial mesh of connections between them.  Messages from one peer to
   another are then routed along the edges in the mesh of connections
   until they reach their destination.  To make the routing efficient
   and to avoid the use of standard Internet routing protocols, the
   partial mesh is organized in a structured manner.  If the structure
   is based on any one of a number of common DHT algorithms, then the
   maximum number of hops between any two peers is log N, where N is the
   number of peers in the overlay.

   The first approach is significantly more efficient than the second in
   overlays with large numbers of peers.  However, the first approach
   assumes there are a sufficient number of peers with public IP
   addresses to serve as super peers.  In some usage scenarios
   envisioned for P2PSIP, this assumption does not hold.  For example,
   this approach fails completely in the case where every peer is behind
   a distinct NAT.

   The second approach, while less efficient in overlays with larger
   numbers of peers, is efficient in smaller overlays and can be made to
   work in many use cases where the first approach fails.

   Both of these approaches assume a method of setting up Peer Protocol
   connections between peers.  Many such methods exist; the now expired
   [I-D.iab-nat-traversal-considerations] is an attempt to give a fairly
   comprehensive list along with a discussion of their pros and cons.
   After a consideration of the various techniques, the P2PSIP working
   group has decided to select the Unilateral Self-Address Fixing method
   [RFC3424] of NAT Traversal, and in particular the ICE
   [I-D.ietf-mmusic-ice] implementation of this approach.

   The above discussion covers NAT traversal for Peer Protocol
   connections.  For Client Protocol connections, the approach depends
   on the role adopted for clients and we defer the discussion on that
   point until the role becomes clearer.

   In addition to Peer Protocol and Client Protocol messages, a P2PSIP
   Overlay must also provide a solution to the NAT Traversal problem for
   SIP messages.  If it does not, there is no reliable way for a peer
   behind one NAT to send a SIP INVITE to a peer behind another NAT.
   One way to solve this problem is to transport SIP messages along Peer
   and Client Protocol connections: this could be done either by
   encapsulating the SIP messages inside Peer and Client Protocol
   messages or by multiplexing SIP with the Peer (resp.Client) Protocol
   on a Peer (resp. Client) Protocol connection.

   Finally, it should be noted that the NAT traversal problem for media
   connections signaled using SIP is outside the scope of the P2PSIP
   working group.  As discussed in [I-D.ietf-sipping-nat-scenarios], the



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   current recommendation is to use ICE.

6.4.  Locating and Joining an Overlay

   Before a peer can attempt to join a P2PSIP overlay, it must first
   obtain a Peer-ID and optionally a set of credentials.  The Peer-ID is
   an identifier that will uniquely identify the peer within the
   overlay, while the credentials show that the peer is allowed to join
   the overlay.

   The P2PSIP WG will not standardize how the peer-ID and the
   credentials are obtained, but merely standardize at least one
   acceptable format for each.  To ensure interoperability, it is
   expected that at least one of these formats will be specified as
   "mandatory-to-implement".

   Once a peer (the "joining peer") has a peer-ID and optionally a set
   of credentials, it can attempt to join the overlay.  To do this, it
   needs to locate a bootstrap peer for the Overlay.

   A bootstrap peer is a peer that serves as the first point of contact
   for the joining peer.  The joining peer uses a bootstrap mechanism to
   locate a bootstrap peer.  Locating a bootstrap peer might be done in
   any one of a number of different ways:

   o  By remembering peers that were part of the overlay the last time
      the peer was part of the overlay;

   o  Through a multicast discovery mechanism;

   o  Through manual configuration; or

   o  By contacting a P2PSIP Bootstrap Server, and using its help to
      locate a bootstrap peer.

   The joining peer might reasonably try each of the methods (and
   perhaps others) in some order or in parallel until it succeeds in
   finding a bootstrap peer.

   The job of the bootstrap peer is simple: refer the joining peer to a
   peer (called the "admitting peer") that will help the joining peer
   join the network.  The choice of admitting peer will often depend on
   the joining node - for example, the admitting peer may be a peer that
   will become a neighbor of the joining peer in the overlay.  It is
   possible that the bootstrap peer might also serve as the admitting
   peer.

   The admitting peer will help the joining peer learn about other peers



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   in the overlay and establish connections to them as appropriate.  The
   admitting peer and/or the other peers in the overlay will also do
   whatever else is required to help the joining peer become a fully-
   functional peer.  The details of how this is done will depend on the
   distributed database algorithm used in the overlay.

