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Versions: 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 RFC 5477

Network Working Group                                           T. Dietz
Internet-Draft                                           NEC Europe Ltd.
Intended status: Standards Track                               B. Claise
Expires: April 23, 2009                                        P. Aitken
                                                     Cisco Systems, Inc.
                                                             F. Dressler
                                        University of Erlangen-Nuremberg
                                                                G. Carle
                                          Technical University of Munich
                                                        October 20, 2008


             Information Model for Packet Sampling Exports
                     <draft-ietf-psamp-info-11.txt>

Status of this Memo

   By submitting this Internet-Draft, each author represents that any
   applicable patent or other IPR claims of which he or she is aware
   have been or will be disclosed, and any of which he or she becomes
   aware will be disclosed, in accordance with Section 6 of BCP 79.

   Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
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   This Internet-Draft will expire on April 23, 2009.












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Abstract

   This memo defines an information model for the Packet Sampling
   (PSAMP) protocol.  It is used by the PSAMP protocol for encoding
   sampled packet data and information related to the Sampling process.
   As the PSAMP protocol is based on the IPFIX protocol, this
   information model is an extension to the IPFIX information model.












































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Conventions used in this document

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
   document are to be interpreted as described in RFC 2119 [RFC2119].


Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  5

   2.  PSAMP Documents Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  6

   3.  Terminology  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  7

   4.  Relationship between PSAMP and IPFIX . . . . . . . . . . . . .  8

   5.  Properties of a PSAMP Information Element  . . . . . . . . . .  9

   6.  Type Space . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10

   7.  Overloading Information Elements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11

   8.  The PSAMP Information Elements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
     8.1.  Identifiers (301-303)  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
       8.1.1.  selectionSequenceId  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
       8.1.2.  selectorId . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
       8.1.3.  informationElementId . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
     8.2.  Sampling Configuration (304-311) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
       8.2.1.  selectorAlgorithm  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
       8.2.2.  samplingPacketInterval . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
       8.2.3.  samplingPacketSpace  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
       8.2.4.  samplingTimeInterval . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
       8.2.5.  samplingTimeSpace  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
       8.2.6.  samplingSize . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
       8.2.7.  samplingPopulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
       8.2.8.  samplingProbability  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
     8.3.  Hash Configuration (326-334) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
       8.3.1.  digestHashValue  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
       8.3.2.  hashIPPayloadOffset  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
       8.3.3.  hashIPPayloadSize  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
       8.3.4.  hashOutputRangeMin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
       8.3.5.  hashOutputRangeMax . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
       8.3.6.  hashSelectedRangeMin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
       8.3.7.  hashSelectedRangeMax . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
       8.3.8.  hashDigestOutput . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
       8.3.9.  hashInitialiserValue . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
     8.4.  Time Stamps (322-325)  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23



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       8.4.1.  observationTimeSeconds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
       8.4.2.  observationTimeMilliseconds  . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
       8.4.3.  observationTimeMicroseconds  . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
       8.4.4.  observationTimeNanoseconds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
     8.5.  Packet Data (312-317)  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
       8.5.1.  ipHeaderPacketSection  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
       8.5.2.  ipPayloadPacketSection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
       8.5.3.  mplsLabelStackSection  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
       8.5.4.  mplsPayloadPacketSection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
     8.6.  Statistics (318-321) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
       8.6.1.  selectorIdTotalPktsObserved  . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
       8.6.2.  selectorIdTotalPktsSelected  . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
       8.6.3.  absoluteError  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
       8.6.4.  relativeError  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
       8.6.5.  upperCILimit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
       8.6.6.  lowerCILimit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
       8.6.7.  confidenceLevel  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31

   9.  Security Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33

   10. IANA Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
     10.1. Related Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
     10.2. PSAMP Related Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34

   11. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
     11.1. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
     11.2. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35

   Appendix A.  Formal Specification of PSAMP Information Elements  . 37

   Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
   Intellectual Property and Copyright Statements . . . . . . . . . . 55



















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1.  Introduction

   Packet Sampling techniques are required for various measurement
   scenarios.  The Packet Sampling (PSAMP) protocol provides mechanisms
   for packet selection using different Filtering and Sampling
   techniques.  A standardized way for the export and storage of the
   Information Elements defined in section 8 is required.  The
   definition of the PSAMP information and data model is based on the
   IPFIX Information Model [RFC5102].  The PSAMP protocol document
   [I-D.ietf-psamp-protocol] specifies how to use the IPFIX protocol in
   the PSAMP context.

   This document examines the IPFIX Information Model [RFC5102] and
   extends it to meet the PSAMP requirements [RFC3917].  Therefore, the
   structure of this document is strongly based on the IPFIX document.
   It complements the PSAMP protocol specification by providing an
   appropriate PSAMP information model.  The main part of this document,
   section 8, defines the list of Information Elements to be transmitted
   by the PSAMP protocol.  Sections 5 and 6 describe the data types and
   Information Element properties used within this document and their
   relationship to the IPFIX information model.

   The main body of section 8 was generated from an XML document.  The
   XML-based specification of the PSAMP Information Elements can be used
   for automatically checking syntactical correctness of the
   specification.  Furthermore it can be used - in combination with the
   IPFIX information model - for automated code generation.  The
   resulting code can be used in PSAMP protocol implementations to deal
   with processing PSAMP information elements.

   For that reason, the XML document that served as the source for
   section 8 is attached to this document in Appendix A.

   Note that although partially generated from the attached XML
   documents, the main body of this document is normative while the
   appendices are informational.















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2.  PSAMP Documents Overview

   [I-D.ietf-psamp-framework]: "A Framework for Packet Selection and
   Reporting" describes the PSAMP framework for network elements to
   select subsets of packets by statistical and other methods, and to
   export a stream of reports on the selected packets to a collector.

   [I-D.ietf-psamp-sample-tech]: "Sampling and Filtering Techniques for
   IP Packet Selection" describes the set of packet selection techniques
   supported by PSAMP.

   [I-D.ietf-psamp-protocol]: "Packet Sampling (PSAMP) Protocol
   Specifications" specifies the export of packet information from a
   PSAMP Exporting Process to a PSAMP Collecting Process.

   This document, "Information Model for Packet Sampling Exports",
   defines an information and data model for PSAMP.


































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3.  Terminology

   IPFIX-specific terminology used in this document is defined in
   Section 2 of [RFC5101].  PSAMP-specific terminology used in this
   document is defined in Section 3.2 of [I-D.ietf-psamp-protocol].  As
   in [RFC5101] and [I-D.ietf-psamp-protocol], these IPFIX- and PSAMP-
   specific terms have the first letter of a word capitalized when used
   in this document.











































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4.  Relationship between PSAMP and IPFIX

   As described in the PSAMP protocol [I-D.ietf-psamp-protocol] a PSAMP
   Report can be seen as a very special IPFIX Data Record.  It
   represents an IPFIX Flow containing only a single packet.  Therefore,
   the IPFIX information model can be used as a basis for PSAMP Reports.

   Nevertheless, there are properties required in PSAMP Reports which
   cannot be modelled using the current IPFIX information model.  This
   document describes extensions to the IPFIX information model which
   allow the modelling of information and data required by PSAMP.

   Some of these extensions allow the export of what may be considered
   sensitive information.  Refer to the Security Considerations section
   for a fuller discussion.

   Note that the export of sampled or filtered PSAMP Reports may not
   need all the Information Elements defined by the IPFIX information
   model [RFC5102], as discussed in sections 6.2 and 6.3 of the PSAMP
   Framework [I-D.ietf-psamp-framework].































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5.  Properties of a PSAMP Information Element

   The PSAMP Information Elements are defined in accordance with
   sections 2.1 to 2.3 of the IPFIX Information Model [RFC5102] to which
   reference should be made for more information.  Nevertheless, we
   strongly recommend defining the optional "units" property for every
   information element (if applicable).

   The Data Types defined in section 3.1 of the IPFIX Information Model
   [RFC5102] are also used for the PSAMP Information Elements.









































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6.  Type Space

   The PSAMP Information Elements MUST be constructed from the basic
   abstract data types and data type semantics described in section 3 of
   the IPFIX Information Model [RFC5102].  To ensure consistency between
   IPFIX and PSAMP, the data types are not repeated in this document.
   The encoding of these data types is described in the IPFIX Protocol
   [RFC5101].











































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7.  Overloading Information Elements

   Information Elements SHOULD NOT be overloaded with multiple meanings
   or re-used for multiple purposes.  Different Information Elements
   SHOULD be allocated for each requirement.

