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Versions: (draft-taylor-pcn-cl-edge-behaviour) 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 13 14 15 RFC 6661

Internet Engineering Task Force                                A. Charny
Internet-Draft                                             Cisco Systems
Intended status: Experimental                                   F. Huang
Expires: December 24, 2011                           Huawei Technologies
                                                          G. Karagiannis
                                                               U. Twente
                                                                M. Menth
                                                 University of Tuebingen
                                                          T. Taylor, Ed.
                                                     Huawei Technologies
                                                           June 22, 2011


    PCN Boundary Node Behaviour for the Controlled Load (CL) Mode of
                               Operation
                  draft-ietf-pcn-cl-edge-behaviour-09

Abstract

   Pre-congestion notification (PCN) is a means for protecting the
   quality of service for inelastic traffic admitted to a Diffserv
   domain.  The overall PCN architecture is described in RFC 5559.  This
   memo is one of a series describing possible boundary node behaviours
   for a PCN-domain.  The behaviour described here is that for a form of
   measurement-based load control using three PCN marking states, not-
   marked, threshold-marked, and excess-traffic-marked.  This behaviour
   is known informally as the Controlled Load (CL) PCN-boundary-node
   behaviour.

Status of this Memo

   This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the
   provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.

   Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
   Task Force (IETF).  Note that other groups may also distribute
   working documents as Internet-Drafts.  The list of current Internet-
   Drafts is at http://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/.

   Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
   and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any
   time.  It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
   material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."

   This Internet-Draft will expire on December 24, 2011.

Copyright Notice




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   Copyright (c) 2011 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
   document authors.  All rights reserved.

   This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
   Provisions Relating to IETF Documents
   (http://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of
   publication of this document.  Please review these documents
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   to this document.  Code Components extracted from this document must
   include Simplified BSD License text as described in Section 4.e of
   the Trust Legal Provisions and are provided without warranty as
   described in the Simplified BSD License.







































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Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  4
     1.1.  Terminology  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  4
   2.  [CL-Specific] Assumed Core Network Behaviour for CL  . . . . .  8
   3.  Node Behaviours  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  8
     3.1.  Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  8
     3.2.  Behaviour of the PCN-Egress-Node . . . . . . . . . . . . .  9
       3.2.1.  Data Collection  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  9
       3.2.2.  Reporting the PCN Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
       3.2.3.  Optional Report Suppression  . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
     3.3.  Behaviour at the Decision Point  . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
       3.3.1.  Flow Admission . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
       3.3.2.  Flow Termination . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
       3.3.3.  Decision Point Action For Missing
               PCN-Boundary-Node Reports  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
     3.4.  Behaviour of the Ingress Node  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
     3.5.  Summary of Timers and Associated Configurable Durations  . 15
       3.5.1.  Recommended Values For the Configurable Durations  . . 16
   4.  Identifying Ingress and Egress Nodes For PCN Traffic . . . . . 17
   5.  Specification of Diffserv Per-Domain Behaviour . . . . . . . . 17
     5.1.  Applicability  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
     5.2.  Technical Specification  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
       5.2.1.  Classification and Traffic Conditioning  . . . . . . . 18
       5.2.2.  PHB Configuration  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
     5.3.  Attributes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
     5.4.  Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
     5.5.  Assumptions  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
     5.6.  Example Uses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
     5.7.  Environmental Concerns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
     5.8.  Security Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
   6.  Security Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
   7.  IANA Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
   8.  Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
   9.  References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
     9.1.  Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
     9.2.  Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
   Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23













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1.  Introduction

   The objective of Pre-Congestion Notification (PCN) is to protect the
   quality of service (QoS) of inelastic flows within a Diffserv domain,
   in a simple, scalable, and robust fashion.  Two mechanisms are used:
   admission control, to decide whether to admit or block a new flow
   request, and (in abnormal circumstances) flow termination to decide
   whether to terminate some of the existing flows.  To achieve this,
   the overall rate of PCN-traffic is metered on every link in the PCN-
   domain, and PCN-packets are appropriately marked when certain
   configured rates are exceeded.  These configured rates are below the
   rate of the link thus providing notification to PCN-boundary-nodes
   about incipient overloads before any congestion occurs (hence the
   "pre" part of "pre-congestion notification").  The level of marking
   allows decisions to be made about whether to admit or terminate PCN-
   flows.  For more details see [RFC5559].

   Section 3 of this document specifies a detailed set of algorithms and
   procedures used to implement the PCN mechanisms for the CL mode of
   operation.  Since the algorithms depend on specific metering and
   marking behaviour at the interior nodes, it is also necessary to
   specify the assumptions made about PCN-interior-node behaviour
   (Section 2).  Finally, because PCN uses DSCP values to carry its
   markings, a specification of PCN-boundary-node behaviour MUST include
   the per domain behaviour (PDB) template specified in [RFC3086],
   filled out with the appropriate content (Section 5).

