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Internet Engineering Task Force                                   PIM WG
INTERNET-DRAFT                                          Bill Fenner/AT&T
draft-ietf-pim-sm-v2-new-00.txt                       Mark Handley/ACIRI
                                                     Hugh Holbrook/Cisco
                                                   Isidor Kouvelas/Cisco
                                                            13 July 2000
                                                   Expires: January 2001


         Protocol Independent Multicast - Sparse Mode (PIM-SM):
                    Protocol Specification (Revised)



Status of this Document

This document is an Internet-Draft and is in full conformance with all
provisions of Section 10 of RFC2026.

Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering Task
Force (IETF), its areas, and its working groups.  Note that other groups
may also distribute working documents as Internet-Drafts.

Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any
time.  It is inappropriate to use Internet- Drafts as reference material
or to cite them other than as "work in progress."

The list of current Internet-Drafts can be accessed at
http://www.ietf.org/ietf/1id-abstracts.txt

The list of Internet-Draft Shadow Directories can be accessed at
http://www.ietf.org/shadow.html.

This document is a product of the IETF PIM WG.  Comments should be
addressed to the authors, or the WG's mailing list at
pim@catarina.usc.edu.

                                Abstract


     This document specifies Protocol Independent Multicast -
     Sparse Mode (PIM-SM).  PIM-SM is a multicast routing protocol
     that can use the underlying unicast routing information base
     or a separate multicast-capable routing information base.  It



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     builds unidirectional shared trees rooted at a Rendezvous
     Point (RP) per group, and optionally creates shortest-path
     trees per source.

Note on PIM-SM status

PIM-SM v2 is currently widely implemented and deployed, but the existing
specification in RFC 2362 is insufficient to implement from, and is
incorrect in a number of aspects.  This document is a complete re-write
from RFC 2362, and is intended to obsolete RFC 2362.  The authors have
attempted to document current practice as far as possible, but a number
of cases have arisen where current practice is clearly incorrect,
typically leading to traffic being black-holed.  In these cases we
diverge from current practice, but always in a way that will
interoperate successfully with the legacy PIM v2 implementations that we
are aware of.

1.  Introduction

This document specifies a protocol for efficiently routing multicast
groups that may span wide-area (and inter-domain) internets.  This
protocol is called Protocol Independent Multicast - Sparse Mode (PIM-SM)
because, although it may use the underlying unicast routing to provide
reverse-path information for multicast tree building, it is not
dependent on any particular unicast routing protocol.

PIM-SM version 2 was originally specified in RFC 2117, and revised in
RFC 2362.  This document is intended to obsolete RFC 2362, and to
correct a number of deficiencies that have been identified with the way
PIM-SM was previously specified.  As far as possible, this document
specifies the same protocol as RFC 2362, and only diverges from the
behavior intended by RFC 2362 when the previously specified behavior was
clearly incorrect.  Routers implemented according to the specification
in this document will be able to successfully interoperate with routers
implemented according to RFC 2362.

2.  Terminology

In this document, the key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL",
"SHALL NOT", "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and
"OPTIONAL" are to be interpreted as described in RFC 2119 and indicate
requirement levels for compliant PIM-SM implementations.

2.1.  Definitions

This specification uses a number of terms to refer to the roles of
routers participating in PIM-SM.  The following terms have special
significance for PIM-SM:



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Rendezvous Point (RP):
      An RP is a router that has been configured to be used as the root
      of the non-source-specific distribution tree for a multicast
      group.  Join messages from receivers for a group are sent towards
      the RP, and data from senders is sent to the RP so that receivers
      can discover who the senders are, and start to receive traffic
      destined for the group.

Designated Router (DR):
      A shared-media LAN like Ethernet may have multiple PIM-SM routers
      connected to it.  If the LAN has directly connected hosts, then a
      single one of these routers, the DR, will act on behalf of those
      hosts with respect to the PIM-SM protocol.  A single DR is elected
      per LAN using a simple election process.

MRIB  Multicast Routing Information Base.  This is the routing table,
      typically created using MBGP, that is used to make decisions
      regarding where to forward Join/Prune messages.

RPF Neighbor
      RPF stands for "Reverse Path Forwarding".  The RPF Neighbor of a
      router with respect to an address is the neighbor that the MRIB
      indicates should be used to forward packets to that address.  In
      the case of a PIM-SM multicast group, the RPF neighbor is the
      router that a Join message for that group would be directed to, in
      the absence of modifying Assert state.

TIB   Tree Information Base.  This is the collection of state at a PIM
      router that has been created by receiving PIM Join/Prune messages,
      PIM Assert messages, and IGMP information from local hosts.  It
      essentially stores the state of all multicast distribution trees
      at that router.

MFIB  Multicast Forwarding Information Base.  The TIB holds all the
      state that is necessary to forward multicast packets at a router.
      However, although this specification defines forwarding in terms
      of the TIB, to actually forward packets using the TIB is very
      inefficient.  Instead a real router implementation will normally
      build an efficient MFIB from the TIB state to perform forwarding.
      How this is done is implementation-specific, and is not discussed
      in this document.

2.2.  Pseudocode Notation

We use set notation in several places in this specification.

A (+) B
    is the union of two sets A and B.



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A (-) B
    is the elements of set A that are not in set B.

NULL
    is the empty set or list.

In addition we use C-like syntax:

=   denotes assignment of a variable.

==  denotes a comparison for equality.

!=  denotes a comparison for inequality.

Braces { and } are used for grouping.


3.  PIM-SM Protocol Overview

This section provides an overview of PIM-SM behavior.  It is intended as
an introduction to how PIM-SM works, and is not definitive.  For the
definitive specification, see Section 4.

PIM relies on an underlying toppology-gathering protocol to populate a
routing table with routes.  This routing table is called the MRIB or
Multicast Routing Information Base.  The routes in this table may be
taken directly from the unicast routing table, or it may be different
and provided by a separate routing protocol such as MBGP [1]. In any
event, the routes in the MRIB must represent a multicast-capable path to
each subnet.  The MRIB is used to determine the path that PIM control
messages such as Join messages take to get to the source subnet, and
data flows along the reverse path of the Join messages.  Thus, in
contrast to the unicast RIB where the routes give a path that data
packets take to get to each subnet, the MRIB gives reverse-path
information, and indicates the path that data packets would take from
each subnet to the router that has the MRIB.

Like all multicast routing protocols that implement the service model
from RFC 1112 [2], PIM-SM must be able to route data packets from
sources to receivers without either the sources or receivers knowing a-
priori of the existence of the others.  This is essentially done in
three phases, although as senders and receivers may join and leave at
any time, all three phases may be occur simultaneously.

Phase One: RP Tree

In phase one, a multicast receiver expresses its interest in receiving
traffic destined for a multicast group.  Typically it does this using



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IGMP [3], but other mechanisms might also serve this purpose.  One of
the receiver's local routers is elected as the Designated Router (DR)
for that subnet.  On receiving the receiver's expression of interest,
the DR then sends a PIM Join message towards the RP for that multicast
group.  This Join message is known as a (*,G) Join because it joins
group G for all sources to that group.  The (*,G) Join travels hop-by-
hop towards the RP for the group, and in each router it passes through,
multicast tree state for group G is instantiated.  Eventually the (*,G)
Join either reaches the RP, or reaches a router that already has (*,G)
Join state for that group.  When many receivers join the group, their
Join messages converge on the RP, and form a distribution tree for group
G that is rooted at the RP.  This is known as the RP Tree (RPT), and is
also known as the shared tree because it is shared by all sources
sending to that group.  Join messages are resent periodically so long as
the receiver remains in the group.  After they stop being sent, the
state will eventually time out.

A multicast data sender just starts sending data destined for a
multicast group.  The sender's local router (DR) takes those data
packets, unicast-encapsulates them, and sends them directly to the RP.
The RP receives these encapsulated data packets, decapsulates them, and
forwards them onto the shared tree.  The packets then follow the (*,G)
multicast tree state in the routers on the RP Tree, being replicated
wherever the RP Tree branches, and eventually reaching all the receivers
for that multicast group.  The process of encapsulating data packets to
the RP is called registering, and the encapsulation packets are known as
PIM Register packets.

At the end of phase one, multicast traffic is flowing encapsulated to
the RP, and then natively over the RP tree to the multicast receivers.


Phase Two: Register Stop

Register-encapsulation of data packets is inefficient for two reasons:

o Encapsulation and decapsulation may be relatively expensive operations
  for a router to perform, depending on whether or not the router has
  appropriate hardware for these tasks.

o Traveling all the way to the RP, and then back down the shared tree
  may entail the packets traveling a relatively long distance to reach
  receivers that are close to the sender.  For some applications, this
  increased latency is undesirable.

Although Register-encapsulation may continue indefinitely, for these
reasons, the RP will normally choose to switch to native forwarding.  To
do this, when the RP receives a data packet from source S on group G, it



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will normally initiate an (S,G) source-specific Join towards S.  This
join message travels hop-by-hop towards S, instantiating (S,G) multicast
tree state in the routers along the path.  (S,G) multicast tree state is
used only to forward packets for group G if those packets come from
source S.  Eventually the Join message reaches S's subnet or a router
that already has (S,G) multicast tree state, and then packets from S
start to flow following the (S,G) tree state towards the RP.  These data
packets may also reach routers with (*,G) state along the path towards
the RP - if so, they can short-cut onto the RP tree at this point.

While the RP is in the process of joining the source-specific tree for
S, the data packets will continue being encapsulated to the RP.  When
packets from S also start to arrive natively at the the RP, the RP will
be receiving two copies of each of these packets.  At this point, the RP
starts to discard the encapsulated copy of these packets, and it sends a
Register-Stop message back to S's DR to prevent the DR unnecessarily
encapsulating the packets.

At the end of phase 2, traffic will be flowing natively from S along a
source-specific tree to the RP, and from there along the shared tree to
the receivers.  Where the two trees intersect, traffic may transfer from
the source-specific tree to the RP tree, and so avoid taking a long
detour via the RP.

It should be noted that a sender may start sending before or after a
receiver joins the group, and thus phase two may happen before the
shared tree to the receiver is built.


Phase 3: Shortest-Path Tree

Although having the RP join back towards the source removes the
encapsulation overhead, it does not completely optimize the forwarding
paths.  For many receivers the route via the RP may involve a
significant detour when compared with the shortest path from the source
to the receiver.

To obtain lower latencies, a receiver's DR may optionally initiate a
transfer from the shared tree to a source-specific shortest-path tree
(SPT).  To do this, it issues an (S,G) Join towards S.  This
instantiates state in the routers along the path to S.  Eventually this
join either reaches S's subnet, or reaches a router that already has
(S,G) state.  When this happens, data packets from S start to flow
following the (S,G) state until they reach the receiver.

At this point the receiver (or a router upstream of the receiver) will
be receiving two copies of the data - one from the SPT and one from the
RPT.  When the first traffic starts to arrive from the SPT, the DR or



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upstream router starts to drop the packets for G from S that arrive via
the RP tree.  In addition, it sends an (S,G) prune message towards the
RP.  This is known as an (S,G,rpt) Prune.  The prune message travels
hop-by-hop, instantiating state along the path towards the RP indicating
that traffic from S for G should NOT be forwarded in this direction.
The prune is propagated until it reaches the RP or a router that still
needs the traffic from S for other receivers.

By now, the receiver will be receiving traffic from S along the
shortest-path tree between the receiver and S.  In addition, the RP is
receiving the traffic from S, but this traffic is no longer reaching the
receiver along the RP tree.  As far as the receiver is concerned, this
is the final distribution tree.


Source-specific Joins

IGMPv3 permits a receiver to join a group and specify that it only wants
to receive traffic for a group if that traffic comes from a particular
source.  If a receiver does this, and no other receiver on the LAN
requires all the traffic for the group, then the DR may omit performing
a (*,G) join to set up the shared tree, and instead issue a source-
specific (S,G) join only.

The range of multicast addresses from 232.0.0.0 to 232.255.255.255 has
been set aside for source-specific multicast.  For groups in this range,
receivers should only issue source-specific IGMPv3 joins.  If a PIM
router receives a non-source-specific join for a group in this range, it
should ignore it.


Source-specific Prunes

IGMPv3 also permits a receiver to join a group and specify that it only
wants to receive traffic for a group if that traffic does not come from
a specific source or sources.  In this case, the DR will perform a (*,G)
join as normal, but may combine this with an (S,G,rpt) prune for each of
the sources the receiver does not wish to receive.


Multi-access Transit LANs

The overview so far has concerned itself with point-to-point links.
However, using multi-access LANs such as Ethernet for transit is not
uncommon.  This can cause complications for three reasons:

o Two or more routers on the LAN may issue (*,G) Joins to different
  upstream routers on the LAN because they have inconsistent MRIB



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  entries regarding how to reach the RP.  Both paths on the RP tree will
  be set up, causing two copies of all the shared tree traffic to appear
  on the LAN.

o Two or more routers on the LAN may issue (S,G) Joins to different
  upstream routers on the LAN because they have inconsistent MRIB
  entries regarding how to reach source S.  Both paths on the source-
  specific tree will be set up, causing two copies of all the traffic
  from S to appear on the LAN.

o A router on the LAN may issue a (*,G) Join to one upstream router on
  the LAN, and another router on the LAN may issue an (S,G) Join to a
  different upstream router on the same LAN.  Traffic from S may reach
  the LAN over both the RPT and the SPT.  If the receiver behind the
  downstream (*,G) router doesn't issue an (S,G,rpt) prune, then this
  condition would persist.

All of these problems are caused by there being more than one upstream
router with join state for the group or source-group pair.  PIM does not
prevent such duplicate joins from occurring - instead when duplicate
data packets appear on the LAN from different routers, these routers
notice this, and then elect a single forwarder.  This election is
performed using PIM Assert messages, which resolve the problem in favor
of the upstream router which has (S,G) state, or if neither or both
router has (S,G) state, then in favor of the router with the best metric
to the RP for RP trees, or the best metric to the source to source-
specific trees.

These Assert messages are also received by the downstream routers on the
LAN, and these cause subsequent join messages to be sent to the upstream
router that won the Assert.

RP Discovery

PIM-SM routers need to know the address of the RP for each group for
which they have (*,G) state.  This address is obtained through a
bootstrap mechanism.

One router in each PIM domain is elected the Bootstrap Router (BSR)
through a simple election process.  All the routers in the domain that
are configured to be candidates to be RPs periodically unicast their
candidacy to the BSR.  From the candidates, the BSR picks an RP-set, and
periodically announces this set in a bootstrap message.  Bootstrap
messages are flooded hop-by-hop throughout the domain until all routers
in the domain know the RP-Set.

To map a group to an RP, a router hashes the group address into the RP-
set using an order-preserving hash function (one that minimizes changes



Fenner/Handley/Holbrook/Kouvelas                                [Page 8]

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if the RP set changes).  The resulting RP is the one that it uses as the
RP for that group.


4.  Protocol Specification

The specification of PIM-SM is broken into several parts:

o Section 4.1 details the protocol state stored.

o Section 4.2 specifies the data packet forwarding rules.

o Section 4.3 specifies the PIM Register generation and processing
  rules.

o Section 4.4 specifies the PIM Join/Prune generation and processing
  rules.

o Section 4.5 specifies the PIM Assert generation and processing rules.

o Designated Router (DR) election is specified in Section 4.6.

o Section 4.7 specifies the Bootstrap and RP discovery mechanisms.

o PIM packet formats are specified in Section 4.8.

o A summary of PIM-SM timers and their default values is given in
  Section 4.9.

4.1.  PIM Protocol State

This section specifies all the protocol state that a PIM implementation
should maintain in order to function correctly.  We term this state the
Tree Information Base or TIB, as it holds the state of all the multicast
distribution trees at this router.  In this specification we define PIM
mechanisms in terms of the TIB.  However, only a very simple router
implementation would actually implement packet forwarding operations in
terms of this state.  Most real router implementations will use this
state to build a multicast forwarding table, which would then be updated
when the relevant state in the TIB changes.

Although we specify precisely the state to be kept, this does not mean
that an implementation of PIM-SM needs to hold the state in this form.
This is actually an abstract state definition, which is needed in order
to specify the router's behavior.  A PIM-SM implementation is free to
hold whatever internal state it requires, and will still be conformant
with this specification so long as it results in the same externally
visible protocol behavior as an abstract router that holds the following



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state.

We divide TIB state into three sections:

(*,G) state
     State that maintains the RP tree for G.

(S,G) state
     State that maintains a source-specific tree for source S and group
     G.

(S,G,rpt) state
     State that maintains source-specific information about source S on
     the RP tree for G.  For example, if a source is being received on
     the source-specific tree, it will normally have been pruned off the
     RP tree.  This prune state is (S,G,rpt) state.

The state that should be kept is described below.  Of course,
implementations will only maintain state when it is relevant to
forwarding operations - for example, the "NoInfo" state might be assumed
from the lack of other state information, rather than being held
explicitly.

4.1.1.  General Purpose State

A router holds the following non-group-specific state:

     Bootstrap State:

          o Bootstrap Router's IP Address

          o BSR Priority

          o Bootstrap Timer (BST)

     RP Set

     For each interface:

          Neighbor State:

               For each neighbor:

                    o Information from neighbor's Hello

                    o Neighbor's Gen ID.





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                    o Neighbor liveness timer (NLT)

          Designated Router (DR) State:

               o Designated Router's IP Address

               o DR's DR Priority

Bootstrap state is described in section 4.7, the RP Set is described in
section 4.7.5, and Designated Router state is described in section 4.6.

4.1.2.  (*,G) State

For every group G a router keeps the following state:

     (*,G) state:
          For each interface:

               Local Membership:
                    State: One of {"NoInfo", "Include"}

               PIM (*,G) Join/Prune State:

                    o State: One of {"NoInfo" (NI), "Join" (J),
                      "PrunePending" (PP)}

                    o Prune Pending Timer (PPT)

                    o Join/Prune Expiry Timer (ET)

               (*,G) Assert Winner State

                    o State: One of {"NoInfo" (NI), "I lost Assert" (L),
                      "I won Assert" (W)}

                    o Assert Timer (AT)

                    o Assert winner's IP Address

                    o Assert winner's Assert Metric

          Not interface specific:

               o Upstream Join/Prune Timer (JT)

               o Last RP Used





Fenner/Handley/Holbrook/Kouvelas                               [Page 11]

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               o Last RPF Neighbor towards RP that was used

Local membership is the result of the local membership mechanism (such
as IGMP) running on that interface.  It need not be kept if this router
is not the DR on that interface unless this router won a (*,G) assert on
this interface for this group, although implementations may optionally
keep this state in case they become the DR or assert winner.  This
information is used by the pim_include(*,G) macro described in section
4.1.5.

PIM (*,G) Join/Prune state is the result of receiving PIM (*,G)
Join/Prune messages on this interface, and is specified in section
4.4.1. The state is used by the macros that calculate the outgoing
interface list in section 4.1.5, and in the JoinDesired(*,G) macro
(defined in section 4.4.4) that is used in deciding whether a Join(*,G)
should be sent upstream.

(*,G) Assert Winner state is the result of sending or receiving (*,G)
assert messages on this interface.  It is specified in section 4.5.2.

The upstream (*,G) Join/Prune timer is used to send out periodic
Join(*,G) messages, and to override Prune(*,G) messages from peers on an
upstream LAN interface.

The last RP used must be stored because if the RP Set changes (section
4.7.5) then state must be torn down and rebuilt for groups whose RP
changes.

