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PAWS                                                        V. Chen, Ed.
Internet-Draft                                                    Google
Intended status: Standards Track                                  S. Das
Expires: August 17, 2013                  Applied Communication Sciences
                                                                  L. Zhu
                                                                  Huawei
                                                               J. Malyar
                                             Telcordia Technologies Inc.
                                                               P. McCann
                                                                  Huawei
                                                       February 13, 2013


                  Protocol to Access Spectrum Database
                      draft-ietf-paws-protocol-03

Abstract

   Portions of the radio spectrum that are allocated to licensees are
   available for non-interfering use.  This available spectrum is called
   "White Space."  Allowing secondary users access to available spectrum
   "unlocks" existing spectrum to maximize its utilization and to
   provide opportunities for innovation, resulting in greater overall
   spectrum utilization.

   One approach to manage spectrum sharing uses databases to report
   spectrum availability to devices.  To achieve interoperability among
   multiple devices and databases, a standardized protocol must be
   defined and implemented.  This document defines such a protocol, the
   "Protocol to Access White Space database" (PAWS).

Status of this Memo

   This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the
   provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.

   Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
   Task Force (IETF).  Note that other groups may also distribute
   working documents as Internet-Drafts.  The list of current Internet-
   Drafts is at http://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/.

   Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
   and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any
   time.  It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
   material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."

   This Internet-Draft will expire on August 17, 2013.




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Copyright Notice

   Copyright (c) 2013 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
   document authors.  All rights reserved.

   This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
   Provisions Relating to IETF Documents
   (http://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of
   publication of this document.  Please review these documents
   carefully, as they describe your rights and restrictions with respect
   to this document.  Code Components extracted from this document must
   include Simplified BSD License text as described in Section 4.e of
   the Trust Legal Provisions and are provided without warranty as
   described in the Simplified BSD License.


Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  5
   2.  Conventions and Terminology  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  5
     2.1.  Conventions Used in This Document  . . . . . . . . . . . .  5
     2.2.  Terminology  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  6
   3.  Protocol Overview  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  6
     3.1.  Multi-ruleset Support  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  7
   4.  Protocol Functionalities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  7
     4.1.  Database Discovery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  8
     4.2.  Initialization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  8
       4.2.1.  INIT_REQ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  9
       4.2.2.  INIT_RESP  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  9
     4.3.  Device Registration  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
       4.3.1.  REGISTRATION_REQ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
       4.3.2.  REGISTRATION_RESP  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
     4.4.  Available Spectrum Query . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
       4.4.1.  AVAIL_SPECTRUM_REQ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
       4.4.2.  AVAIL_SPECTRUM_RESP  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
       4.4.3.  AVAIL_SPECTRUM_BATCH_REQ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
       4.4.4.  AVAIL_SPECTRUM_BATCH_RESP  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
       4.4.5.  SPECTRUM_USE_NOTIFY  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
       4.4.6.  SPECTRUM_USE_RESP  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
     4.5.  Device Validation  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
       4.5.1.  DEV_VALID_REQ  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
       4.5.2.  DEV_VALID_RESP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
   5.  Protocol Parameters  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
     5.1.  GeoLocation  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
     5.2.  DeviceDescriptor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
     5.3.  AntennaCharacteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
     5.4.  DeviceCapabilities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
     5.5.  DeviceOwner  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27



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     5.6.  RulesetInfo  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
     5.7.  Spectrum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
     5.8.  FrequencyRange . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
     5.9.  EventTime  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
     5.10. SpectrumSchedule . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
     5.11. GeoSpectrumSchedule  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
     5.12. DeviceValidity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
     5.13. Error Element  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
       5.13.1. REQUIRED Error . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
   6.  Message Encoding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
     6.1.  JSON-RPC Binding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
     6.2.  init Method  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
       6.2.1.  INIT_REQ Parameters  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
       6.2.2.  INIT_RESP Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
     6.3.  register Method  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
       6.3.1.  REGISTRATION_REQ Parameters  . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
       6.3.2.  REGISTRATION_RESP Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
     6.4.  getSpectrum Method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
       6.4.1.  AVAILABLE_SPECTRUM_REQ Parameters  . . . . . . . . . . 40
       6.4.2.  AVAIL_SPECTRUM_RESP Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
     6.5.  getSpectrumBatch Method  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
       6.5.1.  AVAIL_SPECTRUM_BATCH_REQ Parameters  . . . . . . . . . 45
       6.5.2.  AVAIL_SPECTRUM_BATCH_RESP Parameters . . . . . . . . . 47
     6.6.  notifySpectrumUse Method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
       6.6.1.  SPECTRUM_USE_NOTIFY Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
       6.6.2.  SPECTRUM_USE_RESP Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
     6.7.  verifyDevice Method  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
       6.7.1.  DEV_VALID_REQ Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
       6.7.2.  DEV_VALID_RESP Parameters  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
     6.8.  Sub-message Schemas  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
       6.8.1.  GeoLocation  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
       6.8.2.  DeviceDescriptor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
       6.8.3.  AntennaCharacteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
       6.8.4.  DeviceCapabilities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
       6.8.5.  DeviceOwner  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60
       6.8.6.  RulesetInfo  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
       6.8.7.  Spectrum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62
       6.8.8.  FrequencyRange . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
       6.8.9.  EventTime  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64
       6.8.10. SpectrumSchedule . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65
       6.8.11. GeoSpectrumSchedule  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66
       6.8.12. DeviceValidity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66
       6.8.13. Additional Properties  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67
   7.  HTTPS Binding  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67
   8.  Extensibility  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68
     8.1.  Defining New Message Parameters  . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68
     8.2.  Defining Ruleset Identifiers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69
     8.3.  Defining Additional Error Codes  . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69



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   9.  IANA Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69
     9.1.  PAWS Parameters Registry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70
       9.1.1.  Registration Template  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70
       9.1.2.  Initial Registry Contents  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70
     9.2.  PAWS Ruleset ID Registry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
       9.2.1.  Registration Template  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
       9.2.2.  Initial Registry Contents  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72
     9.3.  PAWS Error Code Registry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72
       9.3.1.  Registration Template  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73
       9.3.2.  Initial Registry Contents  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73
   10. Security Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73
     10.1. Assurance of Proper Database . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74
     10.2. Protection Against Modification  . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74
     10.3. Protection Against Eavesdropping . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75
     10.4. Client Authentication Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . 75
   11. Contributors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75
   12. Acknowledgments  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76
   13. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76
     13.1. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76
     13.2. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77
   Appendix A.  Changes / Author Notes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78
   Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78





























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1.  Introduction

   This section provides some high level introductory material.  Readers
   are strongly encouraged to read Protocol to Access White Space
   database: PS, use cases and rqmts
   [I-D.ietf-paws-problem-stmt-usecases-rqmts] for use cases,
   requirements, and additional background.

   A geospatial database can track available spectrum (in accordance
   with the rules of one or more regulatory domains) and make this
   information available to devices.  This approach shifts the
   complexity of spectrum-policy conformance out of the device and into
   the Database.  This approach also simplifies adoption of policy
   changes, limiting updates to a handful of databases, rather than
   numerous devices.  It opens the door for innovations in spectrum
   management that can incorporate a variety of parameters, including
   user location and time.  In the future, it also can include other
   parameters, such as user priority, time, signal type and power,
   spectrum supply and demand, payment or micro-auction bidding, and
   more.

   In providing this service, a database records and updates information
   necessary to protect primary users -- for example, this information
   may include parameters such as a fixed transmitter's call sign, its
   geo-location, antenna height, power, and periods of operation.  The
   rules that the Database must follow, including its schedule for
   obtaining and updating protection information, protection rules, and
   information reported to devices, vary according to regulatory domain.
   Such variations, however, should be handled by each database, and
   exposure to the variations by devices should be minimized.

   This specification defines an extensible protocol to obtain available
   spectrum from a geospatial database by a device with geo-location
   capability.  It enables a device to operate in any regulatory domain
   that implements the same protocol and in which the device is
   authorized to operate.  The document describes the use of HTTP/TLS as
   transport for the protocol.


2.  Conventions and Terminology

2.1.  Conventions Used in This Document

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
   document are to be interpreted as described in Key words for use in
   RFCs to Indicate Requirement Levels [RFC2119].




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2.2.  Terminology

   Database or Spectrum Database:  A database that provides spectrum
      availability information to devices.
   Master Device:  A device with geo-location capability that queries a
      database to find available spectrum.
   Slave Device:  A device without geo-location capability that uses the
      spectrum made available by a Master Device.  It does not query the
      Database directly.
   RAT:  Radio Access Technology


3.  Protocol Overview

   A Master Device uses the PAWS protocol to obtain a schedule of
   available spectrum at its location.  The security necessary to ensure
   the accuracy, privacy, and confidentiality of the Device's location
   is described in the Security Considerations (Section 10).  This
   document assumes that the Master Device and the Database are
   connected to the Internet.

   A typical sequence of PAWS operations is outlined as follows.  See
   Protocol Functionalities (Section 4) and Protocol Parameters
   (Section 5) for details:

   1.   The Master Device locates or discovers the regulatory domain for
        its location and the URI for the Database to send subsequent
        PAWS messages.  [Editor's Note: It is an open item whether
        database discovery should be a separate document.]
   2.   The Master Device establishes an HTTPS session with the
        Database.
   3.   The Master Device optionally sends an initialization message to
        the Database to exchange capabilities.
   4.   If the Database receives an initialization message, it responds
        with a message in the body of the HTTP response.
   5.   If required by regulatory domain, the Database registers the
        Master Device.
   6.   The Master Device sends an available-spectrum request message to
        the Database.
   7.   If the Master Device is obtaining the schedule on behalf of a
        Slave Device, and if required by the regulatory domain, the
        Database validates the Slave Device.
   8.   The Database responds with an available-spectrum response
        message in the body of the HTTP response.
   9.   Depending on regulatory domain requirements and database
        implementation, the Master Device sends a spectrum-usage
        notification message to the Database.




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   10.  If the Database receives a spectrum-usage notification message,
        it responds by sending the Master Device a spectrum-usage
        acknowledgement message.

3.1.  Multi-ruleset Support

   For a Master Device that supports multiple rule sets and operates
   with multiple databases in multiple regulatory domains, the PAWS
   protocol supports the following sequence of operations for each
   request by the Master Device:

   1.  The Master Device includes in its request the identifier of one
       or more of the rule sets it supports
   2.  The Database may use the rule-set list to determine its response,
       for example, to select the list of required parameters
   3.  If required parameters are missing from the request, the Database
       responds with a REQUIRED error and a list of the missing
       parameters
   4.  The Master Device makes the request again, adding the missing
       parameters
   5.  The Database responds to the request, including the identifier of
       the applicable rule set
   6.  The Master Device uses the indicated rule set to determine how to
       interpret the Database response

   NOTE: Regulatory rules contain many device-only requirements that
   govern device behavior, independent of any database rules.  These
   requirements may be complex and involve device behavior that are not
   easily parameterized.  The ruleset-id parameter provides a mechanism
   for the Database to inform the Master Device of the applicable rule
   set without having to express device-side behavior within the
   protocol.  The rule-set identifier could be a string that contains
   the entity that established the rules and version information, such
   as "FccTvBandWhiteSpace-2010".

   By separating the regulatory "authority" from the "ruleset-id", it
   allows the protocol to support multiple regulatory authorities that
   use the same device-side rule set.  It also allows support for a
   single authority to define multiple rule sets.


4.  Protocol Functionalities

   The PAWS protocol consists of several components:

   o  Database Discovery (Section 4.1) MUST be supported by the Master
      Device




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   o  Initialization (Section 4.2) MAY be used by the Master Device and
      MUST be implemented by the Database.
   o  Device Registration (Section 4.3) MAY be used by the Master Device
      and MAY be implemented by the Database.
   o  Available Spectrum Query (Section 4.4) MUST be supported by Master
      Device and the Database.
   o  Device Validation (Section 4.5) MAY be used by the Master Device
      and MUST be implemented by the Database if the regulatory domain
      requires device validation.

   This section describes the protocol components and their messages.
   Protocol Parameters (Section 5) contains a more thorough discussion
   of the parameters that comprise the PAWS request and response
   messages.  Message Encoding (Section 6) provides details of the
   message encodings.  HTTPS Binding (Section 7) describes the use of
   HTTPS HTTP Over TLS [RFC2818] for transporting PAWS messages and
   optional device authentication.

4.1.  Database Discovery

   The Device MUST determine the URI for the Database and applicable
   regulatory domain before it can send PAWS messages.  The URI for the
   Database SHOULD be obtained from an authorized and authenticated
   entity, but it MAY be statically configured into the Device.
   [Editor's Note: It is an open item whether database discovery should
   be a separate document.]

4.2.  Initialization

   A Master Device SHOULD use the initialization procedure to exchange
   capability information with the Database whenever the Master Device
   powers up or initiates communication with the Database.  The
   initialization response informs the Master Device of specific
   regulatory-dependent parameterized-rule values, such as threshold
   distances and time periods beyond which the Device must update its
   available-spectrum data (see RuleSetInfo (Section 5.6)).  The Master
   Device MAY manually configure these parameterized-rule values.  The
   initialization message also represents extension points for database
   implementations or regulatory domains that require the extra
   handshake.

   The Initialization request procedure is depicted in Figure 1.
   o  INIT_REQ (Section 4.2.1) is the initialization request message
   o  INIT_RESP (Section 4.2.2) is the initialization response message







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                  +---------------+    +-------------------+
                  | Master Device |    | Spectrum Database |
                  +---------------+    +-------------------+
                        |                     |
                        |    INIT_REQ         |
                        |-------------------->|
                        |                     |
                        |    INIT_RESP        |
                        |<--------------------|
                        |                     |

                                 Figure 1

4.2.1.  INIT_REQ

   The initialization request message allows the Master Device to
   initiate exchange of capabilities with the Database.

