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Versions: 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 RFC 5086

    Network Working Group      A. Vainshtein - Editor (Axerra Networks)
    INTERNET-DRAFT                          I. Sasson (Axerra Networks)
    Expiration Date:                              E. Metz (TNO Telecom)
    April 2006                         T. Frost (Zarlink Semiconductor)
                                            P. Pate (Overture Networks)

                                                          October 2005

   Structure-aware TDM Circuit Emulation Service over Packet Switched
                           Network (CESoPSN)

                     draft-ietf-pwe3-cesopsn-05.txt


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ABSTRACT

This document describes a method for encapsulating structured (NxDS0)
TDM signals as pseudo-wires over packet-switching networks (PSN). In
this regard, it complements similar work for structure-agnostic
emulation of TDM bit-streams [PWE3-SAToP].


TABLE OF CONTENTS

1. Introduction......................................................2
2. Terminology and Reference Models..................................3
  2.1. Terminology...................................................3
  2.2. Reference Models..............................................4
  2.3. Requirements and Design Constraint............................4
3. Emulated Services.................................................5
4. IANA Considerations...............................................5

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   Structured TDM Circuit Emulation Service over PSN      October 2005

5. CESoPSN Encapsulation Layer.......................................6
  5.1. CESoPSN Packet Format.........................................6
  5.2. PSN and Multiplexing Layer Headers............................7
  5.3. CESoPSN Control Word..........................................8
  5.4. Usage of the RTP header......................................10
6. CESoPSN Payload Layer............................................11
  6.1. Common Payload Format Considerations.........................11
  6.2. Basic NxDS0 Services.........................................11
  6.3. Extending Basic NxDS0 Services with CE Application Signaling.13
  6.4. Trunk-Specific NxDS0 Services with CAS.......................14
7. CESoPSN Operation................................................16
  7.1. Common Considerations........................................16
  7.2. IWF operation................................................17
    7.2.1. PSN-bound Direction......................................17
    7.2.2. CE-bound Direction.......................................17
  7.3. CESoPSN Defects..............................................19
  7.4. CESoPSN PW Performance Monitoring............................20
8. QoS Issues.......................................................20
9. Congestion Control (RFC 2914) Conformance........................21
10. Security Considerations.........................................21
11. Applicability Statement.........................................21
12. Disclaimer of Validity..........................................22
13. NORMATIVE REFERENCES............................................23
14. INFORMATIVE REFERENCES..........................................24
ANNEX A. A COMMON CE APPLICATION STATE SIGNALING MECHANISM..........26
Annex B. Reference PE Architecture for Emulation of NxDS0 SERvices..27
Annex C. Old Mode of CESoPSN Encapsulation over L2TPv3..............29


1. Introduction

This document describes a method for structure-aware encapsulation
structured of NxDS0 TDM signals as pseudo-wires over packet-switching
networks (PSN). In this regard, it complements similar work for for
structure-agnostic emulation of TDM bit-streams [PWE3-SAToP].

Ability to emulate NxDS0 circuits provides for saving PSN bandwidth,
supports DS0-level grooming and distributed cross-connect applications.
It also enhances resilience of CE devices to effects of loss of packets
in the PSN.

The CESoPSN solution presented in this document fits the PWE3
architecture described in [PWE3-ARCH], satisfies the general
requirements put forward in [PWE3-REQ] and specific requirements for
structured TDM emulation put forward in [PWE3-TDM-REQ].









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2. Terminology and Reference Models

   2.1. Terminology

The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
"SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
document are to be interpreted as described in [RFC2119].


The terms defined in [PWE3-ARCH], Section 1.4 are consistently used
without additional explanations.

This document uses some terms and acronyms that are commonly used in
conjunction with the TDM services. In particular:

o  Loss of Signal (LOS) is a common term denoting a condition
    where a valid TDM signal cannot be extracted from the
    physical layer of the trunk. Actual criteria for detecting
    and clearing LOS are described in [G.775]
o  Frame Alignment Signal (FAS) is a common term denoting a
    special periodic pattern that is used to impose TDM
    structures on E1, T1, E3 and T3 circuits. Actual FAS
    patterns are described in [G.704] (E1, T1 and T3) and
    [G.751] (E3)
o  Out of Frame Synchronization (OOF) is a common term
    denoting the state of the receiver of a TDM signal when it
    failed to find valid FAS. Actual criteria for declaring and
    clearing OOF are described in [G.706]. Handling of this
    condition includes invalidation of the TDM data
o  Alarm Indication Signal (AIS) is a common term denoting a
    special bit pattern in the TDM bit stream that indicates
    presence of an upstream circuit outage. Actual criteria for
    declaring and clearing the AIS condition in a TDM stream
    are defined in [G.775]
o  Remote Alarm Indication (RAI) and Remote Defect Indication
    (RDI) are common terms (often used as synonyms) denoting a
    special pattern in the framing of a TDM service that is
    sent back by the receiver that experiences an AIS
    condition. This condition cannot be detected while a LOS,
    OOF or AIS condition is detected. Specific rules for
    encoding this pattern in the TDM framing are discussed in
    [G.775]
o  Channel-Associated Signaling (CAS) is a common term
    describing one of the methods of exchanging signals between
    telephony applications. CAS is based on allocation of up to
    4 constant-rate synchronous bit-streams for each Voice-
    carrying DS0 channel in an E1 or T1 trunk. (These bit-
    streams are commonly denoted A, B, C and D.) The actual
    methods of carrying the sets of these bit streams
    isochronously in an E1 or T1 trunk and establishing
    association between a specific DS0 channel with an
    appropriate set of these bit streams are described in
    [G.704].

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Note: CAS can be interpreted in two different ways. A "synchronous"
interpretation treats it as a set of synchronous bit-streams, while a
"signaling" interpretation treats it as a method to encode signals
reflecting change of state of telephony applications based upon
generation and detection of certain stable bit patterns in the CAS-
related bit-streams. The most commonly used patterns include "stable
ones" and "stable zeroes"; (i.e., two states per bit-stream); in some
cases they are augmented by a "stable alternate pattern" (providing the
3rd state of the bit-stream). The combination of these patterns allows
encoding of up to 16 different telephony application states. Most
modern E1 and T1 framers support both approaches by providing:

1. For the synchronous approach - dedicated pins that allow
    extraction/insertion of the relevant constant-rate bit-streams into
    appropriate positions in the E1 or T1 trunk
2. For the signaling approach:
    a) Dedicated memory-mapped registers which allow reading the actual
       stabilized CAS bits values and writing the desired combination
       of CAS bits values to be inserted into the resulting E1 or T1
       trunk
    b) Generation of interrupts when a de-bounced change of CAS bits
       has been detected.

Note: Another method of exchanging signals between telephony
applications is called Common Channel Signaling (CCS). This method is
not considered in this document in detail.

   2.2. Reference Models

Generic models that have been defined in Sections 4.1, 4.2 and 4.4 of
[PWE3-ARCH] are fully applicable for the purposes of this document
without any modifications.

The Network Synchronization reference model and deployment scenarios
for emulation of TDM services have been described in [PWE3-TDM-REQ],
Section 4.2.