   Although the presence of certain other Information Elements allows
   the selection method to be inferred, a separate Information Element
   is provided for the selectorAlgorithm to include as scope for the
   Selector Report Interpretation [I-D.ietf-psamp-protocol].

   Even if the Information Elements are specified with a specific
   selection method (i.e. a specific value of selectorAlgorithm) in
   mind, these Information Elements are not restricted to the selection
   method and MAY be used for different selection methods in the future.




































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8.  The PSAMP Information Elements

   This section describes the Information Elements used by the PSAMP
   protocol.

   For each Information Element specified in sections 8.1 - 8.6 below a
   unique identifier is allocated in accordance with section 4 of the
   IPFIX information model [RFC5102].  The assignments are controlled by
   IANA as an extension of the IPFIX Information Model.

   The Information Elements specified by the IPFIX information model
   [RFC5102] are used by the PSAMP protocol where applicable.  To avoid
   inconsistencies between the IPFIX and the PSAMP information and data
   models, only those Information Elements that are not already
   described by the IPFIX information model are defined here.

   List of additional PSAMP Information Elements:

 +-----+----------------------------+-----+----------------------------+
 |  ID | Name                       |  ID | Name                       |
 +-----+----------------------------+-----+----------------------------+
 | 301 | selectionSequenceId        | 321 | relativeError              |
 | 302 | selectorId                 | 322 | observationTimeSeconds     |
 | 303 | informationElementId       | 323 | observationTimeMilliseconds|
 | 304 | selectorAlgorithm          | 324 | observationTimeMicroseconds|
 | 305 | samplingPacketInterval     | 325 | observationTimeNanoseconds |
 | 306 | samplingPacketSpace        | 326 | digestHashValue            |
 | 307 | samplingTimeInterval       | 327 | hashIPPayloadOffset        |
 | 308 | samplingTimeSpace          | 328 | hashIPPayloadSize          |
 | 309 | samplingSize               | 329 | hashOutputRangeMin         |
 | 310 | samplingPopulation         | 330 | hashOutputRangeMax         |
 | 311 | samplingProbability        | 331 | hashSelectedRangeMin       |
 | 313 | ipHeaderPacketSection      | 332 | hashSelectedRangeMax       |
 | 314 | ipPayloadPacketSection     | 333 | hashDigestOutput           |
 | 316 | mplsLabelStackSection      | 334 | hashInitialiserValue       |
 | 317 | mplsPayloadPacketSection   | 336 | upperCILimit               |
 | 318 | selectorIdTotalPktsObserved| 337 | lowerCILimit               |
 | 319 | selectorIdTotalPktsSelected| 338 | confidenceLevel            |
 | 320 | absoluteError              |     |                            |
 +-----+----------------------------+-----+----------------------------+

8.1.  Identifiers (301-303)

   Information Elements in this section serve as identifiers.  All of
   them have an integral abstract data type and data type semantics
   "identifier".





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 +-----+----------------------------+-----+----------------------------+
 |  ID | Name                       |  ID | Name                       |
 +-----+----------------------------+-----+----------------------------+
 | 301 | selectionSequenceId        | 303 | informationElementId       |
 | 302 | selectorId                 |     |                            |
 +-----+----------------------------+-----+----------------------------+

8.1.1.  selectionSequenceId

   Description:

      From all the packets observed at an Observation Point, a subset of
      the packets is selected by a sequence of one or more Selectors.
      The selectionSequenceId is a unique value per Observation Domain,
      specifying the Observation Point and the sequence of Selectors
      through which the packets are selected.

   Abstract Data Type:  unsigned64

   Data Type Semantics:  identifier

   ElementId:  301

   Status:  current

8.1.2.  selectorId

   Description:

      The Selector ID is the unique ID identifying a Primitive Selector.
      Each Primitive Selector must have a unique ID in the Observation
      Domain.

   Abstract Data Type:  unsigned16

   Data Type Semantics:  identifier

   ElementId:  302

   Status:  current

8.1.3.  informationElementId

   Description:







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      This Information Element contains the ID of another Information
      Element.

   Abstract Data Type:  unsigned16

   Data Type Semantics:  identifier

   ElementId:  303

   Status:  current

8.2.  Sampling Configuration (304-311)

   Information Elements in this section can be used for describing the
   sampling configuration of a Selection Process.

 +-----+----------------------------+-----+----------------------------+
 |  ID | Name                       |  ID | Name                       |
 +-----+----------------------------+-----+----------------------------+
 | 304 | selectorAlgorithm          | 308 | samplingTimeSpace          |
 | 305 | samplingPacketInterval     | 309 | samplingSize               |
 | 306 | samplingPacketSpace        | 310 | samplingPopulation         |
 | 307 | samplingTimeInterval       | 311 | samplingProbability        |
 +-----+----------------------------+-----+----------------------------+

8.2.1.  selectorAlgorithm

   Description:

      This Information Element identifies the packet selection methods
      (e.g., Filtering, Sampling) that are applied by the Selection
      Process.

      Most of these methods have parameters.  Further Information
      Elements are needed to fully specify packet selection with these
      methods and all their parameters.

      The methods listed below are defined in [I-D.ietf-psamp-sample-
      tech].  For their parameters, Information Elements are defined in
      the Information Model Document.  The names of these Information
      Elements are listed for each method identifier.

      Further method identifiers may be added to the list below.  It
      might be necessary to define new Information Elements to specify
      their parameters.






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      The selectorAlgorithm registry is maintained by IANA.  New
      assignments for the registry will be administered by IANA, and
      subject to Expert Review [RFC5226].

      The registry can be updated when specifications of the new
      method(s) and any new Information Elements are provided.

      The group of experts must double check the selectorAlgorithm
      definitions and Information Elements with already defined
      selectorAlgorithms and Information Elements for completeness,
      accuracy and redundancy.  Those experts will initially be drawn
      from the Working Group Chairs and document editors of the IPFIX
      and PSAMP Working Groups.

      The following packet selection methods identifiers are defined
      here:


           +----+------------------------+------------------------+
           | ID |        Method          |      Parameters        |
           +----+------------------------+------------------------+
           | 1  | Systematic count-based | samplingPacketInterval |
           |    | Sampling               | samplingPacketSpace    |
           +----+------------------------+------------------------+
           | 2  | Systematic time-based  | samplingTimeInterval   |
           |    | Sampling               | samplingTimeSpace      |
           +----+------------------------+------------------------+
           | 3  | Random n-out-of-N      | samplingSize           |
           |    | Sampling               | samplingPopulation     |
           +----+------------------------+------------------------+
           | 4  | Uniform probabilistic  | samplingProbability    |
           |    | Sampling               |                        |
           +----+------------------------+------------------------+
           | 5  | Property match         | no agreed parameters   |
           |    | Filtering              |                        |
           +----+------------------------+------------------------+
           |   Hash based Filtering      | hashInitialiserValue   |
           +----+------------------------+ hashIPPayloadOffset    |
           | 6  | using BOB              | hashIPPayloadSize      |
           +----+------------------------+ hashSelectedRangeMin   |
           | 7  | using IPSX             | hashSelectedRangeMax   |
           +----+------------------------+ hashOutputRangeMin     |
           | 8  | using CRC              | hashOutputRangeMax     |
           +----+------------------------+------------------------+







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      There is a broad variety of possible parameters that could be used
      for Property match Filtering (5) but currently there are no agreed
      parameters specified.

   Abstract Data Type:  unsigned16

   Data Type Semantics:  identifier

   ElementId:  304

   Status:  current

8.2.2.  samplingPacketInterval

   Description:

      This Information Element specifies the number of packets that are
      consecutively sampled.  For example a value of 100 means that 100
      consecutive packets are sampled.

      For example, this Information Element may be used to describe the
      configuration of a systematic count-based Sampling Selector.

   Abstract Data Type:  unsigned32

   Data Type Semantics:  quantity

   ElementId:  305

   Status:  current

   Units:  packets

8.2.3.  samplingPacketSpace

   Description:

      This Information Element specifies the number of packets between
      two "samplingPacketInterval"s.  A value of 100 means that the next
      interval starts 100 packets (which are not sampled) after the
      current "samplingPacketInterval" is over.