   +---------------------------------------+
   |INIT_REQ                               |
   +----------------------------+----------|
   |deviceDesc:DeviceDescriptor | required |
   |location:GeoLocation        | required |
   |.......................................|
   |*other:any                  | depends  |
   +----------------------------+----------+

   Parameters:

   deviceDesc:  The DeviceDescriptor (Section 5.2) for the Device is
      REQUIRED.  If the Database does not support the regulatory domain
      specified by the "authority" parameter, it MUST return an error
      with the UNSUPPORTED (Table 1) code in the error response.
   location:  The GeoLocation (Section 5.1) for the Device is REQUIRED.
   other:  Depending on the regulatory domain or database
      implementation, the Master Device MAY specify additional handshake
      parameters in the INIT_REQ message.  The Database MUST ignore all
      parameters it does not understand.

4.2.2.  INIT_RESP

   The initialization response message communicates database parameters
   to the requesting device.








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   +-------------------------------------+
   |INIT_RESP                            |
   +--------------------------+----------+
   |rulesetInfo:RulesetInfo   | required |
   |.....................................|
   |*other:any                | depends  |
   +--------------------------+----------+

   Parameters:

   rulesetInfo:  This RulesetInfo (Section 5.6) parameter MUST be
      included in the response.  This parameter specifies the regulatory
      domain and parameters applicable for that domain.  The Database
      MUST include the "authority" that defines the regulatory domain
      for the location specified in the INIT_REQ (Section 4.2.1)
      message.
   other:  Depending on the regulatory domain or database
      implementation, the Database MAY include additional handshake
      parameters in the INIT_RESP (Section 4.2.2) message.  The Master
      Device MUST ignore all parameters it does not understand.

4.3.  Device Registration

   When a regulatory domain requires registration of a Master Device,
   the Device MUST send its registration information to the Database to
   establish certain operational parameters.  FCC rules, for example,
   require that a 'Fixed Device' MUST register its owner and operator
   contact information, its device identifier, its location, and its
   antenna height.

   The Database MAY support device registration as a separate Device
   Registration component, or as part of the Spectrum Availability
   component.  If the Database does not support a separate Device
   Registration request, it MUST return an error with the UNIMPLEMENTED
   (Table 1) code in the error-response message.

   The Device Registration request procedure is depicted in Figure 2.
   o  REGISTRATION_REQ (Section 4.3.1) is the device-registration
      request message
   o  REGISTRATION_RESP (Section 4.3.2) is the device-registration
      response message










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                +---------------+        +-------------------+
                | Master Device |        | Spectrum Database |
                +---------------+        +-------------------+
                      |                         |
                      |    REGISTRATION_REQ     |
                      |------------------------>|
                      |                         |
                      |    REGISTRATION_RESP    |
                      |<------------------------|
                      |                         |

                                 Figure 2

4.3.1.  REGISTRATION_REQ

   The registration request message contains the required registration
   parameters.

   +---------------------------------------+
   |REGISTRATION_REQ                       |
   +----------------------------+----------+
   |deviceDesc:DeviceDescriptor | required |
   |location:GeoLocation        | required |
   |deviceOwner:DeviceOwner     | required |
   |.......................................|
   |*other:any                  | depends  |
   +----------------------------+----------+

   Parameters:

   deviceDesc:  The DeviceDescriptor (Section 5.2) for the Device is
      REQUIRED.
   location:  The GeoLocation (Section 5.1) for the Device is REQUIRED.
   deviceOwner:  The DeviceOwner (Section 5.5) information is REQUIRED.
   other:  Regulatory domains MAY require additional registration
      parameters.  To simplify its registration logic, the Device MAY
      send a union of the registration information required by all
      supported regulatory domains.  The Database MUST ignore all
      parameters it does not understand .

4.3.2.  REGISTRATION_RESP

   The registration response message simply acknowledges receipt of the
   request and is otherwise empty.  Future extensions may add parameters
   to this message.






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   +-------------------------------------+
   |REGISTRATION_RESP                    |
   +--------------------------+----------+
   |*other:any                | depends  |
   +--------------------------+----------+

4.4.  Available Spectrum Query

   To obtain the available spectrum from the Database, a Master Device
   sends a request that contains its geo-location and any parameters
   required by the regulatory rules (such as device identifier,
   capabilities, and characteristics).  The Database returns a response
   that describes what frequencies are available, at what permissible
   operating power levels, and a schedule of when they are available.

   The Available Spectrum Query procedure is depicted in Figure 3.

   o  AVAIL_SPECTRUM_REQ (Section 4.4.1) is the available-spectrum
      request message
   o  AVAIL_SPECTRUM_RESP (Section 4.4.2) is the available-spectrum
      response message
   o  AVAIL_SPECTRUM_BATCH_REQ (Section 4.4.3) is an OPTIONAL batch
      version of the available-spectrum request message that allows
      multiple locations to be specified in the request
   o  AVAIL_SPECTRUM_BATCH_RESP (Section 4.4.4) is the response message
      for the batch version of the available-spectrum request that
      contains available spectrum for each location
   o  SPECTRUM_USE_NOTIFY (Section 4.4.5) is the spectrum-usage
      notification message
   o  SPECTRUM_USE_RESP (Section 4.4.6) is the spectrum-usage
      acknowledgment message




















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               +---------------+          +-------------------+
               | Master Device |          | Spectrum Database |
               +---------------+          +-------------------+
                     |                            |
                     |    AVAIL_SPECTRUM_REQ      |
                     | (AVAIL_SPECTRUM_BATCH_REQ) |
                     |--------------------------->|
                     |                            |
                     |    AVAIL_SPECTRUM_RESP     |
                     | (AVAIL_SPECTRUM_BATCH_RESP)|
                     |<---------------------------|
                     |                            |
                     |   (SPECTRUM_USE_NOTIFY)    |
                     |--------------------------->|
                     |                            |
                     |    (SPECTRUM_USE_RESP)     |
                     |<---------------------------|
                     |                            |

                                 Figure 3

   1.  First, the Master Device sends an available-spectrum request
       message to the Database.
   2.  The Database MUST respond with an error using the NOT_REGISTERED
       (Table 1) code if:
       *  registration information is required, and
       *  the request does not include registration information, and
       *  the Device has not previously registered
   3.  If the location specified in the request is outside the
       regulatory domain, the Database MUST respond with an
       OUTSIDE_COVERAGE (Table 1) error.  If some locations within a
       batch request are outside the regulatory domain, the Database MAY
       return an OK response with available spectrum for only the valid
       locations.  If all locations within a batch request are outside
       the regulatory domain, the Database MUST respond with an
       OUTSIDE_COVERAGE error.
   4.  The Database MAY perform other validation of the request, (e.g.,
       checking for missing required parameters, authorizations).  It
       MUST return an error with appropriate error code (Table 1), if
       validation fails.  If the request is missing required parameters,
       the Database MUST respond with a REQUIRED (Table 1) error and
       SHOULD include a list of the missing parameters.
   5.  If the request is valid, the Database responds with an available-
       spectrum response message.  If the regulatory domain requires
       that devices must report anticipated spectrum usage, the Database
       MUST indicate so in the response message.





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   6.  If the available-spectrum response indicates that the Master
       Device must send a spectrum-usage notification message, the
       Master Device MUST send the notification message to the Database.
   7.  If the Database receives a spectrum-usage notification message,
       it MUST send a spectrum-usage acknowledgment message to the
       Master Device.

   The procedure for asking for available spectrum on behalf of a Slave
   Device is similar, except that the process is initiated by the Slave
   Device.  Also, the device identifier, capabilities, and
   characteristics communicated in the AVAIL_SPECTRUM_REQ message SHALL
   be those of the Slave Device.  Although the communication and
   protocol between the Slave Device and Master Device is outside the
   scope of this document, the expected message sequence is shown in
   Figure 4.

      +------------+     +---------------+      +-------------------+
      |Slave Device|     | Master Device |      | Spectrum Database |
      +------------+     +---------------+      +-------------------+
          |                 |                           |
          | AVAIL_SPEC_REQ  |                           |
          |................>|                           |
          |                 |                           |
          |                 |    AVAIL_SPECTRUM_REQ     |
          |                 |-------------------------->|
          |                 |                           |
          |                 |    AVAIL_SPECTRUM_RESP    |
          |                 |<--------------------------|
          |                 |                           |
          | AVAIL_SPEC_RESP |   (SPECTRUM_USE_NOTIFY)   |
          |<................|-------------------------->|
          |                 |                           |
          |                 |    (SPECTRUM_USE_RESP)    |
          |                 |<--------------------------|
          |                 |                           |

                                 Figure 4

4.4.1.  AVAIL_SPECTRUM_REQ

   The request message for the Available Spectrum Query protocol MUST
   include the Device's geo-location.  If allowed by the regulatory
   domain, the location MAY be an anticipated location.








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   +--------------------------------------------------------------+
   |AVAIL_SPECTRUM_REQ                                            |
   +-------------------------------+------------------------------+
   |deviceDesc:DeviceDescriptor    | required                     |
   |location:GeoLocation           | required                     |
   |antenna:AntennaCharacteristics | depends on regulatory domain |
   |owner:DeviceOwner              | depends on regulatory domain |
   |capabilities:DeviceCapabilities| optional                     |
   +-------------------------------+------------------------------+

   Parameters:

   deviceDesc:  The DeviceDescriptor (Section 5.2) for the Device is
      REQUIRED.
   location:  The GeoLocation (Section 5.1) for the Device is REQUIRED.
      The location SHOULD be the current location of the Device, but
      more precisely, the location of the radiation center of the
      Device's antenna.  Depending on the regulatory domain, the
      location MAY be an anticipated position of the Device to support
      mobile devices.  If the location specifies a region, rather than a
      point, the Database MAY return an error with the UNIMPLEMENTED
      (Table 1) code, if it does not support query by region.
   antenna:  Depending on the device type and regulatory domain, the
      AntennaCharacteristics (Section 5.3) MAY be required.
   owner:  Depending on the device type and regulatory domain, the
      DeviceOwner (Section 5.5) information MAY be included to register
      the Device with the Database.  This enables the Device to register
      and get spectrum-availability information in a single request.
   capabilities:  The Master Device MAY include its DeviceCapabilities
      (Section 5.4) to limit the available-spectrum response to the
      spectrum that is compatible with its capabilities.  The Database
      SHOULD NOT return spectrum that is not compatible with the
      specified capabilities.

4.4.2.  AVAIL_SPECTRUM_RESP

   The response message for the Available Spectrum Query contains a
   schedule of available spectrum for the Device.













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   +---------------------------------------+
   |AVAIL_SPECTRUM_RESP                    |
   +----------------------------+----------+
   |timestamp:string            | required |
   |deviceDesc:DeviceDescriptor | required |
   |spectrumSchedules:list      | required |-------+
   |needsSpectrumReport:bool    | optional |       |
   |rulesetId:string            | optional |       |
   |............................|..........|       |
   |location:GeoLocation        | optional |       |
   +----------------------------+----------+       | 0..*
                                                   V
                                      +-----------------------------+
                                      |SpectrumSchedule             |
                                      +------------------+----------+
                                      |time:EventTime    | required |
                                      |spectrum:Spectrum | required |
                                      +------------------+----------+

   Parameters:

   timestamp:  Timestamp of the response of the form, YYYY-MM-
      DDThh:mm:ssZ, as defined by Date and Time on the Internet:
      Timestamps [RFC3339].  This SHOULD be used by the Device as a
      reference for the start and stop times in the spectrum schedules.
   deviceDesc:  The Database MUST include the DeviceDescriptor
      (Section 5.2) specified in the AVAIL_SPECTRUM_REQ message
   spectrumSchedules:  The SpectrumSchedule (Section 5.10) list is
      REQUIRED (though it MAY be empty if no spectrum is available).
      The Database MAY return more than one SpectrumSchedule
      (Section 6.8.10) to represent future changes to the available
      spectrum.  How far in advance a schedule may be provided depends
      on the regulatory domain.
   needsSpectrumReport:  For regulatory domains that require a spectrum-
      usage report from devices, the Database MUST return true for this
      parameter.  The default value is false.
   rulesetId:  The Database SHOULD return the identifier of the
      applicable rule set for the response (see Ruleset ID Registry
      (Section 9.2)).  If included, the Device MUST use the
      corresponding rule set to interpret the response.
   location:  The Database MAY copy other elements from the request,
      such as the GeoLocation (Section 5.1) of the Device.  The Device
      MUST ignore any parameters it does not understand.

4.4.2.1.  Update Requirements

   When the stop time specified in the schedule has been reached, the
   Device:



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   o  MUST obtain a new spectrum-availability schedule, either by using
      the next one in the list (if provided) or making another Available
      Spectrum Query (Section 4.4)
   o  If the new schedule indicates the in-use spectrum is no longer
      available, the Device MUST stop operation immediately.
   o  If the Device is unable to contact the Database to obtain a new
      schedule, depending on the regulatory domain, the Device MAY
      continue to operate for a period of time, as indicated by
      parameters returned in the INIT_RESP (Section 4.2.2) message.

   When the Device moves beyond a threshold distance (established by
   regulatory rules) away from the actual location and all anticipated
   location(s) it reported in previous AVAIL_SPECTRUM_REQ or
   AVAIL_SPECTRUM_BATCH_REQ requests (see "maxLocationChange" in
   RulesetInfo (Section 5.6)), it:
   o  MUST obtain a new spectrum-availability schedule by making another
      Available Spectrum Query (Section 4.4).
   o  If the new response indicates the in-use spectrum is no longer
      available, the Device MUST stop operation immediately.
   o  If the Device is unable to contact the Database to obtain a new
      schedule, depending on the regulatory domain, the Device MUST stop
      operation immediately.