Structured services considered in this document represent special cases
of the structured bit stream payload type defined in Section 3.3.4 of
[PWE3-ARCH]. In each specific case the basic service structures that
are preserved by a CESoPSN PW are explicitly specified (see Section 3
below).

In accordance with the principle of minimum intervention ([PWE3-ARCH],
Section 3.3.5) the TDM payload is encapsulated without any changes.

   2.3. Requirements and Design Constraint

The CESoPSN protocol has been designed in order to meet the following
design constrains:



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1. Fixed amount of TDM data per packet: All the packets belonging to a
    given CESoPSN PW MUST carry the same amount of TDM data. This
    approach simplifies compensation of a lost PW packet with a packet
    carrying exactly the same amount of "replacement" TDM data
2. Fixed end-to-end delay: CESoPSN implementations SHOULD provide the
    same end-to-end delay between any given pair of PEs regardless of
    the bit-rate of the emulated service.
3. Packetization latency range:
    a) All the implementations of CESoPSN SHOULD support packetization
       latencies in the range 1 to 5 milliseconds
    b) CESoPSN implementations that support configurable packetization
       latency MUST allow configuration of this parameter with the
       granularity which is a multiple of 125 microseconds
4. Common data path for services with and without CE application
    signaling: if, in addition to TDM data, CE signaling must be
    transferred between a pair of CE devices for the normal operation
    of the emulated service, this signaling is passed in dedicated
    signaling packets specific for the signaling protocol while format
    and processing of the packets carrying TDM data remains unchanged.

3. Emulated Services

In accordance with [PWE3-TDM-REQ], structured services considered in
this specification are NxDS0 services with and without CAS.

NxDS0 services are usually carried within appropriate physical trunks,
and PEs providing their emulation include appropriate Native Service
Processing (NSP) blocks commonly referred to as Framers.

The NSPs may also act as digital cross-connects, creating structured
TDM services from multiple synchronous trunks. As a consequence, the
service may contain more timeslots that could be carried over any
single trunk, or the timeslots may not originate from any single trunk.

The reference PE architecture supporting these services is described in
Annex B.

This document defines a single format for packets carrying TDM data
regardless of the need to carry CAS or any other CE application
signaling. The resulting "basic NxDS0 service" can be extended to carry
CE application signaling (e.g. CAS) using separate signaling packets.
Signaling packets MAY be carried in the same PW as the packets carrying
TDM data or in a separate dedicated PW.

In addition, this document also defines dedicated formats for carrying
NxDS0 services with CAS in signaling sub-structures in some of the
packets. These formats effectively differ for NxDS0 services that
originated in different trunks so that their usage results in emulating
trunk-specific NxDS0 services with CAS.

4. IANA Considerations



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Allocation of PW Types for the corresponding CESoPSN PWs is defined in
[PWE3-IANA].


5. CESoPSN Encapsulation Layer
   5.1. CESoPSN Packet Format

The CESoPSN header MUST contain the CESoPSN Control Word (4 bytes) and
MAY also contain a fixed RTP header [RFC3550]. If the RTP header is
included in the CESoPSN header, it MUST immediately follow the CESoPSN
control word in all cases except UDP demultiplexing, where it
MUST precede it (see Fig. 1a, Fig. 1b and Fig. 1c below).

Note: Such an arrangement complies with the traditional usage of RTP
for the IPv4/IPv6 PSN with UDP demultiplexing while making CESoPSN PWs
ECMP-safe for the MPLS PSN by providing for PW-IP packet
discrimination(see [PWE3-ARCH], Section 5.4.3) and facilitating smooth
stitching of L2TPv3-based and MPLS-based segments of CESoPSN PWs (see
[PWE3-MS]).

Note: Both UDP and L2TPv3 can provide the multiplexing mechanisms for
CESoPSN PWs over an IPv4/IPv6 PSN.


 0               1               2               3
 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
|                           ...                                 |
|        IPv4/IPv6 and UDP (demultiplexing layer) headers       |
|                           ...                                 |
+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+
|                       OPTIONAL                                |
+--                                                           --+
|                                                               |
+--                                                           --+
|                 Fixed RTP Header (see [RFC3550])              |
+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+
|                  CESoPSN Control Word                         |
+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+
|                Packetized TDM data (Payload)                  |
|                            ...                                |
|                            ...                                |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

     Figure 1a. CESoPSN Packet Format for an IPv4/IPv6 PSN with
     UDP demultiplexing








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 0               1               2               3
 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
|                           ...                                 |
|                    MPLS Label Stack                           |
|                           ...                                 |
+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+
|                  CESoPSN Control Word                         |
+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+
|                       OPTIONAL                                |
+--                                                           --+
|                                                               |
+--                                                           --+
|                 Fixed RTP Header (see [RFC3550])              |
+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+
|                  Packetized TDM data (Payload)                |
|                            ...                                |
|                            ...                                |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

  Figure 1b. CESoPSN Packet Format for an MPLS PSN


0               1               2               3
 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
|                           ...                                 |
|         IPv4/IPv6 and L2TPv3 (demultiplexing layer) headers   |
|                           ...                                 |
+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+
|                  CESoPSN Control Word                         |
+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+
|                       OPTIONAL                                |
+--                                                           --+
|                                                               |
+--                                                           --+
|                 Fixed RTP Header (see [RFC3550])              |
+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+
|                   Packetized TDM data (Payload)               |
|                            ...                                |
|                            ...                                |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

     Figure 1c. CESoPSN Packet Format for an IPv4/IPv6 PSN with
                L2TPv3 DeMultiplexing



   5.2. PSN and Multiplexing Layer Headers

The total size of a CESoPSN packet for a specific PW MUST NOT exceed
path MTU between the pair of PEs terminating this PW.


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CESoPSN implementations working with IPv4 PSN MUST set the "Don't
Fragment" flag in IP headers of the packets they generate.

Usage of MPLS and L2TPv3 as demultiplexing layers is explained in
[PWE3-ARCH] and [L2TPv3] respectively.

UDP as the multiplexing mechanism for PWs SHOULD be used with manual
configuration of both source and destination UDP ports.

In addition, CESoPSN assumes that UDP-based demultiplexing is aligned
with traditional demultiplexing of peer-to-peer applications, i.e.:

1. Each CESoPSN IWF instance is associated with ("local association"):
    a) One of the routable IP addresses of its containing PE. This IP
       address is treated as the local end-point of the PSN tunnel
    b) A unique (within the scope defined by this address) UDP port
       number that is used as the local demultiplexor of the CESoPSN PW
       packets within the corresponding PSN tunnel
2. Each CESoPSN IWF instance is aware (e.g., by configuration) of the
    similar association of its remote peer ("remote association") and,
    in each packet it generates, uses:
    a) The IP address and the UDP port number of its "remote"
       association as correspondingly the Destination IP address and
       UDP port
    b) The IP address and the UDP port number of its "local"
       association as correspondingly the Source IP address and UDP
       port.

   5.3. CESoPSN Control Word

The structure of the CESoPSN Control Word is shown in Fig. 2 below.