   At various stages in this process, the joining peer may be asked to
   present its credentials to show that it is authorized to join the
   overlay.  Similarly, the various peers contacted may be asked to
   present their credentials so the joining peer can verify that it is
   really joining the overlay it wants to.

6.5.  Possible Client Behavior

   As mentioned above, a number of people have proposed a second type of
   P2PSIP entity, known as a "P2PSIP client".  The consensus of the
   group is that the need for entities to store and retrieve information
   from the Overlay without participating is recognized, but that for
   now, little time will spent.  This section presents some of the
   alternatives that have been suggested for the possible role of a
   client.

   In one approach, a client interacts with the P2PSIP overlay through
   an associated peer (or perhaps several such peers) using the Client
   Protocol.  The client does not run the distributed database
   algorithm, does not store resource records, and is not involved in
   routing messages to other peers or clients.  Through interactions
   with its associated peer, a client can insert, modify, examine, and
   remove resource records.  A client may also send SIP messages to its
   associated peer for routing through the overlay.  In this approach, a
   client is a node that wants to take advantage of the overlay, but is
   unable or unwilling to contribute resources back to the overlay.
   This may be achieved using a subset of the Peer Protocol.  Such a
   device need not speak SIP.

   For SIP devices, another way to realize this functionality is for a
   Peer to behave as a [RFC3261] proxy/registrar.  SIP devices then use
   standard SIP mechanisms to add, update, and remove registrations and
   to send SIP messages to peers and other clients.  The authors here
   refer to these devices simply as a "SIP UA", not a "P2PSIP Client",
   to distinguish it from the concept described above.

6.6.  Interacting with non-P2PSIP entities

   It is possible for network nodes that are not peers or clients to
   interact with a P2PSIP overlay.  Such nodes would do this through
   mechanisms not defined by the P2PSIP working group provided they can
   find a peer or client that supports that mechanism and which will do



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   any related P2PSIP operations necessary.  In this section, we briefly
   describe two ways this might be done.  (Note that these are just
   examples and the descriptions here are not recommendations).

   One example is a peer that also acts as a standard SIP proxy and
   registrar.  SIP UAs can interact with it using mechanisms defined in
   [RFC3261].  The peer inserts registrations for users learned from
   these UAs into the distributed database, and retrieves contact
   information when proxying INVITE messages.

   Another example is a peer that has a fully-qualified domain name
   (FQDN) that matches the name of the overlay and acts as a SIP proxy
   for calls coming into the overlay.  A SIP INVITE addressed to
   "user@overlay-name" arrives at the peer (using the mechanisms in
   [RFC3263]) and this peer then looks up the user in the distributed
   database and proxies the call onto it.

6.7.  Architecture

   There has been much debate in the group over what an appropriate
   architecture for P2PSIP should be.  Currently, the group is
   investigating architectures that involve a P2P layer that is distinct
   from the applications that run on the overlay.
         __________________________
        |                          |
        |    SIP, other apps...    |
        |       ___________________|
        |      |   P2P Layer       |
        |______|___________________|
        |     Transport Layer      |
        |__________________________|

   The P2P layer implements the Peer Protocol (and the Client Protocol,
   if such a protocol exists).  Applications access this P2P layer for
   various overlay-related services.  Applications are also free to
   bypass this layer and access the existing transport layer protocols
   (e.g., TCP, UDP, etc.) directly.

   A notable feature of this architecture is that it envisions the use
   of protocols other than SIP in the overlay.  Though the working group
   is primarily focused on the use of SIP in peer-to-peer overlays, this
   architecture envisions a future in which other protocols can play a
   role.

   The group initially considered another architecture.  In this
   alternative architecture, the Peer Protocol was defined as an
   extension to SIP.  That is, that the necessary operations for forming
   and maintaining the overlay and for storing and retrieving resource



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   records in the distributed database were defined as extensions to
   SIP.  Each peer in the overlay was viewed as a SIP proxy that would
   forward the overlay maintenance and distributed database query
   messages (expressed in SIP) on behalf of other peers.

   This architecture was eventually rejected by the working group for
   the following reasons:

   o  The architecture was totally focused on SIP, and made it difficult
      to use other protocols in the overlay.

   o  In SIP, proxies are assumed to be trusted parties.  Relying on the
      peers to route the message as proxies exposes the SIP messages to
      attacks from untrusted proxies that SIP's design does not
      anticipate.  A design that does not allow the peers to modify the
      SIP message and ideally prevents them from reading it is
      preferable.

   o  SIP was seen as a "heavy-weight" protocol for this task.  SIP uses
      a text-based encoding which is very flexible, but leads to both
      large messages and slow processing times at proxies.  This was
      seen to be a poor match for P2PSIP, where a distributed database
      lookup operation requires O(log N) peers to receive, process and
      forward the message.

