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Versions: 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 RFC 5607

Network Working Group                                          D. Nelson
Internet-Draft                                     Elbrys Networks, Inc.
Intended status: Standards Track                                G. Weber
Expires: December 14, 2008                        Individual Contributor
                                                           June 12, 2008


 Remote Authentication Dial-In User Service (RADIUS) Authorization for
                 Network Access Server (NAS) Management
           draft-ietf-radext-management-authorization-03.txt

Status of this Memo

   By submitting this Internet-Draft, each author represents that any
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   This Internet-Draft will expire on December 14, 2008.

Abstract

   This document describes Remote Authentication Dial-In User Service
   (RADIUS) attributes for the authorization and service provisioning of
   Network Access Servers (NASes).  Both local and remote management are
   supported, with granular access rights and management privileges.
   Specific provisions are made for remote management via framed
   management protocols, and for specification of a protected transport
   protocol.






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Table of Contents

   1.  Terminology  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  3
   2.  Introduction and Rationale . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  3
   3.  Provisions for Framed Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  3
   4.  Provisions for Granular Management Access Rights . . . . . . .  4
   5.  Provisions for Secure Management Access  . . . . . . . . . . .  4
   6.  Current Practice for CLI Management Access . . . . . . . . . .  4
   7.  New Values for Existing RADIUS Attributes  . . . . . . . . . .  5
     7.1.  Service-Type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  5
   8.  New RADIUS Attributes  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  5
     8.1.  Framed-Management-Protocol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  5
     8.2.  Management-Transport-Protection  . . . . . . . . . . . . .  8
     8.3.  Management-Policy-Id . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
     8.4.  Management-Privilege-Level . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
   9.  Examples of attribute groupings  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
   10. Diameter Translation Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
   11. RADIUS Proxy Operation Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
   12. Table of Attributes  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
   13. IANA Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
   14. Security Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
   15. Acknowledgments  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
   16. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
     16.1. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
     16.2. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
   Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
   Intellectual Property and Copyright Statements . . . . . . . . . . 24
























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1.  Terminology

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
   document are to be interpreted as described in RFC 2119 [RFC2119].

   This document uses terminology from RFC 2865 [RFC2865] and RFC 2866
   [RFC2866].


2.  Introduction and Rationale

   The remote management Service-Types defined in RFC 2865 [RFC2865]
   include NAS-Prompt and Administrative.  Both of these services
   provide access to the interactive, text-based, Command Line Interface
   (CLI) of the managed entity.  Current deployments of network
   equipment include in the managed entity non-CLI, framed-protocol
   forms of management, such as web browser based management, SNMP, and
   NETCONF.  In addition, network devices often support more privilege
   levels for management access than the two levels supported by NAS-
   Prompt (non-privileged) and Administrative (privileged).  To address
   these issues, attributes for framed management protocols, management
   protocol security levels, and management access privilege levels are
   described.


3.  Provisions for Framed Management

   Framed Management means management of an entity by means of a non-
   interactive, non-CLI-style method.  The management information is
   typically formatted in a binary or textual encoding, such as HTML,
   XML or ASN.1/BER.  While remote management by interactive CLI
   sessions is carried over protocols, such as Telnet, Rlogin, and the
   remote terminal service of SSH, these protocols are primarily for the
   delivery of terminal, or pseudo-TTY services.  Command Line
   Interface, Menu Interface, or other text-based (e.g.  ASCII or UTF-8)
   terminal emulation interfaces are not considered to be Framed
   Management protocols, as used in this document.  Examples of Framed
   Management protocols include web-based management (HTML over HTTP or
   HTTPS), NETCONF (XML over SSH/BEEP/SOAP) and SNMP (SMI over ASN.1/
   BER).