    0                   1                   2                   3
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |0|0|0|0|L|R| M |FRG|   LEN     |       Sequence number         |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

              Figure 2. Structure of the CESoPSN Control Word

Bits 0 to 3 MUST be set to 0 as described in [PWE3-CW].

L - if set, indicates some abnormal condition of the
    attachment circuit.
M - a 2-bit modifier field. In case of L cleared allows
    discrimination of signaling packets, carrying RDI of the
    attachment circuit across the PSN etc. In case of L set
    only the '00' value is currently defined, other values are
    reserved for future extensions. L and M bits can be
    treated as a 3-bit code point space that is described in
    detail in Table 1 below



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R - if set by the PSN-bound IWF, indicates that its local CE-bound
    IWF is in the packet loss state, i.e. has lost a preconfigured
    number of consecutive packets. The R bit MUST be cleared by the
    PSN-bound IWF once its local CE-bound IWF has exited the packet
    loss state, i.e. has received a preconfigured number of
    consecutive packets.

|=================================================================|
| L |  M  |               Code Point Interpretation               |
|===|=====|=======================================================|
| 0 | 00  | CESoPSN data packet - normal situation. All CESoPSN   |
|   |     | implementations MUST recognize this code point.       |
|   |     | Payload MUST be played out "as received".             |
|---|-----|-------------------------------------------------------|
| 0 | 01  | Reserved for future extensions.                       |
|---|-----|-------------------------------------------------------|
| 0 | 10  | CESoPSN data packet, RDI condition of the AC. All     |
|   |     | CESoPSN implementations MUST support this codepoint:  |
|   |     I payload MUST be played out "as received", and, if     |
|   |     | so configured, the receiving CESoPSN IWF instance     |
|   |     | SHOULD be able to command the NSP to force the RDI    |
|   |     | condition on the outgoing TDM trunk.                  |
|---|-----|-------------------------------------------------------|
| 0 | 11  | Reserved for CESoPSN signaling packets.               |
|---|-----|-------------------------------------------------------|
| 1 | 00  | TDM data is invalid, payload MAY be omitted. All      |
|   |     | implementations MUST recognize this code point and    |
|   |     | insert appropriate amount of the configured "idle     |
|   |     | code" in the outgoing attachment circuit. In addition,|
|   |     | if so configured, the receiving CESoPSN IWF instance  |
|   |     | SHOULD be able to force the AIS condition on the      |
|   |     | outgoing TDM trunk.                                   |
|---|-----|-------------------------------------------------------|
| 1 | 01  | Reserved for future extensions                        |
|---|-----|-------------------------------------------------------|
| 1 | 10  | Reserved for future extensions                        |
|---|-----|-------------------------------------------------------|
| 1 | 11  | Reserved for future extensions                        |
|=================================================================|

Table 1. Interpretation of bits L and M in the CESoPSN CW.

Note: Implementations that do not support the reserved code points MUST
silently discard the corresponding packets upon reception.

The FRG bits in the CESoPSN control word MUST be cleared for all
services excluding trunk-specific NxDS0 with CAS. In case of these
services they MAY be used to denote fragmentation of the multiframe
structures between CESoPSN packets as described in [PWE3-FRAG], see
also below.




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LEN (bits (10 to 15) MAY be used to carry the length of the CESoPSN
packet (defined as the size of the CESoPSN header + the payload size)
if it is less than 64 bytes, and MUST be set to zero otherwise.

Sequence number is used to provide the common PW sequencing function as
well as detection of lost packets. It MUST be generated in accordance
with the rules defined in [RFC3550], Section 5 for the RTP sequence
number.

VCCV packets (see [PWE3-VCCV]) in CESopSN PWs MUST be discriminated by
setting the first nibble of the control word to '0001' regardless of
the PSN type and demultiplexing layer.


   5.4. Usage of the RTP header

When a fixed RTP header (see [RFC3550], Section 5.1) is used with
CESoPSN, its fields are used in the following way:

1. V (version) is always set to 2
2. P (padding), X (header extension), CC (CSRC count) and M (marker)
    are always set to 0
3. PT (payload type) is used as following:
    a) One PT value MUST be allocated from the range of dynamic values
       (see [RTP-TYPES]) for each direction of the PW. The same PT
       value MAY be reused for both directions of the PW and also
       reused between different PWs
    b) The PE at the PW ingress MUST set the PT field in the RTP header
       to the allocated value
    c) The PE at the PW egress MAY use the received value to detect
       malformed packets
4. Sequence number in the RTP header MUST be equal to the sequence
    number in the CESoPSN CW
5. Timestamps are used for carrying timing information over the
    network:
    a) Their values are generated in accordance with the rules
       established in [RFC3550]
    b) Frequency of the clock used for generating timestamps MUST be an
       integer multiple of 8 kHz. All implementations of CESoPSN MUST
       support the 8 kHz clock. Other frequencies that are integer
       multiples of 8 kHz MAY be used if both sides agree to that
    c) Possible modes of timestamp generation are discussed below
6. The SSRC (synchronization source) value in the RTP header MAY be
    used for detection of misconnections.

The RTP header in CESoPSN can be used in conjunction with at least the
following modes of timestamp generation:

1. Absolute mode: the ingress PE sets timestamps using the clock
    recovered from the incoming TDM circuit. As a consequence, the
    timestamps are closely correlated with the sequence numbers. All
    CESoPSN implementations MUST support this mode


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2. Differential mode: PE devices connected by the PW have access to
    the same high-quality synchronization source, and this
    synchronization source is used for timestamp generation. As a
    consequence, the second derivative of the timestamp series
    represents the difference between the common timing source and the
    clock of the incoming TDM circuit. Support of this mode is
    OPTIONAL.

6. CESoPSN Payload Layer
   6.1. Common Payload Format Considerations

All the services considered in this document are treated as sequences
of "basic structures" (see Section 3 above). The payload of a CESoPSN
packet always consists of a fixed number of octets filled, octet by
octet, with the data contained in the corresponding consequent basic
structures preserving octet alignment between these structures and the
packet payload boundaries in accordance with the following rules:

1. The order of the payload octets corresponds to their order on the
    TDM AC.
2. Consecutive bits coming from the TDM AC fill each payload octet
    starting from its most significant bit to the least significant
    one.
3. All the CESoPSN packets MUST carry the same amount of valid TDM
    data in both directions of the PW. In other words, the time that is
    required to fill a CESoPSN packet with the TDM data must be
    constant. The PE devices terminating a CESoPSN PW MUST agree on the
    number of TDM payload octets in the PW packets for both directions
    of the PW at the time of the PW setup.

Notes:
1. CESoPSN packets MAY omit invalid TDM data in order to save the PSN
    BW. If the CESoPSN packet payload is omitted, the L bit in the
    CESoPSN control word MUST be set
2. CESoPSN PWs MAY carry CE signaling information either in separate
    packets or appended to packets carrying valid TDM data. If
    signaling information and valid TDM data are carried in the same
    CESoPSN packet, the amount of the former does not affect the amount
    of the latter.

   6.2. Basic NxDS0 Services

As mentioned above, the basic structure preserved across the PSN for
this service consists of n octets filled with the data of the
corresponding DS0 channels belonging to the same frame of the
originating trunk(s), and the service generates 8000 such structures
per second.