The last RPF neighbor towards the RP is stored because if the MRIB
changes then the RPF neighbor towards the RP may change.  If it does so,
then we need to trigger a new Join(*,G) to the new upstream neighbor and
a Prune(*,G) to the old upstream neighbor.  Similarly, if a router
detects through a changed GenID in a Hello message that the upstream
neighbor towards the RP has rebooted, then it should re-instantiate
state by sending a Join(*,G).  These mechanisms are specified in Section
4.4.4.

4.1.3.  (S,G) State

For every source/group pair (S,G) a router keeps the following state:

     (S,G) state:

          For each interface:

               Local Membership:
                    State: One of {"NoInfo", "Include"}




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               PIM (S,G) Join/Prune State:

                    o State: One of {"NoInfo" (NI), "Join" (J),
                      "PrunePending" (PP)}

                    o Prune Pending Timer (PPT)

                    o Join/Prune Expiry Timer (ET)

               (S,G) Assert Winner State

                    o State: One of {"NoInfo" (NI), "I lost Assert" (L),
                      "I won Assert" (W)}

                    o Assert Timer (AT)

                    o Assert winner's IP Address

                    o Assert winner's Assert Metric

          Not interface specific:

               o Upstream (S,G) Join/Prune Timer (JT)

               o Last RPF Neighbor towards S that was used

               o SPT bit (indicates (S,G) state is active)

               o (S,G) KeepAlive Timer (KAT)

Local membership is the result of the local source-specific membership
mechanism (such as IGMP version 3) running on that interface and
specifying that this particular source should be included.  As stored
here, this state is the resulting state after any IGMPv3 inconsistencies
have been resolved.  It need not be kept on point-to-point links.  It
also need not be kept if this router is not the DR on that interface
unless this router won a (S,G) assert on this interface for this group.
This information is used by the pim_include(S,G) macro described in
section 4.1.5.

PIM (S,G) Join/Prune state is the result of receiving PIM (S,G)
Join/Prune messages on this interface, and is specified in section
4.4.1. The state is used by the macros that calculate the outgoing
interface list in section 4.1.5, and in the JoinDesired(S,G) macro
(defined in section 4.4.5) that is used in deciding whether a Join(S,G)
should be sent upstream.





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(S,G) Assert Winner state is the result of sending or receiving (S,G)
assert messages on this interface.  It is specified in section 4.5.1.

The upstream (S,G) Join/Prune timer is used to send out periodic
Join(S,G) messages, and to override Prune(S,G) messages from peers on an
upstream LAN interface.

The last RPF neighbor towards S is stored because if the MRIB changes
then the RPF neighbor towards S may change.  If it does so, then we need
to trigger a new Join(S,G) to the new upstream neighbor and a Prune(S,G)
to the old upstream neighbor.  Similarly, if the router detects through
a changed GenID in a Hello message that the upstream neighbor towards S
has rebooted, then it should re-instantiate state by sending a
Join(S,G).  These mechanisms are specified in Section 4.4.5.

The SPTbit is used to indicate whether forwarding is taking place on the
(S,G) Shortest Path Tree (SPT) or on the (*,G) tree.  A router can have
(S,G) state and still be forwarding on (*,G) state during the interval
when the source-specific tree is being constructed.  When SPTbit is
FALSE, only (*,G) forwarding state is used to forward packets from S to
G.  When SPTbit is TRUE, both (*,G) and (S,G) forwarding state are used.

The (S,G) Keepalive Timer is updated by data being forwarded using this
(S,G) forwarding state.  It is used to keep (S,G) state alive in the
absence of explicit (S,G) Joins.  Amongst other things, this is
necessary for the so-called "turnaround rules" - when the RP uses (S,G)
joins to stop encapsulation, and then (S,G) prunes to prevent traffic
from unnecessarily reaching the RP.

4.1.4.  (S,G,rpt) State

For every source/group pair (S,G) for which a router also has (*,G)
state, it also keeps the following state:

     (S,G,rpt) state:

          For each interface:

               Local Membership:
                    State: One of {"NoInfo", "Exclude"}

               PIM (S,G,rpt) Join/Prune State:

                    o State: One of {"NoInfo", "Pruned", "PrunePending"}

                    o Prune Pending Timer (PPT)





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                    o Join/Prune Expiry Timer (ET)

          Not interface specific:

               Upstream (S,G,rpt) Join/Prune State:

                    o State: One of {"NotJoined(*,G)",
                      "NotPruned(S,G,rpt)", "Pruned(S,G,rpt)"}

                    o Override Timer (OT)

Local membership is the result of the local source-specific membership
mechanism (such as IGMPv3) running on that interface and specifying that
although there is (*,G) Include state, this particular source should be
excluded.  As stored here, this state is the resulting state after any
IGMPv3 inconsistencies between LAN members have been resolved.  It need
not be kept on point-to-point links.  It also need not be kept if this
router is not the DR on that interface unless this router won a (*,G)
assert on this interface for this group.  This information is used by
the pim_exclude(S,G) macro described in section 4.1.5.

PIM (S,G,rpt) Join/Prune state is the result of receiving PIM (S,G,rpt)
Join/Prune messages on this interface, and is specified in section
4.4.3. The state is used by the macros that calculate the outgoing
interface list in section 4.1.5, and in the rules for adding
Prune(S,G,rpt) messages to Join(*,G) messages specified in section
4.4.6.

The upstream (S,G,rpt) Join/Prune state is used along with the Override
Timer to send the correct override messages in response to Join/Prune
messages sent by upstream peers on a LAN.  This state and behavior are
specified in section 4.4.7.

4.1.5.  State Summarization Macros

Using this state, we define the following "macro" definitions which we
will use in the descriptions of the state machines and pseudocode in the
following sections.

The most important macros are those that define the outgoing interface
list (or "olist") for the relevant state.  An olist can be "immediate"
if it is built directly from the state of the relevant type.  For
example, the immediate_olist(S,G) is the olist that would be built if
the router only had (S,G) state and no (*,G) or (S,G,rpt) state.  In
contrast, the "inherited" olist inherits state from other types.  For
example, the inherited_olist(S,G) is the olist that is relevant for
forwarding a packet from S to G using both source-specific and group-
specific state.



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There is no immediate_olist(S,G,rpt) as (S,G,rpt) state is negative
state - it removes interfaces from the olist.  The
inherited_olist(S,G,rpt) is therefore the olist that would be used for a
packet from S to G forwarding on the RP tree.  It is a strict subset of
immediate_olist(*,G).

Generally speaking, the inherited olists are used for forwarding, and
the immediate_olists are used to make decisions about state maintenance.

immediate_olist(*,G) =
    joins(*,G) (+) pim_include(*,G) (-) assert(*,G)

immediate_olist(S,G) =
    joins(S,G) (+) pim_include(S,G) (-) assert(S,G)

inherited_olist(*,G) =
    immediate_olist(*,G)

inherited_olist(S,G,rpt) =
        ( joins(*,G) (-) prunes(S,G,rpt) )
    (+) ( pim_include(*,G) (-) pim_exclude(S,G))
    (-) ( assert(*,G) (+) assert(S,G,rpt) )

inherited_olist(S,G) =
    inherited_olist(S,G,rpt) (+) immediate_olist(S,G)

The macros pim_include(*,G) and pim_include(S,G) indicate the interfaces
to which traffic might be forwarded because of hosts that are local
members on that interface.  Note that normally only the DR cares about
local membership, but when an assert happens, the assert winner takes
over responsibility for forwarding traffic to local members that have
requested traffic on a group or source/group pair.


pim_include(*,G) =
   { all interfaces I such that:
     ( ( I_am_DR( I ) AND assert(*,G,I) == NULL )
       OR AssertWinner(*,G,I) == me )
     AND  igmp_desired(*,G,I) }

pim_include(S,G) =
    { all interfaces I such that:
      ( (I_am_DR( I ) AND assert(S,G,I) == NULL )
        OR AssertWinner(S,G,I) == me )
       AND  igmp_desired(S,G,I) }






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The clause "igmp_desired(S,G,I)" is true if the IGMP module has
determined that there are local members on interface I that desire to
receive traffic sent specifically by S to G.  "igmp_desired(*,G,I)" is
true if the IGMP module has determined that there are local members on
interface I that desire to receive all traffic sent to G.

The set "joins(*,G)" is the set of all interfaces on which the router
has received (*,G) Joins:

joins(*,G) =
    { all interfaces I such that
      DownstreamState(*,G,I) is either Joined or PrunePending }

The set "joins(S,G)" is the set of all interfaces on which the router
has received (S,G) Joins:

joins(S,G) =
    { all interfaces I such that
      DownstreamState(S,G,I) is either Joined or PrunePending }


The set "prunes(S,G,rpt)" is the set of all interfaces on which the
router has received (*,G) joins and (S,G,rpt) prunes.  The macro
prune(S,G,rpt,I) is defined in Section 4.4.3.

prunes(S,G,rpt) =
    { all interfaces I such that
      prune(S,G,rpt,I) == TRUE }

The set "assert(*,G)" is the set of all interfaces on which the router
has received (*,G) joins but has lost a (*,G) assert.  The macro
assert(*,G,I) is defined in Section 4.5.3.

assert(*,G) =
    { all interfaces I such that
      assert(*,G,I) == TRUE }

The set "assert(S,G,rpt)" is the set of all interfaces on which the
router has received (*,G) joins but has lost an (S,G) assert.  The macro
assert(S,G,rpt,I) is defined in Section 4.5.3.

assert(S,G,rpt) =
    { all interfaces I such that
      assert(S,G,rpt,I) == TRUE }

The set "assert(S,G)" is the set of all interfaces on which the router
has received (S,G) joins but has lost an (S,G) assert.  The macro
assert(S,G,I) is defined in Section 4.5.3.



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assert(S,G) =
    { all interfaces I such that
      assert(S,G,I) == TRUE }



The following pseudocode macro definitions are also used in many places
in the specification.  Basically RPF' is the RPF neighbor towards an RP
or source unless a PIM-Assert has overridden the normal choice of
neighbor.

  neighbor RPF'(*,G) {
      if ( I_Am_Assert_Loser(*,G,RPF_interface(RP(G))) ) {
           return AssertWinner(*, G, RPF_interface(RP(G)) )
      } else {
           return mrib.next_hop( RP(G) )
      }
  }


  neighbor RPF'(S,G,rpt) {
      if( I_Am_Assert_Loser(S, G, RPF_interface(RP(G)) ) ) {
           return AssertWinner(S, G, RPF_interface(RP(G)) )
      } else {
           return RPF'(*,G)
      }
  }


  neighbor RPF'(S,G) {
      if ( I_Am_Assert_loser(S, G, RPF_interface(S) )) {
           return AssertWinner(S, G, RPF_interface(S) )
      } else {
           return mrib.next_hop( S )
      }
  }


RPF'(*,G) and RPF'(S,G) indicate the neighbor from which data packets
should be coming and to which joins should be sent on the RP tree and
SPT respectively.

RPF'(S,G,rpt) is basically RPF'(*,G) modified by the result of an
Assert(S,G) on RPF_interface(RP(G)).  In such a case, packets from S
will be originating from a different router than RPF'(*,G), and this
router may be a different router (or on a different interface) from
RPF'(S,G).  If we only have active (*,G) Join state, we need to accept
packets from RPF'(S,G,rpt), and add a Prune(S,G,rpt) to the periodic



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Join(*,G) messages that we send to RPF'(*,G) (See Section 4.4.6).

The function mrib.next_hop( S ) returns the next-hop PIM neighbor toward
the host S, as indicated by the current MRIB.  If S is directly
adjacent, then mrib.next_hop( S ) returns S itself.

4.2.  Data Packet Forwarding Rules

The PIM-SM packet forwarding rules are defined below in pseudocode.

     iif is the incoming interface of the packet.
     S is the source address of the packet.
     G is the destination address of the packet (group address).
     RP is the address of the Rendezvous Point for this group.
     RPF_interface(S) is the interface the MRIB indicates would be used
     to route packets to S.
     RPF_interface(RP) is the interface the MRIB indicates would be used
     to route packets to RP, except at the RP when it is the
     decapsulation interface (the "virtual" interface on which register
     packets are received).

First, we restart (or start) the Keepalive timer if the source is on a
directly connected subnet.

Second, we check to see if the SPT bit should be set because we've now
switched from the RP tree to the SPT.

Next we check to see whether the packet arrived on an interface that
should be forwarded, either using (S,G) or (*,G) state.

If the packet should be forwarded using (S,G) state, we then build an
outgoing interface list for the packet.  If this list is not empty, then
we refresh the (S,G) state keepalive timer.

If the packet should be forwarded using (*,G) state, then we just build
an outgoing interface list for the packet.

Finally we remove the incoming interface from the outgoing interface
list we've created, and if the resulting outgoing interface list is not
empty, we forward the packet out of those interfaces.











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 if( DirectlyConnected(S) == TRUE ) {
      restart KeepaliveTimer(S,G)
      # Note: register state transition may happen as a result
      # of restarting KeepaliveTimer, and must be dealt with here.
 }

 Update_SPTbit(S,G,iif)
 # See section 4.2.1

 if( iif == RPF_interface(S) AND UpstreamState(S,G) == Joined ) {

    oiflist = inherited_olist(S,G)

    if( oiflist != NULL ) {
        restart KeepaliveTimer(S,G)
    }

 } else if( iif == RPF_interface(RP) AND SPTbit(S,G) == FALSE) {

   oiflist = inherited_olist(S,G,rpt)

 } else {
    # Note: RPF check failed
    if ( SPTbit(S,G) == TRUE AND inherited_olist(S,G) != NULL ) {
       send Assert(S,G) on iif
    } else if ( SPTbit(S,G) == FALSE AND
                iif is an element of inherited_olist(S,G,rpt) {
       send Assert(*,G) on iif
    }
 }

 oiflist = oiflist (-) iif
 forward packet from all interfaces in oiflist

This pseudocode employs several "macro" definitions:

directly_connected(S) is TRUE if the source S is on any subnet that is
directly connected to this router (or for packets originating on this
router).

inherited_olist(S,G) and inherited_olist(S,G,rpt) are defined in Section
4.1.

Basically inherited_olist(S,G) is the outgoing interface list for
packets forwarded on (S,G) state taking into account (*,G) state,
asserts, etc.





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inherited_olist(S,G,rpt) is the outgoing interface for packets forwarded
on (*,G) state taking into account (S,G) prune state on the RP tree, and
asserts, etc.

In the state-machine, when KeepaliveTimer(S,G) is restarted, it is set
to Keepalive_Period (see Section 4.9).

Data triggered PIM-Assert messages sent from the above forwarding code
should be rate-limited in a implementation-dependent manner.


4.2.1.  Setting and Clearing the (S,G) SPT bit

The (S,G) SPTbit is used to distinguish whether to forward on (*,G) or
on (S,G) state.  When switching from the RP tree to the source tree,
there is a transition period when data is arriving due to upstream (*,G)
state while upstream (S,G) state is being established during which time
a router should continue to forward only on (*,G) state.  This prevents
temporary black-holes that would be caused by sending a Prune(S,G,rpt)
before the upstream (S,G) state has finished being established.

Thus, when a packet arrives, the (S,G) SPTbit is updated as follows:


     void
     Update_SPTbit(S,G,iif) {
       if ( iif == RPF_interface(S)
             AND JoinDesired(S,G) == TRUE
             AND ( DirectlyConnected(S) == TRUE
                   OR RPF_interface(S) != RPF_interface(RP)
                   OR inherited_olist(S,G,rpt) == NULL
                   OR RPF'(S,G) == RPF'(*,G) ) ) {
          Set SPTbit(S,G) to TRUE
       } else if ( JoinDesired(S,G)==FALSE ) {
          Set SPTbit(S,G) to FALSE
       }
     }

Additionally a router sets SPTbit(S,G) to TRUE it sees an Assert(S,G) on
RPF_interface(S).

JoinDesired(S,G) is defined in Section 4.4.5, and indicates whether we
have the appropriate (S,G) Join state to wish to send a Join(S,G)
upstream.

Basically Update_SPTbit will set the SPT bit if we have the appropiate
(S,G) join state and the packet arrived on the correct incoming
interface to have come from S, and one or more of the following



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conditions applies:

o The source is directly connected, and so the switch to the SPT is a
  no-op.

o The RPF interface to S is different from the RPF interface to the RP.
  The packet arrived on RPF_interface(S), and so the SPT must have been
  completed.

o No-one wants the packet on the RP tree, so we're not going to confuse
  any downstream routers into thinking the SPT has been completed.

o RPF'(S,G) == RPF'(*,G).  In this case the router will never be able to
  tell if the SPT has been completed, so it should just switch
  immediately.

In the case where the RPF interface is the same for the RP and for S,
but RPF'(S,G) and RPF'(*,G) differ, then we wait for an Assert(S,G)
which indicates that the upstream router with (S,G) state believes the
SPT has been completed.

4.3.  PIM Register Messages

Overview

The Designated Router (DR) on a LAN or point-to-point link encapsulates
multicast packets from local sources to the RP for the relevant group
unless it recently received a Register Stop message for that (S,G) or
(*,G) from the RP.  When the DR receives a Register Stop message from
the RP, it starts a Register Stop timer to maintain this state.  Just
before the Register Stop timer expires, the DR sends a Null-Register
Message to the RP to allow the RP to refresh the Register Stop
information at the DR.  If the Register Stop timer actually expires, the
DR will resume encapsulating packets to the source.


4.3.1.  Sending Register Messages from the DR

Every PIM-SM router has the capability to be a DR.  The state machine
below is used to implement Register functionality.  For the purposes of
specification, we represent the mechanism to encapsulate packets to the
RP as a Register-Tunnel interface, which is added to or removed from the
(S,G) olist.  The tunnel interface then takes part in the normal packet
forwarding rules specified in Section 4.2.

If register state is maintained, it is maintained only for directly
connected sources, and is per-(S,G).  There are four states in the DR's
per-(S,G) Register state-machine:



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Join (J)
     The register tunnel is "joined" (the join is actually implicit, but
     the DR acts as if the RP has joined the DR on the tunnel
     interface).

Prune (P)
     The register tunnel is "pruned" (this occurs when a Register Stop
     is received).

Join Pending (JP)
     The register tunnel is pruned but the DR is contemplating adding it
     back.

No Info (NI)
     No information.  This is the initial state, and the state when the
     router is not the DR.

In addition, a RegisterStop timer (RST) is kept if the state machine in
not in the No Info state.

                    +-----------------------------------+
                    | Figures omitted from text version |
                    +-----------------------------------+


             Figure 1: Per-(S,G) register state-machine at a DR

























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In tabular form, the state-machine is:

+---------+------------------+--------------+---------------+---------------+----------------+
|PrevState|RegisterStop      |ActiveDR->True|ActiveDR->False|RegisterStop   |RP changed      |
|         Timer expires      |              |               received        |                |
+---------+------------------+--------------+---------------+---------------+----------------+
|No Info  |-                 | -> J state   |-              |-              |-               |
|(NI)     |                  |add tunnel    |               |               |                |
+---------+------------------+--------------+---------------+---------------+----------------+
|Join     |-                 |-             | -> NI state   | -> P state    | -> J state     |
|(J)      |                  |              |remove tunnel  |remove tunnel; |redirect tunnel |
|         |                  |              |               |set RST(*)     |to new RP;      |
|         |                  |              |               |               |stop RST        |
+---------+------------------+--------------+---------------+---------------+----------------+
|JP       | -> J state       |-             | -> NI state   | -> P state    | -> J state     |
|         |add tunnel        |              |remove tunnel  |set RS timer(*)|redirect tunnel;|
|         |                  |              |               |               |stop RST        |
+---------+------------------+--------------+---------------+---------------+----------------+
|Prune    | -> JP state      |-             | -> NI state   |-              | -> J state     |
|(P)      |set RS timer(**); |              |remove tunnel  |               |redirect tunnel;|
|         |send null register|              |               |               |stop RS timer   |
+---------+------------------+--------------+---------------+---------------+----------------+



Notes:

(*) The RegisterStopTimer is set to a random value chosen uniformly from
     the interval ( 0.5 * Register_Suppression_Time, 1.5 *
     Register_Suppression_Time) minus Register_Probe_Time;

Subtracting off register_probe_time is a bit unnecessary because it is
really small compared to register suppression timeout, but was in the
old spec and is kept for compatibility.