   To support the authorization and provisioning of Framed Management
   access to managed entities, this document introduces a new value for
   the Service-Type Attribute [RFC2865], and one new attribute.  The new
   value for the Service-Type Attribute is Framed-Management.  The
   definition of this service is the provisioning of remote device
   management via a Framed Management protocol, as described in this



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   section.  The new attribute is Framed-Management-Protocol, the value
   of which specifies a particular protocol for use in the remote
   management session.


4.  Provisions for Granular Management Access Rights

   Two new attributes are introduced in this document in support of
   granular management access rights or command privilege levels.

   The Management-Policy-Id Attribute is used to contain the name of a
   management access rights policy of local scope.  This attribute
   functions similarly to the Filter-ID Attribute.  It is a text string
   variable containing a policy name of local scope.  The provisioning
   of the rules invoked by application of this management policy is by
   means outside the scope of this document, such as by MIB objects.

   The local application of the Management-Policy-Id within the managed
   entity may take the form of (a) one of an enumeration of command
   privilege levels, (b) a mapping into an SNMP Access Control Model,
   such as the View Based Access Control Model (VACM) [RFC3415], or (c)
   some other set of management access policy rules that is mutually
   understood by the managed entity and the remote management
   application.  Examples are given in Section 9.

   The Management-Privilege-Level Attribute is used to contain an
   integer-valued management privilege level indication.  This attribute
   serves to modify or augment the management permissions bestowed by
   the NAS-Prompt Service-Type, and thus applies to CLI management
   interfaces.


5.  Provisions for Secure Management Access

   To provide for the provisioning of secure management methods, via
   various secure transport protocols, one new attribute is introduced
   in this document, Management-Transport-Protection.  The value of this
   attribute indicates the minimum level of secure transport protocol
   protection that is required for the provisioning of NAS-Prompt,
   Administrative or Framed-Management service.


6.  Current Practice for CLI Management Access

   It is helpful to review current RADIUS implementation practice with
   regard to the provisioning of management access to the Command Line
   Interface (CLI) of the NAS.  The RADIUS Service-Type values of NAS-
   Prompt and Administrative originally applied to access via a physical



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   console port of the NAS, most often a serial port.  Remote access to
   the CLI of the NAS over remote terminal protocols such as Telnet,
   Rlogin and the remote terminal service of SSH, has been available in
   many NAS implementations for many years.  In order to distinguish
   local, physical, console access from remote access, the NAS-Port-Type
   Attribute is generally included in Access-Request and Access-Accept
   messages, along with the Service-Type, to indicate the form of
   access.  A NAS-Port-Type of Async (0) is used to signify a local
   serial port connection, while a value of Virtual (5) is used to
   signify a remote connection, via a remote terminal protocol.  This
   usage provides no selectivity among the various available remote
   terminal protocols (e.g.  Telnet, Rlogin, SSH, etc.).

   It is expected that the additional features of this document with
   respect to remote access to the management interfaces of a NAS will
   be used in conjunction with the existing practice regarding the NAS-
   Port-Type Attribute described in this section.


7.  New Values for Existing RADIUS Attributes

7.1.  Service-Type

   The Service-Type Attribute is defined in Section 5.6 of RFC 2865
   [RFC2865].  This document defines a new value of the Service-Type
   Attribute, as follows:

      (TBA-1)   Framed-Management

      The semantics of the Framed-Management service are as follows:

      Framed-Management   A framed management protocol session should
                          be started on the NAS.


8.  New RADIUS Attributes

   This document defines four new RADIUS attributes related to remote
   management authorization.

8.1.  Framed-Management-Protocol

   The Framed-Management-Protocol Attribute indicates the application-
   layer management protocol to be used for Framed Management access.
   It MAY be used in both Access-Request and Access-Accept packets.
   This attribute is used in conjunction with a Service-Type of Framed-
   Management.




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   It is RECOMMENDED that the NAS include an appropriately valued
   Framed-Management-Protocol Attribute in Access-Request packet,
   indicating the type of management access being requested.  It is
   further RECOMMENDED that the NAS include a Service-Type Attribute
   with the value Framed-Management (TBA-1) in the same Access-Request
   packet.  The RADIUS Server MAY use these hint attributes in making
   its authorization decision.