      For example, this Information Element may be used to describe the
      configuration of a systematic count-based Sampling Selector.







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   Abstract Data Type:  unsigned32

   Data Type Semantics:  quantity

   ElementId:  306

   Status:  current

   Units:  packets

8.2.4.  samplingTimeInterval

   Description:

      This Information Element specifies the time interval in
      microseconds during which all arriving packets are sampled.

      For example, this Information Element may be used to describe the
      configuration of a systematic time-based Sampling Selector.

   Abstract Data Type:  dateTimeMicroseconds

   Data Type Semantics:  quantity

   ElementId:  307

   Status:  current

   Units:  microseconds

8.2.5.  samplingTimeSpace

   Description:

      This Information Element specifies the time interval in
      microseconds between two "samplingTimeInterval"s.  A value of 100
      means that the next interval starts 100 microseconds (during which
      no packets are sampled) after the current "samplingTimeInterval"
      is over.

      For example, this Information Element may used to describe the
      configuration of a systematic time-based Sampling Selector.

   Abstract Data Type:  dateTimeMicroseconds







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   Data Type Semantics:  quantity

   ElementId:  308

   Status:  current

   Units:  microseconds

8.2.6.  samplingSize

   Description:

      This Information Element specifies the number of elements taken
      from the parent Population for random Sampling methods.

      For example, this Information Element may be used to describe the
      configuration of a random n-out-of-N Sampling Selector.

   Abstract Data Type:  unsigned32

   Data Type Semantics:  quantity

   ElementId:  309

   Status:  current

   Units:  packets

8.2.7.  samplingPopulation

   Description:

      This Information Element specifies the number of elements in the
      parent Population for random Sampling methods.

      For example, this Information Element may be used to describe the
      configuration of a random n-out-of-N Sampling Selector.

   Abstract Data Type:  unsigned32

   Data Type Semantics:  quantity

   ElementId:  310

   Status:  current






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   Units:  packets

8.2.8.  samplingProbability

   Description:

      This Information Element specifies the probability that a packet
      is sampled, expressed as a value between 0 and 1.  The probability
      is equal for every packet.  A value of 0 means no packet was
      sampled since the probability is 0.

      For example, this Information Element may be used to describe the
      configuration of a uniform probabilistic Sampling Selector.

   Abstract Data Type:  float64

   Data Type Semantics:  quantity

   ElementId:  311

   Status:  current

8.3.  Hash Configuration (326-334)

   The following Information Elements can be used for describing the
   sampling configuration of a Selection Process.  The individual
   parameters are explained in more detail in the
   [I-D.ietf-psamp-sample-tech] in section 6.2 as well as in sections
   3.8 and 7.1.

 +-----+----------------------------+-----+----------------------------+
 |  ID | Name                       |  ID | Name                       |
 +-----+----------------------------+-----+----------------------------+
 | 326 | digestHashValue            | 331 | hashSelectedRangeMin       |
 | 327 | hashIPPayloadOffset        | 332 | hashSelectedRangeMax       |
 | 328 | hashIPPayloadSize          | 333 | hashDigestOutput           |
 | 329 | hashOutputRangeMin         | 334 | hashInitialiserValue       |
 | 330 | hashOutputRangeMax         |     |                            |
 +-----+----------------------------+-----+----------------------------+

8.3.1.  digestHashValue

   Description:

      This Information Element specifies the value from the digest hash
      function.





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      See also sections 6.2, 3.8 and 7.1 of [I-D.ietf-psamp-sample-
      tech].

   Abstract Data Type:  unsigned64

   Data Type Semantics:  quantity

   ElementId:  326

   Status:  current

8.3.2.  hashIPPayloadOffset

   Description:

      This Information Element specifies the IP payload offset used by a
      hash based Selector.

      See also sections 6.2, 3.8 and 7.1 of [I-D.ietf-psamp-sample-
      tech].

   Abstract Data Type:  unsigned64

   Data Type Semantics:  quantity

   ElementId:  327

   Status:  current

8.3.3.  hashIPPayloadSize

   Description:

      This Information Element specifies the IP payload size used by a
      hash based Selector.  See also sections 6.2, 3.8 and 7.1 of
      [I-D.ietf-psamp-sample-tech].

   Abstract Data Type:  unsigned64

   Data Type Semantics:  quantity

   ElementId:  328

   Status:  current







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8.3.4.  hashOutputRangeMin

   Description:

      This Information Element specifies the value for the beginning of
      a hash function's potential output range.

      See also sections 6.2, 3.8 and 7.1 of [I-D.ietf-psamp-sample-
      tech].

   Abstract Data Type:  unsigned64

   Data Type Semantics:  quantity

   ElementId:  329

   Status:  current

8.3.5.  hashOutputRangeMax

   Description:

      This Information Element specifies the value for the end of a hash
      function's potential output range.

      See also sections 6.2, 3.8 and 7.1 of [I-D.ietf-psamp-sample-
      tech].

   Abstract Data Type:  unsigned64

   Data Type Semantics:  quantity

   ElementId:  330

   Status:  current

8.3.6.  hashSelectedRangeMin

   Description:

      This Information Element specifies the value for the beginning of
      a hash function's selected range.

      See also sections 6.2, 3.8 and 7.1 of [I-D.ietf-psamp-sample-
      tech].






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   Abstract Data Type:  unsigned64

   Data Type Semantics:  quantity

   ElementId:  331

   Status:  current

8.3.7.  hashSelectedRangeMax

   Description:

      This Information Element specifies the value for the end of a hash
      function's selected range.

      See also sections 6.2, 3.8 and 7.1 of [I-D.ietf-psamp-sample-
      tech].

   Abstract Data Type:  unsigned64

   Data Type Semantics:  quantity

   ElementId:  332

   Status:  current

8.3.8.  hashDigestOutput

   Description:

      This Information Element contains a boolean value which is TRUE if
      the output from this hash Selector has been configured to be
      included in the packet report as a packet digest, else FALSE.

      See also sections 6.2, 3.8 and 7.1 of [I-D.ietf-psamp-sample-
      tech].

   Abstract Data Type:  boolean

   Data Type Semantics:  quantity

   ElementId:  333

   Status:  current







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8.3.9.  hashInitialiserValue

   Description:

      This Information Element specifies the initialiser value to the
      hash function.

      See also sections 6.2, 3.8 and 7.1 of [I-D.ietf-psamp-sample-
      tech].

   Abstract Data Type:  unsigned64

   Data Type Semantics:  quantity

   ElementId:  334

   Status:  current

8.4.  Time Stamps (322-325)

   The Information Elements listed below contain time stamps.  They can
   be used for reporting the observation time of a single packet.

 +-----+----------------------------+-----+----------------------------+
 |  ID | Name                       |  ID | Name                       |
 +-----+----------------------------+-----+----------------------------+
 | 322 | observationTimeSeconds     | 324 | observationTimeMicroseconds|
 | 323 | observationTimeMilliseconds| 325 | observationTimeNanoseconds |
 +-----+----------------------------+-----+----------------------------+

8.4.1.  observationTimeSeconds

   Description:

      This Information Element specifies the absolute time in seconds of
      an observation.

   Abstract Data Type:  dateTimeSeconds

   Data Type Semantics:  quantity

   ElementId:  322

   Status:  current







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   Units:  seconds

8.4.2.  observationTimeMilliseconds

   Description:

      This Information Element specifies the absolute time in
      milliseconds of an observation.

   Abstract Data Type:  dateTimeMilliseconds

   Data Type Semantics:  quantity

   ElementId:  323

   Status:  current

   Units:  milliseconds

8.4.3.  observationTimeMicroseconds

   Description:

      This Information Element specifies the absolute time in
      microseconds of an observation.

   Abstract Data Type:  dateTimeMicroseconds

   Data Type Semantics:  quantity

   ElementId:  324

   Status:  current

   Units:  microseconds

8.4.4.  observationTimeNanoseconds

   Description:

      This Information Element specifies the absolute time in
      nanoseconds of an observation.