(**) The RegisterStopTimer is set to register_probe_time.

The macro "ActiveDR" in the state machine is defined as:


  Bool ActiveDR(S,G) {
     return ( I_am_DR( RPF_interface(S) ) AND
              KeepaliveTimer(S,G) is running AND
              DirectlyConnected(S) == TRUE )
  }






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Note that on reception of a packet at the DR from a directly connected
source, KeepaliveTimer(S,G) needs to be set by the packet forwarding
rules before computing ActiveDR(S,G) in the register state machine, or
the first packet from a source won't be registered.


Handling RegisterStop(*,G) Messages at the DR

An RP MAY send a RegisterStop message with the source address set to
all-zeros.  This was the normal course of action in RFC 2326 when the
register message matched against (*,G) state at the RP, and was defined
as meaning "stop encapsulating all sources for this group".  However,
the behavior of such a RegisterStop(*,G) is ambiguous or incorrect in
some circumstances.

We specify that an RP should not send RegisterStop(*,G) messages, but
for compatibility, a DR should be able to accept one if it is received.

A  RegisterStop(*,G) should be treated as a RegisterStop(S,G) for all
existing (S,G) Register state machines.  A router should not apply a
RegisterStop(*,G) to sources that become active after the
RegisterStop(*,G) was received.


4.3.2.  Receiving Register Messages at the RP

When an RP receives a Register message, the course of action is decided
according to the following pseudocode:























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packet_arrives_on_rp_tunnel( pkt ) {
    if( outer.dst is not one of my addresses )
        drop the packet silently.
        # note that this should not happen if the lower layer is working
    }
    if( I_am_RP( G ) && outer.dst == RP(G) ) {
        restart KeepaliveTimer(S,G)
        if(( inherited_olist(S,G) == NULL ) OR SPTbit(S,G)) {
             send RegisterStop(S,G) to outer.src
        } else {
             decapsulate and pass the inner packet to the normal
             forwarding path for forwarding on the (*,g) tree.
        }
    } else {
        send RegisterStop(S,G) to outer.src
        # Note (*)
    }
}



outer.dst is the IP destination address of the encapsulating header.

outer.src is the IP source address of the encapsulating header, i.e.,
the DR's address.

I_am_RP(G) is true if the group-to-RP mapping indicates that this router
is the RP for the group.

Note (*): This may block traffic from S for Register_Suppression_Time if
     the DR learned about a new group-to-RP mapping before the RP did.
     However, this doesn't matter unless we figure out some way for the
     RP to also accept (*,G) joins when it doesn't yet realize that it
     is about to become the RP for G.  This will all get sorted out once
     the RP learns the new group-to-rp mapping.  We decided to do
     nothing about this and just accept the fact that PIM may suffer
     interrupted (*,G) connectivity following an RP change.

KeepaliveTimer(S,G) is restarted at the RP when packets arrive on the
proper tunnel interface.  This may cause the upstream (S,G) state
machine to trigger a join if the inherited_olist(S,G) is not NULL;

An RP should preserve (S,G) state that was created in response to a
Register message for at least ( 3/2 * Register_Suppression_Time ),
otherwise the RP may stop joining (S,G) before the DR for S has
restarted sending registers.  Traffic would then be interrupted until
the Register-Stop timer expires at the DR.




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Thus KeepaliveTimer(S,G) should be restarted to (1.5 *
Register_Suppression_Time + Register_Probe_Time).

4.3.3.  RP Joining to the Source

An RP will normally send a Join(S,G) immediately it receives a valid
Register(S,G) from S's DR.  However, it may optionally decide to
continue to receive traffic from S via register encapsulation.  Such a
decision should normally be consistent within a domain as otherwise the
RP cannot tell if the encapsulation overhead at the DR is tolerable.

Join(S,G) messages originated in response to register messages should be
rate-limited in an implementation-dependent manner.

4.4.  PIM Join/Prune Messages

4.4.1.  Receiving (*,G) Join/Prune Messages

When a router receives a Join(*,G) or Prune(*,G) it must first check to
see whether the RP in the message matches RP(G) (the router's idea of
who the RP is).  If the RP in the message does not match RP(G) the Join
or Prune should be silently dropped.  If a router has no RP information
(e.g. has not recently received a BSR message) then it may choose to
accept Join(*,G) or Prune(*,G) and treat the RP in the message as RP(G).

The state machine for receiving (*,G) Join/Prune Messages is given
below.  There are three states:

     NoInfo (NI)
          The interface has no (*,G) Join state and no timers running.

     Join (J)
          The interface has (*,G) Join state which will cause us to
          forward packets destined for G from this interface except if
          there is also (S,G,rpt) prune information (see Section 4.4.3)
          or the router lost an assert on this interface.

     PrunePending (PP)
          The router has received a Prune(*,G) on this interface from a
          downstream neighbor and is waiting to see whether the prune
          will be overridden by another downstream router.  For
          forwarding purposes, the PrunePending state functions exactly
          like the Join state.

In addition there are two timers:

     ExpiryTimer (ET)
          This timer is restarted when a valid Join(*,G) is received.



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          Expiry of the ExpiryTimer causes the interface state to revert
          to NoInfo for this group.

     PrunePendingTimer (PPT)
          This timer is set when a valid Prune(*,G) is received.  Expiry
          of the PrunePendingTimer causes the interface state to revert
          to NoInfo for this group.

                    +-----------------------------------+
                    | Figures omitted from text version |
                    +-----------------------------------+


           Figure 2: Downstream (*,G) per-interface state-machine



In tabular form, the state machine is:

+-------------+----------------------+------------------------+-------------------+------------+
|Prev State   |Receive               |Receive                 |PrunePending       |Expiry      |
|             |Join(*,G)             |Prune(*,G)              |Timer Expires      |Expires     |
+-------------+----------------------+------------------------+-------------------+------------+
|NoInfo       |-> J state            |-> NI state             |-                  |-           |
|(NI)         |start ExpiryTimer     |                        |                   |            |
+-------------+----------------------+------------------------+-------------------+------------+
|Join         |-> J state            |-> PP state             |-                  |-> NI state |
|(J)          |restart ExpiryTimer   |start PrunePendingTimer |                   |            |
+-------------+----------------------+------------------------+-------------------+------------+
|PrunePending |-> J state            |-> PP state             |-> NI state        |-> NI state |
|(PP)         |restart ExpiryTimer   |                        |Send PruneEcho(*,G)|            |
|             |stop PrunePendingTimer|                        |                   |            |
+-------------+----------------------+------------------------+-------------------+------------+



The transition events "Receive Join(*,G)" and "Receive Prune(*,G)" imply
receiving a Join or Prune targeted to this router's address on the
received interface.  If the destination address is not correct, these
state transitions in this state machine must not occur, although seeing
such a packet may cause state transitions in other state machines.

On unnumbered interfaces on point-to-point links, the router's address
should be the same as the source address it chose for the hello packet
it sent over that interface.  However on point-to-point links we also
recommend that PIM messages with a 0.0.0.0 destination address are also
accepted.




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When ExpiryTimer is started or restarted, it is set to the HoldTime from
the triggering Join/Prune message.

When PrunePendingTimer is started, it is set to the
J/P_Override_Interval if the router has more than one neighbor on that
interface; otherwise it is set to zero causing it to expire immediately.

The action "Send PruneEcho(*,G)" is triggered when the router stops
forwarding on an interface as a result of a prune.  A PruneEcho(*,G) is
simply a Prune(*,G) message sent by the upstream router to itself on a
LAN.  Its purpose is to add additional reliability so that if a Prune
that should have been overridden by another router is lost locally on
the LAN, then the PruneEcho may be received and cause the override to
happen.  A PruneEcho(*,G) need not be sent on a point-to-point
interface.

4.4.2.  Receiving (S,G) Join/Prune Messages

The state machine for receiving (S,G) Join/Prune messages is given
below, and is almost identical to that for (*,G) messages.  There are
three states:

     NoInfo (NI)
          The interface has no (S,G) Join state and no (S,G) timers
          running.

     Join (J)
          The interface has (S,G) Join state which will cause us to
          forward packets from S destined for G from this interface if
          the (S,G) state is active (the SPTbit is set) except if the
          router lost an assert on this interface.

     PrunePending (PP)
          The router has received a Prune(S,G) on this interface from a
          downstream neighbor and is waiting to see whether the prune
          will be overridden by another downstream router.  For
          forwarding purposes, the PrunePending state functions exactly
          like the Join state.

In addition there are two timers:

     ExpiryTimer (ET)
          This timer is set when a valid Join(S,G) is received.  Expiry
          of the ExpiryTimer causes the interface state to revert to
          NoInfo for this group.

     PrunePendingTimer (PPT)
          This timer is set when a valid Prune(S,G) is received.  Expiry



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          of the PrunePendingTimer causes the interface state to revert
          to NoInfo for this group.

                    +-----------------------------------+
                    | Figures omitted from text version |
                    +-----------------------------------+


                  Figure 3: Downstream (S,G) state-machine



In tabular form, the state machine is:

+-------------+----------------------+------------------------+-------------------+------------+
|Prev State   |Receive               |Receive                 |PrunePending       |Expiry      |
|             |Join(S,G)             |Prune(S,G)              |Timer Expires      |Expires     |
+-------------+----------------------+------------------------+-------------------+------------+
|NoInfo       |-> J state            |-> NI state             |-                  |-           |
|(NI)         |start ExpiryTimer     |                        |                   |            |
+-------------+----------------------+------------------------+-------------------+------------+
|Join         |-> J state            |-> PP state             |-                  |-> NI state |
|(J)          |restart ExpiryTimer   |start PrunePendingTimer |                   |            |
+-------------+----------------------+------------------------+-------------------+------------+
|PrunePending |-> J state            |-> PP state             |-> NI state        |-> NI state |
|(PP)         |restart ExpiryTimer   |                        |Send PruneEcho(S,G)|            |
|             |stop PrunePendingTimer|                        |                   |            |
+-------------+----------------------+------------------------+-------------------+------------+



The transition events "Receive Join(S,G)" and "Receive Prune(S,G)" imply
receiving a Join or Prune targeted to this router's address on the
received interface.  If the destination address is not correct, these
state transitions in this state machine must not occur, although seeing
such a packet may cause state transitions in other state machines.

On unnumbered interfaces on point-to-point links, the router's address
should be the same as the source address it chose for the hello packet
it sent over that interface.  However on point-to-point links we also
recommend that messages with a 0.0.0.0 destination address are also
accepted.

When ExpiryTimer is started or restarted, it is set to the HoldTime from
the triggering Join/Prune message.

When PrunePendingTimer is started, it is set to the
J/P_Override_Interval if the router has more than one neighbor on that



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interface; otherwise it is set to zero causing it to expire immediately.

The action "Send PruneEcho(S,G)" is triggered when the router stops
forwarding on an interface as a result of a prune.  A PruneEcho(S,G) is
simply a Prune(S,G) message sent by the upstream router to itself on a
LAN.  Its purpose is to add additional reliability so that if a Prune
that should have been overridden by another router is lost locally on
the LAN, then the PruneEcho may be received and cause the override to
happen.  A PruneEcho(S,G) need not be sent on a point-to-point
interface.

4.4.3.  Receiving (S,G,rpt) Join/Prune Messages

The state machine for receiving (S,G,rpt) Join/Prune messages is given
below.  There are five states:

     NoInfo (NI)
          The interface has no (S,G,rpt) Prune state and no (S,G,rpt)
          timers running.

     Prune (P)
          The interface has (S,G,rpt) Prune state which will cause us
          not to forward packets from S destined for G from this
          interface even though the interface has active (*,G) Join
          state.  When interface I is in this state, the macro
          prune(S,G,rpt,I) returns true.

     PrunePending (PP)
          The router has received a Prune(S,G,rpt) on this interface
          from a downstream neighbor and is waiting to see whether the
          prune will be overridden by another downstream router.  For
          forwarding purposes, the PrunePending state functions exactly
          like the NoInfo state.

     PruneTmp (P')
          This state is a transient state which for forwarding purposes
          behaves exactly like the Prune state.  A (*,G) Join has been
          received (which may cancel the (S,G,rpt) Prune).  As we parse
          the Join/Prune message from top to bottom, we first enter this
          state if the message contains a (*,G) Join.  Later in the
          message we will normally encounter an (S,G,rpt) prune to re-
          instate the Prune state.  However if we reach the end of the
          message without encountering such a (S,G,rpt) prune, then we
          will revert to NoInfo state in this state machine.

          As no time is spent in this state, no timers can expire.





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     PrunePendingTmp (PP')
          This state is a transient state which is identical to P'
          except that it is associated with the PP state rather than the
          P state.  For forwarding purposes, PP' behaves exactly like PP
          state.

In addition there are two timers:

     ExpiryTimer (ET)
          This timer is set when a valid Prune(S,G,rpt) is received.
          Expiry of the ExpiryTimer causes this state machine to revert
          to NoInfo state.

     PrunePendingTimer (PPT)
          This timer is set when a valid Prune(S,G,rpt) is received.
          Expiry of the PrunePendingTimer causes this state machine to
          move on to Prune state.

                    +-----------------------------------+
                    | Figures omitted from text version |
                    +-----------------------------------+


                Figure 4: Downstream (S,G,rpt) state-machine



























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In tabular form, the state machine is:

+----------+----------+-------------+--------------+------------+-----------+-----------+
|Prev State|Receive   |Receive      |Receive       |End Of      |PPT        |ET         |
|          |Join(*,G) |Join(S,G,rpt)|Prune(S,G,rpt)|Message     |Expires    |Expires    |
+----------+----------+-------------+--------------+------------+-----------+-----------+
|NI        |-         |-            |-> PP state   |-           |n/a        n/a         |
|          |          |             |start PPT     |            |           |           |
|          |          |             |start ET      |            |           |           |
+----------+----------+-------------+--------------+------------+-----------+-----------+
|P         |P'        |-> NI state  |-> P state    |-           |n/a        |-> NI state|
|          |          |             |restart ET    |            |           |           |
+----------+----------+-------------+--------------+------------+-----------+-----------+
|PP        |PP'       |-> NI state  |-             |-           |-> P state |n/a        |
+----------+----------+-------------+--------------+------------+-----------+-----------+
|P'        |error     |error        |-> P state    |-> NI state |n/a        |n/a        |
|          |          |             |restart ET    |            |           |           |
+----------+----------+-------------+--------------+------------+-----------+-----------+
|PP'       |error     |error        |-> PP state   |-> NI state |n/a        |n/a        |
|          |          |             |restart ET    |            |           |           |
+----------+----------+-------------+--------------+------------+-----------+-----------+



The transition events "Receive Join(S,G,rpt)","Receive Prune(S,G,rpt)"
and "Receive Join(*,G)" imply receiving a Join or Prune targeted to this
router's address on the received interface.  If the destination address
is not correct, these state transitions in this state machine must not
occur, although seeing such a packet may cause state transitions in
other state machines.

On unnumbered interfaces on point-to-point links, the router's address
should be the same as the source address it chose for the hello packet
it sent over that interface.  However on point-to-point links we also
recommend that messages with a 0.0.0.0 destination address are also
accepted.

Receiving a Prune(*,G) does not affect the (S,G,rpt) state machine.

When ExpiryTimer is started or restarted, it is set to the HoldTime from
the Join/Prune message.

When PrunePendingTimer is started, it is set to the
J/P_Override_Interval if the router has more than one neighbor on that
interface; otherwise it is set to zero causing it to expire immediately.

The HoldTime from the Join/Prune message must be larger than the
J/P_Override_Interval.



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4.4.4.  Sending (*,G) Join/Prune Messages

The per-interface state-machines for (*,G) hold join state from
downstream PIM routers.  This state then determines whether a router
needs to propagate a Join(*,G) upstream towards the RP.

If a router wishes to propagate a Join(*,G) upstream, it must also watch
for messages on it's upstream interface from other routers on that
subnet, and these may modify its behavior.  If it sees a Join(*,G) to
the correct upstream neighbor, it should suppress its own Join(*,G).  If
it sees a Prune(*,G) to the correct upstream neighbor, it should be
prepared to override that prune by sending a Join(*,G) almost
immediately.  Finally, if it sees the Generation ID (see Section 4.6) of
the correct upstream neighbor change, it knows that the upstream
neighbor has lost state, and it should be prepared to refresh the state
by sending a Join(*,G) almost immediately.

In addition if the MRIB changes to indicate that the next hop towards
the RP has changed, the router should prune off from the old next hop,
and join towards the new next hop.

The upstream (*,G) state-machine only contains two states:

Not Joined
     The downstream state-machines indicate that the router does not
     need to join the RP tree for this group.

Joined
     The downstream state-machines indicate that the router would like
     to join the RP tree for this group.

In addition, one timer JT(*,G) is kept which is used to trigger the
sending of a Join(*,G) to the upstream next hop towards the RP,
RPF'(RP).

                    +-----------------------------------+
                    | Figures omitted from text version |
                    +-----------------------------------+


                   Figure 5: Upstream (*,G) state-machine










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In tabular form, the state machine is:

+-----------++-------------------------+------------------+
|Prev State || JoinDesired             | JoinDesired      |
|           || (*,G)->True             |  (*,G)->False    |
+-----------++-------------------------+------------------+
|NotJoined  || -> J state              |  -               |
|           || Send Join(*,G)          |                  |
|           || Set Timer to t_periodic |                  |
+-----------++-------------------------+------------------+
|Joined     || -                       | -> NJ state      |
|           ||                         |  Send Prune(*,G) |
+-----------++-------------------------+------------------+




In addition, we have the following transitions which occur within the Joined state:

+-------+--------------+----------------+---------------+------------------------+---------------++
|Prev   |Timer         |See Join(*,G)   |See Prune(*,G) |topology change         |RPF'(*,G)      ||
|State  |Expires       |to RPF'(*,G)    |to RPF'(*,G)   |wrt MRIB.next_hop(RP)   |GenID changes  ||
+-------+--------------+----------------+---------------+------------------------+---------------++
|Joined |Send Join(*,G)|Increase Timer  |Decrease Timer |Send Join(*,G)          |Decrease Timer ||
|       |Set Timer     |to t_suppressed |to t_override  |to new next hop         | to t_override ||
|       |to t_periodic |                |               |Send Prune(*,G)         |               ||
|       |              |                |               |to old next hop         |               ||
|       |              |                |               |Set Timer to t_periodic |               ||
+-------+--------------+----------------+---------------+------------------------+---------------++



This state machine uses the following macro:

  bool JoinDesired(*,G) {
     if inherited_olist(*,G) != NULL
         return TRUE
     else
         return FALSE
  }











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4.4.5.  Sending (S,G) Join/Prune Messages

The per-interface state-machines for (S,G) hold join state from
downstream PIM routers.  This state then determines whether a router
needs to propagate a Join(S,G) upstream towards the source.