   [RFC EDITOR'S NOTE: you may choose to delete the following paragraph
   and the "[CL-specific]" tags throughout this document when publishing
   it, since they are present primarily to aid reviewers.  RFCyyyy is
   the published version of draft-ietf-pcn-sm-edge-behaviour.]

   A companion document [RFCyyyy] specifies the Single Marking (SM) PCN-
   boundary-node behaviour.  This document and [RFCyyyy] have a great
   deal of text in common.  To simplify the task of the reader, the text
   in the present document that is specific to the CL PCN-boundary-node
   behaviour is preceded by the phrase: "[CL-specific]".  A similar
   distinction for SM-specific text is made in [RFCyyyy].

1.1.  Terminology

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
   document are to be interpreted as described in [RFC2119].

   This document uses the following terms defined in Section 2 of
   [RFC5559]:




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   o  PCN-domain;

   o  PCN-ingress-node;

   o  PCN-egress-node;

   o  PCN-interior-node;

   o  PCN-boundary-node;

   o  PCN-flow;

   o  ingress-egress-aggregate (IEA);

   o  [CL-specific] PCN-threshold-rate;

   o  PCN-excess-rate;

   o  PCN-admissible-rate;

   o  PCN-supportable-rate;

   o  PCN-marked;

   o  [CL-specific] threshold-marked;

   o  excess-traffic-marked.

   It also uses the terms PCN-traffic and PCN-packet, for which the
   definition is repeated from [RFC5559] because of their importance to
   the understanding of the text that follows:

   PCN-traffic, PCN-packets, PCN-BA
      A PCN-domain carries traffic of different Diffserv behaviour
      aggregates (BAs) [RFC2474].  The PCN-BA uses the PCN mechanisms to
      carry PCN-traffic, and the corresponding packets are PCN-packets.
      The same network will carry traffic of other Diffserv BAs.  The
      PCN-BA is distinguished by a combination of the Diffserv codepoint
      and the ECN field.

   This document uses the following terms from [RFC5670]:

   o  [CL-specific] threshold-meter;

   o  excess-traffic-meter.

   To complete the list of borrowed terms, this document reuses the
   following terms and abbreviations defined in Section 3 of [RFC5696]:



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   o  not-PCN codepoint;

   o  Not-marked (NM) codepoint;

   o  PCN-marked (PM) codepoint;

   o  [CL-specific] Experimental (EXP) codepoint.

   This document defines the following additional terms:

   Decision Point
      The node that makes the decision about which flows to admit and to
      terminate.  In a given network deployment, this can be the PCN-
      ingress-node or a centralized control node.  In either case, the
      PCN-ingress-node is the point where the decisions are enforced.

   NM-rate
      The rate of not-marked PCN-traffic received at a PCN-egress-node
      for a given ingress-egress-aggregate in octets per second.  For
      further details see Section 3.2.1.

   [CL-specific] ThM-rate
      The rate of threshold-marked PCN-traffic received at a PCN-egress-
      node for a given ingress-egress-aggregate in octets per second.
      For further details see Section 3.2.1.

   ETM-rate
      The rate of excess-traffic-marked PCN-traffic received at a PCN-
      egress-node for a given ingress-egress-aggregate in octets per
      second.  For further details see Section 3.2.1.

   PCN-sent-rate
      The rate of PCN-traffic received at a PCN-ingress-node and
      destined for a given ingress-egress-aggregate in octets per
      second.  For further details see Section 3.4.

   Congestion level estimate (CLE)
      The ratio of PCN-marked to total PCN-traffic (measured in octets)
      received for a given ingress-egress-aggregate during a given
      measurement period.  The CLE is used to derive the PCN-admission-
      state (Section 3.3.1) and is also used by the report suppression
      procedure (Section 3.2.3) if report suppression is activated.

   PCN-admission-state
      The state ("admit" or "block") derived by the Decision Point for a
      given ingress-egress-aggregate based on PCN packet marking
      statistics.  The Decision Point decides to admit or block new
      flows offered to the aggregate based on the current value of the



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      PCN-admission-state.  For further details see Section 3.3.1.

   Sustainable aggregate rate (SAR)
      The estimated maximum rate of PCN-traffic that can be carried in a
      given ingress-egress-aggregate at a given moment without risking
      degradation of quality of service for the admitted flows.  The
      intention is that if the PCN-sent-rate of every ingress-egress-
      aggregate passing through a given link is limited to its
      sustainable aggregate rate, the total rate of PCN-traffic flowing
      through the link will be limited to the PCN-supportable-rate for
      that link.  An estimate of the sustainable aggregate rate for a
      given ingress-egress-aggregate is derived as part of the flow
      termination procedure, and is used to determine how much PCN-
      traffic needs to be terminated.  For further details see
      Section 3.3.2.

   CLE-reporting-threshold
      A configurable value against which the CLE is compared as part of
      the report suppression procedure.  For further details, see
      Section 3.2.3.

   CLE-limit
      A configurable value against which the CLE is compared to
      determine the PCN-admission-state for a given ingress-egress-
      aggregate.  For further details, see Section 3.3.1.