   The RADIUS Server MAY include a Framed-Management-Protocol Attribute
   in an Access-Accept packet that also includes a Service-Type
   Attribute with a value of Framed-Management, when the RADIUS Server
   chooses to enforce a management access policy for the authenticated
   user, that dictates one form of management access in preference to
   others.

   When a NAS receives a Framed-Management-Protocol Attribute in an
   Access-Accept packet, it MUST deliver that specified form of
   management access, or disconnect the session.  If the NAS does not
   support the provisioned management application-layer protocol, or the
   management access protocol requested by the user does not match that
   of the Framed-Management-Protocol Attribute in the Access-Accept
   packet, the NAS MUST treat the response packet as if it had been an
   Access-Reject.

   A summary of the Framed-Management-Protocol Attribute format is shown
   below.  The fields are transmitted from left to right.

























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       0                   1                   2                   3
       0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
      |     Type      |    Length     |             Value
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
                 Value (cont)         |
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

      Type

         (TBA-2) for Framed-Management-Protocol.

      Length

         6


      Value

         The Value field is four octets.

         1      SNMP
         2      Web-based
         3      NETCONF
         4      FTP
         5      TFTP
         6      SFTP
         7      RCP
         8      SCP

   All other values are reserved for IANA allocation subject to the
   provisions of Section 13.

   The acronyms used in the above table expand as follows:

   o  SNMP: Simple Network Management Protocol.  [RFC3411], [RFC3412],
      [RFC3413], [RFC3414], [RFC3415], [RFC3416], [RFC3417], [RFC3418]

   o  Web-based: Use of an embedded web server in the NAS for management
      via a generic web browser client.  The interface presented to the
      administrator may be graphical, tabular or textual.  The protocol
      is HTML over HTTP.  The protocol may optionally be HTML over
      HTTPS, i.e. using HTTP over TLS. (http://www.w3.org/TR/html),
      [RFC2616]

   o  NETCONF: Management via the NETCONF protocol using XML over
      supported transports (e.g.  SSH, BEEP, SOAP).  As secure transport
      profiles are defined for NETCONF, the list of transport options



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      may expand.  [RFC4741], [RFC4742], [RFC4743], [RFC4744]

   o  FTP: File Transfer Protocol, used to transfer configuration files
      to and from the NAS.  [RFC0959]

   o  TFTP: Trivial File Transfer Protocol, used to transfer
      configuration files to and from the NAS.  [RFC1350]

   o  SFTP: SSH File Transfer Protocol, used to securely transfer
      configuration files to and from the NAS.  SFTP uses the services
      of SSH. (http://tools.ietf.org/html/draft-ietf-secsh-filexfer-13)

   o  RCP: Remote CoPy file copy utility (Unix-based), used to transfer
      configuration files to and from the NAS.

   o  SCP: Secure CoPy file copy utility (Unix-based), used to transfer
      configuration files to and from the NAS.


8.2.  Management-Transport-Protection

   The Management-Transport-Protection Attribute specifies whether a
   secure transport protocol (e.g.  SSH, TLS, DTLS, etc.) is required
   for use with the associated framed or non-framed management access
   session.  The value of this attribute specifies the minimum level of
   protection that is required from the protected transport.  The
   protected transport MAY provide a greater level of protection than is
   called for by the value of Management-Transport-Protection.

   When a secure form of non-framed management access is specified, it
   means that the remote terminal session is encapsulated in some form
   of protected transport, or tunnel.  It may also mean that an explicit
   secure mode of operation is required, when the framed management
   protocol contains an intrinsic secure mode of operation.  The
   Management-Transport-Protection Attribute does not apply to CLI
   access via a local serial port, or other non-remote connection.