If a router wishes to propagate a Join(S,G) upstream, it must also watch
for messages on its upstream interface from other routers on that
subnet, and these may modify its behavior.  If it sees a Join(S,G) to
the correct upstream neighbor, it should suppress its own Join(S,G).  If
it sees a Prune(S,G), Prune(S,G,rpt), or Prune(*,G) to the correct
upstream neighbor towards S, it should be prepared to override that
prune by scheduling a Join(S,G) to be sent (almost) immediately.
Finally, if it sees the Generation ID of its upstream neighbor change,
it knows that the upstream neighbor has lost state, and it should
refresh the state by scheduling a Join(S,G) to be sent (almost)
immediately.

In addition if MRIB changes cause the next hop towards the source to
change, the router should send a prune to the old next hop, and a join
to the new next hop.

The upstream (S,G) state-machine only contains two states:

Not Joined
     The downstream state machines and IGMP information do not indicate
     that the router needs to join the shortest-path tree for this
     (S,G).

Joined
     The downstream state machines and IGMP information indicate that
     the router should join the shortest-path tree for this (S,G).

In addition, one timer JT(S,G) is kept which is used to trigger the
sending of a Join(S,G) to the upstream next hop toward S, RPF'(S).

                    +-----------------------------------+
                    | Figures omitted from text version |
                    +-----------------------------------+


                   Figure 6: Upstream (S,G) state-machine









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In tabular form, the state machine is:

+-----------++-------------------------+------------------+
|Prev State || JoinDesired             | JoinDesired      |
|           || (S,G)->True             |  (S,G)->False    |
+-----------++-------------------------+------------------+
|NotJoined  || -> J state              |  -               |
|           || Send Join(S,G)          |                  |
|           || Set Timer to t_periodic |                  |
+-----------++-------------------------+------------------+
|Joined     || -                       | -> NJ state      |
|           ||                         |  Send Prune(S,G) |
+-----------++-------------------------+------------------+




In addition, we have the following transitions which occur within the Joined state:

+-----------+---------------+----------------+--------------+-------------------+---------------++
|Prev State |Timer          |See Join(S,G)   |See Prune(S,G)|See Prune(S,G,rpt) |See (*,G) Prune||
|           |Expires        |to RPF'(S,G)    |to RPF'(S,G)  |to RPF'(S,G)       |to RPF'(S,G)   ||
+-----------+---------------+----------------+--------------+-------------------+---------------++
|Joined     |Send Join(S,G) |Increase Timer  |Decrease Timer|Decrease Timer     |Decrease Timer ||
|           |Set Timer      |to t_suppressed |to t_override |to t_override      |to t_override  ||
|           |to t_periodic  |                |              |                   |               ||
+-----------+---------------+----------------+--------------+-------------------+---------------++




+-----------++---------------------------------+-----------------+
|Prev State || topology change                 |  RPF'(S,G)      |
|           || wrt MRIB.next_hop(S)            |  GenID changes  |
+-----------++---------------------------------+-----------------+
|Joined     || Send Join(S,G) to new next hop  |  Decrease Timer |
|           || Send Prune(S,G) to old next hop |   to t_override |
|           || Set Timer to t_periodic         |                 |
+-----------++---------------------------------+-----------------+



This state machine uses the following macro:








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  bool JoinDesired(S,G) {
      return( immediate_olist(S,G) != NULL
              OR ( KeepaliveTimer(S,G) is running
                   AND inherited_olist(S,G) != NULL ) )
  }














































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4.4.6.  (S,G,rpt) Periodic Messages

(S,G,rpt) Joins and Prunes are (S,G) Joins or Prunes sent on the RP tree
with the RPT bit set, either to modify the results of (*,G) Joins, or to
override the behavior of other upstream LAN peers.  The next section
describes the rules for sending triggered messages.  This section
describes the rules for including an Prune(S,G,rpt) message with a
Join(*,G).

When a router is going to send a Join(*,G), it should use the following
pseudocode, for each (S,G) for which it has state, to decide whether to
include a Prune(S,G,rpt) in the compound Join/Prune message:

  if( SPTbit(S,G) == TRUE ) {
      # Note: If receiving (S,G) on the SPT, we only prune off the
      # shared tree if the rpf neighbors differ.
       if( RPF'(*,G) != RPF'(S,G) ) {
           add Prune(S,G,rpt) to compound message
       }
  } else if ( inherited_olist(S,G,rpt) == NULL ) {
    #  Note: all (*,G) olist interfaces sent rpt prunes for (S,G).
    add Prune(S,G,rpt) to compound message
  } else if ( RPF'(*,G) != RPF'(S,G,rpt) {
    # Note: we joined the shared tree, but there was an (S,G) assert and
    # the source tree RPF neighbor is different.
    add Prune(S,G,rpt) to compound message
  }


Note that Join(S,G,rpt) is not normally sent as a periodic message, but
only as a triggered message.


4.4.7.  State Machine for (S,G,rpt) Triggered Messages

The state machine for (S,G,rpt) triggered messages is required per-(S,G)
when there is (*,G) join state at a router, and the router or any of its
upstream LAN peers wishes to prune S off the RP tree.

There are three states in the state-machine.  One of the states is when
there is no (*,G) join state at this router.  If there is (*,G) join
state at the router, then the state machine must be at one of the other
two states:


Pruned(S,G,rpt)
     (*,G) Joined, but (S,G,rpt) pruned




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NotPruned(S,G,rpt)
     (*,G_ Joined, and not (S,G,rpt) pruned

NotJoined(*,G)
     (*,G) has not been joined.


                      +-----------------------------------+
                      | Figures omitted from text version |
                      +-----------------------------------+


          Figure 7: Upstream (S,G,rpt) state-machine for triggered messages


In tabular form, the state machine is:


+----------+-------------------+------------------+-----------+-----------+------------------+
|Prev State|PruneDesired       PruneDesired       JoinDesired JoinDesired inherited_olist    |
|          |(S,G,rpt)->True    (S,G,rpt)->False   (*,G)->False(*,G)->True (S,G,rpt)->non-NULL|
+----------+-------------------+------------------+-----------+-----------+------------------+
|NotJoined |-> P state         |-                 |-          |-          |-> NP state       |
|(*,G)     |                   |                  |           |           |                  |
+----------+-------------------+------------------+-----------+-----------+------------------+
|Pruned  - |-                  -> NP state        |-> NJ state|-          |-                 |
|(S,G,rpt) |                   |Send Join(S,G,rpt)|           |           |                  |
+----------+-------------------+------------------+-----------+-----------+------------------+
|NotPruned |-> P state         |-                 |-> NJ state|-          |-                 |
|(S,G,rpt) |Send Prune(S,G,rpt)|                  |           |           |                  |
|          |Stop timer         |                  |           |           |                  |
+----------+-------------------+------------------+-----------+-----------+------------------+



















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Additionally, we have the following transitions within the NotPruned(S,G,rpt)
state which are all used for join override behavior.


+---------+------------------+------------------+-----------------+-----------------+----------------+
Prev State|timer expires     |See Prune(S,G,rpt)|See Join(S,G,rpt)|See Prune(S,G)   |RPF'(S,G,rpt)   |
|         |                  |to RPF'(S,G,rpt)  |to RPF'(S,G,rpt) |to RPF'(S,G,rpt) |-> RPF'(*,G)    |
+---------+------------------+------------------+-----------------+-----------------+----------------+
|NotPruned|-> NP state       |-> NP state       |-> NP state      |-> NP state      |-> NP state     |
|(S,G,rpt)|Send Join(S,G,rpt)|timer             |stop timer       |timer            |timer           |
|         |Stop timer        =min(timer,t_po)   |                 =min(timer,t_po)  |=min(timer,t_po)|
+---------+------------------+------------------+-----------------+-----------------+----------------+



This state machine uses the following macro:

  bool PruneDesired(S,G,rpt) {
       return ( JoinDesired(*,G) AND
                inherited_olist(S,G,rpt) == NULL )
  }


The state machine contains the following transition events:

See Join(S,G,rpt) to RPF'(S,G,rpt)
     This event is only relevant in the "Not Pruned" state.

     The router sees a Join(S,G,rpt) from someone else to RPF'(S,G,rpt),
     which is the correct upstream neighbor.  If we're in "NotPruned"
     state and the (S,G,rpt) timer is running, then this is because we
     have been triggered to send our own Join(S,G,rpt) to RPF'(S,G,rpt).
     Someone else beat us to it, so there's no need to send our own
     Join.

     The action is to cancel the timer.

See Prune(S,G,rpt) to RPF'(S,G,rpt)
     This event is only relevant in the "NotPruned" state.

     The router sees a Prune(S,G,rpt) from someone else to to
     RPF'(S,G,rpt), which is the correct upstream neighbor.  If we're in
     the "NotPruned" state, then we want to continue to receive traffic
     from S destined for G, and that traffic is being supplied by
     RPF'(S,G,rpt).  Thus we need to override the Prune.

     The action is to set the (S,G,rpt) time to the randomized prune-
     override interval.  However if the timer is already running, we



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     only set the timer if doing so would set it to a lower value.  At
     the end of this interval, if no-one else has sent a Join, then we
     will do so.

See Prune(S,G) to RPF'(S,G,rpt)
     This event is only relevant in the "NotPruned" state.

     This transition and action are the same as the above transition and
     action, except that the Prune does not have the RPT bit set.  This
     transition is necessary to be compatible with existing routers that
     don't maintain separate (S,G) and (S,G,rpt) state.

The (S,G,rpt) prune override timer expires
     This event is only relevant in the "NotPruned" state.

     When the prune override timer expires, we must send a Join(S,G,rpt)
     to RPF'(S,G,rpt) to override the Prune message that caused the
     timer to be running.  We only send this if RPF'(S,G,rpt) equals
     RPF'(*,G) - if this were not the case, then the Join might be sent
     to a router that does not have (*,G) Join state, and so the
     behavior would not be well defined.  If RPF'(S,G,rpt) is not the
     same as RPF'(*,G), then it may stop forwarding S.  However, if this
     happens, then the router will send an  AssertCancel(S,G), which
     would then cause RPF'(S,G,rpt) to become equal to RPF'(*,G) (see
     below).

RPF'(S,G,rpt) changes to become equal to RPF'(*,G)
     This event is only relevant in the "NotPruned" state.

     RPF'(S,G,rpt) can only be different from RPF'(*,G) if an (S,G)
     Assert has happened, which means that traffic from S is arriving on
     the SPT, and so Prune(S,G,rpt) will have been sent to RPF'(*,G).
     When RPF'(S,G,rpt) changes to become equal to RPF'(*,G), we need to
     trigger a Join(S,G,rpt) to RPF'(*,G) to cause that router to start
     forwarding S again.

     The action is to set the (S,G,rpt) time to the randomized prune-
     override interval.  However if the timer is already running, we
     only set the timer if doing so would set it to a lower value.  At
     the end of this interval, if no-one else has sent a Join, then we
     will do so.

PruneDesired(S,G,rpt)->TRUE
     See macro above.

     The router wishes to receive traffic for G, but does not wish to
     receive traffic from S destined for G.  This causes the router to
     transition into the Pruned state.



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     If the router was previously in NotPruned state, then the action is
     to send a Prune(S,G,rpt) to RPF'(S,G,rpt).  If the router was
     previously in NotJoined(*,G) state, then there is no need to
     trigger an action in this state machine because sending a
     Prune(S,G,rpt) is handled by the rules for sending the Join(*,G).

PruneDesired(S,G,rpt)->FALSE
     See macro above.  This transition is only relevant in the "Pruned"
     state.

     If the router is in the Pruned(S,G,rpt) state, and
     PruneDesired(S,G,rpt) changes to FALSE, this could be because the
     router no longer is in the Joined(*,G) state, or now wishes to
     receive traffic from S again.  If it is the former, then this
     transition should not happen, but instead the
     "JoinDesired(*,G)->FALSE" transition should happen. Thus this
     transition should be interpreted as "PruneDesired(S,G,rpt)->FALSE
     AND JoinDesired(*,G)==TRUE"

     The action is to send a Join(S,G,rpt) to RPF'(S,G,rpt).

JoinDesired(*,G)->FALSE
     The router no longer wishes to receive any traffic destined for G
     on the RP Tree.  This causes a transition to the NotJoined(*,G)
     state.  Any actions are handled by the (*,G) upstream state
     machine.

inherited_olist(S,G,rpt) becomes non-NULL
     This transition is only relevant in the NotJoined(*,G) state.

     The router has joined the RP tree (handled by the (*,G) upstream
     state machine), and wants to receive traffic from S.  This does not
     trigger any events in this state machine, but causes a transition
     to the NotPruned(S,G,rpt) state.

















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4.5.  PIM Assert Messages

4.5.1.  (S,G) Assert Message State Machine

The (S,G) Assert state machine for interface I is shown in Figure 8.
There are three states:

NoInfo (NI)
     This router has no (S,G) assert state on interface I.

I am Assert Winner (W)
     This router has won an (S,G) assert on interface I.  It is now
     responsible for forwarding traffic from S destined for G onto
     interface I.  Irrespective of whether it is the DR for I, while a
     router is the assert winner, it is also responsible for forwarding
     traffic onto I on behalf of local hosts on I that have made
     membership requests that specifically refer to S (and G).

I am Assert Loser (L)
     This router has lost an (S,G) assert on interface I.  It must not
     forward packets from S destined for G onto interface I.  If it is
     the DR on I, it is no longer responsible for forwarding traffic
     onto I to satisfy local hosts with membership requests that
     specifically refer to S and G.

In addition there is also a assert timer (AT) that is used to time out
asserts on the assert losers and to resend asserts on the assert winner.

                 +-----------------------------------+
                 | Figures omitted from text version |
                 +-----------------------------------+


                  Figure 8: (S,G) Assert State-machine

In tabular form the state machine is:

+-------+-------------------+-------------------+-------------------+---------------------+
|Prev   |Rx Inferior Assert |Rx Assert          |Data arrives       |Rx Preferred Assert  |
|State  |with RPTbit clear  |with RPTbit set and|from S to G and    |with RPTbit clear and|
|       |                   |CouldAssert(S,G,I) |CouldAssert(S,G,I) |AssTrDes(S,G,I)      |
+-------+-------------------+-------------------+-------------------+---------------------+
|NoInfo |-> Winner state    |-> Winner state    |-> Winner state    |-> Loser state       |
|(NI)   |[Actions A1]       |[Actions A1]       |[Actions A1]       |[Actions A2]         |
+-------+-------------------+-------------------+-------------------+---------------------+






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+-------+----------------+----------------+------------------+-------------------+
|Prev   |Timer           |Rx Inferior     |Receive Preferred |CouldAssert(S,G,I) |
|State  |Expires         |Assert          |Assert            |-> FALSE           |
+-------+----------------+----------------+------------------+-------------------+
|Winner |-> Winner state |-> Winner state |-> Loser state    |-> NoInfo state    |
|(W)    |[Actions A3]    |[Actions A3]    |[Actions A2]      |[Actions A4]       |
+-------+----------------+----------------+------------------+-------------------+


+-------+---------------+----------------+--------------+---------------+
| Prev  | Rx Preferred  | Rx Inferior    |Timer         | AssTrDes      |
| State | Assert        | Assert from    |Expires       | (S,G,I)       |
|       |               | Current Winner |              | -> FALSE      |
+-------+---------------+----------------+--------------+---------------+
| Loser | -> L state    | -> NI state    |-> NI state   | -> NI state   |
| (L)   | [Actions A2]  | [Actions A5]   |[Actions A5]  | [Actions A5]  |
+-------+---------------+----------------+--------------+---------------+


+---------++--------------------+-----------------+---------------------+
| Prev    ||  my_metric ->      |  RPF            |  Receive Join(S,G)  |
| State   ||  better than       |  interface      |  on interface I     |
|         ||  winner's metric   |  stops being I  |                     |
+---------++--------------------+-----------------+---------------------+
| Loser   ||  -> NI state       |  -> NI state    |  -> NI State        |
| (L)     ||  [Actions A5]      |  [Actions A5]   |  [Actions A5]       |
+---------++--------------------+-----------------+---------------------+



Note that for reasons of compactness, "AssTrDes(S,G,I)" is used in the
state-machine table to refer to AssertTrackingDesired(S,G,I).

Terminology:
     A "preferred assert" is one with a better metric than the current
     winner.

     An "inferior assert" is one with a worse metric than me.

The state machine uses the following macros:

CouldAssert(S,G,I) =
     I in (join(S,G) (+) pim_include(S,G))
     AND (RPF_interface(S) != I)

CouldAssert(S,G,I) is true on downstream interfaces for which we have
(S,G) join state, or local members that explicitly requested traffic
from S destined for G.



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AssertTrackingDesired(S,G,I) =
     ((((I in joins(*,G)) AND (I not in prunes(S,G,rpt)))
       OR (pim_include(*,G,I) AND (pim_exclude(S,G,I)==FALSE)))
      AND (assert(*,G,I)==FALSE) AND (RPF_interface(S) != I))
      OR CouldAssert(S,G,I)==TRUE
      OR (RPF_interface(S) == I AND JoinSesired(S,G)==TRUE)

AssertTrackingDesired(S,G,I) is true on any interface in which an (S,G)
assert might affect our behavior.

The first 3 lines of AssertTrackingDesired account for (*,G) join
information received on I that might cause the router to be interested
in asserts on I.

The 4th line accounts for (S,G) join information received on I that
might cause the router to be interested in asserts on I.

The 5th line accounts for the fact that a router must keep track of
assert information on the upstream interface in order to send joins to
the proper neighbor.

Transitions from NoInfo State

When in NoInfo state, the following transitions are relevant:

     Receive Inferior Assert with RPTbit cleared
          An assert is received for (S,G) with the RPT bit cleared that
          is inferior to our own assert metric. The RPT bit cleared
          indicates that the sender of the assert had (S,G) forwarding
          state on this interface.  If the assert is inferior to our
          metric, then we must also have (S,G) forwarding state as (S,G)
          asserts beat (*,G) asserts, and so we should be the assert
          winner.  We transition to the "I am Assert Winner" state, and
          perform Actions A1 (below).

     Receive Assert with RPTbit set AND CouldAssert(S,G,I)==TRUE
          An assert is received for (S,G) on I with the RPT bit set
          (it's a (*,G) assert).  CouldAssert(S,G,I) is TRUE only if we
          have (S,G) forwarding state on this interface, so we should be
          the assert winner.  We transition to the "I am Assert Winner"
          state, and perform Actions A1 (below).

     An (S,G) data packet arrives on interface I, AND
          CouldAssert(S,G,I)==TRUE
          An (S,G) data packet arrived on an downstream interface which
          is in our (S,G) outgoing interface list.  We optimistically
          assume that we will be the assert winner for this (S,G), and
          so we transition to the "I am Assert Winner" state, and



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          perform Actions A1 (below) which will initiate the asesrt
          negotiation for (S,G).

     Receive Preferred Assert with RPT bit clear AND
          AssertTrackingDesired(S,G,I)==TRUE
          We're interested in (S,G) Asserts, either because I is a
          downstream interface for which we have (S,G) or (*,G)
          forwarding state, or because I is the upstream interface for S
          and we have (S,G) forwarding state.  The received assert that
          has a better metric than our own, so we do not win the Assert.
          We transition to "I am Assert Loser" and perform actions S2
          (below).