   More discussion on this alternate approach and why it was rejected
   can be found on the P2PSIP mailing list in a thread that started on
   20 March 2007.


7.  Additional Questions

   This section lists some additional questions that the proposed P2PSIP
   Working Group may need to consider in the process of defining the
   Peer and Client protocols.

7.1.  Selecting between Multiple Peers offering the Same Service

   If a P2PSIP network contains two or more peers that offer the same
   service, then how does a peer or client that wishes to use that
   service select the peer to use?  This question comes up in a number
   of contexts:

   o  When two or more peers are willing to serve as a STUN Relay, how
      do we select a peer that is close in the netpath sense and is
      otherwise appropriate for the call?





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   o  When two or more peers are willing to serve as PSTN gateways, how
      do we select an appropriate gateway for a call that is both
      netpath efficient and provides good quality or inexpensive PSTN
      routing?

   It has been suggested that, at least initially, the working group
   should restrict itself to defining a mechanism that can return a list
   of peers offering a service and not define the mechanism for
   selecting a peer from that list.

7.2.  Visibility of Messages to Intermediate Peers

   When transporting SIP messages through the overlay, are the headers
   and/or bodies of the SIP messages visible to the peers that the
   messages happen to pass through?  If they are, what types of security
   risks does this pose in the presence of peers that have been
   compromised in some way?

7.3.  Using C/S SIP and P2PSIP Simultaneously in a Single UA

   If a given UA is capable of operating in both P2PSIP and conventional
   SIP modalities (especially simultaneously), is it possible for it to
   use and respond to the same AOR using both conventional and P2PSIP?
   An example of such a topology might be a UA that registers an AOR
   (say, "sip:alice@example.com") conventionally with a registrar and
   then inserts a resource record for that resource into a P2PSIP
   topology, such that both conventional SIP users and P2PSIP users
   (within the overlay or a federation thereof) would be able to contact
   the user without necessarily traversing some sort of gateway.  Is
   this something that we want to make work?

7.4.  Clients, Peers, and Services

   1.  Do all peers providing routing, storage, and all other services,
       or do only some peers provide certain services?

   2.  What services, if any, must all peers provide?

   3.  How we can we describe the capacity of a peer for delivering a
       given service?

7.5.  Relationships of Domains to Overlays

   1.  Can there be names from more than one domain in a single overlay?

   2.  Can there be names from one domain in more than a single overlay?
       If so, how do we route Client/Server SIP requests to the right
       overlay?



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   3.  Can the domain of an AoR be in more than one overlay?

   4.  Should we have a "default overlay" to search for peers in many
       domains?


8.  Security Considerations

   Building a P2PSIP system has many security considerations, many of
   which we have only begun to consider.  We anticipate that the
   protocol documents describing the actual protocols will deal more
   thoroughly with security topics.

   One critical security issue that will need to be addressed is
   providing for the privacy and integrity of SIP messages being routed
   by peer nodes, when those peer nodes might well be hostile.  This is
   a departure from Client/Server SIP, where the proxies are generally
   operated by enterprises or service providers with whom the users of
   SIP UAs have a trust relationship.


9.  IANA Considerations

   This document presently raises no IANA considerations.


10.  Acknowledgements

   This document draws heavily from the contributions of many
   participants in the P2PSIP Mailing List.  Particular thanks to
   Henning Schulzrinne and Cullen Jennings who spent time on phone calls
   related to this text.


11.  References

11.1.  Normative References

   [RFC3261]  Rosenberg, J., Schulzrinne, H., Camarillo, G., Johnston,
              A., Peterson, J., Sparks, R., Handley, M., and E.
              Schooler, "SIP: Session Initiation Protocol", RFC 3261,
              June 2002.

   [RFC3263]  Rosenberg, J. and H. Schulzrinne, "Session Initiation
              Protocol (SIP): Locating SIP Servers", RFC 3263,
              June 2002.

   [RFC3986]  Berners-Lee, T., Fielding, R., and L. Masinter, "Uniform



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              Resource Identifier (URI): Generic Syntax", STD 66,
              RFC 3986, January 2005.

11.2.  Informative References

   [I-D.bryan-p2psip-reload]
              Jennings, C., Lowekamp, B., Rescorla, E., Baset, S., and
              H. Schulzrinne, "REsource LOcation And Discovery
              (RELOAD)", draft-bryan-p2psip-reload-04 (work in
              progress), June 2008.