   Abstract Data Type:  dateTimeNanoseconds







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   Data Type Semantics:  quantity

   ElementId:  325

   Status:  current

   Units:  nanoseconds

8.5.  Packet Data (312-317)

   The following Information Elements are all used for reporting raw
   content of a packet.  The only exception is dataLinkFrameSize that
   reports the size of the related data link frame.  All other
   Information Elements contain sections of the raw packet.  All
   Information Elements containing sections of the observed packet can
   also be used in IPFIX [RFC5101].  If the values for those sections
   vary for different packets in a Flow then the Flow Report will
   contain the value observed in the first packet of the Flow.

 +-----+----------------------------+-----+----------------------------+
 |  ID | Name                       |  ID | Name                       |
 +-----+----------------------------+-----+----------------------------+
 | 313 | ipHeaderPacketSection      | 316 | mplsLabelStackSection      |
 | 314 | ipPayloadPacketSection     | 317 | mplsPayloadPacketSection   |
 +-----+----------------------------+-----+----------------------------+

8.5.1.  ipHeaderPacketSection

   Description:

      This Information Element, which may have a variable length,
      carries a series of octets from the start of the IP header of a
      sampled packet.

      With sufficient length, this element also reports octets from the
      IP payload, subject to [RFC2804].  See the Security Considerations
      section.

      The size of the exported section may be constrained due to
      limitations in the IPFIX protocol.

      The data for this field MUST NOT be padded.

   Abstract Data Type:  octetArray







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   Data Type Semantics:  quantity

   ElementId:  313

   Status:  current

8.5.2.  ipPayloadPacketSection

   Description:

      This Information Element, which may have a variable length,
      carries a series of octets from the start of the IP payload of a
      sampled packet.

      The IPv4 payload is that part of the packet which follows the IPv4
      header and any options, which [RFC0791] refers to as "data" or
      "data octets". e.g., see the examples in [RFC0791] APPENDIX A.

      The IPv6 payload is the rest of the packet following the 40 octet
      IPv6 header.  Note that any extension headers present are
      considered part of the payload.  See [RFC2460] for the IPv6
      specification.

      The size of the exported section may be constrained due to
      limitations in the IPFIX protocol.

      The data for this field MUST NOT be padded.

   Abstract Data Type:  octetArray

   Data Type Semantics:  quantity

   ElementId:  314

   Status:  current

8.5.3.  mplsLabelStackSection

   Description:

      This Information Element, which may have a variable length,
      carries the first n octets from the MPLS label stack of a sampled
      packet.

      With sufficient length, this element also reports octets from the
      MPLS payload, subject to [RFC2804].  See the Security
      Considerations section.




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      See [RFC3031] for the specification of MPLS packets.

      See [RFC3032] for the specification of the MPLS label stack.

      The size of the exported section may be constrained due to
      limitations in the IPFIX protocol.

      The data for this field MUST NOT be padded.

   Abstract Data Type:  octetArray

   Data Type Semantics:  quantity

   ElementId:  316

   Status:  current

8.5.4.  mplsPayloadPacketSection

   Description:

      This Information Element, which may have a variable length,
      carries the first n octets from the MPLS payload of a sampled
      packet, being data that follows immediately after the MPLS label
      stack.

      See [RFC3031] for the specification of MPLS packets.

      See [RFC3032] for the specification of the MPLS label stack.

      The size of the exported section may be constrained due to
      limitations in the IPFIX protocol.

      The data for this field MUST NOT be padded.

   Abstract Data Type:  octetArray

   Data Type Semantics:  quantity

   ElementId:  317

   Status:  current

8.6.  Statistics (318-321)

   Information Elements in this section can be used for reporting
   statistics from the Metering Process.




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 +-----+----------------------------+-----+----------------------------+
 |  ID | Name                       |  ID | Name                       |
 +-----+----------------------------+-----+----------------------------+
 | 318 | selectorIdTotalPktsObserved| 336 | upperCILimit               |
 | 319 | selectorIdTotalPktsSelected| 337 | lowerCILimit               |
 | 320 | absoluteError              | 338 | confidenceLevel            |
 | 321 | relativeError              |     |                            |
 +-----+----------------------------+-----+----------------------------+

8.6.1.  selectorIdTotalPktsObserved

   Description:

      This Information Element specifies the total number of packets
      observed by a Selector, for a specific value of SelectorId.

      This Information Element should be used in an option template
      scoped to the observation to which it refers.  See section 3.4.2.1
      of the IPFIX Information Model [RFC5102].

   Abstract Data Type:  unsigned64

   Data Type Semantics:  totalCounter

   ElementId:  318

   Status:  current

   Units:  packets

8.6.2.  selectorIdTotalPktsSelected

   Description:

      This Information Element specifies the total number of packets
      selected by a Selector, for a specific value of SelectorId.

      This Information Element should be used in an option template
      scoped to the observation to which it refers.  See section 3.4.2.1
      of the IPFIX Information Model [RFC5102].

   Abstract Data Type:  unsigned64

   Data Type Semantics:  totalCounter







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   ElementId:  319

   Status:  current

   Units:  packets

8.6.3.  absoluteError

   Description:

      This Information Element specifies the maximum possible
      measurement error of the reported value for a given Information
      Element.  The absoluteError has the same unit as the Information
      Element it is associated with.  The real value of the metric can
      differ by absoluteError (positive or negative) from the measured
      value.

      This Information Element provides only the error for measured
      values.  If an Information Element contains an estimated value
      (from sampling), the confidence boundaries and confidence level
      have to be provided instead, using the upperCILimit, lowerCILimit
      and confidenceLevel Information Elements.

      This Information Element should be used in an option template
      scoped to the observation to which it refers.  See section 3.4.2.1
      of the IPFIX Information Model [RFC5102].

   Abstract Data Type:  float64

   Data Type Semantics:  quantity

   ElementId:  320

   Status:  current

   Units:  The units of the Information Element for which the error is
      specified.

8.6.4.  relativeError

   Description:

      This Information Element specifies the maximum possible positive
      or negative error ratio for the reported value for a given
      Information Element as percentage of the measured value.  The real
      value of the metric can differ by relativeError percent (positive
      or negative) from the measured value.




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      This Information Element provides only the error for measured
      values.  If an Information Element contains an estimated value
      (from sampling), the confidence boundaries and confidence level
      have to be provided instead, using the upperCILimit, lowerCILimit
      and confidenceLevel Information Elements.

      This Information Element should be used in an option template
      scoped to the observation to which it refers.  See section 3.4.2.1
      of the IPFIX Information Model [RFC5102].

   Abstract Data Type:  float64

   Data Type Semantics:  quantity

   ElementId:  321

   Status:  current

8.6.5.  upperCILimit

   Description:

      This Information Element specifies the upper limit of a confidence
      interval.  It is used to provide an accuracy statement for an
      estimated value.  The confidence limits define the range in which
      the real value is assumed to be with a certain probability p.
      Confidence limits always need to be associated with a confidence
      level that defines this probability p.  Please note that a
      confidence interval only provides a probability that the real
      values lies within the limits.  That means the real value can lie
      outside the confidence limits.

      The upperCILimit, lowerCILimit and confidenceLevel Information
      Elements should all be used in an option template scoped to the
      observation to which they refer.  See section 3.4.2.1 of the IPFIX
      Information Model [RFC5102].

      Note that the upperCILimit, lowerCILimit and confidenceLevel are
      all required to specify confidence, and should be disregarded
      unless all three are specified together.

   Abstract Data Type:  float64

   Data Type Semantics:  quantity







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   ElementId:  336

   Status:  current

8.6.6.  lowerCILimit

   Description:

      This Information Element specifies the lower limit of a confidence
      interval.  For further information see the description of
      upperCILimit.

      The upperCILimit, lowerCILimit and confidenceLevel Information
      Elements should all be used in an option template scoped to the
      observation to which they refer.  See section 3.4.2.1 of the IPFIX
      Information Model [RFC5102].

      Note that the upperCILimit, lowerCILimit and confidenceLevel are
      all required to specify confidence, and should be disregarded
      unless all three are specified together.

   Abstract Data Type:  float64

   Data Type Semantics:  quantity

   ElementId:  337

   Status:  current

8.6.7.  confidenceLevel

   Description:

      This Information Element specifies the confidence level.  It is
      used to provide an accuracy statement for estimated values.  The
      confidence level provides the probability p with which the real
      value lies within a given range.  A confidence level always needs
      to be associated with confidence limits that define the range in
      which the real value is assumed to be.