4.4.3.  AVAIL_SPECTRUM_BATCH_REQ

   The Database MAY support the batch request that allows multiple
   locations to be specified.  This allows a portable Master Device to
   get available spectrum for a sequence of anticipated locations using
   a single request.  The Database MUST interpret each location in the
   batch request as if it were an independent request and MUST return
   results consistent with multiple individual AVAIL_SPECTRUM_REQ
   (Section 4.4.1) requests.  The request message for the batch
   Available Spectrum Query protocol MUST include at least one
   GeoLocation (Section 5.1).  If the Database does not support batch
   requests, it MUST return a UNIMPLEMENTED (Table 1) error.
















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   +--------------------------------------------------------------+
   |AVAIL_SPECTRUM_BATCH_REQ                                      |
   +-------------------------------+------------------------------+
   |deviceDesc:DeviceDescriptor    | required                     |
   |locations:list                 | required                     |--+
   |antenna:AntennaCharacteristics | depends on regulatory domain |  |
   |owner:DeviceOwner              | depends on regulatory domain |  |
   |capabilities:DeviceCapabilities| optional                     |  |
   +-------------------------------+------------------------------+  |
                                                                     |
                                                                1..* V
                                                         +-------------+
                                                         | GeoLocation |
                                                         +-------------+

   Parameters:

   deviceDesc:  The DeviceDescriptor (Section 5.2) for the Device is
      REQUIRED.
   locations:  The GeoLocation (Section 5.1) list for the Device is
      REQUIRED.  This allows the Device to specify its actual location
      plus additional anticipated locations, when allowed by the
      regulatory domain.  At least one location MUST be included.  This
      specification places no upper limit on the number of locations,
      but the Database MAY restrict the number of locations it supports
      by returning a response with fewer locations than specified in the
      request.
   antenna:  Depending on the device type and regulatory domain, the
      AntennaCharacteristics (Section 5.3) MAY be required.
   owner:  Depending on the device type and regulatory domain, the
      DeviceOwner (Section 5.5) information MAY be included to register
      the Device with the Database.  This enables the Device to register
      and get spectrum-availability information in a single request.
   capabilities:  The Master Device MAY include its DeviceCapabilities
      (Section 5.4) to limit the available-spectrum response to the
      spectrum that is compatible with its capabilities.  The Database
      SHOULD NOT return spectrum that is not compatible with the
      specified capabilities.

4.4.4.  AVAIL_SPECTRUM_BATCH_RESP

   The response message for the batch Available Spectrum Query contains
   a schedule of available spectrum for the Device at multiple
   locations.







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   +---------------------------------------+
   |AVAIL_SPECTRUM_BATCH_RESP              |
   +----------------------------+----------+
   |timestamp:string            | required |
   |deviceDesc:DeviceDescriptor | required |
   |geoSpectrumSchedules:list   | required |-------+
   |needsSpectrumReport:bool    | optional |       |
   |rulesetId:string            | optional |       |
   +----------------------------+----------+       | 0..*
                                                   V
                             +---------------------------------+
                             |GeoSpectrumSchedule              |
                             +----------------------+----------+
                             |location:GeoLocation  | required |
                             |spectrumSchedule:list | required |
                             +----------------------+----------+

   Parameters:

   timestamp:  Timestamp of the response of the form, YYYY-MM-
      DDThh:mm:ssZ, as defined by Date and Time on the Internet:
      Timestamps [RFC3339].  This SHOULD be used by the Device as a
      reference for the start and stop times in the spectrum schedules.
   deviceDesc:  The Database MUST include the DeviceDescriptor
      (Section 5.2) specified in the AVAIL_SPECTRUM_REQ message
   geoSpectrumSchedules:  The geoSpectrumSchedule (Section 5.11) list is
      REQUIRED (though it MAY be empty if spectrum is unavailable).  For
      each location, the Database MAY return more than one
      GeoSpectrumSchedule (Section 6.8.11) to represent future changes
      to the available spectrum.  How far in advance a schedule may be
      provided depends on the regulatory domain.  The Database MAY
      return available spectrum for fewer locations than requested.  The
      Device MUST NOT make any assumptions on the order of the entries
      in the list and MUST use the location value in each
      GeoSpectrumSchedule entry to match available spectrum to a
      location.
   needsSpectrumReport:  For regulatory domains that require a spectrum-
      usage report from devices, the Database MUST return true for this
      parameter.  The default value is false.
   rulesetId:  The Database SHOULD return the identifier of the
      applicable rule set for the response (see Ruleset ID Registry
      (Section 9.2)).  If included, the Device MUST use the
      corresponding rule set to interpret the response.

   See Update Requirements (Section 4.4.2.1) for when the Device must
   update its available spectrum data.





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4.4.5.  SPECTRUM_USE_NOTIFY

   The spectrum-use notification message MUST contain the geo-location
   of the Device and parameters required by the regulatory domain.

   +---------------------------------------+
   |SPECTRUM_USE_NOTIFY                    |
   +----------------------------+----------+
   |deviceDesc:DeviceDescriptor | required |
   |location:GeoLocation        | required |
   |spectra:list                | required |-------+
   |.......................................|       |
   |*other:any                  | depends  |       |
   +----------------------------+----------+       | 1..*
                                                   V
                                 +--------------------------------+
                                 |Spectrum                        |
                                 +---------------------+----------+
                                 |bandwidth:float      | required |
                                 |frequencyRanges:list | required |
                                 +---------------------+----------+

   Parameters:

   deviceDesc:  The DeviceDescriptor (Section 5.2) for the Device is
      REQUIRED.
   location:  The GeoLocation (Section 5.1) for the Device is REQUIRED.
   spectra:  The Spectrum (Section 5.7) list is REQUIRED, and specifies
      the spectrum anticipated to be used by the Device, which includes
      frequency ranges and maximum power levels.  For consistency, the
      "bandwidth" value SHOULD match that from one of the Spectrum
      (Section 5.7) elements in the corresponding AVAIL_SPECTRUM_RESP
      message, and the maximum power levels in the Spectrum element MUST
      be expressed as total power (EIRP) computed over the specified
      "bandwidth" value.  The actual bandwidth to be used (as computed
      from the start and stop frequencies) MAY be different from the
      "bandwidth" value.  As an example, when regulatory rules express
      maximum power spectral density in terms of maximum power over any
      100 kHz band, then the "bandwidth" value should be set to 100 kHz,
      even though the actual bandwidth used can be 20 kHz.
   other:  Depending on the regulatory domain, other parameters MAY be
      required.  To simplify its logic, the Device MAY include the union
      of all parameters required by all supported regulatory domains.
      The Database MUST ignore all parameters it does not understand.







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4.4.6.  SPECTRUM_USE_RESP

   The spectrum-use response message simply acknowledges receipt of the
   notification.

   +-------------------------------------+
   |SPECTRUM_USE_RESP                    |
   +--------------------------+----------+
   +--------------------------+----------+

4.5.  Device Validation

   Typically, a Slave Device needs a Master Device to ask the Database
   on its behalf for available spectrum.  Depending on the regulatory
   domain, the Master Device also must validate with the Database that
   the Slave Device is permitted to operate.  When regulatory rules
   allow a Master Device to "cache" the available spectrum for a period
   of time, the Master Device MAY use the simpler Device Validation
   component, instead of the full Available Spectrum Query component, to
   validate a Slave Device.

   When validating one or more Slave Devices, the Master Device sends
   the Database a request that includes the device identifier -- and any
   other parameters required by the regulatory rules -- for each Slave
   Device.  The Database MUST return a response that indicates whether
   each device is permitted to use the spectrum.

   A typical sequence for using the Device Validation request is
   illustrated in Figure 5, where the Master Device already has a valid
   set of available spectrum for Slave Devices.  Note that the
   communication and protocol between the Slave Device and Master Device
   is outside the scope of this document.
   o  DEV_VALID_REQ (Section 4.5.1) is the device-validation request
      message
   o  DEV_VALID_RESP (Section 4.5.2) is the device-validation response
      message















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      +------------+     +---------------+      +-------------------+
      |Slave Device|     | Master Device |      | Spectrum Database |
      +------------+     +---------------+      +-------------------+
          |                 |                           |
          | AVAIL_SPEC_REQ  |                           |
          |................>|                           |
          |                 |                           |
          |                 |    DEV_VALID_REQ          |
          |                 |-------------------------->|
          |                 |                           |
          |                 |    DEV_VALID_RESP         |
          |                 |<--------------------------|
          | AVAIL_SPEC_RESP |                           |
          |<................|
          |                 |

                                 Figure 5

4.5.1.  DEV_VALID_REQ

   +-------------------------------------+
   |DEV_VALID_REQ                        |
   +--------------------------+----------+
   |deviceDescs:list          | required |----
   +--------------------------+----------+   |
                                             V 1..*
                                    +----------------------+
                                    |DeviceDescriptor      |
                                    +----------------------+

   Parameters:

   deviceDescs:  A DeviceDescriptor (Section 5.2) list is REQUIRED,
      which specifies the list of Slave Devices that to be validated.

















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4.5.2.  DEV_VALID_RESP

   +-------------------------------------+
   |DEV_VALID_RESP                       |
   +--------------------------+----------+
   |deviceValidities:list     | required |----
   +--------------------------+----------+   |
                                             V 1..*
                            +---------------------------------------+
                            |DeviceValidity                         |
                            +----------------------------+----------+
                            |deviceDesc:DeviceDescriptor | required |
                            |isValid:boolean             | required |
                            +----------------------------+----------+

   Parameters:

   deviceValidities:  A DeviceValidities (Section 5.12) list is REQUIRED
      to report the list of Slave Devices and whether each listed Device
      is valid.  The number of entries MUST match the number of
      DeviceDescriptors (Section 5.2) listed in the DEV_VALID_REQ
      message.


5.  Protocol Parameters

   This section presents more details of the parameters that make up the
   PAWS request and response messages.  It also includes a sub-section
   defining response codes.

5.1.  GeoLocation

   This parameter is used to specify the geo-location of the Device.  It
   may be used to specify one of the following:

   o  A single point with optoinal uncertainty
   o  A region described by a polygon

   These are represented using geometric shapes defined in GEORIV
   Presence Information Data Format Location Object [RFC5491], where:

   o  A "point" with uncertainty is represented using the Ellipse shape
   o  A region represented using the Polygon shape

   The coordinates are expressed using the WGS84 datum, and units are
   degrees or meters.  The data model for GeoLocation is illustrated
   below:




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   +-------------------------------+
   |GeoLocation                    |
   +------------------+------------+
   |point:Ellipse     | optional   |
   |region:Polygon    | optional   |
   |confidence:int    | optioanl   |
   +------------------+------------+
   Note: point and polygon are mutually exclusive


   +-------------------------------+
   |Ellipse                        |
   +--------------------+----------+    +---------------------------+
   |center:Point        | required |--->|Point                      |
   |semiMajorAxis:float | optional |    +----------------+----------+
   |semiMinorAxis:float | optional |    |latitude:float  | required |
   |orientation:float   | optional |    |longitude:float | required |
   +--------------------+----------+    +----------------+----------+


   +-------------------------------+
   |Polygon                        |
   +-------------------+-----------+  3..* +---------------------------+
   |exterior:list      | required  |------>|Point                      |
   +-------------------+-----------+       +----------------+----------+
                                           |latitude:float  | required |
                                           |longitude:float | required |
                                           +----------------+----------+

   Parameters:

   point:  If present, it indicates that the GeoLocation represents a
      point.  Paradoxically, a "point" is parameterized using an
      Ellipse, where the center represents the location of the point and
      the distances along the major and minor axes represent the
      uncertainty.  The uncertainty values MAY be required, depending on
      the regulatory domain.
   region:  If present. in indicates that the GeoLocation represents a
      region.  Database support for regions is OPTIONAL.
   center:  The center refers to the location of a GeoLocation pont and
      is the represented as the center of an ellipse.  REQUIRED.
   latitude, longitude:  Floating-point numbers that express the
      latitude and longitude in degrees using the WGS84 datum.
      REQUIRED.







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   semiMajorAxis, semiMinorAxis:  If required by the regulator domain,
      the location uncertainty, in meters, is parameterized using
      distances along the major and minor axes of the ellipse.  When
      uncertainty is optional, the default value of each is 0.
   orientation:  This defines the orientation of the ellipse, expressed
      as the rotation, in degrees, of the semi-major axis from North
      towards the East.  For example, when the uncertainty is greatest
      along the North-South direction, orientation is 0 degrees;
      conversely, if the uncertainty is greatest along the East-West
      direction, orientation is 90 degrees.  When orientation is
      optoinal, its default value is 0.
   exterior:  When GeoLocation describes a region, the "exterior" field
      refers to a list of latitude/longitude points that represents the
      vertices of a polygon.  A minimum of 3 points is required, and
      they must be in counter-clockwise direction.
   confidence:  The location confidence level, as an integer percentage,
      MAY be required, depending on the regulatory domain.  When the
      parameter is optional, its default value is 100.  This values is
      only meaningful when GeoLocation refers to a point.

5.2.  DeviceDescriptor

   The device descriptor contains parameters that identify the specific
   device, such as its manufacturer serial number, regulatory-specific
   ID (e.g., FCC ID), and any other device characteristics required by
   regulatory domains.