   [I-D.camarillo-hip-bone]
              Camarillo, G., Nikander, P., and J. Hautakorpi, "HIP BONE:
              Host Identity Protocol (HIP) Based Overlay Networking
              Environment", draft-camarillo-hip-bone-01 (work in
              progress), February 2008.

   [I-D.iab-nat-traversal-considerations]
              Rosenberg, J., "Considerations for Selection of Techniques
              for NAT Traversal",
              draft-iab-nat-traversal-considerations-00 (work in
              progress), October 2005.

   [I-D.ietf-behave-rfc3489bis]
              Rosenberg, J., Mahy, R., Matthews, P., and D. Wing,
              "Session Traversal Utilities for (NAT) (STUN)",
              draft-ietf-behave-rfc3489bis-16 (work in progress),
              July 2008.

   [I-D.ietf-mmusic-ice]
              Rosenberg, J., "Interactive Connectivity Establishment
              (ICE): A Protocol for Network Address  Translator (NAT)
              Traversal for Offer/Answer Protocols",
              draft-ietf-mmusic-ice-19 (work in progress), October 2007.

   [I-D.ietf-sipping-nat-scenarios]
              Boulton, C., Rosenberg, J., and G. Camarillo, "Best
              Current Practices for NAT Traversal for SIP",
              draft-ietf-sipping-nat-scenarios-08 (work in progress),
              April 2008.

   [I-D.jiang-p2psip-sep]
              Jiang, X. and H. Zhang, "Service Extensible P2P Peer
              Protocol", draft-jiang-p2psip-sep-01 (work in progress),
              February 2008.

   [I-D.li-p2psip-node-types]
              Wang, Y., "Different types of nodes in P2PSIP",



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              draft-li-p2psip-node-types-00 (work in progress),
              December 2007.

   [I-D.matthews-p2psip-id-loc]
              Cooper, E., Johnston, A., and P. Matthews, "An ID/Locator
              Architecture for P2PSIP", draft-matthews-p2psip-id-loc-01
              (work in progress), February 2008.

   [I-D.pascual-p2psip-clients]
              Pascual, V., Matuszewski, M., Shim, E., Zhang, H., and S.
              Yongchao, "P2PSIP Clients",
              draft-pascual-p2psip-clients-01 (work in progress),
              February 2008.

   [I-D.zheng-p2psip-client-protocol]
              Yongchao, S., Jiang, X., Zhang, H., and H. Deng, "P2PSIP
              Client Protocol", draft-zheng-p2psip-client-protocol-01
              (work in progress), February 2008.

   [RFC2136]  Vixie, P., Thomson, S., Rekhter, Y., and J. Bound,
              "Dynamic Updates in the Domain Name System (DNS UPDATE)",
              RFC 2136, April 1997.

   [RFC3424]  Daigle, L. and IAB, "IAB Considerations for UNilateral
              Self-Address Fixing (UNSAF) Across Network Address
              Translation", RFC 3424, November 2002.

   [RFC4485]  Rosenberg, J. and H. Schulzrinne, "Guidelines for Authors
              of Extensions to the Session Initiation Protocol (SIP)",
              RFC 4485, May 2006.

   [RFC4795]  Aboba, B., Thaler, D., and L. Esibov, "Link-local
              Multicast Name Resolution (LLMNR)", RFC 4795,
              January 2007.

   [Using-an-External-DHT]
              Singh, K. and H. Schulzrinne, "Using an External DHT as a
              SIP Location Service",  Columbia University Computer
              Science Dept. Tech Report 388).

              Copy available at http://mice.cs.columbia.edu/
              getTechreport.php?techreportID=388/









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Authors' Addresses

   David A. Bryan
   SIPeerior Technologies
   3000 Easter Circle
   Williamsburg, Virginia  23188
   USA

   Phone: +1 757 565 0101
   Email: bryan@sipeerior.com


   Philip Matthews
   Unaffiliated

   Phone: +1 613 592 4343 x224
   Email: philip_matthews@magma.ca


   Eunsoo Shim
   Locus Telecommunications
   111 Sylvan Avenue
   Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey  07632
   USA

   Phone: unlisted
   Email: eunsooshim@gmail.com


   Dean Willis
   Softarmor Systems
   3100 Independence Pkwy #311-164
   Plano, Texas  75075
   USA

   Phone: unlisted
   Email: dean.willis@softarmor.com


   Spencer Dawkins
   Huawei Technologies (USA)

   Phone: +1 214 755 3870
   Email: spencer@wonderhamster.org







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Full Copyright Statement

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