      The upperCILimit, lowerCILimit and confidenceLevel Information
      Elements should all be used in an option template scoped to the
      observation to which they refer.  See section 3.4.2.1 of the IPFIX
      Information Model [RFC5102].







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      Note that the upperCILimit, lowerCILimit and confidenceLevel are
      all required to specify confidence, and should be disregarded
      unless all three are specified together.

   Abstract Data Type:  float64

   Data Type Semantics:  quantity

   ElementId:  338

   Status:  current








































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9.  Security Considerations

   The PSAMP information model itself does not directly introduce
   security issues.  Rather it defines a set of attributes which may for
   privacy or business issues be considered sensitive information.

   For example, exporting values of header fields may make attacks
   possible for the receiver of this information, which would otherwise
   only be possible for direct observers of the reported Flows along the
   data path.  Specifically, the Information Elements pertaining to
   packet sections MUST target no more than the packet header, some
   subsequent bytes of the packet, and encapsulating headers if present.
   Full packet capture of arbitrary packet streams is explicitly out of
   scope, per [RFC2804].

   The underlying protocol used to exchange the information described
   here MUST therefore apply appropriate procedures to guarantee the
   integrity and confidentiality of the exported information.  Such
   procedures are defined in separate documents, specifically the IPFIX
   protocol document [RFC5101].































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10.  IANA Considerations

   The PSAMP Information Model, as set out in this document, has two
   sets of assigned numbers.  Considerations for assigning them are
   discussed in this section, using the example policies as set out in
   the "Guidelines for IANA Considerations" document [RFC5226]

10.1.  Related Considerations

   As the PSAMP protocol uses the IPFIX protocol, refer to the IANA
   considerations section in [RFC5102] for the assignments of numbers
   used in the protocol and for the numbers used in the information
   model.

10.2.  PSAMP Related Considerations

   This document specifies an initial set of PSAMP Information Elements
   fulfilling the needs specified in [I-D.ietf-psamp-sample-tech], as an
   extension to the IPFIX Information Elements [RFC5102].

   Note that the PSAMP Information Element IDs were initially started at
   the value 301, in order to leave a gap for any ongoing IPFIX work
   requiring new Information Elements.  It is expected that this gap in
   the Information Element numbering will be filled in by IANA with new
   IPFIX Information Elements.

   Each new selection method MUST be assigned a unique value in the
   selectorAlgorithm registry.  Its configuration parameter(s), along
   with the way to report it/them with an Options Template, MUST be
   clearly specified.  The initial content of the selectorAlgorithm
   registry is found in section 8.2.1.

   New assignments for the PSAMP selection method will be administered
   by IANA and subject to Expert Review [RFC5226].  The group of experts
   must double check the Information Elements definitions with already
   defined Information Elements for completeness, accuracy and
   redundancy.  Those experts will initially be drawn from the Working
   Group Chairs and document editors of the IPFIX and PSAMP Working
   Groups.  The selectorAlgorithm registry is maintained by IANA and can
   be updated as long as specifications of the new method(s) and any new
   Information Elements are provided.










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11.  References

11.1.  Normative References

   [RFC2119]  Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
              Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997.

   [RFC5226]  Narten, T. and H. Alvestrand, "Guidelines for Writing an
              IANA Considerations Section in RFCs", BCP 26, RFC 5226,
              May 2008.

   [RFC5101]  Claise, B., "Specification of the IP Flow Information
              Export (IPFIX) Protocol for the Exchange of IP Traffic
              Flow Information", RFC 5101, January 2008.

   [RFC5102]  Quittek, J., Bryant, S., Claise, B., Aitken, P., and J.
              Meyer, "Information Model for IP Flow Information Export",
              RFC 5102, January 2008.

   [I-D.ietf-psamp-sample-tech]
              Zseby, T., "Sampling and Filtering Techniques for IP
              Packet Selection", draft-ietf-psamp-sample-tech-11 (work
              in progress), July 2008.

   [I-D.ietf-psamp-protocol]
              Claise, B., "Packet Sampling (PSAMP) Protocol
              Specifications", draft-ietf-psamp-protocol-09 (work in
              progress), December 2007.

11.2.  Informative References

   [RFC0791]  Postel, J., "Internet Protocol", STD 5, RFC 791,
              September 1981.

   [RFC2460]  Deering, S. and R. Hinden, "Internet Protocol, Version 6
              (IPv6) Specification", RFC 2460, December 1998.

   [RFC2629]  Rose, M., "Writing I-Ds and RFCs using XML", RFC 2629,
              June 1999.

   [RFC2804]  IAB and IESG, "IETF Policy on Wiretapping", RFC 2804,
              May 2000.

   [RFC3031]  Rosen, E., Viswanathan, A., and R. Callon, "Multiprotocol
              Label Switching Architecture", RFC 3031, January 2001.

   [RFC3032]  Rosen, E., Tappan, D., Fedorkow, G., Rekhter, Y.,
              Farinacci, D., Li, T., and A. Conta, "MPLS Label Stack



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              Encoding", RFC 3032, January 2001.

   [RFC3917]  Quittek, J., Zseby, T., Claise, B., and S. Zander,
              "Requirements for IP Flow Information Export (IPFIX)",
              RFC 3917, October 2004.

   [I-D.ietf-psamp-framework]
              Chiou, D., Claise, B., Duffield, N., Greenberg, A.,
              Grossglauser, M., Rexford, J., and S. Goldberg, "A
              Framework for Packet Selection and Reporting",
              draft-ietf-psamp-framework-13 (work in progress),
              June 2008.







































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Appendix A.  Formal Specification of PSAMP Information Elements

   This appendix contains a formal description of the PSAMP information
   model XML document.  Note that this appendix is of informational
   nature, while the text in section Section 8 generated from this
   appendix is normative.

   Using a formal and machine readable syntax for the information model
   enables the creation of PSAMP aware tools which can automatically
   adapt to extensions to the information model, by simply reading
   updated information model specifications.

   The wide availability of XML aware tools and libraries for client
   devices is a primary consideration for this choice.  In particular
   libraries for parsing XML documents are readily available.  Also
   mechanisms such as the Extensible Stylesheet Language (XSL) allow for
   transforming a source XML document into other documents.  This draft
   was authored in XML and transformed according to [RFC2629].

   It should be noted that the use of XML in exporters, collectors or
   other tools is not mandatory for the deployment of PSAMP.  In
   particular, exporting processes do not produce or consume XML as part
   of their operation.  It is expected that PSAMP collectors MAY take
   advantage of the machine readability of the information model vs.
   hardcoding their behavior or inventing proprietary means for
   accommodating extensions.

   Using XML-based specifications does not currently address possible
   IANA implications associated with XML Namespace URIs.  The use of
   Namespaces as an extension mechanism implies that an IANA registered
   Namespace URI should be available and that directory names below this
   base URI be assigned for relevant IETF specifications.  The authors
   are not aware of this mechanism today.

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<!--
  This XML document is a product of the IETF IPFIX Working Group.
  Contact information:
    WG charter:
      http://www.ietf.org/html.charters/ipfix-charter.html

    Mailing Lists:
      General Discussion: ipfix@ietf.org
      To Subscribe: http://www1.ietf.org/mailman/listinfo/ipfix
      Archive:
        http://www1.ietf.org/mail-archive/web/ipfix/current/index.html

    Editor:



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      Thomas Dietz
      NEC Europe Ltd.
      NEC Laboratories Europe
      Network Research Division
      Kurfuersten-Anlage 36
      69115 Heidelberg
      Germany
      Phone: +49 6221 4342-128
      Email: Thomas.Dietz@nw.neclab.eu


      Benoit Claise
      Cisco Systems, Inc.
      De Kleetlaan 6a b1
      Degem  1813
      Belgium
      Phone: +32 2 704 5622
      Email: bclaise@cisco.com


      Paul Aitken
      Cisco Systems, Inc.
      96 Commercial Quay
      Edinburgh  EH6 6LX
      Scotland
      Phone: +44 131 561 3616
      Email: paitken@cisco.com
      URI:   http://www.cisco.com/


      Falko Dressler
      University of Erlangen-Nuremberg
      Dept. of Computer Sciences
      Martensstr. 3
      Erlangen  91058
      Germany
      Phone: +49 9131 85-27914
      Email: dressler@informatik.uni-erlangen.de
      URI:   http://www7.informatik.uni-erlangen.de/~dressler


      Georg Carle
      University of Tuebingen
      Wilhelm-Schickard-Institute for Computer Science
      Auf der Morgenstelle 10C
      Tuebingen  71076
      Germany
      Phone: +49 7071 29-70505



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      Email: carle@informatik.uni-tuebingen.de
      URI:   http://net.informatik.uni-tuebingen.de/~carle/


  Abstract:
   This memo defines an information model for the Packet Sampling
   (PSAMP) protocol.  It is used by the PSAMP protocol for encoding
   sampled packet data and information related to the Sampling process.
   As the PSAMP protocol is based on the IPFIX protocol, this
   information model is an extension to the IPFIX information model.