Transitions from Winner State

When in "I am Assert Winner" state, the following transitions are
relevant:

     Timer Expires
          The (S,G) assert timer expires.  As we're in the Winner state,
          then we must still have (S,G) forwarding state that is
          actively being kept alive.  We re-send the (S,G) Assert and
          restart the timer (Action A3 below).  Note that the assert
          winner's timer is engineered to expire shortly before timers
          on assert losers; this prevents unnecessary thrashing of the
          forwarder and periodic flooding of duplicate packets.

     Receive Inferior Assert
          We receive an (S,G) assert or (*,G) assert mentioning S that
          has a worse metric than our own.  Whoever sent the assert is
          in error, and so we re-send an (S,G) Assert, and restart the
          timer (Action A3 below).

     Receive Preferred Assert
          We receive an (S,G) assert that has a better metric than our
          own.  We transition to "I am Assert Loser" state and perform
          actions A2 (below).  Note that this may affect the value of
          joinDesired(S,G) which could cause transitions in the upstream
          (S,G) state machine.

     CouldAssert(S,G,I) -> FALSE
          Our (S,G) forwarding state or RPF interface changed so as to
          make CouldAssert(S,G,I) become false.  We can no longer
          perform the actions of the assert winner, and so we transition
          to NoInfo state and perform actions A4 (below).  This includes
          sending a "cancelling assert" with an infinite metric.





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Transitions from Loser State

When in "I am Assert Loser" state, the following transitions can occur:

     Receive Preferred Assert
          We receive an assert that is better than that of the current
          assert winner.  We stay in Loser state, and perform actions A2
          below.

     Receive Inferior Assert from Current Winner
          We receive an assert from the current assert winner that is
          worse than our own metric for this group (typically the
          winner's metric became worse).  We transition to NoInfo state,
          deleting the (S,G) assert information and allowing the normal
          PIM Join/Prune mechanisms to operate.  Usually we will
          eventually re-assert and win when data packets from S have
          started flowing again.

     Timer Expires
          The (S,G) assert timer expires.  We transition to NoInfo
          state, deleting the (S,G) assert information.

     AssertTrackingDesired(S,G,I)->FALSE
          AssertTrackingDesired(S,G,I) becomes FALSE.  Our forwarding
          state has changed so that (S,G) Asserts on interface I are no
          longer of interest to us.  We transition to the NoInfo state,
          deleting the (S,G) assert information.

     My metric becomes better than the assert winner's metric
          My routing metrics have changed so that now my assert metric
          for (S,G) is better than the metric we have stored for current
          assert winner.  We transition to NoInfo state, delete this
          (S,G) assert state, and allow the normal PIM Join/Prune
          mechanisms to operate.  Usually we will eventually re-assert
          and win when data packets from S have started flowing again.

     RPF interface changed away from interface I
          Interface I used to be the RPF interface for S, and now it is
          not.  We transition to NoInfo state, delete this (S,G) assert
          state.

     Receive Join(S,G)fR
          We receive a Join(S,G) directed to my IP address in interface
          I.  The action is to transition to NoInfo state, and delete
          this (S,G) assert state, and allow the normal PIM Join/Prune
          mechanisms to operate.  If whoever sent the Join was in error,
          then the normal assert mechanism will eventually re-apply and
          we will lose the assert again.  However whoever sent the



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          assert may know that the previous assert winner has died, and
          so we may end up being the new forwarder.

(S,G) Assert State-machine Actions

     A1:  Send Assert(S,G)
          Set timer to (Assert_Time - Assert_Override_Interval)
          Store self as AssertWinner

     A2:  Store new assert winner (if different from previous winner)
          Set timer to Assert_Time

     A3:  Send Assert(S,G)
          Set timer to (Assert_Time - Assert_Override_Interval)

     A4:  Send AssertCancel(S,G)
          Delete assert info

     A5:  Delete assert info
































Fenner/Handley/Holbrook/Kouvelas                               [Page 49]

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4.5.2.  (*,G) Assert Message State Machine

The (*,G) Assert state-machine for interface I is shown in Figure 9.
There are three states:

NoInfo (NI)
     This router has no (*,G) assert state on interface I.

I am Assert Winner (W)
     This router has won an (*,G) assert on interface I.  It is now
     responsible for forwarding traffic destined for G onto interface I
     with the exception of traffic for which it has (S,G) "I am Assert
     Loser" state.  Irrespective of whether it is the DR for I, it is
     also responsible for handling the membership requests for G from
     local hosts on I.

I am Assert Loser (L)
     This router has lost an (*,G) assert on interface I.  It must not
     forward packets for G onto interface I with the exception of
     traffic from sources for which is has (S,G) "I am Assert Winner"
     state.  If it is the DR, it is no longer responsible for handling
     the membership requests for group G from local hosts on I.

In addition there is also an assert timer (AT) that is used to time out
asserts on the assert losers and to resend asserts on the assert winner.

It is important to note that no transition occurs in this state machine
as a result of receiving an assert message if the (S,G) assert state
machine for the relevant S and G is not in the "NoInfo" state.

                 +-----------------------------------+
                 | Figures omitted from text version |
                 +-----------------------------------+


                  Figure 9: (*,G) Assert State-machine















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In tabular form the state machine is:

+--------+-------------------+---------------------+--------------------+
|Prev    | Rx Inferior Assert| Data arrives        |Rx Preferred Assert |
|State   | with RPTbit set   | for G and           |with RPTbit set and |
|        |                   | CouldAssert(*,G,I)  |AssTrDes(*,G,I)     |
+--------+-------------------+---------------------+--------------------+
|NoInfo  | -> Winner state   | -> Winner state     |-> Loser state      |
|(NI)    | [Actions A1]      | [Actions A1]        |[Actions A2]        |
+--------+-------------------+---------------------+--------------------+



+-------+----------------+----------------+------------------+-------------------+
|Prev   |Timer           |Rx Inferior     |Receive Preferred |CouldAssert(*,G,I) |
|State  |Expires         |Assert          |Assert            |-> FALSE           |
+-------+----------------+----------------+------------------+-------------------+
|Winner |-> Winner state |-> Winner state |-> Loser state    |-> NoInfo state    |
|(W)    |[Actions A3]    |[Actions A3]    |[Actions A2]      |[Actions A4]       |
+-------+----------------+----------------+------------------+-------------------+


+-------+---------------+----------------+--------------+---------------+
| Prev  | Rx Preferred  | Rx Inferior    |Timer         | AssTrDes      |
| State | Assert        | Assert from    |Expires       | (*,G,I)       |
|       |               | Current Winner |              | -> FALSE      |
+-------+---------------+----------------+--------------+---------------+
| Loser | -> L state    | -> NI state    |-> NI state   | -> NI state   |
| (L)   | [Actions A2]  | [Actions A5]   |[Actions A5]  | [Actions A5]  |
+-------+---------------+----------------+--------------+---------------+


+---------++--------------------+-----------------+---------------------+
| Prev    ||  my_metric ->      |  RPF            |  Receive Join(*,G)  |
| State   ||  better than       |  interface      |  on interface I     |
|         ||  winner's metric   |  stops being I  |                     |
+---------++--------------------+-----------------+---------------------+
| Loser   ||  -> NI state       |  -> NI state    |  -> NI State        |
| (L)     ||  [Actions A5]      |  [Actions A5]   |  [Actions A5]       |
+---------++--------------------+-----------------+---------------------+



The state machine uses the following macros:

CouldAssert(*,G,I) =
    ( I in (joins(*,G) (+) pim_include(*,G)) )
    AND RPF_interface(RP(G)) != I



Fenner/Handley/Holbrook/Kouvelas                               [Page 51]

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CouldAssert(*,G,I) is true on downstream interfaces for which we have
(*,G) join state, or local members that requested any traffic destined
for G.

AssertTrackingDesired(*,G,I) =
    CouldAssert(*,G) OR
    ( RPF_interface(RP(G)) == I AND JoinDesired(*,G) )

AssertTrackingDesired(*,G,I) is true on any interface on which an (*,G)
assert might affect our behavior.

Note that for reasons of compactness, "AssTrDes(*,G,I)" is used in the
state-machine table to refer to AssertTrackingDesired(*,G,I).

Terminology:
     A "preferred assert" is one with a better metric than the current
     winner.

     An "inferior assert" is one with a worse metric than me.

Transitions from NoInfo State

When in NoInfo state, the following transitions are relevant only if the
(S,G) assert state machine is in NoInfo state:

     Receive Assert with RPTbit set AND CouldAssert(*,G,I)==TRUE
          An (*,G) assert is received for G on Interface I.  If
          CouldAssert(*,G,I) is TRUE, then I is our downstream
          interface, and we have (*,G) forwarding state on this
          interface, so we should be the assert winner.  We transition
          to the "I am Assert Winner" state, and perform Actions A1
          (below).

     A data packet destined for G arrives on interface I, AND
          CouldAssert(*,G,I)==TRUE
          A data packet destined for G arrived on an downstream
          interface which is in our (*,G) outgoing interface list.  We
          therefore believe we should be the forwarder for this (*,G),
          and so we transition to the "I am Assert Winner" state, and
          perform Actions A1 (below).

     Receive Preferred Assert with RPT bit set AND
          AssertTrackingDesired(*,G,I)==TRUE
          We're interested in (*,G) Asserts, either because I is a
          downstream interface for which we have (*,G) forwarding state,
          or because I is the upstream interface for RP(G) and we have
          (*,G) forwarding state.  We get a (*,G) Assert that has a
          better metric than our own, so we do not win the Assert.  We



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          transition to "I am Assert Loser" and perform actions S2
          (below).

Transitions from Winner State

When in "I am Assert Winner" state, the following transitions are
relevant only if the (S,G) assert state machine is in NoInfo state:

     Receive Inferior Assert
          We receive a (*,G) assert that has a worse metric than our
          own.  Whoever sent the assert is in error, and so we re-send a
          (*,G) Assert, and restart the timer (Action A3 below).

     Receive Preferred Assert
          We receive a (*,G) assert that has a better metric than our
          own.  We transition to "I am Assert Loser" state and perform
          actions A2 (below).

When in "I am Assert Winner" state, the following transitions are always
relevant:

     Timer Expires
          The (*,G) assert timer expires.  As we're in the Winner state,
          then we must still have (*,G) forwarding state that is
          actively being kept alive.  To prevent unnecessary thrashing
          of the forwarder and periodic flooding of duplicate packets,
          we re-send the (*,G) Assert, and restart the timer (Action A3
          below).

     CouldAssert(*,G,I) -> FALSE
          Our (*,G) forwarding state or RPF interface changed so as to
          make CouldAssert(*,G,I) become false.  We can no longer
          perform the actions of the assert winner, and so we transition
          to NoInfo state and perform actions A4 (below).

Transitions from Loser State

When in "I am Assert Loser" state, the following transitions are
relevant only if the (S,G) assert state machine is in NoInfo state:

     Receive Preferred Assert
          We receive a (*,G) assert that is better than that of the
          current assert winner.  We stay in Loser state, and perform
          actions A2 below.

     Receive Inferior Assert from Current Winner
          We receive an assert from the current assert winner that is
          worse than our own metric for this group (typically because



Fenner/Handley/Holbrook/Kouvelas                               [Page 53]

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          the winner's metric became worse).  We transition to NoInfo
          state, delete this (*,G) assert state, and allow the normal
          PIM Join/Prune mechanisms to operate.  Usually we will
          eventually re-assert and win when data packets for G have
          started flowing again.

When in "I am Assert Loser" state, the following transitions are always
relevant:

     Timer Expires
          The (*,G) assert timer expires.  We transition to NoInfo state
          and delete this (*,G) assert info.

     AssertTrackingDesired(*,G,I)->FALSE
          AssertTrackingDesired(*,G,I) becomes FALSE.  Our forwarding
          state has changed so that (*,G) Asserts on interface I are no
          longer of interest to us.  We transition to NoInfo state and
          delete this (*,G) assert info.

     My metric becomes better than the assert winner's metric
          My routing metrics have changed so that now my assert metric
          for (*,G) is better than the metric we have stored for current
          assert winner.  We transition to NoInfo state, and delete this
          (*,G) assert state, and allow the normal PIM Join/Prune
          mechanisms to operate.  Usually we will eventually re-assert
          and win when data packets for G have started flowing again.

     RPF interface changed away from interface I
          Interface I used to be the RPF interface for RP(G), and now it
          is not.  We transition to NoInfo state, and delete this (*,G)
          assert state.

     Receive Join(*,G)fR
          We receive a Join(*,G) directed to my IP address in interface
          I.  The action is to transition to NoInfo state, and delete
          this (*,G) assert state, and allow the normal PIM Join/Prune
          mechanisms to operate.  If whoever sent the Join was in error,
          then the normal assert mechanism will eventually re-apply and
          we will lose the assert again.  However whoever sent the
          assert may know that the previous assert winner has died, and
          so we may end up being the new forwarder.

(*,G) Assert State-machine Actions

     A1:  Send Assert(*,G)
          Set timer to (Assert_Time - Assert_Override_Interval)
          Store self as AssertWinner(*,G)




Fenner/Handley/Holbrook/Kouvelas                               [Page 54]

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     A2:  Store new AssertWinner(*,G) (if different from previous
          winner)
          Set timer to assert_time

     A3:  Send Assert(*,G)
          Set timer to (Assert_Time - Assert_Override_Interval)

     A4:  Send AssertCancel(*,G)
          Delete assert info

     A5:  Delete assert info


4.5.3.  Assert Metrics

Assert metrics are defined as:

  struct assert_metric {
    rpt_bit_flag;
    metric_preference;
    route_metric;
    ip_address;
  };


When comparing assert_metrics, the rpt_bit_flag, metric_preference, and
route_metric field are compared lexicographically.  If all fields are
equal, the IP address is used as a tie-breaker, with the highest IP
address winning.

An assert metric for (S,G) to include in (or compare against) an Assert
message sent on interface I should be computed using the following
pseudocode:


















Fenner/Handley/Holbrook/Kouvelas                               [Page 55]

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  assert_metric
  my_assert_metric(S,G,I) {
      if( I in immediate_olist(S,G) AND SPTbit(S,G) ) {
          return spt_assert_metric(S,G,I)
      } else if( I in inherited_olist(S,G,rpt) ) {
          # inherited_olist excludes assert(S,G,rpt)
          # interfaces, but it doesn't matter
          # because we *always* lose anyway, if we didn't hit the above
          # if clause
          return rpt_assert_metric(G,I)
      } else {
          return infinite_assert_metric()
      }
  }


spt_assert_metric(S,I) gives the assert metric we use if we're sending
an assert based on active (S,G) forwarding state:

  assert_metric
  spt_assert_metric(S,I) {
     return {0,mrib.pref(S),mrib.metric(S),my_ip_address(I)}
  }


rpt_assert_metric(G,I) gives the assert metric we use if we're sending
an assert based only on (*,G) forwarding state:

  assert_metric
  rpt_assert_metric(G,I) {
      return {1,mrib.pref(RP(G)),mrib.metric(RP(G)),my_ip_address(I)}
  }


mrib.pref(X) and mrib.metric(X) are the routing preference and routing
metrics associated with the route to a particular (unicast) destination
X, as determined by the MRIB.  my_ip_address(I) is simply the router's
IP address that is associated with the local interface I.

infinite_assert_metric() gives the assert metric we need to send an
assert but don't match either (S,G) or (*,G) forwarding state:

  assert_metric
  infinite_assert_metric() {
       return {1,infinity,infinity,infinity}
  }





Fenner/Handley/Holbrook/Kouvelas                               [Page 56]

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4.5.4.  AssertCancel Messages

An AssertCancel message is simply an RPT Assert message but with
infinite metric.  It is sent by the assert winner when it deletes the
forwarding state that had caused the assert to occur.  Other routers
will see this metric, and it will cause any other router that has
forwarding state to itself assert, and to take over forwarding.

An AssertCancel(S,G) is an infinite metric assert with the RPT bit set
that names S as the source.

An AssertCancel(*,G) is an infinite metric assert with the RPT bit set,
and typically will name RP(G) as the source as it cannot name an
appropriate S.

4.5.5.  Assert State Macros

The macros assert(S,G,rpt,I), assert(S,G,I), and assert(*,G,I) are used
in the olist computations of Section 4.1, and are defined as:

  bool assert(S,G,rpt,I) {
    if ( RPF_interface(RP) == I ) {
       return FALSE
    } else {
       return ( AssertWinner(S,G,I) != me )
    }
  }


  bool assert(S,G,I) {
    if ( RPF_interface(S) == I ) {
       return FALSE
    } else {
       return ( AssertWinner(S,G,I) != me  AND
                (AssertWinnerMetric(S,G,I) is worse
                   than spt_assert_metric(S,G,I) )
    }
  }


  bool assert(*,G,I) {
    if ( RPF_interface(RP) == I ) {
       return FALSE
    } else {
       return ( AssertWinner(*,G,I) != me )
    }
  }




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AssertWinner(S,G,I) defaults to Null and AssertWinnerMetric(S,G,I)
defaults to Infinity when in the NoInfo state.

Rationale for Assert Rules

The following is a summary of the rules for sending and reacting to
asserts.  It is not intended to be definitive (the state machines and
pseudocode provide the definitive behavior).  Instead it provides some
rationale for the behavior.

1.   Downstream neighbors send Join(*,G) and Join(S,G) periodic messages
     to the appropriate RPF' neighbor, i.e., the RPF neighbor as
     modified by the assert process.  Normal suppression and override
     rules apply.

     This guarantees that all requested traffic will continue to arrive.
     This doesn't allow switch back to the "normal" RPF neighbor until
     the assert times out, which it won't while data is flowing if we
     are implementing rule 8.

2.   The assert winner for (*,G) acts as the local DR for (*,G) on
     behalf of IGMP members, (and handles (S,G) excludes also)

     This is required to allow a single router to merge PIM and IGMP
     joins and leaves.  Without this, overrides don't work.

3.   The assert winner for (S,G) must act as the local DR for (S,G) on
     behalf of IGMPv3 members.

     Same rationale as (2)

4.   (S,G) and (*,G) prune overrides are sent to the RPF' neighbor and
     not to the regular RPF neighbor.

     Same rationale as (1).

5.   An (S,G,rpt) prune override is not sent (at all) if RPF'(S,G,rpt)
     != RPF'(*,G).

     This avoids keeping state alive on (S,G) tree when only (*,G)
     downstream members are left.  Also, it avoids sending (S,G,rpt)
     joins to a router that is not on the (*,G) tree.  This might be
     confusing and could be interpreted as being undefined although
     technically the current spec says to drop such a join.

6.   An assert loser that receives a Join(S,G) directed to it cancels
     the (S,G) assert timer.




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7.   An assert loser that receives a Join(*,G) directed to it cancels
     the (*,G) assert timer and all (S,G) assert timers that do not have
     corresponding Prune(S,G,rpt) messagess in the compound Join/Prune
     message.

     Rules 7 and 8 help convergence during topology changes.

8.   An assert winner for (*,G), (S,G) must send a canceling assert when
     it is about to stop forwarding a (*,G) or an (S,G).  This rule does
     not apply to (S,G,rpt).

     This allow switching back to the shared tree after the last spt
     router on the lan leaves.  We don't want RPT downstream routers to
     keep SPT state alive.

9.   [Optionally] re-assert before timing out.

     This prevents periodic duplicates.

10.  When RPF'(S,G,rpt) changes to be the same as RPF'(*,G) we need to
     trigger a Join(S,G,rpt) to RPF(*,G).

     This allows switching back to the RPT after the last SPT member
     leaves.



