   T-meas
      A configurable time interval that defines the measurement period
      over which the PCN-egress-node collects statistics relating to
      PCN-traffic marking.  At the end of the interval the PCN-egress-
      node calculates the values NM-rate, [CL-specific] ThM-rate, and
      ETM-rate as defined and sends a report to the Decision Point,
      subject to the operation of the report suppression feature.  For
      further details see Section 3.2.

   T-maxsuppress
      A configurable time interval after which the PCN-egress-node MUST
      send a report to the Decision Point for a given ingress-egress-
      aggregate regardless of the most recent values of the CLE.  This
      mechanism provides the Decision Point with a periodic confirmation
      of liveness when report suppression is activated.  For further
      details, see Section 3.2.3.

   T-fail
      A configurable interval after which the Decision Point concludes
      that communication from a given PCN-egress-node has failed if it
      has received no reports from the PCN-egress-node during that
      interval.  For further details see Section 3.3.3.



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2.  [CL-Specific] Assumed Core Network Behaviour for CL

   This section describes the assumed behaviour for PCN-interior-nodes
   in the PCN-domain.  The CL mode of operation assumes that:

   o  PCN-interior-nodes perform both threshold-marking and excess-
      traffic-marking of PCN-packets, according to the rules specified
      in [RFC5670];

   o  excess-traffic-marking of PCN-packets uses the PCN-Marked (PM)
      codepoint defined in [RFC5696];

   o  threshold-marking of PCN-packets uses the EXP codepoint defined in
      [RFC5696];

   o  the PCN-domain satisfies the conditions specified in [RFC5696];

   o  on each link the reference rate for the threshold-meter is
      configured to be equal to the PCN-admissible-rate for the link;

   o  on each link the reference rate for the excess-traffic-meter is
      configured to be equal to the PCN-supportable-rate for the link;

   o  the set of valid codepoint transitions is as shown in Section 4.2
      of [RFC5696].


3.  Node Behaviours

3.1.  Overview

   This section describes the behaviour of the PCN-ingress-node, PCN-
   egress-node, and the Decision Point (which MAY be collocated with the
   PCN-ingress-node).

   The PCN-egress-node collects the rates of not-marked, [CL-specific]
   threshold-marked, and excess-traffic-marked PCN-traffic for each
   ingress-egress-aggregate and reports them to the Decision Point.
   [CL-specific] It MAY also identify and report PCN-flows that have
   experienced excess-traffic-marking.  For a detailed description, see
   Section 3.2.

   The PCN-ingress-node enforces flow admission and termination
   decisions.  It also reports the rate of PCN-traffic sent to a given
   ingress-egress-aggregate when requested by the Decision Point.  For
   details, see Section 3.4.

   Finally, the Decision Point makes flow admission decisions and



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   selects flows to terminate based on the information provided by the
   PCN-ingress-node and PCN-egress-node for a given ingress-egress-
   aggregate.  For details, see Section 3.3.

3.2.  Behaviour of the PCN-Egress-Node

3.2.1.  Data Collection

   The PCN-egress-node MUST meter the PCN-traffic it receives in order
   to calculate the following rates for each ingress-egress-aggregate
   passing through it.  These rates SHOULD be calculated at the end of
   each measurement period based on the PCN-traffic observed during that
   measurement period.  The duration of a measurement period is equal to
   the configurable value T-meas.  For further information see
   Section 3.5.

   o  NM-rate: octets per second of PCN-traffic in PCN-packets that are
      not-marked (i.e., marked with the NM codepoint);

   o  [CL-specific] ThM-rate: octets per second of PCN-traffic in PCN-
      packets that are threshold-marked (i.e., marked with the EXP
      codepoint);

   o  ETM-rate: octets per second of PCN-traffic in PCN-packets that are
      excess-traffic-marked (i.e., marked with the PM codepoint).

   Informative note: metering the PCN-traffic continuously and using
   equal-length measurement intervals minimizes the statistical variance
   introduced by the measurement process itself.  On the other hand, the
   operation of PCN is not affected if the starting and ending times of
   the measurement intervals for different ingress-egress-aggregates are
   different.

   [CL-specific] As a configurable option, the PCN-egress-node MAY
   record flow identifiers of the PCN-flows for which excess-traffic-
   marked packets have been observed during this measurement interval.
   If this set is large (e.g., more than 20 flows), the PCN-egress-node
   MAY record only the most recently excess-traffic-marked PCN-flow
   identifiers rather than the complete set.

      These can be used by the Decision Point when it selects flows for
      termination.  In networks using multipath routing it is possible
      that congestion is not occurring on all paths carrying a given
      ingress-egress-aggregate.  Assuming that specific PCN-flows are
      routed via specific paths, identifying the PCN-flows that are
      experiencing excess-traffic-marking helps to avoid termination of
      PCN-flows not contributing to congestion.