  Copyright (C) The IETF Trust (2008). This version of the XML
  document is part of RFC yyyy; see the RFC itself for full legal
  notices.
-->
<fieldDefinitions xmlns="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:ipfix-info"
  xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
  xsi:schemaLocation="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:ipfix-info
             ipfix-info.xsd">
  <field name="selectionSequenceId" dataType="unsigned64"
    dataTypeSemantics="identifier" elementId="301" status="current"
    group="identifiers">
    <description>
      <paragraph>
        From all the packets observed at an Observation Point, a subset
        of the packets is selected by a sequence of one or more
        Selectors. The selectionSequenceId is a unique value per
        Observation Domain, specifying the Observation Point and the
        sequence of Selectors through which the packets are selected.
      </paragraph>
    </description>
  </field>

  <field name="selectorId" dataType="unsigned16"
    dataTypeSemantics="identifier" elementId="302" status="current"
    group="identifiers">
    <description>
      <paragraph>
        The Selector ID is the unique ID identifying a Primitive
        Selector. Each Primitive Selector must have a unique ID in the
        Observation Domain.
      </paragraph>
    </description>
  </field>

  <field name="informationElementId" dataType="unsigned16"
    dataTypeSemantics="identifier" elementId="303" status="current"
    group="identifiers">



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    <description>
      <paragraph>
        This Information Element contains the ID of another Information
        Element.
      </paragraph>
    </description>
  </field>

  <field name="selectorAlgorithm" dataType="unsigned16"
    dataTypeSemantics="identifier" elementId="304" status="current"
    group="sampling configuration">
    <description>
      <paragraph>
        This Information Element identifies the packet selection
        methods (e.g., Filtering, Sampling) that are applied by
        the Selection Process.

        Most of these methods have parameters. Further
        Information Elements are needed to fully specify packet
        selection with these methods and all their parameters.

        The methods listed below are defined in
        [I-D.ietf-psamp-sample-tech]. For their parameters,
        Information Elements are defined in the Information Model
        Document. The names of these Information Elements are
        listed for each method identifier.

        Further method identifiers may be added to the list
        below. It might be necessary to define new Information
        Elements to specify their parameters.

        The selectorAlgorithm registry is maintained by IANA.  New
        assignments for the registry will be administered by IANA,
        and subject to Expert Review [RFC5226].

        The registry can be updated when specifications of the new
        method(s) and any new Information Elements are provided.

        The group of experts must double check the selectorAlgorithm
        definitions and Information Elements with already defined
        selectorAlgorithms and Information Elements for completeness,
        accuracy and redundancy.  Those experts will initially be drawn
        from the Working Group Chairs and document editors of the IPFIX
        and PSAMP Working Groups.

        The following packet selection methods identifiers are
        defined here:




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        +----+------------------------+------------------------+
        | ID |        Method          |      Parameters        |
        +----+------------------------+------------------------+
        | 1  | Systematic count-based | samplingPacketInterval |
        |    | Sampling               | samplingPacketSpace    |
        +----+------------------------+------------------------+
        | 2  | Systematic time-based  | samplingTimeInterval   |
        |    | Sampling               | samplingTimeSpace      |
        +----+------------------------+------------------------+
        | 3  | Random n-out-of-N      | samplingSize           |
        |    | Sampling               | samplingPopulation     |
        +----+------------------------+------------------------+
        | 4  | Uniform probabilistic  | samplingProbability    |
        |    | Sampling               |                        |
        +----+------------------------+------------------------+
        | 5  | Property match         | no agreed parameters   |
        |    | Filtering              |                        |
        +----+------------------------+------------------------+
        |   Hash based Filtering      | hashInitialiserValue   |
        +----+------------------------+ hashIPPayloadOffset    |
        | 6  | using BOB              | hashIPPayloadSize      |
        +----+------------------------+ hashSelectedRangeMin   |
        | 7  | using IPSX             | hashSelectedRangeMax   |
        +----+------------------------+ hashOutputRangeMin     |
        | 8  | using CRC              | hashOutputRangeMax     |
        +----+------------------------+------------------------+

        There is a broad variety of possible parameters that could be
        used for Property match Filtering (5) but currently there are no
        agreed parameters specified.
      </paragraph>
    </description>
  </field>

  <field name="samplingPacketInterval" dataType="unsigned32"
    dataTypeSemantics="quantity" elementId="305" status="current"
    group="sampling configuration">
    <description>
      <paragraph>
        This Information Element specifies the number of packets that
        are consecutively sampled. For example a value of 100 means that
        100 consecutive packets are sampled.

        For example, this Information Element may be used to describe
        the configuration of a systematic count-based Sampling Selector.
      </paragraph>
    </description>
    <units>packets</units>



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  </field>

  <field name="samplingPacketSpace" dataType="unsigned32"
    dataTypeSemantics="quantity" elementId="306" status="current"
    group="sampling configuration">
    <description>
      <paragraph>
        This Information Element specifies the number of packets between
        two "samplingPacketInterval"s. A value of 100 means that the
        next interval starts 100 packets (which are not sampled)
        after the current "samplingPacketInterval" is over.

        For example, this Information Element may be used to describe
        the configuration of a systematic count-based Sampling Selector.
      </paragraph>
    </description>
    <units>packets</units>
  </field>

  <field name="samplingTimeInterval" dataType="dateTimeMicroseconds"
    dataTypeSemantics="quantity" elementId="307" status="current"
    group="sampling configuration">
    <description>
      <paragraph>
        This Information Element specifies the time interval in
        microseconds during which all arriving packets are sampled.

        For example, this Information Element may be used to describe
        the configuration of a systematic time-based Sampling Selector.
      </paragraph>
    </description>
    <units>microseconds</units>
  </field>

  <field name="samplingTimeSpace" dataType="dateTimeMicroseconds"
    dataTypeSemantics="quantity" elementId="308" status="current"
    group="sampling configuration">
    <description>
      <paragraph>
        This Information Element specifies the time interval in
        microseconds between two "samplingTimeInterval"s. A value of 100
        means that the next interval starts 100 microseconds
        (during which no packets are sampled) after the current
        "samplingTimeInterval" is over.

        For example, this Information Element may used to describe the
        configuration of a systematic time-based Sampling Selector.
      </paragraph>



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    </description>
    <units>microseconds</units>
  </field>

  <field name="samplingSize" dataType="unsigned32"
    dataTypeSemantics="quantity" elementId="309" status="current"
    group="sampling configuration">
    <description>
      <paragraph>
        This Information Element specifies the number of elements taken
        from the parent Population for random Sampling methods.

        For example, this Information Element may be used to describe
        the configuration of a random n-out-of-N Sampling Selector.
      </paragraph>
    </description>
    <units>packets</units>
  </field>

  <field name="samplingPopulation" dataType="unsigned32"
    dataTypeSemantics="quantity" elementId="310" status="current"
    group="sampling configuration">
    <description>
      <paragraph>
        This Information Element specifies the number of elements in the
        parent Population for random Sampling methods.

        For example, this Information Element may be used to describe
        the configuration of a random n-out-of-N Sampling Selector.
      </paragraph>
    </description>
    <units>packets</units>
  </field>

  <field name="samplingProbability" dataType="float64"
    dataTypeSemantics="quantity" elementId="311" status="current"
    group="sampling configuration">
    <description>
      <paragraph>
        This Information Element specifies the probability that a packet
        is sampled, expressed as a value between 0 and 1. The
        probability is equal for every packet. A value of 0 means no
        packet was sampled since the probability is 0.