CESoPSN MUST use alignment of the basic structures with the packet
payload boundaries in order to carry the structures across the PSN.
This means that:



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1. The amount of TDM data in a CESoPSN packet MUST be either an
    integer multiple of the basic structure size
2. The first structure in the packet MUST start immediately at the
    beginning of the packet payload.

The resulting payload format is shown in Fig. 3 below.

                        0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
                   --- +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
                       |   Timeslot 1  |
                       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
                       |   Timeslot 2  |
          Frame #1     |      ...      |
                       |   Timeslot N  |
                   --- +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
                       |   Timeslot 1  |
                       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
                       |   Timeslot 2  |
          Frame #2     |      ...      |
                       |   Timeslot N  |
                   --- +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
          ...          |    ...        |
                   --- +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
                       |   Timeslot 1  |
                       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
                       |   Timeslot 2  |
          Frame #m     |      ...      |
                       |   Timeslot N  |
                   --- +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

Figure 3. The CESoPSN Packet Payload Format for the Basic NxDS0 Service

This mode of operation complies with the recommendation in [PWE3-ARCH]
to use similar encapsulations for structured bit stream and cell
generic payload types.

Packetization latency, number of timeslots and payload size are linked
by the following obvious relationship:

     L = 8*N*D

where:
     o  D is packetization latency, milliseconds
     o  L is packet payload size, octets
     o  N is number of DS0 channels.

CESoPSN implementations supporting NxDS0 services MUST support the
following set of configurable packetization latency values:

     o  For N = 1: 8 milliseconds (with the corresponding
         packet payload size of 64 bytes)
     o  For 2 <=N <= 4: 4 millisecond (with the corresponding
         packet payload size of 32*N bytes)

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     o  For N >= 5: 1 millisecond (with the corresponding
         packet payload size of 8*N octets).

Support of 5 ms packetization latency for N = 1 is RECOMMENDED.

Usage of any other packetization latency (packet payload size) that is
compatible with the restrictions given in Section 6.2.1 above is
OPTIONAL.

   6.3. Extending Basic NxDS0 Services with CE Application
     Signaling

Implementations that have chosen to extend the basic NxDS0 service to
support CE application state signaling carry encoded CE application
state signals in separate signaling packets.

Format of the CESoPSN signaling packets over IPv4/IPv6 and MPLS PSN for
the case when the CE maintains a separate application state per DS0
channel (e.g., CAS for the telephony applications) is shown in Fig. 4a
and 4b below respectively.

Signaling packets SHOULD be carried a separate dedicated PW. However,
implementations MAY carry them in the same PW as the TDM data packets
for the basic NxDS0 service. The methods of "pairing" the PWs carrying
TDM data and signaling packets for the same extended NxDS0 service are
our of scope of this document.

Regardless of the way signaling packets are carried across the PSN, the
following rules apply:

1. The CESoPSN signaling packets MUST:
    a) Use their own sequence numbers in the control word
    b) Set the flags in the control word like following:
       i)   L = 0
       ii)  M = '11'
       iii) R = 0
2. If RTP header is used in the data packets, it MUST be also used in
    the signaling packets with the following restrictions:
    a) An additional RTP payload type (from the range of dynamically
       allocated types) MUST be allocated for the signaling packets.
    b) In addition, the signaling packets MUST use their own SSRC
       value.

The protocol used to assure reliable delivery of signaling packets is
discussed in Annex A.









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    0                   1                   2                   3
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                           ...                                 |
   |              IPv4/IPv6 and multiplexing layer headers         |
   |                           ...                                 |
   +=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+
   |                OPTIONAL Fixed                                 |
   +--                                                           --+
   |                        RTP                                    |
   +--                                                           --+
   |                  Header (see [RFC3550])                       |
   +=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+
   |                  CESoPSN Control Word                         |
   +=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+
   | Encoded CE application state entry for the DS0 channel #1     |
   +--                                                           --+
   |                         ...                                   |
   +--                                                           --+
   | Encoded CE application state entry for the DS0 channel #N     |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

   Figure 4a. CESoPSN Signaling Packet Format over an IPv4/IPv6 PSN

    0                   1                   2                   3
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                           ...                                 |
   |                        MPLS Label Stack                       |
   |                           ...                                 |
   +=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+
   |                  CESoPSN Control Word                         |
   +=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+
   |                    OPTIONAL Fixed                             |
   +--                                                           --+
   |                        RTP                                    |
   +--                                                           --+
   |                  Header (see [RFC3550])                       |
   +=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+
   | Encoded CE application state entry for the DS0 channel #1     |
   +--                                                           --+
   |                         ...                                   |
   +--                                                           --+
   | Encoded CE application state entry for the DS0 channel #N     |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

   Figure 4b. CESoPSN Signaling Packet Format over an MPLS PSN

   6.4. Trunk-Specific NxDS0 Services with CAS

The structure preserved by CESoPSN for this group of services is the
trunk multiframe sub-divided into the trunk frames, and signaling
information is carried appended to the TDM data using the signaling

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substructures defined in [ATM-CES]. These substructures comprise N
consecutive nibbles, so that the i-th nibble carries CAS bits for the
i-th DS0 channel, and are padded with a dummy nibble for odd values of
N.

CESoPSN implementations supporting trunk-specific NxDS0 services with
CAS MUST NOT carry more TDM data per packet than is contained in a
single trunk multiframe.

All CESoPSN implementations supporting trunk-specific NxDS0 with CAS
MUST support the default mode where a single CESoPSN packet carries
exactly the amount of TDM data contained in exactly one trunk
multiframe and appended with the signaling sub-structure. The TDM data
is aligned with the packet payload. In this case:
1. Packetization latency is:
    a) 2 milliseconds for E1 NxDS0
    b) 3 milliseconds for T1 NxDS0
2. The packet payload size is:
    a) 16*n + floor((N+1)/2) for E1-NxDS0
    b) 24*n + floor((N+1)/2) for T1/ESF-NxDS0 and T1/SF-
       NxDS0
3. The packet payload format coincides with the multiframe
    structure described in [ATM-CES] (Section 2.3.1.2).

In order to provide lower packetization latency, CESoPSN
implementations for trunk-specific NxDS0 with CAS SHOULD support
fragmentation of multiframe structures between multiple CESoPSN
packets. In this case:

1. The FRG bits MUST be used to indicate first, intermediate and last
    fragment of a multiframe as described in [PWE3-FRAG]
2. The amount of the TDM data per CESoPSN packet must be constant.
3. Each multiframe fragment MUST comprise an integer multiple of the
    trunk frames
4. The signaling substructure MUST be appended to the last fragment of
    each multiframe.

Format of CESoPSN packets carrying trunk-specific NxDS0 service with
CAS that do and do not contain signaling substructures is shown in Fig.
5 (a) and (b) respectively. In these figures the number of the trunk
frames per multiframe fragment ("m") MUST be an integer divisor of the
number of frames per trunk multiframe.