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3.2.2.  Reporting the PCN Data

   Unless the report suppression option described in Section 3.2.3 is
   activated, the PCN-egress-node MUST report the latest values of NM-
   rate, [CL-specific] ThM-rate, and ETM-rate to the Decision Point each
   time that it calculates them.

   [CL-specific] If the PCN-egress-node recorded a set of flow
   identifiers of PCN-flows for which excess-traffic-marking was
   observed in the most recent measurement interval, then it MUST also
   include these identifiers in the report.

3.2.3.  Optional Report Suppression

   Report suppression MUST be provided as a configurable option, along
   with two configurable parameters, the CLE-reporting-threshold and the
   maximum report suppression interval T-maxsuppress.  The default value
   of the CLE-reporting-threshold is zero.  The CLE-reporting-threshold
   MUST NOT exceed the CLE-limit configured at the Decision Point.  For
   further information on T-maxsuppress see Section 3.5.

   If the report suppression option is enabled, the PCN-egress-node MUST
   apply the following procedure to decide whether to send a report to
   the Decision Point, rather than sending a report automatically at the
   end of each measurement interval.

   1.  As well as the quantities NM-rate, [CLE-specific] ThM-rate, and
       ETM-rate, the PCN-egress-node MUST calculate the congestion level
       estimate (CLE) for each measurement interval.  The CLE is
       computed as:

          [CL-specific]
          CLE = (ThM-rate + ETM-rate) / (NM-rate + ThM-rate + ETM-rate)

       if any PCN-traffic was observed, or CLE = 0 if all the rates are
       zero.

   2.  If the CLE calculated for the latest measurement interval is
       greater than the CLE-reporting-threshold and/or the CLE
       calculated for the immediately previous interval was greater than
       the CLE-reporting-threshold, then the PCN-egress-node MUST send a
       report to the Decision Point.  The contents of the report are
       described below.

          The reason for taking into account the CLE of the previous
          interval is to ensure that the Decision Point gets immediate
          feedback if the CLE has dropped below CLE-reporting-threshold.
          This is essential if the Decision Point is running the flow



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          termination procedure and observing whether (further) flow
          termination is needed.  See Section 3.3.2.

   3.  If an interval T-maxsuppress has elapsed since the last report
       was sent to the Decision Point, then the PCN-egress-node MUST
       send a report to the Decision Point regardless of the CLE value.

   4.  If neither of the preceding conditions holds, the PCN-egress-node
       MUST NOT send a report for the latest measurement interval.

   Each report sent to the Decision Point when report suppression has
   been activated MUST contain the values of NM-rate, [CL-specific] ThM-
   rate, ETM-rate, and CLE that were calculated for the most recent
   measurement interval.  [CL-specific] If the PCN-egress-node recorded
   a set of flow identifiers of PCN-flows for which excess-traffic-
   marking was observed in the most recent measurement interval, then it
   MUST also include these identifiers in the report.

   The above procedure ensures that at least one report is sent per
   interval (T-maxsuppress + T-meas).  This demonstrates to the Decision
   Point that both the PCN-egress-node and the communication path
   between that node and the Decision Point are in operation.

3.3.  Behaviour at the Decision Point

   Operators can choose to use PCN procedures just for flow admission,
   or just for flow termination, or for both.  A compliant Decision
   Point MUST implement both mechanisms, but configurable options MUST
   be provided to activate or deactivate PCN-based flow admission and
   flow termination independently of each other at a given Decision
   Point.

   If PCN-based flow termination is enabled but PCN-based flow admission
   is not, flow termination operates as specified in this document.

      Logically, some other system of flow admission control is in
      operation, but the description of such a system is out of scope of
      this document and depends on local arrangements.

3.3.1.  Flow Admission

   The Decision Point determines the PCN-admission-state for a given
   ingress-egress-aggregate each time it receives a report from the
   egress node.  It makes this determination on the basis of the
   congestion level estimate (CLE).  If the CLE is provided in the
   egress node report, the Decision Point SHOULD use the reported value.
   If the CLE was not provided in the report, the Decision Point MUST
   calculate it based on the other values provided in the report, using



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   the formula:

      [CL-specific]
      CLE = (ThM-rate + ETM-rate) / (NM-rate + ThM-rate + ETM-rate)

   if any PCN-traffic was observed, or CLE = 0 if all the rates are
   zero.

   The Decision Point MUST compare the reported or calculated CLE to a
   configurable value, the CLE-limit.  If the CLE is less than the CLE-
   limit, the PCN-admission-state for that aggregate MUST be set to
   "admit"; otherwise it MUST be set to "block".

      [CL-specific] The outcome of the comparison is not very sensitive
      to the value of the CLE-limit in practice, because when threshold-
      marking occurs it tends to persist long enough that threshold-
      marked traffic becomes a large proportion of the received traffic
      in a given interval.