   +----------------------------------------------------+
   |DeviceDescriptor                                    |
   +--------------------+-------------------------------+
   |serialNumber:string | required                      |
   |rulesetIds:list     | optional                      |
   |fccId:string        | depends on regulatory domain  |
   |....................|...............................|
   |*deviceType:string  | depends on regulatory domain  |
   |*RAT:string         | depends on regulatory domain  |
   |*other:any          |                               |
   +--------------------+-------------------------------+

   Parameters:

   serialNumber:  The manufacturer's device serial number is REQUIRED.
   rulesetIds:  List of identifiers for rule sets supported by the
      device (see Ruleset ID Registry (Section 9.2)).  A Database MAY
      require that the device provides this list before servicing the
      device requests.  If the Database does not support any of the rule
      sets specified in the list, the Database MAY refuse to service the
      device requests.  See Section 5.6 for discussion on rule-set



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      identifier.
   fccId:  The Device's FCC ID may be required for some regulatory
      domains.

   Additional parameters in the DeviceDescriptor depend on each
   regulatory domain and are listed in the figure for illustrative
   purposes.  It can be extended, for example, to include certification
   IDs for additional regulatory domains.

5.3.  AntennaCharacteristics

   Antenna characteristics provide additional information, such as the
   antenna height, antenna type, etc.  Whether antenna characteristics
   must be provided in a request depends on the device type and
   regulatory domain.

   +--------------------------------------------------------+
   |AntennaCharacteristics                                  |
   +-------------------------+------------------------------+
   |height:float             | depends on regulatory domain |
   |heightType:enum          | optional                     |
   |heightUncertainty:float  | depends on regulatory domain |
   |.........................|..............................|
   |*characteristics:        | depends on regulatory domain |
   |   various               |                              |
   +-------------------------+------------------------------+

   Parameters:

   height:  The antenna height in meters.  Whether the antenna height is
      required depends on the device type and the regulatory domain.
      Note that the height may be negative.
   heightType:  If the height is required, then heightType is also
      REQUIRED.  Valid values are:
      AGL  Above ground level (default)
      AMSL  Above mean sea level
   heightUncertainty:  The height uncertainty in meters.  Whether this
      is required depends on the regulatory domain.

   Depending on the regulatory authority, additional antenna
   characteristics may be required, such as:
   o  antenna direction
   o  antenna radiation pattern
   o  antenna gain
   o  antenna polarization






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5.4.  DeviceCapabilities

   Device capabilities provide additional information that MAY be used
   by the Device to provide additional information to the Database that
   may help it to determine available spectrum.  If the Database does
   not support device capabilities it MUST ignore the parameter
   altogether.

   +-------------------------------+
   |DeviceCapabilities             |
   +---------------------+---------+       +---------------------------+
   |frequencyRanges:list |optional |------>|FrequencyRange             |
   +---------------------+---------+  0..* +-----------------+---------+
                                           |startHz:float    |required |
                                           |stopHz:float     |required |
                                           |maxPowerDBm:float|unused   |
                                           |channelId:string |optional |
                                           +-----------------+---------+

   Parameters:

   frequencyRanges:  Optional FrequencyRange (Section 5.8) list.  Each
      FrequencyRange element MUST contain start and stop frequencies,
      and optionally, channel IDs, in which the Device can operate.
      When specified, the Database SHOULD NOT return available spectrum
      that falls outside these ranges (or channel IDs).

5.5.  DeviceOwner

   This parameter contains device-owner information required as part of
   device registration.  Regulatory domains MAY require additional
   parameters.

   +-----------------------------+
   |DeviceOwner                  |
   +------------------+----------+
   |owner:vcard       | required |
   |operator:vcard    | optional |
   +------------------+----------+

   Parameters:

   owner:  The vCard contact information for the individual or business
      that owns the Device is REQUIRED.







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   operator:  The vCard contact information for the device operator is
      OPTIONAL, but may be required by specific regulatory domains

   NOTE: Depending on the regulatory domain, the Database MAY be
   required to validate the device-owner information.  In these cases,
   the Database MUST respond with an error if validation fails.

   All contact information MUST be expressed using the vCard Format
   [RFC6350].  Only the contact fields of vCard are supported:

   fn Full name of an individual
   org  Name of the organization
   adr  Address fields
   tel  Telephone numbers
   email  Email addresses

5.6.  RulesetInfo

   This contains parameters for the rule set of a regulatory domain that
   is communicated using the Initialization component (Section 4.2).

   +-----------------------------------+
   |RulesetInfo                        |
   +-----------------------------------+
   |authority:string        | required |
   |maxLocationChange:float | required |
   |maxPollingSecs:int      | required |
   |rulesetIds: list        | optional |
   |...................................|
   |*other:any              | depends  |
   +------------------------+----------+

   Parameters:
   authority:  A string that indicates the regulatory domain to which
      the rule set applies is REQUIRED.  It MUST use the 2-letter
      country codes defined by Country Codes - ISO 3166 [ISO3166-1].
   maxLocationChange:  The maximum location change in meters is
      REQUIRED.  When the Device changes location by more than this
      specified distance, it MUST contact the Database to get the
      available spectrum for the new location.  If the Device is using
      spectrum that is no longer available, it MUST stop operation in
      those frequencies immediately.
   maxPollingSecs:  The maximum duration, in seconds, between requests
      for available spectrum is REQUIRED.  The Device MUST contact the
      Database to get available spectrum no less frequently than this
      duration.  If the new spectrum information indicates that the
      Device is using spectrum that is no longer available, it MUST stop
      operation in those frequencies immediately.



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   rulesetIds:  The Database SHOULD return the identifier of the
      applicable rule set (see Ruleset ID Registry (Section 9.2)).  If
      included, the Device MUST use the corresponding rule set to
      interpret the response.
   other:  This message is intended to be extensible with other
      regulatory-specific parameters.  Devices MUST ignore all
      parameters in the message it does not understand.

5.7.  Spectrum

   Available spectrum can logically be characterized by a list of
   frequency ranges and permissible power levels for each range.

   +-------------------------------+
   |Spectrum                       |
   +---------------------+---------+
   |bandwidth:float      |required |       +---------------------------+
   |frequencyRanges:list |required |------>|FrequencyRange             |
   +---------------------+---------+  0..* +-----------------+---------+
                                           |startHz:float    |required |
                                           |stopHz:float     |required |
                                           |maxPowerDBm:float|optional |
                                           |channelId:string |optional |
                                           +-----------------+---------+

   Parameters:

   bandwidth:  This parameter is REQUIRED to define the operating
      bandwidth for which permissible power levels is to be specified.
      For example, FCC regulation would require only one spectrum
      specification at 6MHz bandwidth, but Ofcom regulation would
      require 2 specifications, at 0.1MHz and 8MHz.  This parameter MAY
      be empty if there is no available spectrum.
   frequencyRanges:   A FrequencyRange (Section 5.8) list is REQUIRED to
      specify frequency ranges and permissible power levels.  The list
      MAY be empty if there is no available spectrum.

5.8.  FrequencyRange

   The FrequencyRange parameter specifies the maximum permissible power
   levels within a frequency range.
   startHz:  The inclusive start of the frequency range is REQUIRED.
   stopHz:  The exclusive end of the frequency range is REQUIRED.
   maxPowerDBm:  The maximum total power level (EIRP) -- computed over
      the corresponding operating bandwidth -- that is permitted within
      the frequency range.  Depending on the context in which the
      FrequencyRange element appears, maxPowerDBm may be REQUIRED.  For
      example, it is REQUIRED in the AVAIL_SPECTRUM_RESP



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      (Section 4.4.2), AVAIL_SPECTRUM_BATCH_RESP (Section 4.4.4), and
      SPECTRUM_USE_NOTIFY (Section 4.4.5) messages, but it would not be
      REQUIRED (nor applicable) when the FrequencyRange element appears
      in Device Capabilities (Section 5.4).
   channelId:  The server MAY include a channel identifier, when
      applicable.  When it is included, the Master Device SHOULD treat
      it as informative.

   NOTE: (maxPowerDBm / bandwidth) defines the maximum permitted EIRP
   spectral density.

5.9.  EventTime

   The EventTime element specifies the start and stop times of an
   "event".  This is used to indicate the time period for which a
   Spectrum (Section 5.7) is valid.

   +---------------------------+
   |EventTime                  |
   +-----------------+---------+
   |startTime:string |required |
   |stopTime:string  |required |
   +-----------------+---------+

   Parameters:

   startTime:  The inclusive start of the event is REQUIRED.
   stopTime:  The exclusive end of the event is REQUIRED.

   Both times are expressed using the format, YYYY-MM-DDThh:mm:ssZ, as
   defined by Date and Time on the Internet: Timestamps [RFC3339].  The
   times MUST be expressed using UTC.

5.10.  SpectrumSchedule

   The SpectrumSchedule element combines EventTime with Spectrum to
   define a time period in which the spectrum is valid.

   +-------------------------------+
   |SpectrumSchedule               |
   +--------------------+----------+
   |eventTime:EventTime | required |        +--------------------+
   |spectra:list        | required |------->|Spectrum            |
   +--------------------+----------+   0..* +--------------------+
                                            |bandwidth:float     |
                                            |frequencyRanges:list|
                                            +--------------------+




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   Parameters:

   eventTime:  The EventTime (Section 5.9) is REQUIRED to express "when"
      this specification is valid.
   spectra:  Spectrum (Section 5.7) list is REQUIRED to specify the
      available spectrum and permissible power levels, one per
      bandwidth.  The list MAY be empty when there is no available
      spectrum.

5.11.  GeoSpectrumSchedule

   The GeoSpectrumSchedule element encapsulates the schedule of
   available spectrum at a location.
   +----------------------------------+
   |GeoSpectrumSchedule               |
   +-----------------------+----------+
   |location:GeoLocation   | required |
   |spectrumSchedules:list | required |----------+
   +-----------------------+----------+          |
                                                 | 0..*
                                                 V
                                      +-----------------------------+
                                      |SpectrumSchedule             |
                                      +------------------+----------+
                                      |time:EventTime    | required |
                                      |spectrum:Spectrum | required |
                                      +------------------+----------+

   Parameters:

   location:  The GeoLocation (Section 5.1) is REQUIRED to identify the
      location at which the spectrum schedule applies
   spectrumSchedules:  The SpectrumSchedule (Section 5.10) list is
      REQUIRED.  At least one schedule MUST be included (though it MAY
      be empty if there is no available spectrum).  More than one
      schedule MAY be included to represent future changes to the
      available spectrum.

5.12.  DeviceValidity

   The DeviceValidity element is used to indicate whether a device is
   valid.  See Section 4.5.2.









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   +---------------------------------------+
   |DeviceValidity                         |
   +----------------------------+----------+
   |deviceDesc:DeviceDescriptor | required |
   |isValid:boolean             | required |
   |reason:string               | optional |
   +----------------------------+----------+

   Parameters:

   deviceDesc:  The DeviceDescriptor (Section 5.2) that was used to
      check for validity is REQUIRED.
   isValid:  A REQUIRED boolean value that indicates whether the Device
      is valid.
   reason:  If the device identifier is not valid, the Database MAY
      include a reason.  The reason MAY be in any language.

5.13.  Error Element

   If the Database responds to a PAWS request message with an error, it
   MUST include an Error element.
   +---------------------------+
   |Error                      |
   +----------------+----------+
   |code:int        | required |
   |message:string  | optional |
   |data:any        | optional |
   +----------------+----------+

   Parameters:

   code  An integer code that indicates the error type.
   message  A short description of the error.  It MAY be in any
      language.
   data  The Database MAY include additional data.  For some errors,
      additional data may be required.  The Device MUST ignore any data
      parameters it does not understand.

   The following table defines valid error codes.  They are loosely
   grouped into the following categories:

   -100s  Indicates compatibility issues, e.g., version mismatch,
      unsupported or unimplemented features.
   -200s  Indicates that the Device request contains an error that needs
      to be modified before making another request.






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   -300s  Indicates authorization-related issues.

   Code Name             Description
   ---- ---------------- -----------------------------------------------
   -100 (reserved)
   -101 VERSION          The Database does not support the specified
                         version of the message.
   -102 UNSUPPORTED      The Database does not support the Device.  For
                         example, it does not support the regulatory
                         domain specified in the request.
   -103 UNIMPLEMENTED    The Database does not implement the optional
                         request or optional feature.
   -104 OUTSIDE_COVERAGE The specified geo-location is outside the
                         coverage area of the Database.
   -200 (reserved)
   -201 REQUIRED         A required parameter is missing.  The Database
                         MUST include a list of the required parameter
                         names.  The Database MAY include only names of
                         parameters that are missing, but MAY include a
                         full list.  When providing only a listing of
                         missing parameters, the Database SHOULD include
                         the full list of missing parameters to minimize
                         number of re-queries from the Device.
   -202 INVALID_VALUE    A parameter value is invalid in some way.  The
                         Database SHOULD include a message indicating
                         which parameter(s) and why the value is
                         invalid.
   -300 (reserved)
   -301 UNAUTHORIZED     The Device is not authorized to used the
                         Database.  Authorization may be determined by
                         regulatory rules or be dependent on prior
                         arrangement between the Device and Database.
   -302 NOT_REGISTERED   Device registration required, but the Device is
                         not registered.

                           Table 1: Error Codes

5.13.1.  REQUIRED Error

   When the error code is REQUIRED, the Error element MUST include a
   Parameters element as its "data" field.










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   +---------------------------+
   |Error                      |
   +----------------+----------+
   |code:int        | required |
   |message:string  | optional |    +---------------------------+
   |data:Parameters | optional |--->|Parameters                 |
   +----------------+----------+    +----------------+----------+
                                    |parameters:list | required |
                                    |...........................|
                                    |*other:any      | optional |
                                    +----------------+----------+

   Parameters:
   parameters  List of parameter names.  The name of a parameter SHOULD
      be expressed using dotted notation, when appropriate, e.g.,
      "deviceDesc.serialNumber".
   other  The Database MAY include other parameters.  The Device MUST
      ignore all parameters it does not understand.