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              0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7                   0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
         --- +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+             --- +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
             |   Timeslot 1  |                 |   Timeslot 1  |
             +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+                 +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
             |   Timeslot 2  |                 |   Timeslot 2  |
Frame #1     |      ...      |       Frame #1  |      ...      |
             |   Timeslot N  |                 |   Timeslot N  |
         --- +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+             --- +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
             |   Timeslot 1  |                 |   Timeslot 1  |
             +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+                 +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
             |   Timeslot 2  |       Frame #2  |   Timeslot 2  |
Frame #2     |      ...      |                 |      ...      |
             |   Timeslot N  |                 |   Timeslot N  |
         --- +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+             --- +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
...          |    ...        |                 |     ...       |
         --- +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+             --- +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
             |   Timeslot 1  |                 |   Timeslot 1  |
             +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+                 +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
             |   Timeslot 2  |                 |   Timeslot 2  |
Frame #m     |      ...      |        Frame #m |      ...      |
             |   Timeslot N  |                 |   Timeslot N  |
         --- +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+             --- +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
Nibbles 1,2  |A B C D|A B C D|
             +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
Nibbles 3,4  |A B C D|A B C D|
             +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
Nibble n     |A B C D| (pad) |
(odd) & pad  +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

             (a) The packet with               (b) The packet without
             the signaling structure           the signaling structure
             (the last fragment of             (not the last fragment
             the multiframe)                    of the multiframe)

Figure 5. The CESoPSN Packet Payload Format for
          Trunk-Specific NxDS0 with CAS

Notes:
1. In case of T1-NxDS0 with CAS, the signaling bits are
    carried in the TDM data as well as in the signaling
    substructure. However, the receiver MUST use the CAS bits
    as carried in the signaling substructures
2. In case of trunk-specific NxDS0 with CAS originating in a
    T1-SF trunk, each nibble of the signaling substructure
    contains A and B bits from two consecutive trunk
    multiframes as described in [ATM-CES].


7. CESoPSN Operation
   7.1. Common Considerations



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Edge-to-edge emulation of a TDM service using CESoPSN is only possible
when the two PW attachment circuits are of the same type (basic NxDS0
or one of the trunk-specific NxDS0 with CAS) and bit rate. The service
type and bit rate are exchanged at PW setup as described in [PWE3-
CONTROL].

   7.2. IWF operation

     7.2.1. PSN-bound Direction

Once the PW is set up, the PSN-bound CESoPSN IWF operates as follows:

TDM data is packetized using the configured number of payload bytes per
packet.

Sequence numbers, flags, and timestamps (if the RTP header is used) are
inserted in the CESoPSN headers and, for trunk-specific NxDS0 with CAS,
signaling substructures are appended to the packets carrying the last
fragment of a multiframe.

CESoPSN, multiplexing layer and PSN headers are prepended to the
packetized service data.

The resulting packets are transmitted over the PSN.

     7.2.2. CE-bound Direction

The CE-bound CESoPSN IWF SHOULD include a jitter buffer where payload
of the received CESoPSN packets is stored prior to play-out to the
local TDM attachment circuit. The size of this buffer SHOULD be locally
configurable to allow accommodation to the PSN-specific packet delay
variation.

The CE-bound CESoPSN IWF SHOULD use the sequence number in the control
word for detection of lost and mis-ordered packets. If the RTP header
is used, the RTP sequence numbers MAY be used for the same purposes.

The CE-bound CESoPSN IWF MAY re-order mis-ordered packets. Mis-ordered
packets that cannot be reordered MUST be discarded and treated as lost.

The payload of the received CESoPSN data packets marked with the L bit
set SHOULD be replaced by the equivalent amount of some locally
configured "idle" bit pattern even if it has not been omitted. In
addition, the CE-bound CESoPSN IWF will be locally configured to
command its local NSP to perform one of the following actions:

o  None (MUST be supported by all the implementations)
o  Transmit the AIS pattern towards the local CE on the E1 or T1 trunk
    carrying the local attachment circuit (support of this action is
    RECOMMENDED)
o  Send the "Channel Idle" signal to the local CE for all the DS0
    channels comprising the local attachment circuit (support of this
    action is OPTIONAL).

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If the data packets received are marked with L bit cleared and M bits
set to '10' or with R bit set, the CE-bound CESoPSN IWF will be locally
configured to command its local NSP to perform one of the following
actions:

o  None (MUST be supported by all the implementations)
o  Transmit the RAI pattern towards the local CE on the E1 or T1 trunk
    carrying the local attachment circuit (support of this action is
    RECOMMENDED)
o  Send the "Channel Idle" signal to the local CE for all the DS0
    channels comprising the local attachment circuit (support of this
    action is OPTIONAL and requires also that the CE-bound CES IWF
    replaces the actually received payload with the equivalent amount
    of the locally configured "idle" bit pattern.

Notes:

1. If the pair of IWFs at the two ends of the PW have been configured
    to force the TDM trunks carrying their ACs to transmit AIS upon
    reception of data packets with the L bit set and to transmit RAI
    upon reception of data packets with the R bit set or with the L bit
    cleared and M bits set to '10', this PW provides a BW-saving
    emulation of a fractional E1 or T1 service between the pair of CE
    devices
2. If the pair of IWFs at the two ends of the PW have been configured
    to signal "Channel Idle" CE application state to its local CE upon
    reception of packets marked with L bit set, R bit set or (L,M) set
    to '010' and to replace the actually received payload with the
    locally configured "idle" bit pattern, the resulting PW will comply
    with the requirements for Downstream Trunk conditioning as defined
    in [TR-NWT-170].
3. Usage of bits R,L and M described above additionally provides the
    tools for "single-ended" management of the CESoPSN pseudo-wires
    with ability to distinguish between the problems in the PSN and in
    the TDM attachment circuits.

The payload of each lost CESoPSN data packet MUST be replaced with the
equivalent amount of the replacement data. The contents of the
replacement data are implementation-specific and MAY be locally
configurable.  By default, all CESoPSN implementations MUST support
generation of the locally configurable "idle" pattern as the
replacement data.

Before a PW has been set up and after a PW has been torn down, the IWF
MUST play out the locally configurable "idle" pattern to its TDM
attachment circuit.

Once the PW has been set up, the CE-bound IWF begins to receive CESoPSN
packets and to store their payload in the jitter buffer but continues
to play out the locally configurable "idle" pattern to its TDM
attachment circuit. This intermediate state persists until a
preconfigured amount of TDM data (usually half of the jitter buffer)

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has been received in consecutive CESoPSN packets or until a
preconfigured intermediate state timer expires.

Once the preconfigured amount of the TDM data has been received, the
CE-bound CESoPSN IWF enters its normal operation state where it
continues to receive CESoPSN packets and to store their payload in the
jitter buffer while playing out the contents of the jitter buffer in
accordance with the required clock. In this state the CE-bound IWF
performs clock recovery, MAY monitor PW defects, and MAY collect PW
performance monitoring data.

If the CE-bound CESoPSN IWF detects loss of a preconfigured number of
consecutive packets or if the intermediate state timer expires before
the required amount of TDM data has been received, it enters its packet
loss state. While in this state:

o  The locally configurable "idle" pattern SHOULD be played out to the
    TDM attachment circuit
o  The local PSN-bound CESoPSN IWF SHOULD mark every packet it
    transmits with the R bit set.