   If the PCN-admission-state for a given ingress-egress-aggregate is
   "admit", the Decision Point SHOULD allow new flows to be admitted to
   that aggregate.  If the PCN-admission-state for a given ingress-
   egress-aggregate is "block", the Decision Point SHOULD NOT allow new
   flows to be admitted to that aggregate.  These actions MAY be
   modified by policy in specific cases, but such policy intervention
   risks defeating the purpose of using PCN.

3.3.2.  Flow Termination

   [CL-specific] When the report from the PCN-egress-node includes a
   non-zero value of the ETM-rate for some ingress-egress-aggregate, the
   Decision Point MUST request the PCN-ingress-node to provide an
   estimate of the rate (PCN-sent-rate) at which the PCN-ingress-node is
   receiving PCN-traffic that is destined for the given ingress-egress-
   aggregate.

      If the Decision Point is collocated with the PCN-ingress-node, the
      request and response are internal operations.

   The Decision Point MUST then wait, for both the requested rate from
   the PCN-ingress-node and the next report from the PCN-egress-node for
   the ingress-egress-aggregate concerned.  If this next egress node
   report also includes a non-zero value for the ETM-rate, the Decision
   Point MUST determine the amount of PCN-traffic to terminate using the
   following steps:

   1.  [CL-specific] The sustainable aggregate rate (SAR) for the given
       ingress-egress-aggregate is estimated by the sum:



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          SAR = NM-rate + ThM-rate

       for the latest reported interval.

   2.  The amount of traffic to be terminated is the difference:

          PCN-sent-rate - SAR,

       where PCN-sent-rate is the value provided by the PCN-ingress-
       node.

   See Section 3.3.3 for a discussion of appropriate actions if the
   Decision Point fails to receive a timely response to its request for
   the PCN-sent-rate.

   If the difference calculated in the second step is positive, the
   Decision Point SHOULD select PCN-flows to terminate, until it
   determines that the PCN-traffic admission rate will no longer be
   greater than the estimated sustainable aggregate rate.  If the
   Decision Point knows the bandwidth required by individual PCN-flows
   (e.g., from resource signalling used to establish the flows), it MAY
   choose to complete its selection of PCN-flows to terminate in a
   single round of decisions.

   Alternatively, the Decision Point MAY spread flow termination over
   multiple rounds to avoid over-termination.  If this is done, it is
   RECOMMENDED that enough time elapse between successive rounds of
   termination to allow the effects of previous rounds to be reflected
   in the measurements upon which the termination decisions are based.
   (See [IEEE-Satoh] and sections 4.2 and 4.3 of [MeLe10].)

   In general, the selection of flows for termination MAY be guided by
   policy.  [CL-specific] If the egress node has supplied a list of
   identifiers of PCN-flows that experienced excess-traffic-marking
   (Section 3.2), the Decision Point SHOULD first consider terminating
   PCN-flows in that list.

3.3.3.  Decision Point Action For Missing  PCN-Boundary-Node Reports

   The Decision Point SHOULD start a timer t-recvFail when it receives a
   report from the PCN-egress-node. t-recvFail is reset each time a new
   report is received from the PCN-egress-node. t-recvFail expires if it
   reaches the value T-fail.  T-fail is calculated according to the
   following logic:

   a.  T-fail = the configurable duration T-crit, if report suppression
       is not deployed;




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   b.  T-fail = T-crit also if report suppression is deployed and the
       last report received from the PCN-egress-node contained a CLE
       value greater than CLE-reporting-threshold (Section 3.2.3);

   c.  T-fail = 3 * T-maxsuppress (Section 3.2.3) if report suppression
       is deployed and the last report received from the PCN-egress-node
       contained a CLE value less than or equal to CLE-reporting-
       threshold.

   If timer t-recvFail expires for a given PCN-egress-node, the Decision
   Point SHOULD raise an alarm to management.  A Decision Point
   collocated with a PCN-ingress-node SHOULD cease to admit PCN-flows to
   the ingress-egress-aggregate associated with the given PCN-egress-
   node, until it again receives a report from that node.  A centralized
   Decision Point MAY cease to admit PCN-flows to all ingress-egress-
   aggregates destined to the PCN-egress-node concerned, until it again
   receives a report from that node.

   A centralized Decision Point SHOULD start a timer t-sndFail when it
   sends a request for the estimated value of PCN-sent-rate to a given
   PCN-ingress-node.  If the Decision Point fails to receive a response
   from the PCN-ingress-node before t-sndFail reaches the configurable
   value T-crit, the Decision Point SHOULD repeat the request but MAY
   also use ETM-rate as an estimate of the amount of traffic to be
   terminated in place of the quantity

      PCN-sent-rate - SAR

   specified in Section 3.3.2.  Because this will over-estimate the
   amount of traffic to be terminated due to dropping of PCN-packets by
   interior nodes, the Decision Point SHOULD use multiple rounds of
   termination under these circumstances.  If the second request to the
   PCN-ingress-node also fails, the Decision Point SHOULD raise an alarm
   to management.

      The use of T-crit is an approximation.  A more precise limit would
      be of the order of two round-trip times, plus an allowance for
      processing at each end, plus an allowance for variance in these
      values.