6.  Message Encoding

   The PAWS protocol is encoded using JSON-RPC [JSON-RPC] (see also
   JavaScript Object Notation (JSON) [RFC4627]).  Each component
   described in Protocol Functionalities (Section 4) corresponds to one
   or more JSON-RPC methods.  This section provides the JSON schema for
   each of the protocol messages and parameters defined in sections
   Protocol Functionalities (Section 4) and Protocol Parameters
   (Section 5).  JSON schemas are presented in accordance with A JSON
   Media Type for Describing the Structure and Meaning of JSON Documents
   [I-D.zyp-json-schema].

   NOTE: In general, all messages defined in this section are extensible
   by adding additional properties to support regulatory-specific and
   database-specific requirements.  In all cases, the Device or Database
   MUST ignore any parameter it does not understand.

6.1.  JSON-RPC Binding

   The JSON-RPC [JSON-RPC] protocol consists of two basic objects,
   Request and Response:
   o  The JSON-RPC Request object encapsulates a PAWS functionality
      (operation) and the request message
   o  The JSON-RPC Response object encapsulates a PAWS response message
      and Error element

   The JSON-RPC Request for PAWS has the following form:




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   {
     "method": string,
     "params": <PAWS_REQ>,
     "id": string
   }

   where "method" is the name of a PAWS functionality (operation), and
   <PAWS_REQ> represents one of the PAWS request objects associated with
   the method.

   The non-error JSON-RPC Response for PAWS has the following form:

   {
     "result": <PAWS_RESP>,
     "id": string
   }

   where <PAWS_RESP> represents one of the PAWS response objects
   associated with the method.

   The error JSON-RPC Response for PAWS has the following form:

   {
     "error": {
       "code": integer,
       "message": string,
       "data": object,
     },
     "id": string
   }

   where the Error object and error codes are described by Error Element
   (Section 5.13).

   Depending on prior arrangement between a Database and Device, the
   Request and Response MAY contain additional parameters.  The Database
   or Device MUST ignore all parameters it does not understand.

6.2.  init Method

   This section describes the encoding for the JSON-RPC "init" method
   that represents the Initialization functionality (Section 4.2).

6.2.1.  INIT_REQ Parameters

   The JSON encoding of the Initialization request message INIT_REQ
   (Section 4.2.1) is described by the following schema:




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  {
    "name": "INIT_REQ",
    "type": "object",
    "properties": {
      "type": "INIT_REQ",
      "version": {
        "type": "string",
        "required": true
      },
      "deviceDesc": {
        "type": "DeviceDescriptor",
        "required": true
      },
      "location": {
        "type": "GeoLocation",
        "description": "The location SHOULD be the current location " +
            "of the Device's antenna. Depending on the regulatory " +
            "domain, the location MAY be the anticipated position of " +
            "the Device.",
        "required": true
      }
    }
  }

   Example "init" JSON-RPC request:

   {
    "method": "init",
    "params": {
     "type": "INIT_REQ",
     "version": "1.0",
     "deviceDesc": {
      "serialNumber": "XXX",
      "fccId": "YYY",
      ...
     },
     "location": {
      "point": {
       "center": {"latitude": 37.0, "longitude": -101.3}
      }
     }
    }
    "id": "xxxxxx"
   }







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6.2.2.  INIT_RESP Parameters

   The JSON encoding of the Initialization response message INIT_RESP
   (Section 4.2.2) is described by the following schema:

   {
     "name": "INIT_RESP",
     "type": "object",
     "properties": {
       "type": "INIT_RESP",
       "version": {
         "type": "string",
         "required": true
       },
       "rulesetInfo": {
         "type": "RulesetInfo",
         "description": "Indicates the active regulatory domain and " +
             "attributes that define the applicable rule set that " +
             "govern the device",
         "required": true
       }
     }
   }

   Example "init" JSON-RPC response:

   {
    "result": {
     "type": "INIT_RESP",
     "version": "1.0",
     "rulesetInfo": {
       ...
     }
    },
    "id": "xxxxxx"
   }

6.3.  register Method

   This section describes the encoding for the JSON-RPC "register"
   method that represents Device Registration functionality
   (Section 4.3).

6.3.1.  REGISTRATION_REQ Parameters

   The JSON encoding of the Registration request message
   REGISTRATION_REQ (Section 4.3.1) is described by the following
   schema:



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  {
    "name": "REGISTRATION_REQ",
    "type": "object",
    "properties": {
      "type": "REGISTRATION_REQ",
      "version": {
        "type": "string",
        "required": true
      },
      "deviceDesc": {
        "type": "DeviceDescriptor",
        "required": true
      },
      "deviceOwner": {
        "type": "DeviceOwner",
        "required": true
      },
      "location": {
        "type": "GeoLocation",
        "description": "The location SHOULD be the current location " +
            "of the Device's antenna. Depending on the regulatory " +
            "domain, the location MAY be the anticipated position of " +
            "the Device.",
        "required": true
      },
      "antenna": {
        "type": "AntennaCharacteristics",
        "description": "Antenna characteristics, including its " +
            "height and height type",
        "required": false
      }
    }
  }

   Example "register" JSON-RPC request:
















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   {
    "method": "register",
    "params": {
     "type": "REGISTRATION_REQ",
     "version": "1.0",
     "deviceDesc": {
      "serialNumber": "XXX",
      "fccId": "YYY",
      ...
     },
     "deviceOwner": {
      "owner": {
       "fn": "John A. Smith",
       "org": {
        "text": "ACME",
       },
       "adr": {
         "street": "1234 A Street",
         "locality": "San Jose",
         "region": "CA",
         "code": "94423",
         "country": "US"
       },
       "tel": {
         "uri": "tel:+1-333-555-1212"
       },
       "email": {
         "text": "j.smith@email.com"
       }
      }
     },
     "location": {
      "point": {
       "center": {"latitude": 37.0, "longitude": -101.3}
      }
     },
     "antenna": {"height": 10.2, "heightType": "AGL"}
    },
    "id": "xxxxxx"
   }

6.3.2.  REGISTRATION_RESP Parameters

   The JSON encoding of the Registraion response message
   REGISTRATION_RESP (Section 4.3.2) is described by the following
   schema:





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   {
     "name": "REGISTRATION_RESP",
     "type": "object",
     "properties": {
       "type": "REGISTRATION_RESP",
       "version": {
         "type": "string",
         "required": true
       }
     }
   }

   Example "register" JSON-RPC response:

   {
    "result": {
     "type": "REGISTRATION_RESP",
     "version": "1.0"
    },
    "id": "xxxxxx"
   }

6.4.  getSpectrum Method

   This section describes the encoding for the JSON-RPC "getSpectrum"
   method that represents the single-location query of the Available
   Spectrum Query functionality (Section 4.4) that enables a Device to
   obtain a set of available spectrum from the Database.

6.4.1.  AVAILABLE_SPECTRUM_REQ Parameters

   The JSON encoding of the Available Spectrum request message
   AVAIL_SPECTRUM_REQ (Section 4.4.1) is described by the following
   schema:

















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 {
   "name": "AVAILABLE_SPECTRUM_REQ",
   "type": "object",
   "properties": {
     "type": "AVAILABLE_SPECTRUM_REQ",
     "version": {
       "type": "string",
       "required": true
     },
     "deviceDesc": {
       "type": "DeviceDescriptor",
       "required":true
     },
     "location": {
       "type": "GeoLocation",
       "description": "The location SHOULD be the current location " +
           "of the Device's antenna. Depending on the regulatory " +
           "domain, the location MAY be the anticipated position of " +
           "the Device.",
       "required": false
     },
     "antenna": {
       "type": "AntennaCharacteristics",
       "description": "Antenna characteristics, including its " +
           "height and height type. May required depending on " +
           "device type and regulatory domain",
       "required":false
     },
     "owner": {
       "type": "DeviceOwner",
       "description": "May be required if the Device is not yet " +
           "registered or if the DB does not implement a separate " +
           "device-registration request. Also depends on device type " +
           "and regulatory domain",
       "required": false
     },
     "capabilities": {
       "type": "DeviceCapabilities",
       "description": "The Database SHOULD NOT return spectrum that " +
           "is incompatible with the specified capabilities.",
       "required": false
     }
   }
 }

   Example "getSpectrum" JSON-RPC request:





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   {
    "method": "getSpectrum",
    "params": {
     "type": "AVAILABLE_SPECTRUM_REQ",
     "version": "1.0",
     "deviceDesc": {
      "serialNumber": "XXX",
      "fccId": "YYY",
      ...
     },
     "location": {
      "point": {
       "center": {"latitude": 37.0, "longitude": -101.3}
      }
     },
     "antenna": {"height": 10.2, "heightType": "AGL"}
    }
    "id": "xxxxxx",
   }

6.4.2.  AVAIL_SPECTRUM_RESP Parameters

   The JSON encoding of the Available Spectrum response message
   AVAIL_SPECTRUM_RESP (Section 4.4.2) is described by the following
   schema:


























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{
  "name": "AVAIL_SPECTRUM_RESP",
  "type": "object",
  "properties": {
    "type": "AVAILABLE_SPECTRUM_RESP",
    "version": {
      "type": "string",
      "required": true
    },
    "timestamp": {
      "type": "string",
      "description": "Timestamp of the response, using " +
          "YYYY-MM-DDThh:mm:ssZ RFC3339 format. This SHOULD be used " +
          "by the Device as a reference for the start and stop times " +
          "in the spectrum schedule",
      "format": "date-time",
      "required": true
    },
    "deviceDesc": {
      "type": "DeviceDescriptor",
      "required": true
    },
    "spectrumSchedules": {
      "type": "array",
      "description": "The Database MAY return more than one " +
          "schedule to represent future changes to the available " +
          "spectrum. This array MAY be empty if no spectrum is " +
          "is available.",
      "items": "SpectrumSchedule",
      "required": true
    },
    "needsSpectrumReport": {
      "type": "boolean",
      "description": "For regulatory domains that require a " +
          "spectrum-usage report from devices, the Database MUST " +
          "return true for this parameter.",
      "default": false,
      "required": false
    },
    "rulesetId": {
      "type": "string",
      "description": "The identifier of the applicable rule set.",
      "required": false
    }
  }
}

   Example "getSpectrum" JSON-RPC response:



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   {
    "result": {
     "type": "AVAILABLE_SPECTRUM_RESP",
     "version": "1.0",
     "timestamp": "2013-03-02T14:30:21Z",
     "deviceDesc": {
      "serialNumber": "XXX",
      "fccId": "YYY",
      ...
     },
     "spectrumSchedules": [
      {
       "eventTime": {
        "startTime": "2013-03-02T14:30:21Z",
        "stopTime": "2013-03-02T20:00:00Z",
       },
       "spectra": [
         {
          "bandwidth": 6e6,
          "frequencyRanges": [
            {"startHz":5.18e8, "stopHz":5.36e8, "maxPowerDBm":30.0},
            {"startHz":5.36e8, "stopHz":5.42e8, "maxPowerDBm":36.0},
            ...
          ]
         },
         {
          "bandwidth": 1e5,
          "frequencyRanges": [
            {"startHz":5.18e8, "stopHz":5.36e8, "maxPowerDBm":27.0},
            {"startHz":5.36e8, "stopHz":5.42e8, "maxPowerDBm":33.0},
            ...
          ]
         }
       ]
      },
      {
       "eventTime": {
        "startTime": "2013-03-02T22:00:00Z",
        "stopTime": "2013-03-03T14:30:21Z",
       },
       "spectra": [
        ...
       ]
      }
     ],
     "needsSpectrumReport": false
    },
    "id": "xxxxxx"



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   }

6.5.  getSpectrumBatch Method

   This section describes the encoding for the JSON-RPC
   "getSpectrumBatch" method that represents the multiple-location query
   of the Available Spectrum Query functionality (Section 4.4) that
   enables a Device to obtain a set of available spectrum for multiple
   locations from the Database.

6.5.1.  AVAIL_SPECTRUM_BATCH_REQ Parameters

   The JSON encoding of the Batch Available Spectrum request
   AVAIL_SPECTRUM_BATCH_REQ (Section 4.4.3) is described by the
   following schema.  This an OPTIONAL feature of the Database.




