   The CE-bound CESoPSN IWF leaves this state and transits to the
   normal one once a preconfigured number of consecutive CESoPSN
   packets have been received.

   7.3. CESoPSN Defects

In addition to the packet loss state of the CE-bound CESoPSN IWF
defined above, it MAY detect the following defects:

o  Stray packets
o  Malformed packets
o  Excessive packet loss rate
o  Buffer overrun
o  Remote packet loss.

Corresponding to each defect is a defect state of the IWF, a detection
criterion that triggers transition from the normal operation state to
the appropriate defect state, and an alarm that MAY be reported to the
management system and thereafter cleared. Alarms are only reported when
the defect state persists for a preconfigured amount of time (typically
2.5 seconds) and MUST be cleared after the corresponding defect is
undetected for a second preconfigured amount of time (typically 10
seconds). The trigger and release times for the various alarms may be
independent.

Stray packets MAY be detected by the PSN and multiplexing layers. When
RTP is used, the SSRC field in the RTP header MAY be used for this
purpose as well. Stray packets MUST be discarded by the CE-bound IWF
and their detection MUST NOT affect mechanisms for detection of packet
loss.



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Malformed packets are detected by mismatch between the expected packet
size (taking the value of the L bit into account) and the actual packet
size inferred from the PSN and multiplexing layers. When RTP is used,
lack of correspondence between the PT value and that allocated for this
direction of the PW MAY also be used for this purpose. Malformed in-
order packets MUST be discarded by the CE-bound IWF and replacement
data generated as for lost packets.

Excessive packet loss rate is detected by computing the average packet
loss rate over a configurable amount of times and comparing it with a
preconfigured threshold.

Buffer overrun is detected in the normal operation state when the
jitter buffer of the CE-bound IWF cannot accommodate newly arrived
CESoPSN packets.

Remote packet loss is indicated by reception of packets with their R
bit set.

   7.4. CESoPSN PW Performance Monitoring

Performance monitoring (PM) parameters are routinely collected for TDM
services and provide an important maintenance mechanism in TDM
networks. Ability to collect compatible PM parameters for CESoPSN PWs
enhances their maintenance capabilities.

Collection of the CESoPSN PW performance monitoring parameters is
OPTIONAL, and if implemented, is only performed after the CE-bound IWF
has exited its intermediate state.

CESoPSN defines error events, errored blocks and defects as follows:

o  A CESoPSN error event is defined as insertion of a single
    replacement packet into the jitter buffer (replacement of
    payload of CESoPSN packets with the L bit set is not
    considered as insertion of a replacement packet)
o  A CESoPSN errored data block is defined as a block of data
    played out to the TDM attachment circuit and of size
    defined in accordance with the [G.826] rules for the
    corresponding TDM service that has experienced at least one
    CESoPSN error event
o  A CESoPSN defect is defined as the packet loss state of the
    CE-bound CESoPSN IWF.

The CESoPSN PW PM parameters (Errored, Severely Errored and Unavailable
Seconds) are derived from these definitions in accordance with [G.826].

8. QoS Issues

If the PSN providing connectivity between PE devices is Diffserv-
enabled and provides a PDB [RFC3086] that guarantees low-jitter and
low-loss, the CESoPSN PW SHOULD use this PDB in compliance with the


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admission and allocation rules the PSN has put in place for that PDB
(e.g., marking packets as directed by the PSN).

9. Congestion Control (RFC 2914) Conformance

CESoPSN PWs represent a special case of PWs carrying constant bit rate
(CBR) services across the PSN. These services, by definition, cannot
behave in a TCP-friendly manner prescribed by [RFC2914] under
congestion while retaining any value for the user.

CESoPSN will use the generic PWE3 approach for handling congestion in
PWs carrying CBR services when such an approach has been specified.

10. Security Considerations

This document does not affect the underlying security issues of
specific PSN.

In addition, it defines misconnection detection capabilities of
CESoPSN. These capabilities increase resilience of CESoPSN to
misconfiguration and some types of DoS attacks.

11. Applicability Statement

CESoPSN is an encapsulation layer intended for carrying circuits NxDS0
services with or without CAS over PSN.

CESoPSN allows, within reasonable limits, to emulate end-to-end delay
properties of TDM networks. In particular, in most cases the edge-to-
edge delay introduced by CESoPSN PWs does not depend upon the type and
bit-rate of the emulated service.

CESoPSN fully complies with the principle of minimal intervention
minimizing overhead and computational power required for encapsulation.

CESoPSN can be used in conjunction with various clock recovery
techniques and does not presume availability of a global synchronous
clock at the ends of a PW. However, if the global synchronous clock is
available at both ends of a CESoPSN PW, using RTP and differential mode
of timestamp generation improves the quality of the recovered clock.

CESoPSN allows carrying CE application state signaling that requires
synchronization with data in-band in separate signaling packets. A
special combination of flags in the CESoPSN control word is used to
distinguish between data and signaling packets, while the Timestamp
field in the RTP headers is used for synchronization. This makes
CESoPSN extendable to support different types of CE signaling without
affecting the data path in the PE devices.

CESoPSN also allows emulation of NxDS0 services with CAS carrying the
signaling information appended to (some of) the packets carrying TDM
data.


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CESoPSN allows the PSN bandwidth conservation by carrying only AIS
and/or Idle Code indications instead of data.

CESoPSN allows deployment of BW-saving Fractional point-to-point E1/T1
applications. These applications can be described like following:

o  The pair of CE devices operates as if they were connected
    by an emulated E1 or T1 circuit. In particular they react
    to AIS and RAI states of their local ACs in the standard
    way
o  The PSN carries only an NxDS0 service where N is the number
    of actually used timeslots in the circuit connecting the
    pair of CE devices thus saving the BW.

Being a constant bit rate (CBR) service, CESoPSN cannot provide TCP-
friendly behavior under network congestion. If the service encounters
congestion, it should be temporarily shut down.

CESoPSN allows collection of TDM-like faults and performance monitoring
parameters hence emulating 'classic' carrier services of TDM circuits
(e.g., SONET/SDH). Similarity with these services is increased by the
CESoPSN ability to carry 'far end error' indications.

CESoPSN provides for a carrier-independent ability to detect
misconnections and malformed packets. This feature increases resilience
of the emulated service to misconfiguration and DoS attacks.

CESoPSN provides for detection of lost packets and allows using various
techniques for generation of "replacement packets".

CESoPSN carries indications of outages of incoming attachment circuit
across the PSN thus providing for effective fault isolation.

Faithfulness of a CESoPSN PW may be increased if the carrying PSN is
Diffserv-enabled and implements a PDB that guarantees low loss and low
jitter.

CESoPSN does not provide any mechanisms for protection against PSN
outages. As a consequence, resilience of the emulated service to such
outages is defined by the PSN behavior. On the other hand:

o  The jitter buffer and packets' reordering mechanisms
    associated with CESoPSN increase resilience of the emulated
    service to fast PSN rerouting events
o  Remote indication of lost packets is carried backward
    across the PSN from the receiver (that has detected loss of
    packets) to transmitter. Such an indication MAY be used as
    a trigger for activation of proprietary service-specific
    protection mechanisms.