   See Section 3.5 for suggested values of the configurable durations
   T-crit and T-maxsuppress.

3.4.  Behaviour of the Ingress Node

   The PCN-ingress-node MUST provide the estimated current rate of PCN-
   traffic received at that node and destined for a given ingress-
   egress-aggregate in octets per second (the PCN-sent-rate) when the



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   Decision Point requests it.  The way this rate estimate is derived is
   a matter of implementation.

      For example, the rate that the PCN-ingress-node supplies MAY be
      based on a quick sample taken at the time the information is
      required.

3.5.  Summary of Timers and Associated Configurable Durations

   Here is a summary of the timers used in the procedures just
   described:

   t-meas

         Where used: PCN-egress-node.

         Used in procedure: data collection (Section 3.2.1).

         Incidence: one per ingress-egress-aggregate.

         Reset: immediately on expiry.

         Expiry: when it reaches the configurable duration T-meas.

         Action on expiry: calculate NM-rate, [CL-specific] ThM-rate,
         and ETM-rate and proceed to the applicable reporting procedure
         (Section 3.2.2 or Section 3.2.3).

   t-maxsuppress

         Where used: PCN-egress-node.

         Used in procedure: report suppression (Section 3.2.3).

         Incidence: one per ingress-egress-aggregate.

         Reset: when the next report is sent after expiry.

         Expiry: when it reaches the configurable duration
         T-maxsuppress.

         Action on expiry: send a report to the Decision Point the next
         time the reporting procedure (Section 3.2.3) is invoked,
         regardless of the value of CLE.







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   t-recvFail

         Where used: Decision Point.

         Used in procedure: failure detection (Section 3.3.3).

         Incidence: one per ingress-egress-aggregate.

         Reset: when a report is received for the ingress-egress-
         aggregate.

         Expiry: when it reaches the calculated duration T-fail.  As
         described in Section 3.3.3, T-fail is either equal to the
         configured duration T-crit or to the calculated value 3 *
         T-maxsuppress, where T-maxsuppress is a configured duration.

         Action on expiry: raise an alarm to management, and possibly
         other actions.

   t-sndFail

         Where used: centralized Decision Point.

         Used in procedure: failure detection (Section 3.3.3).

         Incidence: only as required, one per outstanding request to a
         PCN-ingress-node.

         Started: when a request for the value of PCN-sent-traffic for a
         given ingress-egress-aggregate is sent to the PCN-ingress-node.

         Terminated without action: when a response is received before
         expiry.

         Expiry: when it reaches the configured duration T-crit.

         Action on expiry: repeat the request, but use an approximation
         for the estimate of amount of traffic to terminate.  After two
         failures, raise an alarm to management and stop repeating the
         request.

3.5.1.  Recommended Values For the Configurable Durations

   The timers just described depend on three configurable durations,
   T-meas, T-maxsuppress, and T-crit.  The recommendations given below
   for the values of these durations are all related to the intended PCN
   reaction time of 1 to 3 seconds.  However, they are based on
   judgement rather than operational experience or mathematical



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   derivation.

   The value of T-meas is RECOMMENDED to be of the order of 100 to 500
   ms to provide a reasonable tradeoff between demands on network
   resources (PCN-egress-node and Decision Point processing, network
   bandwidth) and the time taken to react to impending congestion.

   The value of T-maxsuppress is RECOMMENDED to be on the order of 3 to
   6 seconds, for similar reasons to those for the choice of T-meas.

   The value of T-crit SHOULD NOT be less than 3 * T-meas.  Otherwise it
   could cause too many alarms to be raised due to transient conditions
   in the PCN-egress-node or along the signalling path.  A reasonable
   upper bound on T-crit is in the order of 3 seconds.


4.  Identifying Ingress and Egress Nodes For PCN Traffic

   The operation of PCN depends on the ability of the PCN-ingress-node
   to identify the ingress-egress-aggregate to which each new PCN-flow
   belongs and the ability of the egress node to identify the ingress-
   egress-aggregate to which each received PCN-packet belongs.  If the
   Decision Point is collocated with the PCN-ingress-node, the PCN-
   egress-node also needs to associate each ingress-egress-aggregate
   with the address of the PCN-ingress-node to which it sends its
   reports.

   The means by which this is done depends on the packet routing
   technology in use in the network.  The procedure to provide the
   required information is out of scope for this document.


5.  Specification of Diffserv Per-Domain Behaviour

   This section provides the specification required by [RFC3086] for a
   per-domain behaviour.

5.1.  Applicability

   This section quotes [RFC5559].

   The PCN CL boundary node behaviour specified in this document is
   applicable to inelastic traffic (particularly video and voice) where
   quality of service for admitted flows is protected primarily by
   admission control at the ingress to the domain.