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4.6.  Designated Routers (DR) and Hello Messages


4.6.1.  Sending Hello Messages

PIM-Hello messages are sent periodically on each PIM-enabled interface.
They allow a router to learn about the neighboring PIM routers on each
interface.  Hello messages are also the mechanism used to elect a
Designated Router (DR).  A router must record the Hello information
received from each PIM neighbor.

Hello messages are sent periodically on each PIM-enabled interface.
Hello messages are multicast to address 224.0.0.13 (the ALL-PIM-ROUTERS
group).  Hello messages must be sent on all active interfaces, including
physical point-to-point links.  A hello message should be sent
immediately whenever PIM is enabled on an interface, including when a
router first starts.  When a router first starts, the hello timer is set
to a random value between 1 and Hello_Period to prevent synchronization
of Hello messages if multiple routers are powered on simultaneously.
After the initial randomized interval, Hello messages must be sent every
Hello_Period seconds.  A single hello timer is used to trigger sending
Hello messages on all active interfaces.  The hello timer should not be
reset except when it expires.

The DR Election Priority Option allows a network administrator to give
preference to a particular router in the DR election process by giving
it a numerically larger DR Election Priority.  The DR Election Priority
Option SHOULD be included in every Hello message, even if no DR election
priority is explicitly configured on that interface.  This is necessary
because priority-based DR election is only enabled when all neighbors on
an interface advertise that they are capable of using the DR Election
Priority Option.  The default priority is 1.

The Generation Identifier (GenID) Option SHOULD be included in all Hello
messages.  The generation ID option contains a randomly generated 32-bit
value that is regenerated each time PIM forwarding is started or
restarted on the interface, including when the router itself restarts.
When a Hello message with a new GenID is received from a neighbor, any
old Hello information about that neighbor SHOULD be discarded and
superseded by the information from the new Hello message.  This may
cause a new DR to be chosen on that interface.

4.6.2.  DR Election

When a PIM-Hello message is received on interface I the following
information about the sending neighbor is recorded:





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     neighbor.interface
          The interface on which the Hello message arrived.

     neighbor.ip_address
          The IP address of the PIM neighbor.

     neighbor.genid
          The Generation ID of the PIM neighbor.

     neighbor.dr_priority
          The DR Priority field of the PIM neighbor if it is present in
          the Hello message.

     neighbor.dr_priority_present
          A flag indicating if the DR Priority field was present in the
          Hello message.

     neighbor.timeout
          A timer to time out the neighbor state when it becomes stale.
          This is reset to Hello Holdtime whenever a Hello message is
          received, or to the value specified in the message, if the
          hold time option is used.

Neighbor state is deleted when the neighbor timeout expires.

The function for computing the DR on interface I is:

  host
  DR(I) {
      dr = me
      for each neighbor on interface I {
          if ( dr_is_better( neighbor, dr, I ) == TRUE ) {
              dr = neighbor
          }
      }
      return dr
  }


The function used for comparing DR "metrics" on interface I is:











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  bool
  dr_is_better(a,b,I) {
      if( there is a neighbor on I that does not support
          dr priority election ) {
          return a.ip_address > b.ip_address
      } else {
          return ( a.dr_priority > b.dr_priority ) OR
              ( a.dr_priority == b.dr_priority AND
                   a.ip_address > b.ip_address )
      }
  }


The DR election priority is a 32-bit unsigned number and the numerically
larger priority is always preferred.  A router's idea of the current DR
on an interface can change when a PIM-Hello message is received, when a
neighbor times out, or when a router's own dr priority changes.  If the
router becomes the DR or ceases to be the DR, this will normally cause
the DR Register state-machine to change state.  Subsequent actions are
determined by that state-machine.


4.7.  PIM Bootstrap and RP Discovery

To obtain the RP information, all routers within a PIM domain collect
Bootstrap messages. Bootstrap messages are sent hop-by-hop within the
domain; the domain's bootstrap router (BSR) is responsible for
originating the Bootstrap messages. Bootstrap messages are used to carry
out a dynamic BSR election when needed and to distribute RP information
in steady state.

A domain in this context is a contiguous set of routers that all
implement PIM and are configured to operate within a common boundary
defined by PIM Multicast Border Routers (PMBRs). PMBRs connect each PIM
domain to the rest of the internet.

Routers use a set of available RPs (called the RP-Set) distributed in
Bootstrap messages to get the proper Group to RP mapping. The following
paragraphs give an overview of this process. The mechanism is specified
in Sections 4.7.2 and 4.7.4.

4.7.1.  Overview of RP Discovery

A small set of routers from a domain are configured as candidate
bootstrap routers (C-BSRs) and, through a simple election mechanism, a
single BSR is selected for that domain. A set of routers within a domain
are also configured as candidate RPs (C-RPs); typically these will be
the same routers that are configured as C-BSRs.  Candidate RPs



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periodically unicast Candidate-RP-Advertisement messages (C-RP-Advs) to
the BSR of that domain, advertising their willingness to be an RP. A C-
RP-Adv message includes the address of the advertising C-RP, as well as
an optional list of group addresses and a mask length fields, indicating
the group prefix(es) for which the candidacy is advertised. The BSR then
includes a set of these Candidate-RPs (the RP-Set), along with the
corresponding group prefixes, in Bootstrap messages it periodically
originates.  Bootstrap messages are distributed hop-by-hop throughout
the domain.

All the PIM routers in the domain receive and store Bootstrap messages
originated by the BSR.  When a DR gets a indication of local membership
from IGMP or a data packet from a directly connected host, for a group
for which it has no forwarding state, the DR uses a hash function to map
the group address to one of the C-RPs whose group-prefix includes the
group (see Section 4.7.5 ).  The DR then sends a Join message towards
that RP if the local host joined the group, or it Register-encapsulates
and unicasts the data packet to the RP if the local host sent a packet
to the group.

A Bootstrap message indicates liveness of the RPs included therein.  If
an RP is included in the message, then it is tagged as `up' at the
routers; while RPs not included in the message are removed from the list
of RPs over which the hash algorithm acts. Each router continues to use
the contents of the most recently received Bootstrap message from the
BSR until it receives a new Bootstrap message.

If a PIM domain becomes partitioned, each area separated from the old
BSR will elect its own BSR, which will distribute an RP-Set containing
RPs that are reachable within that partition. When the partition heals,
another election will occur automatically and only one of the BSRs will
continue to send out Bootstrap messages. As is expected at the time of a
partition or healing, some disruption in packet delivery may occur. This
time will be on the order of the region's round-trip time and the
bootstrap router timeout value.

4.7.2.  Bootstrap Router Election and RP-Set Distribution

For simplicity, bootstrap messages (BSMs) are used in both the BSR
election and the RP-Set distribution mechanisms.

The state-machine for bootstrap messages depends on whether or not a
router has been configured to be a Candidate-BSR.  The state-machine for
a C-BSR is given below, followed by the state-machine for a router that
is not configured to be a C-BSR.






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Candidate-BSR State Machine


                 +-----------------------------------+
                 | Figures omitted from text version |
                 +-----------------------------------+


              Figure 10: State-machine for a candidate BSR



In tabular form this state machine is:

+-----------++---------------------------+------------------------------+
|Prev State ||Receive                    | BS Timer                     |
|           ||Preferred BSM              | Expires                      |
+-----------++---------------------------+------------------------------+
|Candidate  ||-> C-BSR state             | -> P-BSR state               |
|BSR        ||Forward BSM                | Set BS Timer to rand_override|
|(C-BSR)    ||Set BS Timer to BS Timeout |                              |
+-----------++---------------------------+------------------------------+
|Pending    ||-> C-BSR state             | -> E-BSR state               |
|BSR        ||Forward BSM                | Originate BSM                |
|(P-BSR)    ||Set BS Timer to BS Timeout | Set BS Timer to BS Period    |
+-----------++---------------------------+------------------------------+
|Elected    ||-> C-BSR state             | -> E-BSR state               |
|BSR        ||Forward BSM                | Originate BSM                |
|(E-BSR)    ||Set BS Timer to BS Timeout | Set BS Timer to BS Period    |
+-----------++---------------------------+------------------------------+


A candidate-BSR may be in one of three states:

Candidate-BSR (C-BSR)
     The router is a candidate to be a BSR, but currently another router
     is the preferred BSR.

Pending-BSR (P-BSR)
     The router is a candidate to be a BSR.  Currently no other router
     is the preferred BSR, but this router is not yet the BSR.  For
     comparisons with incoming BS messages, the router treats itself as
     the BSR.  This is a temporary state that prevents rapid thrashing
     of the choice of BSR during BSR election.

Elected-BSR (E-BSR)
     The router is the elected bootstrap router and it must perform all
     the BSR functions.



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On startup, the initial state is "Pending-BSR", and the BS Timer is
initialized to the BS Timeout value.

In addition, there is a single timer - the bootstrap timer (BS Timer) -
that is used to time out old bootstrap router information, and used in
the election process to terminate P-BSR state.

State-machine for Non-Candidate-BSR Routers


                 +-----------------------------------+
                 | Figures omitted from text version |
                 +-----------------------------------+


     Figure 11: State-machine for a router not configured as C-BSR


In tabular form this state machine is:

+-----------------+---------------------------+--------------------------+------------+
|Prev State       |Receive                    |Receive                   |BS Timer    |
|                 |Preferred BSM              |BSM                       |Expires     |
+-----------------+---------------------------+--------------------------+------------+
|Accept Any       |-> AP State                |-> AP State               |-           |
|(AA)             |Forward BSM                |Forward BSM               |            |
|                 |Store RP-Set               |Store RP-Set              |            |
|                 |Set BS Timer to BS Timeout |Set BS Timer to BS Timeout|            |
+-----------------+---------------------------+--------------------------+------------+
|Accept Preferred |-> AP State                |-                         |-> AA State |
|(AP)             |Forward BSM                |                          |            |
|                 |Store RP-Set               |                          |            |
|                 |Set BS Timer to BS Timeout |                          |            |
+-----------------+---------------------------+--------------------------+------------+


A router that is not a candidate-BSR may be in one of two states:

Accept Any (AA)
     The router does not know of an active BSR, and will accept the
     first bootstrap message it sees as giving the new BSR's identity
     and the RP-Set.  If the router has an RP-Set cached from an
     obsolete bootstrap message, it continues to use it.

Accept Preferred (AP)
     The router knows the identity of the current BSR, and is using the
     RP-Set provided by that BSR.  Only bootstrap messages from that BSR
     or from a C-BSR with higher weight than the current BSR will be



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     accepted.

On startup, the initial state is "Accept Any".

In addition, there is a single timer - the bootstrap timer (BS Timer)
that is used to time out old bootstrap router information.

Bootstrap Message Processing Checks

When a bootstrap message is received, the following initial checks must
be performed:

if (BSM.dst_ip_address == ALL-PIM-ROUTERS group) {
  if ( BSM.src_ip_address != RPF_neighbor(BSM.BSR_ip_address) ) {
     drop the BS message silently
  }
} else if (BSM.dst_ip_address is one of my addresses) {
  if ( (BSR state != Accept Any)
       OR (DirectlyConnected(BSM.src_ip_address) == FALSE) ) {
     #the packet was unicast, but this wasn't
     #a quick refresh on startup
     drop the BS message silently
  }
} else {
  drop the BS message silently
}

Basically, the packet must have been sent to the ALL-PIM-ROUTERS group
by the correct upstream router towards the BSR that originated the BS
message, or the router must have no BSR state (it just restarted) and
have received the BS message by unicast from a directly connected
neighbor.


BS State-machine Transition Events

If the bootstrap message passes the initial checks above without being
discarded, then it may cause a state transition event in one of the
above state-machines.  For both candidate and non-candidate BSRs, the
following transition events are defined:

     Receive Preferred BSM
          A bootstrap message is received from a BSR that has greater
          than or equal weight than the current BSR.  In a router is in
          P-BSR state, then it uses its own weight as that of the
          current BSR.

          The weighting for a BSR is the concatenation in fixed-



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          precision unsigned arithmetic of the BSR priority field from
          the bootstrap message and the IP address of the BSR from the
          bootstrap message (with the BSR priority taking the most-
          significant bits and the IP address taking the least
          significant bits).

     Receive BSM
          A bootstrap message is received, regardless of BSR weight.

BS State-machine Actions

The state-machines specify actions that include setting the BS timer to
the following values:

     BS Period
          The periodic interval with which bootstrap messages are
          normally sent.  The default value is 60 seconds.

     BS Timeout
          The interval after which bootstrap router state is timed out
          if no bootstrap message from that router has been heard.  The
          default value is 2.5 times the BS Period, which is 150
          seconds.

     Randomized Override Interval
          The randomized interval during which a router avoids sending a
          bootstrap message while it waits to see if another router has
          a higher bootstrap weight.  This interval is to reduce control
          message overhead during BSR election.  The following
          pseudocode is proposed as an efficient implementation of this
          "randomized" value:

          Delay = 5 + 2 * log_2(1 + bestPriority - myPriority)
                  + AddrDelay


          where myPriority is the Candidate-BSR's configured priority,
          and bestPriority equals:

          bestPriority = Max(storedPriority, myPriority)

          and AddrDelay is given by the following:









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          if ( bestPriority == myPriority) {
              AddrDelay = log_2(bestAddr - myAddr) / 16
          } else {
              AddrDelay = 2 - (myAddr / 2^31)
          }


          where myAddr is the Candidate-BSR's address, and bestAddr is
          the stored BSR's address.

In addition to setting the timer, the following actions may be triggered
by state-changes in the state-machines:

     Forward BSM
          The bootstrap message is forwarded out of all multicast-
          capable interfaces except the interface it was received on.
          The source IP address of the message is the forwarding
          router's IP address on the interface the message is being
          forwarded from, the destination address is ALL-PIM-ROUTERS,
          and the TTL of the message is set to 1.

     Originate BSM
          A new bootstrap message is constructed by the BSR, giving the
          BSR's address and BSR priority, and containing the BSR's
          chosen RP-Set.  The message is forwarded out of all multicast-
          capable interfaces.  The IP source address of the message is
          the forwarding router's IP address on the interface the
          message is being forwarded from, the destination address is
          ALL-PIM-ROUTERS, and the TTL of the message is set to 1.

     Store RP Set
          The RP-Set from the received bootstrap message is stored and
          used by the router to decide the RP for each group that the
          router has state for.  Storing this RP Set may cause other
          state-transitions to occur in the router.  The BSR's IP
          address and priority from the received bootstrap message are
          also stored to be used to decide if future bootstrap messages
          are preferred.

In addition to the above state-machine actions, a DR also unicasts a
stored copy of the Bootstrap message to each new PIM neighbor, i.e.,
after the DR receives the neighbor's first Hello message.  It does so
even if the new neighbor becomes the DR.

4.7.3.  Sending Candidate-RP-Advertisements

Every C-RP periodically unicasts a C-RP-Adv to the BSR for that domain
to inform the BSR of the C-RP's willingness to function as an RP.  The



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interval for sending these messages is subject to local configuration at
the C-RP, but must be smaller than the HoldTime in the C-RP-Adv.

A Candidate-RP-Advertisement carries a list of group address and group
mask field pairs.  This enables the C-RP router to limit the
advertisement to certain prefixes or scopes of groups.  If the C-RP
becomes an RP, it may enforce this scope acceptance when receiving
Registers or Join/Prune messages.  C-RPs should normally send C-RP-Adv
messages with the `Priority' field set to `0'.

4.7.4.  Receiving Candidate-RP-Advertisements at the BSR and Creating
the RP-Set

Upon receiving a C-RP-Adv, if the router is not the elected BSR, it
silently ignores the message.

If the router is the BSR, then it adds the RP address to its local pool
of candidate RPs.  For each C-RP, the BSR holds the following
information:

     IP address
          The IP address of the C-RP.

     Group Prefix and Mask list
          The list of group prefixes and group masks from the C-RP
          advertisement.

     HoldTime
          The HoldTime from the C-RP-Adv message.  This is included
          later in the RP-set information in the Bootstrap Message.

     C-RP Expiry Timer
          The C-RP-Expiry Timer is used to time out the C-RP when the
          BSR fails to receive C-RP-Advertisements from it.  The expiry
          timer is initialized to the HoldTime from the RP's C-RP-Adv,
          and is reset to the HoldTime whenever a C-RP-Adv is received
          from that C-RP.

     C-RP Priority
          Do we store this?

When the C-RP Expiry Timer expires, the C-RP is removed from the pool of
available C-RPs.

The BSR uses the pool of C-RPs to construct the RP-Set which is included
in Bootstrap Messages and sent to all the routers in the PIM domain.
The BSR may apply a local policy to limit the number of Candidate RPs
included in the Bootstrap message.  The BSR may override the prefix



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indicated in a C-RP-Adv unless the `Priority' field from the C-RP-Adv is
not zero.

The Bootstrap message is subdivided into sets of group-prefix,RP-
Count,RP-addresses.  For each RP-address, the corresponding HoldTime is
included in the "RP-HoldTime" field.  The format of the Bootstrap
message allows `semantic fragmentation', if the length of the original
Bootstrap message exceeds the packet maximum boundaries. However, we
recommend against configuring a large number of routers as C-RPs, to
reduce the semantic fragmentation required.

4.7.5.  Receiving and Using the RP-Set

When a router receives and stores a new RP-Set, it checks if each of the
RPs referred to by existing state (i.e., by (*,G), (*,*,RP), or
(S,G,rpt) entries) is in the new RP-Set.

If an RP is not in the new RP-set, that RP is considered unreachable and
the hash algorithm (see below) is re-performed for each group with
locally active state that previously hashed to that RP. This will cause
those groups to be distributed among the remaining RPs.

If the new RP-Set contains a RP that was not previously in the RP-Set,
the hash value of the new RP is calculated for each group covered by the
new C-RP's Group-prefix.  Any group for which the new RP's hash value is
greater than hash value of the group's previous RP is switched over to
the new RP.

Hash Function

The hash function is used by all routers within a domain, to map a group
to one of the C-RPs from the RP-Set. For a particular group, G, the hash
function uses only those C-RPs whose Group-prefix covers G.  The
algorithm takes as input the group address, and the addresses of the
Candidate RPs, and gives as output one RP address to be used.

The protocol requires that all routers hash to the same RP within a
domain (except for transients). The following hash function must be used
in each router:

1    For RP addresses in the RP-Set, whose Group-prefix is the longest
     that covers G, select the RPs with the highest priority (i.e.
     lowest `Priority' value), and compute a value:

     Value(G,M,C(i))=
      (1103515245 * ((1103515245 * (G&M)+12345) XOR C(i)) + 12345) mod 2^31





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     where C(i) is the RP address and M is a hash-mask included in
     Bootstrap messages.  The hash-mask allows a small number of
     consecutive groups (e.g., 4) to always hash to the same RP. For
     instance, hierarchically-encoded data can be sent on consecutive
     group addresses to get the same delay and fate-sharing
     characteristics.

     For address families other than IPv4, a 32-bit digest to be used as
     C(i) must first be derived from the actual RP address. Such a
     digest method must be used consistently throughout the PIM domain.
     For IPv6 addresses, we recommend using the equivalent IPv4 address
     for an IPv4-compatible address, and the CRC-32 checksum [7] of all
     other IPv6 addresses.

2    From the RPs with the highest priority (i.e.  lowest `Priority'
     value), the candidate with the highest resulting hash value is then
     chosen as the RP for that group, and its identity and hash value
     are stored with the entry created.

     Ties between RPs having the same hash value and priority, are
     broken in advantage of the highest address.