12. Disclaimer of Validity


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The IETF takes no position regarding the validity or scope of any
Intellectual Property Rights or other rights that might be claimed
to pertain to the implementation or use of the technology
described in this document or the extent to which any license
under such rights might or might not be available; nor does it
represent that it has made any independent effort to identify any
such rights.  Information on the procedures with respect to rights
in RFC documents can be found in BCP 78 and BCP 79.

Copies of IPR disclosures made to the IETF Secretariat and any
assurances of licenses to be made available, or the result of an
attempt made to obtain a general license or permission for the use
of such proprietary rights by implementers or users of this
specification can be obtained from the IETF on-line IPR repository
 at http://www.ietf.org/ipr.

The IETF invites any interested party to bring to its attention
any copyrights, patents or patent applications, or other
proprietary rights that may cover technology that may be required
to implement this standard.  Please address the information to the
IETF at ietf-ipr@ietf.org.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

Akiva Sadovski has been an active participant of the team that co-
authored early versions of this document.

We express deep gratitude to Stephen Casner who reviewed an early
version of this document in detail, corrected some serious errors and
provided many valuable inputs.

The present version of the text of the QoS section has been suggested
by Kathleen Nichols.

We thank Maximilian Riegel, Sim Narasimha, Tom Johnson, Ron Cohen and
Yaron Raz for valuable feedbacks.

We thank Alik Shimelmits for many fruitful discussions.

13. NORMATIVE REFERENCES

[RFC1122] R. Braden (ed.), Requirements for Internet Hosts --
Communication Layers, RFC 1122, IETF, 1989

[RFC2119] S.Bradner, Key Words in RFCs to Indicate Requirement Levels,
RFC 2119, IETF, 1997

[RFC2833] H. Schulzrinne, S. Petrack, RTP Payload for DTMF Digits,
Telephony Tones and Telephony Signals. RFC 2833, IETF, 2000

[RFC2914] S. Floyd, Congestion Control Principles, RFC 2914, IETF, 2000



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   Structured TDM Circuit Emulation Service over PSN      October 2005

[RFC3086] K. Nichols, B. Carpenter, Definition of Differentiated
Services Per Domain Behaviors and Rules for their Specification, RFC
3086, IETF, 2001

[RFC3095] C. Bormann (Ed.), RObust Header Compression (ROHC): Framework
and four profiles: RTP, UDP, ESP, and uncompressed, RFC 3095, IETF,
2001

[RFC3550] H. Schulzrinne et al, RTP: A Transport Protocol for Real-Time
Applications, RFC 1889, IETF, 2003

[RTP-TYPES] RTP PARAMETERS, http://www.iana.org/assignments/rtp-
parameters

[G.702] ITU-T Recommendation G.702 (11/88) - Digital Hierarchy Bit
Rates

[G.704] ITU-T Recommendation G.704 (10/98) - Synchronous frame
structures used at 1544, 6312, 2048, 8448 and 44 736 Kbit/s
hierarchical levels

[G.706] ITU-T Recommendation G.706 (04/91) - Frame Alignment and Cyclic
Redundancy Check (CRC) Procedures Relating to Basic Frame Structured
Defined in Recommendation G.704

[G.751] ITU-T Recommendation G.751 (xx/93) - Digital Multiplex
Equipments Operating at the Third Order Bit Rate of 34368 kbit/s and
the Fourth Order Bit Rate of 139264 kbit/s and Using Positive
Justification

[G.775] ITU-T Recommendation G.775 (10/98) - Loss of Signal (LOS),
Alarm Indication Signal (AIS) and Remote Defect Indication (RDI) Defect
Detection and Clearance Criteria for PDH Signals

[G.826] ITU-T Recommendation G.826 (02/99) - Error performance
parameters and objectives for international, constant bit rate digital
paths at or above the primary rate

[T1.107] American National Standard for Telecommunications - Digital
Hierarchy - Format Specifications, ANSI T1.107-1988

[ATM-CES] The ATM Forum Technical Committee. Circuit Emulation Service
Interoperability Specification version 2.0 af-vtoa-0078.000, January
1997.

[TR-NWT-170] Digital Cross Connect Systems - Generic Requirements and
Objectives, Bellcore, TR-NWT-170, January 1993

14. INFORMATIVE REFERENCES

[PWE3-REQ] X.Xiao et al, Requirements for Pseudo Wire Emulation Edge-
to-Edge (PWE3), RFC 3916, IETF, 2004


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   Structured TDM Circuit Emulation Service over PSN      October 2005

[PWE3-TDM-REQ] M. Riegel, Requirements for Edge-to-Edge Emulation of
TDM Circuits over Packet Switching Networks (PSN), Work in Progress,
April 2005, draft-ietf-pwe3-tdm-requirements-08.txt

[PWE3-ARCH] S. Bryant, P. Pate, PWE3 Architecture, IETF RFC 3985, 2005

[PWE3-IANA] L. Martini, M. Townsley, IANA Allocations for pseudo Wire
Edge to Edge Emulation (PWE3), Work in progress, September 2005, draft-
ietf-pwe3-iana-allocation-12.txt

[PWE3-FRAG] A. Malis, M. Townsley, PWE3 Fragmentation and Reassembly,
Work in Progress, September 2005, draft-ietf-pwe3-fragmentation-09.txt

[PWE3-SATOP] A. Vainshtein, Y. Stein, Structure-Agnostic TDM over
Packet (SAToP), Work in Progress, September 2005, draft-ietf-pwe3-
satop-03.txt

[L2TPv3] J. Lau, M. Townsley, I Goyret (editors), Layer Two Tunneling
Protocol (Version 3), IETF RFC 3931, 2005

[PWE3-CW] S.Bryant et al, PWE3 Control Word for use over an MPLS PSN,
Work in Progress, June 2005, draft-ietf-pwe3-cw-04.txt

[PWE3-MS] L. Martini et al, Segmented Pseudo Wire, Work in Progress,
July 2005, draft-ietf-pwe3-segmented-pw-00.txt


[PWE3-VCCV] T. Nadeau, R. Aggarwal, Pseudo Wire Virtual Circuit
Connectivity Verification (VCCV), Work in Progress, September 2005,
draft-ietf-pwe3-vccv-07.txt

Authors' Addresses

Alexander ("Sasha") Vainshtein
Axerra Networks
24 Raoul Wallenberg St.,
Tel Aviv 69719, Israel
email: sasha@axerra.com

Israel Sasson
Axerra Networks
24 Raoul Wallenberg St.,
Tel Aviv 69719, Israel
email: israel@axerra.com

Eduard Metz
Thrupoint
Paasheuvelweg 16,
email: e.t.metz@telecom.tno.nl

Tim Frost
Zarlink Semiconductor
Tamerton Road, Roborough, Plymouth, PL6 7BQ, UK

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   Structured TDM Circuit Emulation Service over PSN      October 2005

email: tim.frost@zarlink.com

Prayson Pate
Overture Networks
507 Airport Boulevard
Building 111 Morrisville, North Carolina, 27560
Email: prayson.pate@overturenetworks.com

Full Copyright Statement

Copyright (C) The Internet Society (2005).