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 {
   "name": "AVAIL_SPECTRUM_BATCH_REQ",
   "type": "object",
   "properties": {
     "type": "AVAILABLE_SPECTRUM_BATCH_REQ",
     "version": {
       "type": "string",
       "required": true
      },
     "deviceDesc": {
       "type": "DeviceDescriptor",
       "required": true
     },
     "locations": {
       "type": "array",
       "description": "At least one device location is required. " +
           "Additional (anticipated) locations can also be included, " +
           "as permitted by regulatory domain,",
       "items": "GeoLocation",
       "required": true
     },
     "antenna": {
       "type": "AntennaCharacteristics",
       "description": "Antenna characteristics, including its " +
           "height and height type. May required depending on " +
           "device type and regulatory domain","AntennaCharacteristics",
       "required": false
     },
     "owner": {
       "type": "DeviceOwner",
       "description": "May be required if the Device is not yet " +
           "registered or if the DB does not implement a separate " +
           "device-registration request. Also depends on device type " +
           "and regulatory domain",
       "required": false
     },
     "capabilities": {
       "type": "DeviceCapabilities",
       "description": "The Database SHOULD NOT return spectrum that " +
           "is incompatible with the specified capabilities.",
       "required": false
     }
   }
 }

   Example "getSpectrumBatch" JSON-RPC request:





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   {
    "method": "getSpectrumBatch",
    "params": {
     "type": "AVAILABLE_SPECTRUM_BATCH_REQ",
     "version": "1.0",
     "deviceDesc": {
      "serialNumber": "XXX",
      "fccId": "YYY",
      ...
     },
     "locations": [
      {
       "point": {
        "center": {"latitude": 37.0, "longitude": -101.3}
       }
      },
      {
       "point": {
        "center": {"latitude": 37.0005, "longitude": -101.3005}
       }
      },
      ...
     ],
     "antenna": {"height": 10.2, "heightType": "AGL"}
    }
    "id": "xxxxxx",
   }

6.5.2.  AVAIL_SPECTRUM_BATCH_RESP Parameters

   The JSON encoding of the Batch Available Spectrum response
   AVAIL_SPECTRUM_BATCH_RESP (Section 4.4.4) is described by the
   following schema:


















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{
  "name": "AVAIL_SPECTRUM_BATCH_RESP",
  "type": "object",
  "properties": {
    "type": "AVAILABLE_SPECTRUM_BATCH_RESP",
    "version": {
      "type": "string",
      "required": true
     },
    "timestamp": {
      "type": "string",
      "description": "Timestamp of the response, using " +
          "YYYY-MM-DDThh:mm:ssZ RFC3339 format. This SHOULD be used " +
          "by the Device as a reference for the start and stop times " +
          "in the spectrum schedule",
      "format": "date-time",
      "required": true
    },
    "deviceDesc": {
      "type": "DeviceDescriptor",
      "required": true
    },
    "geoSpectrumSchedules": {
      "type": "array",
      "description": "For each location, the Database MAY return " +
          "more than one schedule to represent future changes " +
          "to the available spectrum. This array MAY be empty if " +
          "there is no available spectrum.",
      "items": "GeoSpectrumSchedule",
      "required": true
    },
    "needsSpectrumReport": {
      "type": "boolean",
      "description": "For regulatory domains that require a " +
          "spectrum-usage report from devices, the Database MUST " +
          "return true for this parameter.",
      "default": false,
      "required": false
    },
    "rulesetId": {
      "type": "string",
      "description": "The identifier of the applicable rule set.",
      "required": false
    }
  }
}

   Example "getSpectrumBatch" JSON-RPC response:



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   {
    "result": {
     "type": "AVAILABLE_SPECTRUM_BATCH_RESP",
     "version": "1.0",
     "timestamp": "2013-03-02T14:30:21Z",
     "deviceDesc": {
      "serialNumber": "XXX",
      "fccId": "YYY",
      ...
     },
     "geoSpectrumSchedules": [
      {
       "location": {
        "point": {
         "center": {"latitude": 37.0, "longitude": -101.3}
        }
       },
       "spectrumSchedules": [
        {
         "eventTime": {
          "startTime": "2013-03-02T14:30:21Z",
          "stopTime": "2013-03-02T20:00:00Z",
         },
         "spectra": [
           {
            "bandwidth": 6e6,
            "frequencyRanges": [
              {"startHz":5.18e8, "stopHz":5.36e8, "maxPowerDBm":30.0},
              {"startHz":5.36e8, "stopHz":5.42e8, "maxPowerDBm":36.0},
              ...
            ]
           },
           {
            "bandwidth": 1e5,
            "frequencyRanges": [
              {"startHz":5.18e8, "stopHz":5.36e8, "maxPowerDBm":27.0},
              {"startHz":5.36e8, "stopHz":5.42e8, "maxPowerDBm":33.0},
              ...
            ]
           },
         ]
        },
        {
         "eventTime": {
          "startTime": "2013-03-02T22:00:00Z",
          "stopTime": "2013-03-03T14:30:21Z",
         },
         "spectra": [



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          ...
         ]
        }
       ],
      },
      {
       "location": {
        "point": {
         "center": {"latitude": 37.0005, "longitude": -101.3005}
        }
       },
       "spectrumSchedules": [
        ...
       ]
      }
     ],
     "needsSpectrumReport": false
    },
    "id": "xxxxxx"
   }

6.6.  notifySpectrumUse Method

   This section describes the encoding for the JSON-RPC
   "notifySpectrumUse" method that represents the Spectrum-usage
   notification of Available Spectrum Query functionality
   (Section 4.4.5) for notifying the Database of anticipated spectrum
   usage.

6.6.1.  SPECTRUM_USE_NOTIFY Parameters

   The JSON encoding of the Spectrum Notification message
   SPECTRUM_USE_NOTIFY (Section 4.4.5) is described by the following
   schema:

















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   {
     "name": "SPECTRUM_USE_NOTIFY",
     "type": "object",
     "properties": {
       "type": "SPECTRUM_USE_NOTIFY",
       "version": {
         "type": "string",
         "required": true
       },
       "deviceDesc": {
         "type": "DeviceDescriptor",
         "required": true
       },
       "location": {
         "type": "GeoLocation",
         "required": true
       },
       "spectra": {
         "type": "array",
         "description": "The spectrum anticipated to be used by " +
             "the Device.",
         "items": "Spectrum",
         "required": true
       }
     }
   }

   Example "notifySpectrumUse" JSON-RPC notification:























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   {
    "method": "notifySpectrumUse",
    "params": {
     "type": "SPECTRUM_USE_NOTIFY",
     "version": "1.0",
     "deviceDesc": {
      "serialNumber": "XXX",
      "fccId": "YYY",
      ...
     },
     "location": {
      "point": {
       "center": {"latitude": 37.0005, "longitude": -101.3005}
      }
     },
     "spectra": [
      {
       "bandwidth": 6e6,
       "frequencyRanges": [
        {"startHz":5.18e8, "stopHz":5.24e8, "maxPowerDBm":30.0}
       ]
      },
     ]
    },
     "needsSpectrumReport": false
    },
    "id": "xxxxxx"
   }

6.6.2.  SPECTRUM_USE_RESP Parameters

   The JSON encoding of the Spectrum-usage response SPECTRUM_USE_RESP
   (Section 4.4.6) is decribed by the following schema:

   {
     "name": "SPECTRUM_USE_RESP",
     "type": "object",
     "properties": {
       "type": "SPECTRUM_USE_RESP",
       "version": {
         "type": "string",
         "required": true
       }
     }
   }

   Example "notifySpectrumUse" JSON-RPC response:




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   {
    "result": {
     "type": "SPECTRUM_USE_RESP",
     "version": "1.0"
    },
    "id": "xxxxxx"
   }

6.7.  verifyDevice Method

   This section describes the encoding for the JSON-RPC "verifyDevice"
   method that represents the Device Validation functionality
   (Section 4.5).  This is used by a Master Device to validate Slave
   Devices.

6.7.1.  DEV_VALID_REQ Parameters

   The JSON encoding of the Device Validation request DEV_VALID_REQ
   (Section 4.5.1) is described by the following schema:

   {
     "name": "DEV_VALID_REQ",
     "type": "object",
     "properties": {
       "type": "DEV_VALID_REQ",
       "version": {
         "type": "string",
         "required": true
       },
       "deviceDescs": {
         "type": "array",
         "description": "List of Slave Devices to be validated",
         "items": "DeviceDescriptor",
         "required": true
       }
     }
   }

   Example "verifyDevice" JSON-RPC request:












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   {
    "method": "verifyDevice",
    "params": {
     "type": "DEV_VALID_REQ",
     "version": "1.0",
     "deviceDescs": [
      {
       "serialNumber": "XXX",
       "fccId": "YYY",
       ...
      },
      {
       "serialNumber": "XXX3",
       "fccId": "YYY2",
       ...
      },
      ...
     ]
    },
    "id": "xxxxxx"
   }

6.7.2.  DEV_VALID_RESP Parameters

   The JSON encoding of the Device Validation response DEV_VALID_RESP
   (Section 4.5.2) is described by the following schema:

 {
   "name": "DEV_VALID_RESP",
   "type": "object",
   "properties": {
     "type": "DEV_VALID_RESP",
     "version": {
       "type": "string",
       "required": true
     },
     "deviceValidities": {
       "type": "array",
       "description": "List of DeviceValidity objects that shows the " +
           "validity of each device included in the original Device " +
           "Validity Request message.",
       "items": "DeviceValidity",
       "required": true
     }
   }
 }

   Example "verifyDevice" JSON-RPC response:



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   {
    "result": {
     "type": "DEV_VALID_RESP",
     "version": "1.0",
     "deviceValidities": [
      {
       "deviceDesc": {
         "serialNumber": "XXX",
         "fccId": "YYY",
         ...
       },
       "isValid": true
      },
      {
       "deviceDesc": {
         "serialNumber": "XXX3",
         "fccId": "YYY2",
         ...
       },
       "isValid": false,
       "reason": "Not authorized"
      }
     ]
    },
    "id": "xxxxxx"
   }

6.8.  Sub-message Schemas

   This section defines the schema for Protocol Parameters (Section 5)
   embedded in PAWS request and response messages.

6.8.1.  GeoLocation

   This parameter is used to specify the GeoLocation (Section 5.1) of
   the Device.  The geometric shapes represent the JSON encoding shapes
   defined in GEOPRIV Presence Information Data Format Location Object
   [RFC5491].

     {
       "name": "GeoLocation",
       "type": "object",
       "properties": {
         "point": {
           "description": "A single location, with optional " +
               "uncertainty measures",
           "type": "Ellipse",
           "required": false



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         },
         "region": {
           "description": "A region described by a polygon",
           "type": "Polygon",
           "required": false
         },
         "confidence": {
           "description": "Confidence interval when location " +
               "is a point with uncertainty. 0 to 100.",
           "type": "integer",
           "required": false,
           "default": 100
         }
       }
     }
     {
       "name": "Point",
       "type": "object",
       "properties": {
         "latitude": {
           "description: "Floating-point degrees. WGS84 datum.",
           "type": "number",
           "required": true
         },
         "longitude": {
           "type": "number",
           "description: "Floating-point degree. WGS84 datum.",
           "required":true
         }
       }
     }
     {
       "name": "Ellipse",
       "type": "object",
       "properties": {
         "center": {
           "type": "Point",
           "required": true
         },
         "semiMajorAxis": {
           "description": "Floating-point meters that describe " +
               "location uncertainty along the major axis of " +
               "the ellipse.",
           "type": "number",
           "required": false,
           "default": 0
         },
         "semiMinorAxis": {



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           "description": "Floating-point meters that describe " +
               "location uncertainty along the minor axis of " +
               "the ellipse.",
           "type": "number",
           "required": false,
           "default": 0
         },
         "orientation": {
           "description": "Orientation of the ellipse, as rotation " +
               "of the major axis from North towards East. Degrees.",
           "type": "number",
           "required": false,
           "default": 0
         }
       }
     }
     {
       "name": "Polygon",
       "type": "object",
       "properties": {
         "exterior": {
           "description": "List of Points in counter-clockwise " +
               "order. They must form a loop with no edges that " +
               "cross each other. Minimum of 3 points.",
           "type": "array",
           "items": "Point",
           "required": true
         }
       }
     }

6.8.2.  DeviceDescriptor

   The DeviceDescriptor (Section 5.2) contains parameters that identify
   the specific device, such as its manufacturer serial number,
   regulatory-specific ID (e.g., FCC ID), and any other device
   characteristics required by regulatory domains, such as device-type
   classification.













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   {
     "name": "DeviceDescriptor",
     "type": "object",
     "properties": {
       "serialNumber": {
         "type": "string",
         "required": true
       },
       "rulesetIds": {
         "type": "array",
         "description": "List of identifiers for rule sets supported " +
             "by the device",
         "items": "string",
         "required": false
       },
       "fccId": {
         "type": "string",
         "description":"The device's FCC ID.",
         "required": false
       }
     }
   }

6.8.3.  AntennaCharacteristics

   AntennaCharacteristics (Section 5.3) provide additional information,
   such as the antenna height, antenna type, etc.
























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    {
       "name": "AntennaCharacteristics",
       "type": "object",
       "properties": {
         "height": {
           "description": "Height of the antenna, in meters",
           "type": "number",
           "required": false
         },
         "heightType": {
           "description": "Reference type for height: " +
               "Above Ground Level (AGL), or Above Mean Sea " +
               "Level (AMSL).",
           "type": "string",
           "enum": "["AGL","AMSL"]",
           "default": "AGL",
           "required": false
         },
         "heightUncertainty": {
           "description": "Uncertainty of the height measurement, " +
               "in meters.",
           "type": "number",
           "required": false
         }
       }
     }

6.8.4.  DeviceCapabilities

   Device capabilities (Section 5.4) provide additional information that
   MAY be used by the Device to provide additional information to the
   Database to help the Database determine available spectrum.  If the
   Database does not support device capabilities, it MUST ignore the
   parameter.

     {
       "name": "DeviceCapabilities",
       "type": "object",
       "description": "Device capabilities to help DB determine " +
           "available spectrum. The DB SHOULD NOT return available " +
           "spectrum that falls outside the given frequency ranges.",
       "properties": {
         "frequencyRanges": {
           "type": "array",
           "items": "FrequencyRange",
           "required": false
         }
       }



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     }

6.8.5.  DeviceOwner

   The DeviceOwner (Section 5.5) parameter contains device-owner
   information required as part of device registration.  Regulatory
   domains MAY require additional parameters.  JSON encoding of vCard is
   described in A JavaScript Object Notation (JSON) Representation for
   vCard [I-D.bhat-vcarddav-json].