The hash function algorithm is invoked by a DR, upon reception of a
packet, or IGMP membership indication, for a group, for which the DR has
no entry. It is invoked by any router that has (*,*,RP) state when a
packet is received for which there is no corresponding (S,G) or (*,G)
entry.  Furthermore, the hash function is invoked by all routers upon
receiving a (*,G) or (*,*,RP) Join/Prune message.

4.8.  PIM Packet Formats

This section describes the details of the packet formats for PIM control
messages.

All PIM control messages have protocol number 103.

Basically, PIM messages are either unicast (e.g.  Registers and
Register-Stop), or multicast with TTL 1 to `ALL-PIM-ROUTERS' group
`224.0.0.13' (e.g. Join/Prune, Asserts, etc.).

 0                   1                   2                   3
 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
|PIM Ver| Type  | Reserved      |           Checksum            |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+






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PIM Ver
     PIM Version number is 2.

Type Types for specific PIM messages.  PIM Types are:

               0 = Hello
               1 = Register
               2 = Register-Stop
               3 = Join/Prune
               4 = Bootstrap
               5 = Assert
               6 = Graft (used in PIM-DM only)
               7 = Graft-Ack (used in PIM-DM only)
               8 = Candidate-RP-Advertisement


Reserved
     set to zero. Ignored upon receipt.


Checksum
     The checksum is standard IP checksum, i.e.  the 16-bit one's
     complement of the one's complement sum of the entire PIM message,
     excluding the data portion in the Register message.  For computing
     the checksum, the checksum field is zeroed.


4.8.1.  Encoded Source and Group Address Formats


Encoded-Unicast-address

Encoded-Unicast-address takes the following format:

 0                   1                   2                   3
 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| Addr Family   | Encoding Type |     Unicast Address
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+...


Addr Family
     The PIM address family of the `Unicast Address' field  of this
     address.

     Values of 0-127 are as assigned by the IANA for Internet Address
     Families in [4]. Values 128-250 are reserved to be assigned by the
     IANA for PIM-specific Address Families.  Values 251 thorugh 255 are



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     designated for private use.  As there is no assignment authority
     for this space, collisions should be expected.

Encoding Type
     The type of encoding used within a specific Address Family.  The
     value `0' is reserved for this field, and represents the native
     encoding of the Address Family.


Unicast Address
     The unicast address as represented by the given Address Family and
     Encoding Type.


Encoded-Group-Address

Encoded-Group-Address takes the following format:

 0                   1                   2                   3
 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| Addr Family   | Encoding Type |   Reserved    |  Mask Len     |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
|                Group multicast Address
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+...


Addr Family
     described above.


Encoding Type
     described above.


Reserved
     Transmitted as zero. Ignored upon receipt.


Mask Len
     The Mask length is 8 bits. The value is the number of contiguous
     bits left justified used as a mask which describes the address. It
     is less than or equal to the address length in bits for the given
     Address Family and Encoding Type. If the message is sent for a
     single group then the Mask length must equal the address length in
     bits for the given Address Family and Encoding Type.  (e.g. 32 for
     IPv4 native encoding and 128 for IPv6 native encoding).




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Group multicast Address
     contains the group address.


Encoded-Source-Address

Encoded-Source-Address takes the following format:

 0                   1                   2                   3
 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| Addr Family   | Encoding Type | Rsrvd   |S|W|R|  Mask Len     |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
|                        Source Address
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-...


Addr Family
     described above.


Encoding Type
     described above.


Reserved
     Transmitted as zero, ignored on receipt.


S,W,R
     See Section 4.5 for details.


Mask Length
     Mask length is 8 bits. The value is the number of contiguous bits
     left justified used as a mask which describes the address. The mask
     length must be less than or equal to the address length in bits for
     the given Address Family and Encoding Type. If the message is sent
     for a single group then the Mask length must equal the address
     length in bits for the given Address Family and Encoding Type. In
     version 2 of PIM, it is strongly recommended that this field be set
     to 32 for IPv4 native encoding.


Source Address
     The source address.





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4.8.2.  Hello Message Format

It is sent periodically by routers on all interfaces.

 0                   1                   2                   3
 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
|PIM Ver| Type  | Reserved      |           Checksum            |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
|       OptionType              |         OptionLength          |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
|                          OptionValue                          |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+++
|                               .                               |
|                               .                               |
|                               .                               |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
|       OptionType              |         OptionLength          |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
|                          OptionValue                          |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+


PIM Version, Type, Reserved, Checksum
     Described above.


OptionType
     The type of the option given in the following  OptionValue field.


OptionLength
     The length of the OptionValue field in bytes.


OptionValue
     A variable length field, carrying the value of the option.

     The Option fields may contain the following values:

     o OptionType = 1; OptionLength = 2; OptionValue = Holdtime; where
       Holdtime is the amount of time a receiver must keep the neighbor
       reachable, in seconds. If the Holdtime is set to `0xffff', the
       receiver of this message never times out the neighbor. This may
       be used with ISDN lines, to avoid keeping the link up with
       periodic Hello messages.  Furthermore, if the Holdtime is set to
       `0', the information is timed out immediately.




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     o OptionType 2 to 16: reserved to be defined in future versions of
       this document.

     o OptionType 17 and 18: deprecated and should not be used.

     o OptionType = 19; OptionLength = 4; OptionValue = DR Priority;
       where DR Priority is a 32-bit unsigned number and should be
       considered in the DR election as described in section 4.6.2.

     o OptionType = 20; OptionLength = 4; OptionValue = Generation ID;
       where Generation ID is a random 32-bit value for the interface on
       which the Hello message is sent.  The Generation ID is
       regenerated whenever PIM forwarding is started or restarted on
       the interface.

     o OptionType = 21; OptionLength = 4; OptionValue = 1; This is the
       State Refresh capable option for dense mode.

     OptionTypes 22 thru 65000 are to be assigned by the IANA.
     OptionTypes 65001 through 65535 are reserved for Private Use, as
     defined in [5].
     In general, options may be ignored; but a router must not ignore
     the "Holdtime" OptionType.


4.8.3.  Register Message Format

A Register message is sent by the DR or a PMBR to the RP when a
multicast packet needs to be transmitted on the RP-tree. Source address
is set to the address of the DR, destination address is to the RP's
address.

 0                   1                   2                   3
 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
|PIM Ver| Type  | Reserved      |           Checksum            |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
|B|N|                       Reserved                            |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
|                                                               |
                      Multicast data packet
|                                                               |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+


PIM Version, Type, Reserved, Checksum
     Described above. Note that the checksum for Registers is done only
     on first 8 bytes of packet, including the PIM header and the next 4



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     bytes, excluding the data packet portion. For interoperability
     reasons, a message carrying checksum done over the entire PIM
     register message should be accepted.


B    The Border bit. If the router is a DR for a source that it is
     directly connected to, it sets the B bit to 0. If the router is a
     PMBR for a source in a directly connected cloud, it sets the B bit
     to 1.


N    The Null-Register bit. Set to 1 by a DR that is probing the RP
     before expiring its local Register-Suppression timer. Set to 0
     otherwise.


Multicast data packet
     The original packet sent by the source.

     For (S,G) null Registers, the Multicast data packet portion
     contains only a dummy header with S as the source address, G as the
     destination address, and a data length of zero.


4.8.4.  Register-Stop Message Format

A Register-Stop is unicast from the RP to the sender of the Register
message.  Source address is the address to which the register was
addressed.  Destination address is the source address of the register
message.

 0                   1                   2                   3
 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
|PIM Ver| Type  | Reserved      |           Checksum            |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
|                    Encoded-Group Address                      |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
|                    Encoded-Unicast-Source Address             |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+


PIM Version, Type, Reserved, Checksum
     Described above.


Encoded-Group Address
     Format described above. Note that for Register-Stops the Mask Len



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     field contains full address length * 8 (e.g. 32 for IPv4 native
     encoding), if the message is sent for a single group.


Encoded-Unicast-Source Address
     host address of source from multicast data packet in register. The
     format for this address is given in the Encoded-Unicast-Address in
     4.1. A special wild card value (0's), can be used to indicate any
     source.


4.8.5.  Join/Prune Message Format

A Join/Prune message is sent by routers towards upstream sources and
RPs.  Joins are sent to build shared trees (RP trees) or source trees
(SPT). Prunes are sent to prune source trees when members leave groups
as well as sources that do not use the shared tree.


































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 0                   1                   2                   3
 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
|PIM Ver| Type  | Reserved      |           Checksum            |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
|             Encoded-Unicast-Upstream Neighbor Address         |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
|  Reserved     | Num groups    |          Holdtime             |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
|            Encoded-Multicast Group Address-1                  |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
|   Number of Joined  Sources   |   Number of Pruned Sources    |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
|               Encoded-Joined Source Address-1                 |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
|                             .                                 |
|                             .                                 |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
|               Encoded-Joined Source Address-n                 |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
|               Encoded-Pruned Source Address-1                 |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
|                             .                                 |
|                             .                                 |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
|               Encoded-Pruned Source Address-n                 |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
|                           .                                   |
|                           .                                   |
|                           .                                   |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
|                Encoded-Multicast Group Address-n              |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
|   Number of Joined  Sources   |   Number of Pruned Sources    |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
|               Encoded-Joined Source Address-1                 |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
|                             .                                 |
|                             .                                 |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
|               Encoded-Joined Source Address-n                 |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
|               Encoded-Pruned Source Address-1                 |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
|                             .                                 |
|                             .                                 |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
|               Encoded-Pruned Source Address-n                 |



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+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+


PIM Version, Type, Reserved, Checksum
     Described above.


Encoded-Unicast Upstream Neighbor Address
     The address of the RPF or upstream neighbor.  The format for this
     address is given in the Encoded-Unicast-Address in 4.1. .IP
     "Reserved" Transmitted as zero, ignored on receipt.


Holdtime
     The amount of time a receiver must keep the Join/Prune state alive,
     in seconds.  If the Holdtime is set to `0xffff', the receiver of
     this message never times out the oif. This may be used with ISDN
     lines, to avoid keeping the link up with periodical Join/Prune
     messages.  Furthermore, if the Holdtime is set to `0', the
     information is timed out immediately.


Number of Groups
     The number of multicast group sets contained in the message.


Encoded-Multicast group address
     For format description see Section 4.1. A wild card group in the
     (*,*,RP) join is represented by a 224.0.0.0 in the group address
     field and `4' in the mask length field. A (*,*,RP) join also has
     the WC-bit and the RPT-bit set.


Number of Joined Sources
     Number of join source addresses listed for a given group.


Join Source Address-1 .. n
     This list contains the sources that the sending router will forward
     multicast datagrams for if received on the interface this message
     is sent on.

     See format section 4.1. The fields explanation for the Encoded-
     Source-Address format follows:

     Reserved
          Described above.




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     S    The Sparse bit is a 1 bit value, set to 1 for PIM-SM.  It is
          used for PIM v.1 compatibility.


     W    The WC bit is a 1 bit value. If 1, the join or  prune applies
          to the (*,G) or (*,*,RP) entry. If 0, the join or prune
          applies to the (S,G) entry where S is Source Address.  Joins
          and prunes sent towards the RP must have this bit set.


     R    The RPT-bit is a 1 bit value. If 1, the information about
          (S,G) is sent towards the RP.  If 0, the information must be
          sent toward S, where S is the Source Address.


     Mask Length, Source Address
           Described above.

     Represented in the form of <  WC-bit  ><  RPT-bit  ><Mask length ><
     Source address>:

     A source address could be a host IPv4 native encoding address :

      < 0 >< 0 >< 32 >< 192.1.1.17 >

     A source address could be the RP's IP address :

      < 1 >< 1 >< 32 >< 131.108.13.111 >

     A source address could be a subnet address to prune from the RP-
     tree :

      < 0 >< 1 >< 28 >< 192.1.1.16 >

     A source address could be a general aggregate :

      < 0 >< 0 >< 16 >< 192.1.0.0 >

Number of Pruned Sources
     Number of prune source addresses listed for a group.


Prune Source Address-1 .. n
     This list contains the sources that the sending router does not
     want to forward multicast datagrams for when received on the
     interface this message is sent on.  If the Join/Prune message
     boundary exceeds the maximum packet size, then the join and prune
     lists for the same group must be included in the same packet.



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4.8.6.  Bootstrap Message Format

The Bootstrap messages are multicast to `ALL-PIM-ROUTERS' group, out all
interfaces having PIM neighbors (excluding the one over which the
message was received).  Bootstrap messages are sent with TTL value of 1.
Bootstrap messages originate at the BSR, and are forwarded by
intermediate routers.

Bootstrap message is divided up into `semantic fragments', if the
original message exceeds the maximum packet size boundaries.

The semantics of a single `fragment' is given below:







































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 0                   1                   2                   3
 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
|PIM Ver| Type  | Reserved      |           Checksum            |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
|         Fragment Tag          | Hash Mask len | BSR-priority  |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
|                 Encoded-Unicast-BSR-Address                   |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
|                         Encoded-Group Address-1               |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| RP-Count-1    | Frag RP-Cnt-1 |         Reserved              |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
|                 Encoded-Unicast-RP-Address-1                  |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
|          RP1-Holdtime         | RP1-Priority  |   Reserved    |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
|                 Encoded-Unicast-RP-Address-2                  |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
|          RP2-Holdtime         | RP2-Priority  |   Reserved    |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
|                               .                               |
|                               .                               |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
|                 Encoded-Unicast-RP-Address-m                  |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
|          RPm-Holdtime         | RPm-Priority  |   Reserved    |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
|                         Encoded-Group Address-2               |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
|                               .                               |
|                               .                               |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
|                         Encoded-Group Address-n               |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| RP-Count-n    | Frag RP-Cnt-n |          Reserved             |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
|                 Encoded-Unicast-RP-Address-1                  |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
|          RP1-Holdtime         | RP1-Priority  |   Reserved    |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
|                 Encoded-Unicast-RP-Address-2                  |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
|          RP2-Holdtime         | RP2-Priority  |   Reserved    |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
|                               .                               |
|                               .                               |
|                               .                               |



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+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
|                 Encoded-Unicast-RP-Address-m                  |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
|          RPm-Holdtime         | RPm-Priority  |   Reserved    |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+


PIM Version, Type, Reserved, Checksum
     Described above.


Fragment Tag
     A randomly generated number, acts to distinguish the fragments
     belonging to different Bootstrap messages; fragments belonging to
     same Bootstrap message carry the same `Fragment Tag'.


Hash Mask len
     The length (in bits) of the mask to use in the hash function. For
     IPv4 we recommend a value of 30. For IPv6 we recommend a value of
     126.


BSR-priority
     Contains the BSR priority value of the included BSR.  This field is
     considered as a high order byte when comparing BSR addresses.


Encoded-Unicast-BSR-Address
     The address of the bootstrap router for the domain.  The format for
     this address is given in the Encoded-Unicast- Address in 4.1. .IP
     "Encoded-Group Address-1..n" The group prefix (address and mask)
     with which the Candidate RPs are associated. Format previously
     described.


RP-Count-1..n
     The number of Candidate RP addresses included in the whole
     Bootstrap message for the corresponding group prefix. A router does
     not replace its old RP-Set for a given group prefix until/unless it
     receives `RP-Count' addresses for that prefix; the addresses could
     be carried over several fragments.  If only part of the RP-Set for
     a given group prefix was received, the router discards it, without
     updating that specific group prefix's RP-Set.


Frag RP-Cnt-1..m
     The number of Candidate RP addresses included in this fragment of



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     the Bootstrap message, for the corresponding group prefix. The
     `Frag RP-Cnt' field facilitates parsing of the RP-Set for a given
     group prefix, when carried over more than one fragment.


Encoded-Unicast-RP-address-1..m
     The address of the Candidate RPs, for the corresponding group
     prefix.  The format for this address is given in the Encoded-
     Unicast-Address in 4.1. .IP "RP1..m-Holdtime" The Holdtime for the
     corresponding RP.  This field is copied from the `Holdtime' field
     of the associated RP stored at the BSR.


RP1..m-Priority
     The `Priority' of the corresponding RP and Encoded-Group Address.
     This field is copied from the `Priority' field stored at the BSR
     when receiving a Candidate-RP- Advertisement.  The highest priority
     is `0' (i.e. the lower the value of the `Priority' field, the
     higher).  Note that the priority is per RP per Encoded-Group
     Address.

4.8.7.  Assert Message Format

The Assert message is sent when a multicast data packet is received on
an outgoing interface corresponding to the (S,G) or (*,G) associated
with the source.

 0                   1                   2                   3
 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
|PIM Ver| Type  | Reserved      |           Checksum            |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
|                      Encoded-Group Address                    |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
|              Encoded-Unicast-Source Address                   |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
|R|                        Metric Preference                    |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
|                          Metric                               |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+


PIM Version, Type, Reserved, Checksum
     Described above.


Encoded-Group Address
     The group address to which the data packet was addressed, and which



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     triggered the Assert.  Format previously described.


Encoded-Unicast-Source Address
     Source address from multicast datagram that triggered the Assert
     packet to be sent. The format for this address is given in the
     Encoded-Unicast-Address in 4.1. .IP "R" RPT-bit is a 1 bit value.
     If the multicast datagram that triggered the Assert packet is
     routed down the RP tree, then the RPT-bit is 1; if the multicast
     datagram is routed down the SPT, it is 0.


Metric Preference
     Preference value assigned to the unicast routing protocol that
     provided the route to Host address.


Metric
      The unicast routing table metric. The metric is in units
     applicable to the unicast routing protocol used.


4.8.8.  Candidate-RP-Advertisement Format

Candidate-RP-Advertisements are periodically unicast from the C-RPs to
the BSR.

 0                   1                   2                   3
 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
|PIM Ver| Type  | Reserved      |           Checksum            |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| Prefix-Cnt    |   Priority    |           Holdtime            |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
|                 Encoded-Unicast-RP-Address                    |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
|                         Encoded-Group Address-1               |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
|                               .                               |
|                               .                               |
|                               .                               |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
|                         Encoded-Group Address-n               |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+


PIM Version, Type, Reserved, Checksum
     Described above.



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Prefix-Cnt
     The number of encoded group addresses included in the message;
     indicating the group prefixes for which the C-RP is advertising. A
     Prefix-Cnt of `0' implies a prefix of 224.0.0.0 with mask length of
     4; i.e. all multicast groups.  If the C-RP is not configured with
     Group-prefix information, the C-RP puts a default value of `0' in
     this field.


Priority
     The `Priority' of the included RP, for the corresponding Encoded-
     Group Address (if any).  highest priority is `0' (i.e. the lower
     the value of the `Priority' field, the higher the priority). This
     field is stored at the BSR upon receipt along with the RP address
     and corresponding Encoded-Group Address.


Holdtime
     The amount of time the advertisement is valid. This field allows
     advertisements to be aged out.


Encoded-Unicast-RP-Address
     The address of the interface to advertise as a Candidate RP.  The
     format for this address is given in the Encoded- Unicast-Address in
     4.1. .IP "Encoded-Group Address-1..n" The group prefixes for which
     the C-RP is advertising.  Format previously described.
























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4.9.  PIM Timers

PIM-SM maintains the following timers, as discussed in section 4.1. All
timers are countdown timers - they are set to a value and count down to
zero, at which point they typically trigger an action.  Of course they
can just as easily be implemented as count-up timers, where the absolute
expiry time is stored and compared against a real-time clock, but the
language in this specification assumes that they count downwards to
zero.