   In exceptional circumstances (e.g., due to rerouting as a result of
   network failures) already-admitted flows MAY be terminated to protect



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   the quality of service of the remaining flows.  [CL-specific] The
   performance results in, e.g., [MeLe10], indicate that the CL boundary
   node behaviour provides better service outcomes under such
   circumstances than the SM boundary node behaviour described in
   [RFCyyyy], because CL is less likely to terminate PCN-flows
   unnecessarily.

   [RFC EDITOR'S NOTE: please replace RFCyyyy above by the reference to
   the published version of draft-ietf-pcn-sm-edge-behaviour.]

5.2.  Technical Specification

5.2.1.  Classification and Traffic Conditioning

   This section paraphrases the applicable portions of Sections 3.6 and
   4.2 of [RFC5559].

   Packets at the ingress to the domain are classified as either PCN or
   non-PCN.  Non-PCN packets MAY share the network with PCN packets
   within the domain.  Because the encoding specified in [RFC5696] and
   used in this document requires the use of the ECN fields, PCN-
   ingress-nodes MUST prevent ECN-capable traffic that uses the same
   DSCP as PCN from entering the PCN-domain directly.  The PCN-ingress-
   node can accomplish this in three ways.  The choice between these
   depends on local policy.

   o  ECN-capable traffic MAY be dropped.  This policy is NOT
      RECOMMENDED, since it prevents the proper operation of end-to-end
      ECN as a means of controlling congestion.

   o  ECN-capable traffic MAY be assigned a different DSCP from PCN
      traffic.  This could mean that it is relegated to a lower-priority
      behaviour aggregate.

   o  ECN-capable traffic MAY be tunneled across the PCN-domain.  If
      this is done, the PCN-ingress-node MUST mark packets as either
      not-PCN or PCN-not-marked only after the encapsulation of the
      packet, including any initial setting of the ECN field, has been
      completed.

   PCN packets are further classified as belonging or not belonging to
   an admitted flow.  PCN packets not belonging to an admitted flow are
   dropped.  (This assumes that requests for flow admission are
   signalled in advance of the arrival of the flows themselves.)
   Packets belonging to an admitted flow are policed to ensure that they
   adhere to the rate or flowspec that was negotiated during flow
   admission.




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5.2.2.  PHB Configuration

   The PCN CL boundary node behaviour is a metering and marking
   behaviour rather than a scheduling behaviour.  As a result, while the
   encoding uses a single DSCP value, that value MAY vary from one
   deployment to another.  The PCN working group suggests using
   admission control for the following service classes (defined in
   [RFC4594]):

   o  Telephony (EF)

   o  Real-time interactive (CS4)

   o  Broadcast Video (CS3)

   o  Multimedia Conferencing (AF4)

   For a fuller discussion, see Section A.1 of Appendix A of [RFC5696].

5.3.  Attributes

   The purpose of this per-domain behaviour is to achieve low loss and
   jitter for the target class of traffic.  The design requirement for
   PCN was that recovery from overloads through the use of flow
   termination SHOULD happen within 1-3 seconds.  PCN probably performs
   better than that.

5.4.  Parameters

   In the list that follows, note that most PCN-ingress-nodes are also
   PCN-egress-nodes, and vice versa.  Furthermore, the PCN-ingress-nodes
   MAY be collocated with Decision Points.

   Parameters at the PCN-ingress-node:
   -----------------------------------

   o  Filters for distinguishing PCN from non-PCN inbound traffic.

   o  The markings to be applied to PCN-traffic.

   o  Reference rates on each link for the [CL-specific] threshold-meter
      and the excess-traffic-meter; see Section 2.

   o  The information needed to distinguish PCN-traffic belonging to a
      given ingress-egress-aggregate.

   Parameters at the PCN-egress-node:
   ----------------------------------



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   o  The measurement interval T-meas.

   o  Activation/deactivation of report suppression and, if report
      suppression is activated, the values of the CLE-reporting-
      threshold and T-maxsuppress.

   o  [CL-specific] Activation/deactivation of recording of individual
      flow identifiers when excess-traffic-marked PCN-traffic is
      observed.

   o  The information needed to distinguish PCN-traffic belonging to a
      given ingress-egress-aggregate.

   o  The marking rules for re-marking PCN-traffic leaving the PCN
      domain.

   Parameters at each interior node:
   ---------------------------------

   o  Reference rates on each link for the [CL-specific] threshold-meter
      and the excess-traffic-meter; see Section 2.

   o  The markings to be applied to PCN-traffic, including the
      identification of PCN-packets and the encodings to indicate
      excess-traffic-marking and [CL-specific] threshold-marking.

   Parameters at the Decision Point:
   ---------------------------------

   o  Activation/deactivation of PCN-based flow admission.

   o  Activation/deactivation of PCN-based flow termination.

   o  The value of CLE-limit.

   o  The maximum interval T-fail between reports from a given PCN-
      egress-node, for detecting failure of communications with that
      node.

   o  The information needed to map each ingress-egress-aggregate to the
      corresponding PCN-ingress-node and PCN-egress-node.

5.5.  Assumptions

   It is assumed that a specific portion of link capacity has been
   reserved for PCN-traffic.