     {
       "name": "DeviceOwner",
       "type": "object",
       "description": "Device-owner information required as part of " +
           "Device registration. Regulatory domains MAY require " +
           "additional parameters.",
       "properties": {
         "owner": {
           "type": "vCard",
           "description":"Contact information for the individual " +
                "or business that owns the device.",
           "required": true
         },
         "operator": {
           "type": "vCard",
           "description":"Contact information for the device operator.",
           "required": false
         }
       }
     }

   Example:



















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     {
       "deviceOwner": {
         "owner": {
           "org": {
             "text": "Racafrax, Inc."
           }
         },
         "operator": {
           "fn": "John Frax",
           "adr": {
             "street": "100 Main Street",
             "locality": "Summersville",
             "region": "CA",
             "code": "90034",
             "country": "USA"
           },
           "tel": {
             "uri": "tel:+1-213-555-1212"
           },
           "email": {
             "text": "j.frax@rackafrax.com"
           }
         }
       }
     }

6.8.6.  RulesetInfo

   RulesetInfo (Section 5.6) contains parameters for the rule set of a
   regulatory domain that is communicated using the Initialization
   component (Section 4.2).




















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     {
       "name": "RulesetInfo",
       "type": "object",
       "description": "The rule set of a regulatory domain that is " +
           "communicated to Devices in the Initialization Response " +
           "message.",
       "properties": {
         "authority": {
           "type": "string",
           "description": "The regulatory domain at the specified " +
               "location. It is a 2-letter country codes defined by " +
               "ISO3166-1.",
           "required": true
         },
         "maxLocationChange": {
           "type": "number",
           "description": "Maximum location change in meters.",
           "required": true
         },
         "maxPollingSecs": {
           "type": "integer",
           "description": "Maximum duration, in seconds, between " +
               "requests for available spectrum.",
           "required": true
         },
         "rulesetId": {
           "type": "string",
           "description": "The identifier of the applicable rule set",
           "required": false,
         }
       }
     }

6.8.7.  Spectrum

   Available Spectrum (Section 5.7) can logically be characterized by a
   list of frequency ranges and permissible power levels for each range.














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     {
       "name": "Spectrum",
       "type": "object",
       "description": "A per-bandwidth list of frequency ranges with " +
           "permissible power levels. For example, In US, In US, FCC " +
           "requires only one spectrum specification at 6MHz " +
           "bandwidth; in UK, Ofcom requires two (at 0.1MHz and " +
           "8MHz).",
       "properties": {
         "bandwidth": {
           "type": "number",
           "description": "Operating bandwidth for which permissible " +
               "power levels are applicable.",
           "required": true
         },
         "frequencyRanges": {
           "type": "array",
           "description": "List of FrequencyRange objects to specify " +
               "frequency ranges and permissible power levels for " +
               "a given bandwidth. The list MAY be empty when there " +
               "is no available spectrum.",
           "items": "FrequencyRange",
           "required": true
         }
       }
     }

6.8.8.  FrequencyRange

   The FrequencyRange (Section 5.8) element describes a frequency range
   and permissible power level within the specified range.




















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     {
       "name": "FrequencyRange",
       "type": "object",
       "properties": {
         "startHz": {
           "type": "number",
           "description": "The inclusive start of the frequency range.",
           "required": true
         },
         "stopHz": {
           "type": "number",
           "description": "The exclusive end of the frequency range.",
           "required": true
         },
         "maxPowerDBm": {
           "type": "number",
           "description": "The maximum total power level (EIRP), " +
               "computed over the corresponding operating bandwidth, " +
               "that is permitted within the frequency range. This "
               "field is optional when specifying device " +
               "capabilities, but is otherwise required.",
           "required": false
         },
         "channelId": {
           "type": "string",
           "required": false
         }
       }
     }

6.8.9.  EventTime

   The EventTime (Section 5.9) element specifies the start and stop
   times of an "event."  It is used to indicate the time period for
   which a Spectrum (Section 5.7) is valid.
















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     {
       "name": "EventTime",
       "type": "object",
       "properties": {
         "startTime": {
           "type": "string",
           "description": "YYYY-MM-DDThh:mm:ssZ RFC3339 format.",
           "format": "date-time",
           "required": false
         },
         "stopTime": {
           "type": "string",
           "description": "YYYY-MM-DDThh:mm:ssZ RFC3339 format.",
           "format": "date-time",
           "required": false
         }
       }
     }

6.8.10.  SpectrumSchedule

   The SpectrumSchedule (Section 5.10) element combines EventTime with
   Spectrum to define a time period during which the spectrum is valid.

  {
    "name": "SpectrumSchedule",
    "type": "object",
    "description": "The SpectrumSchedule element combines EventTime " +
        "with Spectrum to define a time period during which spectrum " +
        "is valid.",
    "properties": {
      "eventTime": {
        "type": "EventTime",
        "description": "Period when the spectra is valid.",
        "required": true
      },
      "spectra": {
        "type": "array",
        "description": "List of available spectra and permissible " +
            "power levels; one spectrum object per bandwidth. The " +
            "list MAY be empty when there is no available spectrum.",
        "items": "Spectrum",
        "required": true
      }
    }
  }





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6.8.11.  GeoSpectrumSchedule

   The GeoSpectrumSchedule (Section 5.11) element encapsulates the
   schedule of available spectrum at a location.

     {
       "name": "GeoSpectrumSchedule",
       "type": "object",
       "description": "The GeoSpectrumSchedule element encapsulates " +
           "the schedule of available spectrum at a location.",
       "properties": {
         "location": {
           "type": "GeoLocation",
           "description": "The location at which the spectrum " +
               "schedule applies.",
           "required": true
         },
         "spectrumSchedules": {
           "type": "array",
           "description": "At least one schedule MUST be included " +
               "(though it MAY be empty if there is no available " +
               "spectrum. More than one schedule MAY be included " +
               "to represent future changes to the available spectrum.",
           "items": "SpectrumSchedule",
           "required": true
         }
       }
     }

6.8.12.  DeviceValidity

   The DeviceValidity (Section 5.12) element is used to indicate whether
   a device is valid.  See Section 4.5.2.


















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     {
       "name": "DeviceValidity",
       "type": "object",
       "description": "The GeoSpectrumSchedule element encapsulates " +
           "the schedule of available spectrum at a location.",
       "properties": {
         "deviceDesc": {
           "type": "DeviceDescriptor",
           "required": true
         },
         "isValid": {
           "type": "boolean",
           "description": "Boolean that indicates if the Device is " +
               "valid",
           "required": true
         },
         "reason": {
           "type": "string",
           "description": "If the device identifier is not valid, " +
               "the Database MAY include a reason. The reason MAY be " +
               "in any language.",
           "required": false
         }
       }
     }

6.8.13.  Additional Properties

   Note that A JSON Media Type for Describing the Structure and Meaning
   of JSON [I-D.zyp-json-schema] allows, as default behavior, the
   inclusion of additional properties by instances that are not
   explicitly defined in the JSON schema that the instance implements.
   The schema elaborated in this document adopts this default behavior.
   Hence, the instance MAY provide additional properties and associated
   values (which may be "any" JSON type) not explictly listed in this
   schema.  Further note that the Database and Device MUST ignore any
   such additional properties and their associated values that it does
   not understand.


7.  HTTPS Binding

   This section describes the use of HTTP over TLS (HTTPS) HTTP Over TLS
   [RFC2818] as the transport mechanism for the PAWS protocol.  TLS
   provides message integrity and confidentiality between the Master
   Device and the Database.  The Master Device MUST implement server
   authentication, as described in Section 3.1 of HTTP Over TLS
   [RFC2818].  The Device uses the URI determined (either statically



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   configured or dynamically discovered) to authenticate the server.
   The Device SHOULD fail a request if server authentication fails.

   Depending on prior relationship between a database and device, the
   server MAY require client authentication, as described in the
   Transport Layer Security (TLS) Protocol [RFC5246], to authenticate
   the device.

   To enable databases to handle large numbers of requests from large
   numbers of devices, the Database MAY support and Devices SHOULD
   support Stateless TLS Session Resumption [RFC5077].

   A PAWS request message is carried in the body of an HTTP POST
   request.  A PAWS response message is carried in the body of an HTTP
   response.  A PAWS response SHOULD include a Content-Length header.

   The POST method is the only method REQUIRED for PAWS.  If a database
   chooses to support GET, it MUST be an escaped URL, but the encoding
   of the URL is outside the scope of this document.  The database MAY
   refuse to support the GET request by returning an HTTP error code,
   such as 404 (not found).

   The Database MAY redirect a PAWS request.  The Master Device MUST
   handle redirects by using the Location header provided by the server
   in a 3xx response.  When redirecting, the Master Device MUST observe
   the delay indicated by the Retry-After header.  The Master Device
   MUST authenticate the Database that returns the redirect response
   before following the redirect.  The Master Device MUST authenticate
   the Database indicated in the redirect.


8.  Extensibility

8.1.  Defining New Message Parameters

   New request or response parameters for use with the PAWS protocol are
   defined and registered in the parameters registry following the
   procedure in Section 9.1.

   Parameter names MUST conform to the param-name ABNF and parameter
   values syntax MUST be well-defined (e.g., using ABNF, or a reference
   to the syntax of an existing parameter).

   param-name = 1*name-char
   name-char = ALPHA / DIGIT / "_"

   The parameter name SHOULD be lowerCamelCase.




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   Unregistered vendor-specific parameter extensions that are not
   commonly applicable, and are specific to the implementation details
   of the Database where they are used SHOULD use a vendor-specific
   prefix that is no likely to conflict with other registered values
   (e.g., begin with 'companyname_').

8.2.  Defining Ruleset Identifiers

   A rule set represents a set of device-side requirements for which the
   device has been certified.  It typically corresponds to, but is not
   limited to, a set of rules that govern a specific set of radio
   spectrum for a regulatory domain.

   Rule-set identifiers are defined and registered in the Ruleset ID
   Registry following the procedure in Section 9.2.  Ruleset ID values
   MUST conform to the ruleset-id ABNF.  If the Ruleset ID requires
   additional parameters, they MUST be registered in the PAWS Parameters
   Registry, as described by Section 9.1.

   ruleset-id = 1*ruleset-char
   ruleset-char = ALPHA / DIGIT / "_"

   The form of a Ruleset ID value SHOULD be guided by the following:
   o  The value should describe the set of rules that allow a device to
      operate within a regulatory domain.  For example, it may include
      the name of a regulatory body or a certification process
   o  The value should include version information, such as a year or
      version number

8.3.  Defining Additional Error Codes

   Additional error codes MAY be defined to extend the set listed in
   Section 5.13.  Additional error codes MUST be registered, following
   the procedures in Section 9.3.  If the error code requires additional
   response parameters, they MUST be registered in the PAWS Parameters
   Registry, as described by Section 9.1.

   By convention, the error code SHOULD be a negative integer value,
   using one of the range of values defined in Error Codes
   (Section 5.13).  If an appropriate category does not exist, it MAY
   use values in a different range.


9.  IANA Considerations







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9.1.  PAWS Parameters Registry

   This specification establishes the PAWS Parameters Registry.

   Additional parameters for inclusion in the PAWS protocol requests,
   responses, or sub-messages are registered through the Specification
   Required [RFC5226] process, after a two-week review period on the
   [TBD]@ietf.org mailing list, on the advice of one or more Designated
   Experts.  To allow for the allocation of values prior to publication,
   the Designated Expert(s) may approve registration once they are
   satisfied that such a specification will be published.

   Registration requests must be sent to the [TBD]@ietf.org mailing list
   for review and comment, with an appropriate subject (e.g., "Request
   for parameter: example"). [[ Editor's Note: The name of the mailing
   list should be determined in consultation with the IESG and IANA.
   Suggested name: paws-ext-review. ]]

   Within the review period, the Designated Expert(s) will either
   approve or deny the registration request, communicating this decision
   to the review list and IANA.  Denials should include an explanation
   and, if applicable, suggestions as to how to make the request
   successful.

   IANA must only accept registry updates from the Designated Expert(s),
   and should direct all requests for registration to the review mailing
   list.

9.1.1.  Registration Template

   Parameter name:  The name of the parameter (e.g., "example").
   Parameter usage location:  The location(s) where the parameter can be
      used.  The possible locations are the named requests, responses,
      and messages defined in Protocol Functionalities (Section 4) and
      Protocol Parameters (Section 5).
   Specification document(s):  Reference to the document that specifies
      the parameter, preferably including a URI that can be used to
      retrieve a copy of the document.  An indication of the relevant
      sections also may be included, but is not required.

9.1.2.  Initial Registry Contents

   The PAWS Parameters Registry enables protocol extensibility to
   support any regulatory domain and rule set.  The initial contents of
   the registry, however, include only FCC-specific entries, because, as
   of this writing, it is the only regulatory domain that has finalized
   rules.  There is no intent to restrict the protocol to FCC rules.




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   The PAWS Parameters Registry's initial contents are:

   o  Parameter name: fccId
   o  Parameter usage location: DeviceDescriptor (Section 5.2)
   o  Specification Document(s): [[ this document (Section 5.2) ]]
   o  Parameter name: fccTvbdDeviceType
   o  Parameter usage location: DeviceDescriptor (Section 5.2)
   o  Specification Document(s): [[ this document ]] Specifies the TV
      Band White Space device type, as defined by the FCC.  Valid values
      are "FIXED", "MODE_1", "MODE_2".

9.2.  PAWS Ruleset ID Registry

   This specification establishes the PAWS Ruleset ID Registry.

   Ruleset type names for inclusion in the PAWS protocol messages are
   registered through the Specification Required [RFC5226] process,
   after a two-week review period on the [TBD]@ietf.org mailing list, on
   the advice of one or more Designated Experts.  To allow for the
   allocation of values prior to publication, the Designated Expert(s)
   may approve registration once they are satisfied that such a
   specification will be published.