Global Timers

     Bootstrap Timer: BST

     Hello Timer: HT

Per interface (I):

     Per neighbor (N):

          Neighbor liveness Timer: NLT(N,I)

     Per Group (G):

          (*,G) Join Expiry Timer: ET(*,G,I)

          (*,G) PrunePending Timer: PPT(*,G,I)

          (*,G) Assert Timer: AT(*,G,I)

          Per Source (S):

               (S,G) Join Expiry Timer: ET(S,G,I)

               (S,G) PrunePending Timer: PPT(S,G,I)

               (S,G) Assert Timer: AT(S,G,I)

               (S,G,rpt) Prune Expiry Timer: ET(S,G,rpt,I)

               (S,G,rpt) PrunePending Timer: PPT(S,G,rpt,I)

Per Group (G):

     (*,G) Upstream Join Timer: JT(*,G)





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Per Source,Group pair (S,G):

     (S,G) Upstream Join Timer: JT(S,G)

     (S,G) Keepalive Timer: KAT(S,G)

     (S,G,rpt) Upstream Override Timer: OT(S,G,rpt)

At the Bootstrap Router only:

     Per Candidate RP (C):

          C-RP Expiry Timer: CET(C)

At the C-RPs only:

     C-RP Advertisement Timer: CRPT

At the DRs or relevant Assert Winners only:

     Per Source,Group pair (S,G):

          Register Stop Timer: RST(S,G)

4.10.  Timer Values

When timers are started or restarted, they are set to default values.
This section summarizes those default values.


Timer Name: BST

+-----------------+-----------------+------------------------------------+
|Value Name       |Default Value    Explanation                          |
+-----------------+-----------------+------------------------------------+
|BS Period        |60 secs          |Period between bootstrap messages   |
+-----------------+-----------------+------------------------------------+
|BS Timeout       |2*BS_Period      |Period after last BS message before |
|                 |+10 seconds      |BSR is timed out and election begins|
+-----------------+-----------------+------------------------------------+
|BS randomized    |rand(0, 5.0 secs)|Suppression period in BSR election  |
|override interval|                 |to prevent thrashing                |
+-----------------+-----------------+------------------------------------+








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Timer Name: HT

+--------------+----------------+---------------------------------------+
| Value Name   | Default Value  | Explanation                           |
+--------------+----------------+---------------------------------------+
| Hello_Period |30 sec          | Periodic interval for hello messages. |
+--------------+----------------+---------------------------------------+



Hello messages are sent on every active interface once every
Hello_Period seconds.  Hello_Period defaults to 30 secs.  At system
power-up, the timer is initialized to rand(1,Hello_Period) to prevent
synchronization.


Timer Name: NLT(N,I)

+------------------+-------------------+--------------------------------+
|  Value Name      |  Default Value    |  Explanation                   |
+------------------+-------------------+--------------------------------+
|  Hello Holdtime  | from message      |  Hold Time from Hello Message  |
+------------------+-------------------+--------------------------------+



The Holdtime in a Hello Message should be set to (3.5 * Hello_Period),
giving a default value of 105 seconds.


Timer Names: ET(*,G,I), ET(S,G,I), ET(S,G,rpt,I)

+---------------+------------------+------------------------------------+
| Value Name    |  Default Value   |  Explanation                       |
+---------------+------------------+------------------------------------+
| J/P HoldTime  |  from message    |  Hold Time from Join/Prune Message |
+---------------+------------------+------------------------------------+



See details of JT(*,G) for the Hold Time that is included in Join/Prune
Messages.









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Timer Name: PPT(*,G,I), PPT(S,G,I), PPT(S,G,rpt,I)

+---------------------+--------------+----------------------------------+
|Value Name           |Default Value |Explanation                       |
+---------------------+--------------+----------------------------------+
|J/P Override Interval|5 secs        |Short period after a join or prune|
|                     |              |to allow other routers on the     |
|                     |              |LAN to override the join or prune |
+---------------------+--------------+----------------------------------+




Timer Names: AT(*,G,I), AT(S,G,I)

+------------------------+--------------+---------------------------------+
|Value Name              |Default Value |Explanation                      |
+------------------------+--------------+---------------------------------+
|Assert Override Interval|5 secs        |Short interval before an assert  |
|                        |              |times out where the assert winner|
|                        |              |resends an assert message        |
+------------------------+--------------+---------------------------------+
|Assert Time             |180 secs      |Period after last assert before  |
|                        |              |assert state is timed out        |
+------------------------+--------------+---------------------------------+



Note that for historical reasons, the Assert message lacks a Holdtime
field.  Thus changing the Assert Time from the default value is not
recommended.




















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Timer Names: JT(*,G), JT(S,G)

+------------+------------------------+------------------------------------+
|Value Name  |Default Value           |Explanation                         |
+------------+------------------------+------------------------------------+
|t_periodic  |60 secs                 |Period between Join/Prune Messages  |
+------------+------------------------+------------------------------------+
|t_suppressed|rand(1.1 * t_suppressed,|Suppression period when someone     |
|            |  1.4*t_suppressed)     |else sends a J/P message so         |
|            |                        |we don't need to do so.             |
+------------+------------------------+------------------------------------+
|t_override  |rand(0, 4.5 secs)       |Randomized delay to prevent response|
|            |                        |implosion when sending a join       |
|            |                        |message to override someone else's  |
|            |                        |prune message.                      |
+------------+------------------------+------------------------------------+



t_periodic may be set to take into account such things as the configured
bandwidth and expected average number of multicast route entries for the
attached network or link (e.g., the period would be longer for lower-
speed links, or for routers in the center of the network that expect to
have a larger number of entries). If the Join/Prune-Period is modified
during operation, these changes should be made relatively infrequently
and the router should continue to refresh at its previous Join/Prune-
Period for at least Join/Prune-Holdtime, in order to allow the upstream
router to adapt.

The holdtime specified in a Join/Prune message should be set to (3.5 *
t_periodic).




















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Timer Names: KAT(S,G)

+--------------------+---------------------+-------------------------------+
|Value Name          |Default Value        |Explanation                    |
+--------------------+---------------------+-------------------------------+
|Keepalive_Period    |210 secs             Period after last (S,G) data    |
|                    |                     packet during which (S,G) Join  |
|                    |                     state will be maintained even in|
|                    |                     the absence of (S,G) Join state.|
+--------------------+---------------------+-------------------------------+
|RP_Keepalive_Period |( 1.5 * Register     |As Keepalive_Period, but at the|
|                    |Period Suppression ) |RP when a RegisterStop is sent.|
|                    |+ Register Probe Time|                               |
+--------------------+---------------------+-------------------------------+


The normal keepalive period for the KAT(S,G) defaults to 210 seconds.
However at the RP, the keepalive period must be at least the
Register_Suppression_Time or the RP may time out the (S,G) state before
the next Null-Register arrives.  Thus the KAT(S,G) is set to
max(Keepalive_Period, RP_Keepalive_Period).


Timer Names: OT(S,G,rpt)

+-------------+------------------+--------------------------------------+
| Value Name  |Default Value     | Explanation                          |
+-------------+------------------+--------------------------------------+
| t_po        |rand(0, 4.5 secs) | Randomized delay to prevent response |
|             |                  | implosion when sending a join        |
|             |                  | message to override someone else's   |
|             |                  | prune message.                       |
+-------------+------------------+--------------------------------------+




Timer Names: CET(R)

+----------------+------------------+-----------------------------------+
| Value Name     |  Default Value   |  Explanation                      |
+----------------+------------------+-----------------------------------+
| C-RP Timeout   |  from message    |  Hold time from C-RP-Adv message  |
+----------------+------------------+-----------------------------------+







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C-RP Advertisement messages are sent periodically with period C-RP-Adv-
Period.  C-RP-Adv-Period defaults to 60 seconds.  The holdtime to be
specified in a C-RP-Adv message should be set to (2.5 * C-RP-Adv-Period
).


Timer Name: CRPT

+-----------------+-----------------+-----------------------------------+
| Value Name      |  Default Value  |  Explanation                      |
+-----------------+-----------------+-----------------------------------+
| C-RP-Adv-Period |  60 seconds     |  Period with which periodic C-RP  |
|                 |                 |  Advertisements are sent to BSR   |
+-----------------+-----------------+-----------------------------------+




Timer Name: RST(S,G)

+--------------------+--------------+-------------------------------------+
|Value Name          |Default Value |Explanation                          |
+--------------------+--------------+-------------------------------------+
|Register Suppression|60 seconds    |Period during which a DR stops       |
|Time                |              |sending Register-encapsulated data to|
|                    |              |the RP after receiving a RegisterStop|
+--------------------+--------------+-------------------------------------+
|Register Probe      |5 seconds     |Time before RST expires when         |
|Time                |              |a DR may send a Null-Register to     |
|                    |              |the RP to cause it to resend a       |
|                    |              |RegisterStop message.                |
+--------------------+--------------+-------------------------------------+



5.  IANA Considerations

5.1.  PIM Address Family

The PIM Address Family field was chosen to be 8 bits as a tradeoff
between packet format and use of the IANA assigned numbers.  Since when
the PIM packet format was designed only 15 values were assigned for
Address Families, and large numbers of new Address Family values were
not envisioned, 8 bits seemed large enough.  However, the IANA assigns
Address Families in a 16-bit field.  Therefore, the PIM Address Family
is allocated as follows:





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     Values 0 through 127 are designated to have the same meaning as
     IANA-assigned Address Family Numbers [4].

     Values 128 through 250 are designated to be assigned by the IANA
     based upon IESG Approval, as defined in [5]. XXX note: is the IESG
     OK with this?

     Values 251 through 255 are designated for Private Use, as defined
     in [5].

5.2.  PIM Hello Options

Values 22 through 65000 are to be assigned by the IANA.  Since the space
is large, they may be assigned as First Come First Served as defined in
[5]. Such assignments are valid for one year, and may be renewed.
Permanent assignments require a specification (see "Specification
Required" in [5].)

6.  Security Considerations

All PIM control messages MAY use IPsec [6] to address security concerns.
The authentication methods are addressed in a companion document [7].
Keys may be distributed as described in [8].

XXX This probably needs more.

7.  Authors' Addresses

     Bill Fenner
     AT&T Labs - Research,
     75 Willow Road,
     Menlo Park, CA 94025,
     fenner@research.att.com


     Mark Handley
     ACIRI/ICSI
     1947 Center St, Suite 600
     Berkeley, CA 94708
     mjh@aciri.org


     Hugh Holbrook
     Cisco Systems
     holbrook@cisco.com






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     Isidor Kouvelas
     Cisco Systems
     kouvelas@cisco.com



8.  Acknowledgments

PIM-SM was designed over many years by a large group of people,
including ideas from Deborah Estrin, Dino Farinacci, Ahmed Helmy, David
Thaler, Steve Deering, Van Jacobson, C. Liu, Puneet Sharma, Liming Wei,
Tom Pusateri, Tony Ballardie, Scott Brim, Jon Crowcroft, Paul Francis,
Joel Halpern, Horst Hodel, Polly Huang, Stephen Ostrowski, Lixia Zhang
and Girish Chandranmenon.

Thanks are due to the American Licorice Company, for its obscure but
possibly essential role in the creation of this document.

9.  References

[1] T. Bates , R. Chandra , D. Katz , Y. Rekhter, "Multiprotocol
     Extensions for BGP-4", RFC 2283

[2] S.E. Deering, "Host extensions for IP multicasting", RFC 1112, Aug
     1989.

[3] W. Fenner, "Internet Group Management Protocol, Version 2", RFC
     2236.

[4] IANA, "Address Family Numbers", linked from
     http://www.iana.org/numbers.html

[5] T. Narten , H. Alvestrand, "Guidelines for Writing an IANA
     Considerations Section in RFCs", RFC 2434.

[6] S. Kent, R. Atkinson, "Security Architecture for the Internet
     Protocol.", RFC 2401.

[7] L. Wei, "Authenticating PIM version 2 messages", draft-ietf-pim-
     v2-auth-01.txt, work in progress.

[8] T. Hardjono, B. Cain, "Simple Key Management Protocol for PIM",
     draft-ietf-pim-simplekmp-01.txt, work in progress.








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                              Table of Contents


     1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   2
     2. Terminology  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   2
      2.1. Definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   2
      2.2. Pseudocode Notation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   3
     3. PIM-SM Protocol Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   4
     4. Protocol Specification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   9
      4.1. PIM Protocol State  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   9
      4.2. Data Packet Forwarding Rules  . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  19
       4.2.1. Setting and Clearing the (S,G) SPT bit . . . . . . . .  21
      4.3. PIM Register Messages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  22
       4.3.1. Sending Register Messages from the DR  . . . . . . . .  22
       4.3.2. Receiving Register Messages at the RP  . . . . . . . .  25
       4.3.3. RP Joining to the Source . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  27
      4.4. PIM Join/Prune Messages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  27
       4.4.1. Receiving (*,G) Join/Prune Messages  . . . . . . . . .  27
       4.4.2. Receiving (S,G) Join/Prune Messages  . . . . . . . . .  29
       4.4.3. Receiving (S,G,rpt) Join/Prune Messages  . . . . . . .  31
       4.4.4. Sending (*,G) Join/Prune Messages  . . . . . . . . . .  34
       4.4.5. Sending (S,G) Join/Prune Messages  . . . . . . . . . .  36
       4.4.6. (S,G,rpt) Periodic Messages  . . . . . . . . . . . . .  39
       4.4.7. State Machine for (S,G,rpt) Triggered Messages . . . .  39
      4.5. PIM Assert Messages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  44
       4.5.1. (S,G) Assert Message State Machine . . . . . . . . . .  44
       4.5.2. (*,G) Assert Message State Machine . . . . . . . . . .  50
       4.5.3. Assert Metrics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  55
       4.5.4. AssertCancel Messages  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  57
       4.5.5. Assert State Macros  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  57
      4.6. Designated Routers (DR) and Hello Messages  . . . . . . .  60
       4.6.1. Sending Hello Messages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  60
       4.6.2. DR Election  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  60
      4.7. PIM Bootstrap and RP Discovery  . . . . . . . . . . . . .  62
       4.7.1. Overview of RP Discovery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  62
       4.7.2. Bootstrap Router Election and RP-Set Distribution  . .  63
       4.7.3. Sending Candidate-RP-Advertisements  . . . . . . . . .  68
       4.7.4. Receiving Candidate-RP-Advertisements at the BSR and
       Creating the RP-Set . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  69
       4.7.5. Receiving and Using the RP-Set . . . . . . . . . . . .  70
      4.8. PIM Packet Formats  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  71
       4.8.1. Encoded Source and Group Address Formats . . . . . . .  72
       4.8.2. Hello Message Format . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  75
       4.8.3. Register Message Format  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  76
       4.8.4. Register-Stop Message Format . . . . . . . . . . . . .  77
       4.8.5. Join/Prune Message Format  . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  78
       4.8.6. Bootstrap Message Format . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  82
       4.8.7. Assert Message Format  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  85



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       4.8.8. Candidate-RP-Advertisement Format  . . . . . . . . . .  86
      4.9. PIM Timers  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  88
     5. IANA Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  94
     6. Security Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  95
     8. Acknowledgments  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  96
     9. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  96













































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                                    Index


     ActiveDR(S,G) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  25
     assert(*,G) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  18
     assert(*,G,I) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17,18,47,59
     assert(S,G) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  18
     assert(S,G,I) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .17,18,58
     assert(S,G,rpt) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  18
     assert(S,G,rpt,I) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18,58
     AssertCancel(*,G) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  56
     AssertTimer(*,G,I). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12,19,51,92
     AssertTimer(S,G,I). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13,19,45,92
     AssertTrackingDesired(*,G,I). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  53
     AssertTrackingDesired(S,G,I). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  47
     AssertWinner(*,G,I) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17,19
     AssertWinner(S,G,I) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .17,19,58
     assert_metric . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  56
     Assert_Override_Interval. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .50,55,92
     Assert_Time . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .50,55,92
     AT(*,G,I) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12,19,51,92
     AT(S,G,I) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13,19,45,92
     BST . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  11
     BS_Period . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  90
     BS_randomized_override_interval . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  90
     BS_Timeout. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  90
     BS_Timer. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  90
     C-RP-Adv-Period . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  95
     C-RP-Timer. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  95
     C-RP_Timeout. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  94
     CET(R). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  94
     CouldAssert(*,G,I). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  52
     CouldAssert(S,G,I). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  47
     DirectlyConnected(S). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .21,22,25
     DownstreamState(*,G,I). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  18
     DownstreamState(S,G,I). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  18
     DR(I) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  62
     dr_is_better(a,b,I) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  63
     ET(*,G,I) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12,29,91
     ET(S,G,I) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13,30,91
     ET(S,G,rpt,I) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .15,33,91
     Hash_Function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  72
     Hello_Holdtime. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  91
     Hello_Period. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  91
     HT. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  91
     igmp_desired(*,G,I) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  17
     igmp_desired(S,G,I) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  17
     immediate_olist(*,G). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  17



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     immediate_olist(S,G). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .17,38,57
     infinite_assert_metric(). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  57
     inherited_olist(*,G). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17,36
     inherited_olist(S,G). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17,21,27,38
     inherited_olist(S,G,rpt). . . . . . . . . . . .17,21,22,40,42,44,57
     I_am_DR(I). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17,25
     I_am_RP(G). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  27
     J/P_HoldTime. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  91
     J/P_Override_Interval . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30,32,34,92
     Join(*,G) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   5
     join(S,G) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  46
     JoinDesired(*,G). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36,42,44,53
     JoinDesired(S,G). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22,38
     joins(*,G). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .18,47,52
     joins(S,G). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  18
     JoinSesired(S,G). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  47
     JT(*,G) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12,35,93
     JT(S,G) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .14,37,93
     KAT(S,G). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14,21,25,27,38,93
     KeepaliveTimer(S,G) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14,21,25,27,38,93
     Keepalive_Period. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  93
     MBGP. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   4
     MRIB. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   4
     mrib.next_hop(host) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  19
     my_assert_metric(S,G,I) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  57
     NLT(N,I). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11,91
     OT(S,G,rpt) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15,94
     packet_arrives_on_rp_tunnel(pkt). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  27
     pim_exclude(S,G,I). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  47
     pim_include(*,G). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17,52
     pim_include(*,G,I). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  47
     pim_include(S,G). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17,46
     PPT(*,G,I). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12,29,92
     PPT(S,G,I). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13,31,92
     PPT(S,G,rpt,I). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .15,33,92
     prune(S,G,rpt,I). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  18
     PruneDesired(S,G,rpt) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42,43
     prunes(S,G,rpt) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18,47
     RegisterStop. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6,24
     RegisterStop(*,G) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  26
     RegisterStop(S,G) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  27
     Register_Probe_Time . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .25,28,95
     Register_Suppression_Time . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25,28,94,95
     RP(G) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .19,52,53
     RPF'(*,G) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .19,22,40
     RPF'(S,G) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .19,22,40
     RPF'(S,G,rpt) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .19,40,42
     RPF_interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  53



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INTERNET-DRAFT            Expires: January 2001                July 2000


     RPF_interface(host) . . . . . . . . . . . . . .19,21,22,25,47,52,58
     rpt_assert_metric(G,I). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  57
     RST(S,G). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24,95
     SPTbit(S,G) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .21,22,27,40,57
     spt_assert_metric(S,I). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  57
     t_override. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36,93
     t_periodic. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36,93
     t_po. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42,94
     t_suppressed. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36,93
     Update_SPTbit(S,G). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  22
     UpstreamState(S,G). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  21








































Fenner/Handley/Holbrook/Kouvelas                              [Page 101]


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