   When a secure form of framed management access is specified, it means
   that the application-layer management protocol is encapsulated in
   some form of protected transport, or tunnel.  It may also mean that
   an explicit secure mode of operation is required, when the framed
   management protocol contains an intrinsic secure mode of operation.

   A value of "No Protection (1)" indicates that a secure transport
   protocol is not required, and that the NAS SHOULD accept a connection
   over any transport associated with the application layer management
   protocol.  The definitions of management application to transport
   bindings are defined in the relevant documents that specify those



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   management application protocols.  The same "No Protection" semantics
   are conveyed by omitting this attribute from an Access-Accept packet.

   Specific protected transport protocols, cipher suites, key agreement
   methods, or authentication methods are not specified by this
   attribute.  Such provisioning is beyond the scope of this document.

   It is RECOMMENDED that the NAS include an appropriately valued
   Management-Transport-Protection Attribute in Access-Request packet,
   indicating the level of transport protection for the management
   access being requested, when that information is available to the
   RADIUS Client.  The RADIUS Server MAY use this hint attribute in
   making its authorization decision.

   The RADIUS Server MAY include a Management-Transport-Protection
   Attribute in an Access-Accept packet that also includes a Service-
   Type Attribute with a value of Framed-Management, when the RADIUS
   Server chooses to enforce an management access security policy for
   the authenticated user, that dictates a minimum level of transport
   security.

   When a NAS receives a Management-Transport-Protection Attribute in an
   Access-Accept packet, it MUST deliver the management access over a
   transport with equal or better protection characteristics, or
   disconnect the session.  If the NAS does not support protected
   management transport protocols, or the level of protection available
   does not match that of the Management-Transport-Protection Attribute
   in the Access-Accept packet, the NAS MUST treat the response packet
   as if it had been an Access-Reject.

   A summary of the Management-Transport-Protection Attribute format is
   shown below.  The fields are transmitted from left to right.



















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       0                   1                   2                   3
       0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
      |     Type      |    Length     |             Value
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
                 Value (cont)         |
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

      Type

         (TBA-3) for Management-Transport-Protection.

      Length

         6

      Value

         The Value field is four octets.

         1      No-Protection
         2      Integrity-Protection
         3      Integrity-Confidentiality-Protection

   All other values are reserved for IANA allocation subject to the
   provisions of Section 13.

   The names used in the above table are elaborated as follows:

   o  No-Protection: No transport protection is required.  Accept
      connections via any supported transport.

   o  Integrity-Protection: The management transport MUST provide
      Integrity Protection, i.e. protection from unauthorized
      modification, using a cryptographic checksum.

   o  Integrity-Confidentiality-Protection: The management transport
      MUST provide both Integrity Protection and Confidentiality
      Protection, i.e. protection from unauthorized modification, using
      a cryptographic checksum, and protection from unauthorized
      disclosure, using encryption.

   The configuration or negotiation of acceptable algorithms, modes and
   credentials for the cryptographic protection mechanisms used in
   implementing protected management transports is outside the scope of
   this document.  Many such mechanisms have standardized methods of
   configuration and key management.




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8.3.  Management-Policy-Id

   The Management-Policy-Id Attribute indicates the name of the
   management access policy for this user.  Zero or one Management-
   Policy-Id Attributes MAY be sent in an Access-Accept packet.
   Identifying a policy by name allows the policy to be used on
   different NASes without regard to implementation details.

   Multiple forms of management access rules may be expressed by the
   underlying named policy, the definition of which is beyond the scope
   of this document.  The management access policy MAY be applied
   contextually, based on the nature of the management access method.
   For example, some named policies may only be valid for application to
   NAS-Prompt services and some other policies may only be valid for
   application to SMNP services.

   The management access policy named in this attribute, received in an
   Access-Accept packet, MUST be applied to the session authorized by
   the Access-Accept.  If the NAS supports this attribute, but the
   policy name is unknown, or the policy rules are incorrectly
   formatted, the NAS MUST treat the response packet as if it had been
   an Access-Reject.