This document is subject to the rights, licenses and restrictions
contained in BCP 78, and except as set forth therein, the authors
retain all their rights.

This document and the information contained herein are provided on an
"AS IS" basis and THE CONTRIBUTOR, THE ORGANIZATION HE/SHE REPRESENTS
OR IS SPONSORED BY (IF ANY), THE INTERNET SOCIETY AND THE INTERNET
ENGINEERING TASK FORCE DISCLAIM ALL WARRANTIES, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED,
INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO ANY WARRANTY THAT THE USE OF THE
INFORMATION HEREIN WILL NOT INFRINGE ANY RIGHTS OR ANY IMPLIED
WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.

Acknowledgement

Funding for the RFC Editor function is currently provided by the
Internet Society.

ANNEX A. A COMMON CE APPLICATION STATE SIGNALING MECHANISM

Format of the CESoPSN signaling packets is discussed in
Section 5.3 above.

The sequence number in the CESoPSN control word for the
signaling packets is generated according to the same rules as
for the TDM data packets.

If the RTP header is used in the CESoPSN signaling packets,
the timestamp in this header represents the time when the CE
application state has been collected.

Signaling packets are generated by the ingress PE in accordance with
the following logic (adapted from [RFC2833]):

1. The CESoPSN signaling packet with the same information
    (including the timestamp in the case RTP header is used) is
    sent 3 times at an interval of 5 ms under one of the
    following conditions:
    a) The CESoPSN PW has been set up
    b) A change in the CE application state has been
       detected. If another change of the CE application
       state has been detected during the 10 ms period

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       (i.e. before all three signaling packets reporting
       the previous change have been sent), this process is
       re-started, i.e.:
       i)   The unsent signaling packet(s) with the
          previous CE application state are discarded
       ii)  Triple send of packets with the new CE
          application state begins.
    c) Loss of packets defect has been cleared
    d) Remote Loss of Packets indication has been cleared
       (after previously being set)
2. Otherwise, the CESoPSN signaling packet with the current CE
    application state information is sent every 5 seconds.


These rules allow fast probabilistic recovery after loss of a single
signaling packet as well as deterministic (but, possibly, slow)
recovery following PW setup and PSN outages.

Encoding of CE application state for telephony applications using CAS
follows [RFC2833].

Encoding of CE application state for telephony application using CCS
will be considered in a separate document.

ANNEX B. REFERENCE PE ARCHITECTURE FOR EMULATION OF NXDS0 SERVICES

Structured TDM services do not exist as physical circuits. They are
always carried within appropriate physical attachment circuits (AC),
and the PE providing their emulation always includes a Native
Processing Block (NSP) commonly referred to as Framer. As a
consequence, the architecture of a PE device providing edge-to-edge
emulation for these services includes the Framer and Forwarder blocks.

In case of NxDS0 services (the only type of structured services
considered in this document), the AC is either an E1 or a T1 trunk, and
bundles of NxDS0 are cut out of it using one of the framing methods
described in [G.704].

In addition to detecting the FAS and imposing associated structure on
the "trunk" AC, E1 and T1 framers commonly support some additional
functionality including:

     1. Detection of special states of the incoming AC (e.g.,
         AIS, OOF or RAI)
     2. Forcing special states (e.g., AIS and RAI) on the
         outgoing AC upon an explicit request
     3. Extraction and insertion of CE application signals
         that may accompany specific DS0 channel(s).

The resulting PE architecture for NxDS0 services is shown in Fig. B.1
below. In this diagram:

     1. In the PSN-bound direction:

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         a) The Framer:
            i)   Detects frame alignment signal (FAS)
               and splits the incoming ACs into separate
               DS0 channels
            ii)  Detects special AC states
            iii) If necessary, extracts CE application
               signals accompanying each of the separate
               DS0 services
         b) The Forwarder:
            i)   Creates one or more NxDS0 bundles
            ii)  Sends the data received in each such
               bundle to the PSN-bound direction of a
               respective CESoPSN IWF instance
            iii) If necessary, sends the current CE
               application state data of the DS0
               services in the bundle to the PSN-bound
               direction of the respective CESoPSN IWF
               instance
            iv)  If necessary sends the AC state
               indications to the PSN-bound directions
               of all the CESoPSN instances associated
               with the given AC
         c) Each PSN-bound PW IWF instance encapsulates the
            received data, application state signal and the
            AC state into PW PDUs and sends the resulting
            packets to the PSN
     2. In the CE-bound direction:
            i)   Each CE-bound instance of the CESoPSN
               IWF receives the PW PDUs from the PSN,
               extracts the TDM data, AC state and CE
               application state signals and sends them
         b) The Forwarder sends the TDM data, application
            state signals and, if necessary, a single
            command representing the desired AC state, to
            the Framer
         c) The Framer accepts all the data of one or more
            NxDS0 bundles possibly accompanied by the
            associated CE application state and commands
            referring to the desired AC state, and
            generates a single AC accordingly with correct
            FAS.

Notes: This model is asymmetric:
     o  AC state indication can be forwarded from the framer
         to multiple instances of the CESoPSN IWF
     o  No more than one CESoPSN IWF instance should forward
         AC state-affecting commands to the framer.







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   Structured TDM Circuit Emulation Service over PSN      October 2005

         +------------------------------------------+
         |                PE Device                 |
         +------------------------------------------+
         |     | Forwarder           |              |
         |     |---------------------|              |
         |     |                     |              |
         |     +<-- AC State---->-   |              |
         |     |                 |   |              |
         |     |                 |   |              |
E1 or T1 |     |                 |   |              |
   AC    |     |                 |   |              |
<=======>|     |-----------------+---|--------------|
         |     |                 |   | At most one  |
         |     |                 |-->+ PW IWF       |
         |     |                     | instance im- |
   ...   |     +<---NxDS0 TDM Data-->+ posing state | PW Instance
         |  F  |                     | on the       X<===========>
         |     +<---CE App State --->+ outgoing AC  |
E1 or T1 |  R  |                     |              |
   AC    |     +<--AC Command -------+              |
<=======>o  A  |---------------------|--------------|
         |     |      ...        |        ...       | ...
         |  M  |-----------------+---|--------------|
         |     |                 |   | Zero, one or |
         |  E  |                 |-->+ more PW IWF  |
         |     |                     | instances
         |  R  +<---NxDS0 TDM Data-->+ that do not  | PW Instance
         |     |                     | impose state X<===========>
         |     +<---CE App State --->+ on the outgo-|
         |     |                     | ing AC       |
         +------------------------------------------+

       Figure B.1. Reference PE Architecture for NxDS0 Services

ANNEX C. OLD MODE OF CESoPSN ENCAPSULATION OVER L2TPV3

Previous versions of this specification defined a CESOPSN PW
encapsulation over L2TPv3 which differs from one described in Section
4.3 and Diagram 2b. In these versions the RTP header, if used, precedes
the CESoPSN control word.

Existing implementations of the old encapsulation mode MUST be
distinguished from the encapsulations conforming to this specification
via the CESOPSN PW setup.










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