   Registration requests must be sent to the [TBD]@ietf.org mailing list
   for review and comment, with an appropriate subject (e.g., "Request
   for parameter: example"). [[ Editor's Note: The name of the mailing
   list should be determined in consultation with the IESG and IANA.
   Suggested name: paws-ext-review. ]]

   Within the review period, the Designated Expert(s) will either
   approve or deny the registration request, communicating this decision
   to the review list and IANA.  Denials should include an explanation
   and, if applicable, suggestions as to how to make the request
   successful.

   IANA must only accept registry updates from the Designated Expert(s),
   and should direct all requests for registration to the review mailing
   list.

9.2.1.  Registration Template

   Ruleset name:  The name of the rule set.
   Additional message parameters:  Additional parameters to associate
      with the rulesetId parameter.  New parameters MUST be registered
      separately in the PAWS Parameters Registry, as described by
      Section 8.1.





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   Specification Document(s):  Reference to the document that specifies
      the parameter, preferably including a URI that can be used to
      retrieve a copy of the document.  An indication of the relevant
      sections also may be included, but is not required.

9.2.2.  Initial Registry Contents

   The PAWS Ruleset ID Registry enables protocol extensibility to
   support any regulatory domain and rule set.  The initial contents of
   the registry, however, include only FCC-specific entries, because, as
   of this writing, it is the only regulatory domain that has finalized
   rules.  There is no intent to restrict the protocol to FCC rules.

   The initial content of the PAWS Ruleset ID Registry is:

   o  Ruleset name: FccTvBandWhiteSpace-2010
   o  Additional message parameters:
      *  fccId: Specifies a device's FCC certification ID.  It is a
         required parameter in DeviceDescriptor (Section 5.2).
      *  fccTvbdDeviceType: Specifies the type of TV-band White Space
         device, as defined by the FCC rules.  It is a required
         parameter in DeviceDescriptor (Section 5.2).
   o  Specification Document(s): [[ this document ]] This rule set
      refers to the FCC rules for TV-band White Space operations
      established in the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Title 47,
      Part 15, Subpart H (http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/
      CFR-2010-title47-vol1/pdf/
      CFR-2010-title47-vol1-part15-subpartH.pdf).

9.3.  PAWS Error Code Registry

   This specification establishes the PAWS Error Code Registry.

   Additional error codes for inclusion in the PAWS protocol error
   message are registered through the Specification Required [RFC5226]
   process, after a two-week review period on the [TBD]@ietf.org mailing
   list, on the advice of one or more Designated Experts.  To allow for
   the allocation of values prior to publication, the Designated
   Expert(s) may approve registration once they are satisfied that such
   a specification will be published.

   Registration requests must be sent to the [TBD]@ietf.org mailing list
   for review and comment, with an appropriate subject (e.g., "Request
   for parameter: example"). [[ Editor's Note: The name of the mailing
   list should be determined in consultation with the IESG and IANA.
   Suggested name: paws-ext-review. ]]

   Within the review period, the Designated Expert(s) will either



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   approve or deny the registration request, communicating this decision
   to the review list and IANA.  Denials should include an explanation
   and, if applicable, suggestions as to how to make the request
   successful.

   IANA must only accept registry updates from the Designated Expert(s),
   and should direct all requests for registration to the review mailing
   list.

9.3.1.  Registration Template

   Code:  Integer value of the error code.
   Name:  Name of the error.
   Additional parameters:  Additional parameters that are returned in
      the data portion of the error (See Section 5.13).  New parameters
      MUST be registered separately in the PAWS Parameters Registry, as
      described by Section 9.1.
   Description:  Description of the error and its associated parameters,
      if any.

9.3.2.  Initial Registry Contents

   Initial registry contents are defined in the Table of Error Codes
   (Table 1).


10.  Security Considerations

   PAWS is a protocol whereby a Master Device requests a schedule of
   available spectrum at its location (or location of its Slave Devices)
   before it (they) can operate using those frequencies.  Whereas the
   information provided by the Database must be accurate and conform to
   applicable regulatory rules, the Database cannot enforce, through the
   protocol, that a client device uses only the spectrum it provided.
   In other words, devices can put energy in the air and cause
   interference without asking the Database.  Hence, PAWS security
   considerations do not include protection against malicious use of the
   White Space spectrum.  For more detailed information on specific
   requirements and security considerations associated with PAWS, see
   Protocol to Access White Space database: PAWS Use Cases and
   Requirements [I-D.ietf-paws-problem-stmt-usecases-rqmts].

   By using the PAWS protocol, the Master Device and the Database expose
   themselves to the following risks:
   o  Accuracy: The Master Device receives incorrect spectrum-
      availability information.





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   o  Privacy: An unauthorized entity intercepts identifying data for
      the Master Device, such as serial number and location.

   Protection from these risks depends on the success of the following
   steps:

   1.  The Master Device must determine a proper database.
   2.  The Master Device must connect to the proper database.
   3.  The Database must determine or compute accurate spectrum-
       availability information.
   4.  PAWS messages must be transmitted unmodified between the Database
       and the Master Device.
   5.  PAWS messages must be encrypted between the Database and the
       Master Device to prevent exposing private information.
   6.  For a Slave Device, the spectrum-availability information also
       must be transmitted unmodified and secure between the Master
       Device and the Slave Device.
   Of these, only steps 2, 4, and 5 are within the scope of this
   document.  [Editor's note: It is still open whether Step 1 is within
   the scope of this document].  Step 3 dependent on specific database
   implementations and regulatory rules and is outside the scope of this
   document.  Step 6 requires a protocol between master and slave
   devices and is thus outside the scope of this document.

10.1.  Assurance of Proper Database

   This document assumes that the Database is contacted using a domain
   name or an IP address.  Using HTTP over TLS HTTP Over TLS [RFC2818],
   the Database authenticates its identity, either as a domain name or
   IP address, to the Master Device by presenting a certificate
   containing that identifier as a "subjectAltName" (i.e., as a dNSName
   or IP address).  If the Master Device has external information as to
   the expected identity or credentials of the proper database (e.g., a
   certificate fingerprint), these checks MAY be omitted.  Note that in
   order for the presented certificate to be valid at the client, the
   client must be able to validate the certificate.  In particular, the
   validation path of the certificate must end in one of the client's
   trust anchors, even if that trust anchor is the Database certificate
   itself.  A Master Device should allow for the fact that a Database
   can change its certificate authorities (CAs) over time.

10.2.  Protection Against Modification

   To prevent a PAWS response message from being modified en route,
   messages must be transmitted over an integrity-protected channel.
   Using HTTP over TLS, the channel will be protected by appropriate
   cyphersuites.




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10.3.  Protection Against Eavesdropping

   Using HTTP over TLS, messages protected by appropriate cyphersuites
   are also protected from eavesdropping or otherwise access by
   unauthorized parties en route

10.4.  Client Authentication Considerations

   Although the Database can inform a device of available spectrum it
   can use, the Database cannot enforce that the Master Device uses any/
   only those frequencies.  Indeed, a malicious device can operate
   without ever contacting a database.  Consequently, client
   authentication is not required for the core PAWS protocol (although
   it may be required by specific regulators).  Depending on a prior
   relationship between a Database and Master Device, the Database MAY
   require client authentication.  TLS provides client authentication,
   but there are some considerations:

   o  As indicated in Section 3.2 of HTTP Over TLS [RFC2818], the TLS
      client authentication procedure only determines that the device
      has a certificate chain rooted in an appropriate CA (or a self-
      signed certicate).  The database would not know what the client
      identity ought to be, unless it has some external source of
      information.  Distribution and management of such information,
      including revocation lists, are outside the scope of this
      document.
   o  Authentication schemes are secure only to the extent that secrets
      or certificates are kept secure.  When there are a vast number of
      deployed devices using PAWS, the possibility that device keys will
      not leak becomes small.  Implementations should consider how to
      manage the system in the eventuality that there is a leak.


11.  Contributors

   This document draws heavily from the following Internet Draft
   documents, [I-D.das-paws-protocol] and [I-D.wei-paws-framework].  The
   editor would like to specifically call out and thank the contributing
   authors of these two documents.












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      Donald Joslyn
      Spectrum Bridge Inc.
      1064 Greenwood Blvd.
      Lake Mary, FL  32746
      U.S.A.
      Email: d.joslyn at spectrumbridge dot com


      Xinpeng Wei
      Huawei
      Phone: +86 13436822355
      Email: weixinpeng@huawei.com



12.  Acknowledgments

   The authors gratefully acknowledge the contributions of: Gabor Bajko,
   Teco Boot, Nancy Bravin, Rex Buddenberg, Gerald Chouinard, Stephen
   Farrell, Michael Fitch, Joel M. Halpern, Jussi Kahtava, Warren
   Kumari, Paul Lambert, Andy Lee, Anthony Mancuso, Basavaraj Patil,
   Scott Probasco, Brian Rosen, Andy Sago, Peter Stanforth, John Stine,
   and Juan Carlos Zuniga.


13.  References

13.1.  Normative References

   [RFC2119]  Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
              Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997.

   [RFC3339]  Klyne, G., Ed. and C. Newman, "Date and Time on the
              Internet: Timestamps", RFC 3339, July 2002.

   [RFC5077]  Salowey, J., Zhou, H., Eronen, P., and H. Tschofenig,
              "Transport Layer Security (TLS) Session Resumption without
              Server-Side State", RFC 5077, January 2008.

   [RFC5226]  Narten, T. and H. Alvestrand, "Guidelines for Writing an
              IANA Considerations Section in RFCs", BCP 26, RFC 5226,
              May 2008.

   [RFC5246]  Dierks, T. and E. Rescorla, "The Transport Layer Security
              (TLS) Protocol Version 1.2", RFC 5246, August 2008.

   [RFC5491]  Winterbottom, J., Thomson, M., and H. Tschofenig, "GEOPRIV
              Presence Information Data Format Location Object (PIDF-LO)



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              Usage Clarification, Considerations, and Recommendations",
              RFC 5491, March 2009.

   [RFC6350]  Perreault, S., "vCard Format Specification", RFC 6350,
              August 2011.

13.2.  Informative References

   [I-D.bhat-vcarddav-json]
              Bhat, R. and P. Saint-Andre, "A JavaScript Object Notation
              (JSON) Representation for vCard",
              draft-bhat-vcarddav-json-00 (work in progress), June 2012.

   [I-D.das-paws-protocol]
              Das, S., Malyar, J., and D. Joslyn, "Device to Database
              Protocol for White Space", draft-das-paws-protocol-02
              (work in progress), July 2012.

   [I-D.ietf-paws-problem-stmt-usecases-rqmts]
              Mancuso, A. and B. Patil, "Protocol to Access White Space
              (PAWS) Database: Use Cases and Requirements",
              draft-ietf-paws-problem-stmt-usecases-rqmts-12 (work in
              progress), January 2013.

   [I-D.wei-paws-framework]
              Wei, X., Zhu, L., and P. McCann, "PAWS Framework",
              draft-wei-paws-framework-00 (work in progress), July 2012.

   [I-D.zyp-json-schema]
              Galiegue, F., Zyp, K., and G. Court, "JSON Schema: core
              definitions and terminology", draft-zyp-json-schema-04
              (work in progress), January 2013.

   [ISO3166-1]
              "Country Codes",
              <http://www.iso.org/iso/country_codes.htm>.

   [JSON-RPC]
              "JSON-RPC 2.0 Specification",
              <http://www.jsonrpc.org/specification>.

   [RFC2818]  Rescorla, E., "HTTP Over TLS", RFC 2818, May 2000.

   [RFC4627]  Crockford, D., "The application/json Media Type for
              JavaScript Object Notation (JSON)", RFC 4627, July 2006.






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Appendix A.  Changes / Author Notes.

   Changes from 02:

   o  Added timestamp to the AVAIL_SPECTRUM_RESP (Section 4.4.2) and
      AVAIL_SPECTRUM_BATCH_RESP (Section 4.4.4) data models to serve as
      a reference for the event times in the response.  This was
      accidentally omitted (but was specified in their JSON encodings
      (Section 6)).
   o  Fixed typos throughout the JSON encoding (Section 6) sections,
      typically adding missing commas.

   Changed from 01:

   o  Added a description of message sequences to support multiple rule
      sets and multiple jurisdictions Section 3.1.
   o  Modified DeviceDescriptor (Section 5.2) to add rulesetIds
      parameter
   o  Modified RulesetInfo (Section 5.6), AvailableSpectrumResponse
      (Section 4.4.2) to add rulesetId parameter.
   o  Add Extensibility (Section 8) section.
   o  Filled in IANA (Section 9) section.
   o  Removed blank Example Messages section

   Changes from 00:
   o  Add JSON encoding
   o  Adopt RFC5491 for GeoLocation
   o  Adopt vCard for contact information
   o  Add Response Code section and update text referencing the defined
      response codes
   o  Change DeviceIdentifier to be DeviceDescriptor, allowing
      identifiers and device-characteristic fields to be included.


Authors' Addresses

   Vincent Chen (editor)
   Google
   1600 Amphitheatre Parkway
   Mountain View, CA  94043
   US

   Email: vchen@google.com








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   Subir Das
   Applied Communication Sciences
   444 Hoes Lane
   Piscataway, NJ  08854
   U.S.A.

   Phone:
   Fax:
   Email: sdas at appcomsci dot com
   URI:


   Lei Zhu
   Huawei


   Phone: +86 13910157020
   Fax:
   Email: lei.zhu@huawei.com
   URI:


   John Malyar
   Telcordia Technologies Inc.
   1 Ericsson Drive
   Piscataway, NJ  08854
   U.S.A.

   Phone:
   Fax:
   Email: jmalyar at telcordia dot com
   URI:


   Peter J. McCann
   Huawei
   400 Crossing Blvd, 2nd Floor
   Bridgewater, NJ  08807
   USA

   Phone: +1 908 541 3563
   Fax:
   Email: peter.mccann@huawei.com
   URI:







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