   No precedence relationship is defined for multiple occurrences of the
   Management-Policy-Id Attribute.  NAS behavior in such cases is not
   predictable.  Therefore, two or more occurrences of this attribute
   SHOULD NOT be included in a single service provisioning message, such
   as Access-Accept or CoA-Request.

   The content of the Management-Policy-Id Attribute is expected to be
   the name of a management access policy of local significance to the
   NAS, within a flat namespace of significance to the NAS.  In this
   regard, the behavior is similar to that for the Filter-Id Attribute.
   The policy names and rules are committed to the local configuration
   data-store of the NAS, and are provisioned by means beyond the scope
   of this document, such as via SNMP, NETCONF or CLI.

   Overloading or subdividing this flat name with multi-part specifiers
   (e.g.  Access=remote, Level=7) is likely to lead to poor multi-vendor
   interoperability and SHOULD NOT be utilized.  If a simple flat policy
   name is not sufficient to the anticipated use case, it is RECOMMENDED
   that a Vendor Specific Attribute be used instead, rather than
   overloading the semantics of Management-Policy-Id.

   A summary of the Management-Policy-Id Attribute format is shown
   below.  The fields are transmitted from left to right.





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       0                   1                   2
       0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-
      |     Type      |    Length     |  Text ...
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-

      Type

         (TBA-4) for Management-Policy-Id.

      Length

         >= 3

      Text

   The Text field is one or more octets, and its contents are
   implementation dependent.  It is intended to be human readable and
   MUST NOT affect operation of the protocol.  It is recommended that
   the message contain UTF-8 encoded 10646 [RFC3629] characters.

8.4.  Management-Privilege-Level

   The Management-Privilege-Level Attribute indicates the integer-valued
   privilege level to be assigned for management access for the
   authenticated user.  Many NASes provide the notion of differentiated
   management privilege levels denoted by an integer value.  The
   specific access rights conferred by each value are implementation
   dependent.  It MAY be used in both Access-Request and Access-Accept
   packets.

   The management access level indicated in this attribute, received in
   an Access-Accept packet, MUST be applied to the session authorized by
   the Access-Accept.  If the NAS supports this attribute, but the
   privilege level is unknown, the NAS MUST treat the response packet as
   if it had been an Access-Reject.

   A summary of the Management-Privilege-Level Attribute format is show
   below.  The fields are transmitted from left to right.












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        0                   1                   2                   3
        0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
       |     Type      |    Length     |             Value
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
                  Value (cont)         |
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

       Type

          (TBA-5) for Management-Privilege-Level.

       Length

          6

       Value

          The Value field is an Integer, denoting a management
          privilege level.


   It is RECOMMENDED to limit use of the Management-Privilege-Level
   Attribute to sessions where the Service-Type Attribute has a value of
   NAS-Prompt (not Administrative).  Typically, NASes treat NAS-Prompt
   as the minimal privilege CLI service and Administrative as full
   privilege.  Using the Management-Privilege-Level Attribute with a
   Service-Type Attribute having a value of NAS-Prompt will have the
   effect of increasing the minimum privilege level.  Conversely, it is
   NOT RECOMMENDED to use this attribute with a Service-Type of
   Administrative, which may require decreasing the maximum privilege
   level.

   It is NOT RECOMMENDED to use the Management-Privilege-Level Attribute
   in combination with a Management-Policy-Id Attribute or for
   management access methods other than interactive CLI.  The behavior
   resulting from such an overlay of management access control
   provisioning is not defined by this document, and in the absence of
   further specification is likely to lead to unexpected behaviors,
   especially in multi-vendor environments.