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5.6.  Example Uses

   The PCN CL behaviour MAY be used to carry real-time traffic,
   particularly voice and video.

5.7.  Environmental Concerns

   The PCN CL per-domain behaviour can interfere with the use of end-to-
   end ECN due to reuse of ECN bits for PCN marking.  See Appendix B of
   [RFC5696] for details.

5.8.  Security Considerations

   Please see the security considerations in [RFC5559] as well as those
   in [RFC2474] and [RFC2475].


6.  Security Considerations

   [RFC5559] provides a general description of the security
   considerations for PCN.  This memo introduces no new considerations.


7.  IANA Considerations

   This memo includes no request to IANA.


8.  Acknowledgements

   The content of this memo bears a family resemblance to
   [ID.briscoe-CL].  The authors of that document were Bob Briscoe,
   Philip Eardley, and Dave Songhurst of BT, Anna Charny and Francois Le
   Faucheur of Cisco, Jozef Babiarz, Kwok Ho Chan, and Stephen Dudley of
   Nortel, Giorgios Karagiannis of U. Twente and Ericsson, and Attila
   Bader and Lars Westberg of Ericsson.

   Ruediger Geib, Philip Eardley, and Bob Briscoe have helped to shape
   the present document with their comments.  Toby Moncaster gave a
   careful review to get it into shape for Working Group Last Call.

   Amongst the authors, Michael Menth deserves special mention for his
   constant and careful attention to both the technical content of this
   document and the manner in which it was expressed.


9.  References




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9.1.  Normative References

   [RFC2119]  Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
              Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997.

   [RFC2474]  Nichols, K., Blake, S., Baker, F., and D. Black,
              "Definition of the Differentiated Services Field (DS
              Field) in the IPv4 and IPv6 Headers", RFC 2474,
              December 1998.

   [RFC2475]  Blake, S., Black, D., Carlson, M., Davies, E., Wang, Z.,
              and W. Weiss, "An Architecture for Differentiated
              Services", RFC 2475, December 1998.

   [RFC3086]  Nichols, K. and B. Carpenter, "Definition of
              Differentiated Services Per Domain Behaviors and Rules for
              their Specification", RFC 3086, April 2001.

   [RFC5559]  Eardley, P., "Pre-Congestion Notification (PCN)
              Architecture", RFC 5559, June 2009.

   [RFC5670]  Eardley, P., "Metering and Marking Behaviour of PCN-
              Nodes", RFC 5670, November 2009.

   [RFC5696]  Moncaster, T., Briscoe, B., and M. Menth, "Baseline
              Encoding and Transport of Pre-Congestion Information",
              RFC 5696, November 2009.

9.2.  Informative References

   [ID.briscoe-CL]
              Briscoe, B., "An edge-to-edge Deployment Model for Pre-
              Congestion Notification: Admission Control over a DiffServ
              Region (expired Internet Draft)", 2006.

   [IEEE-Satoh]
              Satoh, D. and H. Ueno, ""Cause and Countermeasure of
              Overtermination for PCN-Based Flow Termination",
              Proceedings of IEEE Symposium on Computers and
              Communications (ISCC '10), pp. 155-161, Riccione, Italy",
              June 2010.

   [MeLe10]   Menth, M. and F. Lehrieder, "PCN-Based Measured Rate
              Termination", Computer Networks Journal (Elsevier) vol.
              54, no. 13, pages 2099 - 2116, September 2010.

   [RFC4594]  Babiarz, J., Chan, K., and F. Baker, "Configuration
              Guidelines for DiffServ Service Classes", RFC 4594,



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              August 2006.

   [RFC6040]  Briscoe, B., "Tunnelling of Explicit Congestion
              Notification", RFC 6040, November 2010.

   [RFCyyyy]  Charny, A., Zhang, J., Karagiannis, G., Menth, M., and T.
              Taylor, "PCN Boundary Node Behaviour for the Single
              Marking (SM) Mode of Operation (Work in progress)",
              December 2010.


Authors' Addresses

   Anna Charny
   Cisco Systems
   300 Apollo Drive
   Chelmsford, MA  01824
   USA

   Email: acharny@cisco.com


   Fortune Huang
   Huawei Technologies
   Section F, Huawei Industrial Base,
   Bantian Longgang, Shenzhen  518129
   P.R. China

   Phone: +86 15013838060
   Email: fqhuang@huawei.com


   Georgios Karagiannis
   U. Twente


   Phone:
   Email: karagian@cs.utwente.nl













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   Michael Menth
   University of Tuebingen
   Sand 13
   Tuebingen  D-72076
   Germany

   Phone: +49-7071-2970505
   Email: menth@informatik.uni-tuebingen.de


   Tom Taylor (editor)
   Huawei Technologies
   1852 Lorraine Ave
   Ottawa, Ontario  K1H 6Z8
   Canada

   Phone: +1 613 680 2675
   Email: tom111.taylor@bell.net

































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