        For example, this Information Element may be used to describe
        the configuration of a uniform probabilistic Sampling Selector.
      </paragraph>
    </description>



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  </field>

  <field name="ipHeaderPacketSection" dataType="octetArray"
    dataTypeSemantics="quantity" elementId="313" status="current"
    group="packet data">
    <description>
      <paragraph>
        This Information Element, which may have a variable length,
        carries a series of octets from the start of the IP header of a
        sampled packet.

        With sufficient length, this element also reports octets from
        the IP payload, subject to [RFC2804]. See the Security
        Considerations section.

        The size of the exported section may be constrained due to
        limitations in the IPFIX protocol.

        The data for this field MUST NOT be padded.
      </paragraph>
    </description>
  </field>

  <field name="ipPayloadPacketSection" dataType="octetArray"
    dataTypeSemantics="quantity" elementId="314" status="current"
    group="packet data">
    <description>
      <paragraph>
        This Information Element, which may have a variable length,
        carries a series of octets from the start of the IP payload of a
        sampled packet.

        The IPv4 payload is that part of the packet which follows the
        IPv4 header and any options, which [RFC0791] refers to as "data"
        or "data octets". e.g., see the examples in [RFC0791] APPENDIX
        A.

        The IPv6 payload is the rest of the packet following the 40
        octet IPv6 header. Note that any extension headers present are
        considered part of the payload. See [RFC2460] for the IPv6
        specification.

        The size of the exported section may be constrained due to
        limitations in the IPFIX protocol.

        The data for this field MUST NOT be padded.
      </paragraph>
    </description>



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  </field>

  <field name="mplsLabelStackSection" dataType="octetArray"
    dataTypeSemantics="quantity" elementId="316" status="current"
    group="packet data">
    <description>
      <paragraph>
        This Information Element, which may have a variable length,
        carries the first n octets from the MPLS label stack of a
        sampled packet.

        With sufficient length, this element also reports octets from
        the MPLS payload, subject to [RFC2804]. See the Security
        Considerations section.

        See [RFC3031] for the specification of MPLS packets.

        See [RFC3032] for the specification of the MPLS label stack.

        The size of the exported section may be constrained due to
        limitations in the IPFIX protocol.

        The data for this field MUST NOT be padded.
      </paragraph>
    </description>
  </field>

  <field name="mplsPayloadPacketSection" dataType="octetArray"
    dataTypeSemantics="quantity" elementId="317" status="current"
    group="packet data">
    <description>
      <paragraph>
        This Information Element, which may have a variable length,
        carries the first n octets from the MPLS payload of a sampled
        packet, being data that follows immediately after the MPLS label
        stack.

        See [RFC3031] for the specification of MPLS packets.

        See [RFC3032] for the specification of the MPLS label stack.

        The size of the exported section may be constrained due to
        limitations in the IPFIX protocol.

        The data for this field MUST NOT be padded.
      </paragraph>
    </description>
  </field>



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  <field name="selectorIdTotalPktsObserved" dataType="unsigned64"
    dataTypeSemantics="totalCounter" elementId="318" status="current"
    group="statistics">
    <description>
      <paragraph>
        This Information Element specifies the total number of packets
        observed by a Selector, for a specific value of SelectorId.

        This Information Element should be used in an option template
        scoped to the observation to which it refers.
        See section 3.4.2.1 of the IPFIX Information Model [RFC5102].
      </paragraph>
    </description>
    <units>packets</units>
  </field>

  <field name="selectorIdTotalPktsSelected" dataType="unsigned64"
    dataTypeSemantics="totalCounter" elementId="319" status="current"
    group="statistics">
    <description>
      <paragraph>
        This Information Element specifies the total number of packets
        selected by a Selector, for a specific value of SelectorId.

        This Information Element should be used in an option template
        scoped to the observation to which it refers.
        See section 3.4.2.1 of the IPFIX Information Model [RFC5102].
        </paragraph>
    </description>
    <units>packets</units>
  </field>

  <field name="absoluteError" dataType="float64"
    dataTypeSemantics="quantity" elementId="320" status="current"
    group="statistics">
    <description>
      <paragraph>
        This Information Element specifies the maximum possible
        measurement error of the reported value for a given Information
        Element. The absoluteError has the same unit as the Information
        Element it is associated with. The real value of the metric can
        differ by absoluteError (positive or negative) from the
        measured value.

        This Information Element provides only the
        error for measured values.  If an Information Element contains
        an estimated value (from sampling), the confidence boundaries
        and confidence level have to be provided instead, using the



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        upperCILimit, lowerCILimit and confidenceLevel Information
        Elements.

        This Information Element should be used in an option template
        scoped to the observation to which it refers.
        See section 3.4.2.1 of the IPFIX Information Model [RFC5102].
      </paragraph>
    </description>
    <units>
      The units of the Information Element for which the error is
      specified.
    </units>
  </field>

  <field name="relativeError" dataType="float64"
    dataTypeSemantics="quantity" elementId="321" status="current"
    group="statistics">
    <description>
      <paragraph>
        This Information Element specifies the maximum possible positive
        or negative error ratio for the reported value for a given
        Information Element as percentage of the measured value.
        The real value of the metric can differ by relativeError percent
        (positive or negative) from the measured value.

        This Information Element
        provides only the error for measured values. If an Information
        Element contains an estimated value (from sampling), the
        confidence boundaries and confidence level have to be provided
        instead, using the upperCILimit, lowerCILimit and
        confidenceLevel Information Elements.

        This Information Element should be used in an option template
        scoped to the observation to which it refers.
        See section 3.4.2.1 of the IPFIX Information Model [RFC5102].
      </paragraph>
    </description>
  </field>

  <field name="observationTimeSeconds" dataType="dateTimeSeconds"
    dataTypeSemantics="quantity" elementId="322" status="current"
    group="timestamps">
    <description>
      <paragraph>
        This Information Element specifies the absolute time in seconds
        of an observation.
      </paragraph>
    </description>



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    <units>seconds</units>
  </field>

  <field name="observationTimeMilliseconds"
    dataType="dateTimeMilliseconds" dataTypeSemantics="quantity"
    elementId="323" status="current" group="timestamps">
    <description>
      <paragraph>
        This Information Element specifies the absolute time in
        milliseconds of an observation.
      </paragraph>
    </description>
    <units>milliseconds</units>
  </field>

  <field name="observationTimeMicroseconds"
    dataType="dateTimeMicroseconds" dataTypeSemantics="quantity"
    elementId="324" status="current" group="timestamps">
    <description>
      <paragraph>
        This Information Element specifies the absolute time in
        microseconds of an observation.
      </paragraph>
    </description>
    <units>microseconds</units>
  </field>

  <field name="observationTimeNanoseconds"
    dataType="dateTimeNanoseconds" dataTypeSemantics="quantity"
    elementId="325" status="current" group="timestamps">
    <description>
      <paragraph>
        This Information Element specifies the absolute time in
        nanoseconds of an observation.
      </paragraph>
    </description>
    <units>nanoseconds</units>
  </field>

  <field name="digestHashValue" dataType="unsigned64"
    dataTypeSemantics="quantity" elementId="326" status="current"
    group="hash configuration">
    <description>
      <paragraph>
        This Information Element specifies the value from the digest
        hash function.

        See also sections 6.2, 3.8 and 7.1 of



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        [I-D.ietf-psamp-sample-tech].
      </paragraph>
    </description>
  </field>

  <field name="hashIPPayloadOffset" dataType="unsigned64"
    dataTypeSemantics="quantity" elementId="327" status="current"
    group="hash configuration">
    <description>
      <paragraph>
        This Information Element specifies the IP payload offset used by
        a hash based Selector.

        See also sections 6.2, 3.8 and 7.1 of
        [I-D.ietf-psamp-sample-tech].
      </paragraph>
    </description>
  </field>

  <field name="hashIPPayloadSize" dataType="unsigned64"
    dataTypeSemantics="quantity" elementId="328" status="current"
    group="hash configuration">
    <description>
      <paragraph>
        This Information Element specifies the IP payload size used by a
        hash based Selector.
        See also sections 6.2, 3.8 and 7.1 of
        [I-D.ietf-psamp-sample-tech].
      </paragraph>
    </description>
  </field>

  <field name="hashOutputRangeMin" dataType="unsigned64"
    dataTypeSemantics="quantity" elementId="329" status="current"
    group="hash configuration">
    <description>
      <paragraph>
        This Information Element specifies the value for the beginning
        of a hash function's potential output range.

        See also sections 6.2, 3.8 and 7.1 of
        [I-D.ietf-psamp-sample-tech].
      </paragraph>
    </description>
  </field>

  <field name="hashOutputRangeMax" dataType="unsigned64"
    dataTypeSemantics="quantity" elementId="330" status="current"



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    group="hash configuration">
    <description>
      <paragraph>
        This Information Element specifies the value for the end of a
        hash function's potential output range.

        See also sections 6.2, 3.8 and 7.1 of
        [I-D.ietf-psamp-sample-tech].
      </paragraph>
    </description>
  </field>

  <field name="hashSelectedRangeMin" dataType="unsigned64"
    dataTypeSemantics="quantity" elementId="331" status="current"
    group="hash configuration">
    <description>
      <paragraph>
        This Information Element specifies the value for the beginning
        of a hash function's selected range.

        See also sections 6.2, 3.8 and 7.1 of
        [I-D.ietf-psamp-sample-tech].
      </paragraph>
    </description>
  </field>

  <field name="hashSelectedRangeMax" dataType="unsigned64"
    dataTypeSemantics="quantity" elementId="332" status="current"
    group="hash configuration">
    <description>
      <paragraph>
        This Information Element specifies the value for the end of a
        hash function's selected range.

        See also sections 6.2, 3.8 and 7.1 of
        [I-D.ietf-psamp-sample-tech].
      </paragraph>
    </description>
  </field>

  <field name="hashDigestOutput" dataType="boolean"
    dataTypeSemantics="quantity" elementId="333" status="current"
    group="hash configuration">
    <description>
      <paragraph>
        This Information Element contains a boolean value which is TRUE
        if the output from this hash Selector has been configured to be
        included in the packet report as a packet digest, else FALSE.



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        See also sections 6.2, 3.8 and 7.1 of
        [I-D.ietf-psamp-sample-tech].
      </paragraph>
    </description>
  </field>

  <field name="hashInitialiserValue" dataType="unsigned64"
    dataTypeSemantics="quantity" elementId="334" status="current"
    group="hash configuration">
    <description>
      <paragraph>
        This Information Element specifies the initialiser value to the
        hash function.

        See also sections 6.2, 3.8 and 7.1 of
        [I-D.ietf-psamp-sample-tech].
      </paragraph>
    </description>
  </field>

  <field name="upperCILimit" dataType="float64"
    dataTypeSemantics="quantity" elementId="336" status="current"
    group="statistics">
    <description>
      <paragraph>
        This Information Element specifies the upper limit of a
        confidence interval. It is used to provide an accuracy
        statement for an estimated value. The confidence limits
        define the range in which the real value is assumed to be
        with a certain probability p. Confidence limits always need
        to be associated with a confidence level that defines this
        probability p. Please note that a confidence interval only
        provides a probability that the real values lies within the
        limits. That means the real value can lie outside the
        confidence limits.

        The upperCILimit, lowerCILimit and confidenceLevel
        Information Elements should all be used in an option template
        scoped to the observation to which they refer.
        See section 3.4.2.1 of the IPFIX Information Model [RFC5102].

        Note that the upperCILimit, lowerCILimit and confidenceLevel
        are all required to specify confidence, and should be
        disregarded unless all three are specified together.
      </paragraph>
    </description>
    </field>




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  <field name="lowerCILimit" dataType="float64"
    dataTypeSemantics="quantity" elementId="337" status="current"
    group="statistics">
    <description>
      <paragraph>
        This Information Element specifies the lower limit of a
        confidence interval. For further information see the
        description of upperCILimit.

        The upperCILimit, lowerCILimit and confidenceLevel
        Information Elements should all be used in an option template
        scoped to the observation to which they refer.
        See section 3.4.2.1 of the IPFIX Information Model [RFC5102].

        Note that the upperCILimit, lowerCILimit and confidenceLevel
        are all required to specify confidence, and should be
        disregarded unless all three are specified together.
      </paragraph>
    </description>
  </field>

  <field name="confidenceLevel" dataType="float64"
    dataTypeSemantics="quantity" elementId="338" status="current"
    group="statistics">
    <description>
      <paragraph>
        This Information Element specifies the confidence level. It is
        used to provide an accuracy statement for estimated values.
        The confidence level provides the probability p with which the
        real value lies within a given range. A confidence level
        always needs to be associated with confidence limits that
        define the range in which the real value is assumed to be.

        The upperCILimit, lowerCILimit and confidenceLevel
        Information Elements should all be used in an option template
        scoped to the observation to which they refer.
        See section 3.4.2.1 of the IPFIX Information Model [RFC5102].

        Note that the upperCILimit, lowerCILimit and confidenceLevel
        are all required to specify confidence, and should be
        disregarded unless all three are specified together.
      </paragraph>
    </description>
  </field>

</fieldDefinitions>





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Authors' Addresses

   Thomas Dietz
   NEC Europe Ltd.
   NEC Laboratories Europe
   Network Research Division
   Kurfuersten-Anlage 36
   Heidelberg  69115
   Germany

   Phone: +49 6221 4342-128
   Email: Thomas.Dietz@nw.neclab.eu
   URI:   http://www.nw.neclab.eu/


   Benoit Claise
   Cisco Systems, Inc.
   De Kleetlaan 6a b1
   Degem  1813
   Belgium

   Phone: +32 2 704 5622
   Email: bclaise@cisco.com


   Paul Aitken
   Cisco Systems, Inc.
   96 Commercial Quay
   Edinburgh  EH6 6LX
   Scotland

   Phone: +44 131 561 3616
   Email: paitken@cisco.com
   URI:   http://www.cisco.com/


   Falko Dressler
   University of Erlangen-Nuremberg
   Dept. of Computer Sciences
   Martensstr. 3
   Erlangen  91058
   Germany

   Phone: +49 9131 85-27914
   Email: dressler@informatik.uni-erlangen.de
   URI:   http://www7.informatik.uni-erlangen.de/~dressler





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   Georg Carle
   Technical University of Munich
   Institute for Informatics
   Boltzmannstr. 3
   Garching bei Muenchen  85737
   Germany

   Phone: +49 89 289-18030
   Email: carle@in.tum.de
   URI:   http://www.net.in.tum.de/~carle/









































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Full Copyright Statement

   Copyright (C) The IETF Trust (2008).

   This document is subject to the rights, licenses and restrictions
   contained in BCP 78, and except as set forth therein, the authors
   retain all their rights.

   This document and the information contained herein are provided on an
   "AS IS" basis and THE CONTRIBUTOR, THE ORGANIZATION HE/SHE REPRESENTS
   OR IS SPONSORED BY (IF ANY), THE INTERNET SOCIETY, THE IETF TRUST AND
   THE INTERNET ENGINEERING TASK FORCE DISCLAIM ALL WARRANTIES, EXPRESS
   OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO ANY WARRANTY THAT THE USE OF
   THE INFORMATION HEREIN WILL NOT INFRINGE ANY RIGHTS OR ANY IMPLIED
   WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.


Intellectual Property

   The IETF takes no position regarding the validity or scope of any
   Intellectual Property Rights or other rights that might be claimed to
   pertain to the implementation or use of the technology described in
   this document or the extent to which any license under such rights
   might or might not be available; nor does it represent that it has
   made any independent effort to identify any such rights.  Information
   on the procedures with respect to rights in RFC documents can be
   found in BCP 78 and BCP 79.

   Copies of IPR disclosures made to the IETF Secretariat and any
   assurances of licenses to be made available, or the result of an
   attempt made to obtain a general license or permission for the use of
   such proprietary rights by implementers or users of this
   specification can be obtained from the IETF on-line IPR repository at
   http://www.ietf.org/ipr.

   The IETF invites any interested party to bring to its attention any
   copyrights, patents or patent applications, or other proprietary
   rights that may cover technology that may be required to implement
   this standard.  Please address the information to the IETF at
   ietf-ipr@ietf.org.











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