9.  Examples of attribute groupings

   1.  Unprotected CLI access, via the local console, to the "super-
       user" access level:





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       *  Service-Type (6) = Administrative (6)
       *  NAS-Port-Type (61) = Async (0)
       *  Management-Transport-Protection (TBA-3) = No-Protection (1)

   2.  Unprotected CLI access, via a remote console, to the "super-user"
       access level:

       *  Service-Type (6) = Administrative (6)
       *  NAS-Port-Type (61) = Virtual (5)
       *  Management-Transport-Protection (TBA-3) = No-Protection (1)

   3.  CLI access, via a fully-protected secure remote terminal service
       to the non-privileged user access level:

       *  Service-Type (6) = NAS-Prompt (7)
       *  NAS-Port-Type (61) = Virtual (5)
       *  Management-Transport-Protection (TBA-3) = Integrity-
          Confidentiality-Protection (3)

   4.  CLI access, via a fully-protected secure remote terminal service,
       to a custom management access level, defined by a policy:

       *  Service-Type (6) = NAS-Prompt (7)
       *  NAS-Port-Type (61) = Virtual (5)
       *  Management-Transport-Protection (TBA-3) = Integrity-
          Confidentiality-Protection (3)
       *  Management-Policy-Id (TBA-4) = "Network Administrator"

   5.  CLI access, via a fully-protected secure remote terminal service
       of SSH, with a management privilege level of 15:

       *  Service-Type (6) = NAS-Prompt (7)
       *  NAS-Port-Type (61) = Virtual (5)
       *  Management-Transport-Protection (TBA-3) = Integrity-
          Confidentiality-Protection (3)
       *  Management-Privilege-Level (TBA-5) = 15

   6.  SNMP access, using an Access Control Model specifier, such as a
       custom VACM View, defined by a policy:

       *  Service-Type (6) = Framed-Management (TBA-1)
       *  NAS-Port-Type (61) = Virtual (5)
       *  Framed-Management-Protocol (TBA-2) = SNMP (1)
       *  Management-Policy-Id (TBA-4) = "SNMP Network Administrator
          View"

       There is currently no standardized way of implementing this
       management policy mapping within SNMP.  Such mechanisms are the



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       topic of current research.

   7.  SNMP fully-protected access:

       *  Service-Type (6) = Framed-Management (TBA-1)
       *  NAS-Port-Type (61) = Virtual (5)
       *  Framed-Management-Protocol (TBA-2) = SNMP (1)
       *  Management-Transport-Protection (TBA-3) = Integrity-
          Confidentiality-Protection (3)

   8.  Web (HTTP/HTML) access:

       *  Service-Type (6) = Framed-Management (TBA-1)
       *  NAS-Port-Type (61) = Virtual (5)
       *  Framed-Management-Protocol (TBA-2) = Web-based (2)

   9.  Secure web access, using a custom management access level,
       defined by a policy:

       *  Service-Type (6) = Framed-Management (TBA-1)
       *  NAS-Port-Type (61) = Virtual (5)
       *  Framed-Management-Protocol (TBA-2) = Web-based (2)
       *  Management-Transport-Protection (TBA-3) = Integrity-
          Confidentiality-Protection (3)
       *  Management-Policy-Id (TBA-4) = "Read-only web access"


10.  Diameter Translation Considerations

   When used in Diameter, the attributes defined in this specification
   can be used as Diameter AVPs from the Code space 1-255 (RADIUS
   attribute compatibility space).  No additional Diameter Code values
   are therefore allocated.  The data types and flag rules for the
   attributes are as follows:

















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                                    +---------------------+
                                    |    AVP Flag rules   |
                                    |----+-----+----+-----|----+
                                    |    |     |SHLD| MUST|    |
   Attribute Name        Value Type |MUST| MAY | NOT|  NOT|Encr|
   ---------------------------------|----+-----+----+-----|----|
   Service-Type (new value)         |    |     |    |     |    |
                         Enumerated | M  |  P  |    |  V  | Y  |
   Framed-Management-Protocol       |    |     |    |     |    |
                         Enumerated | M  |  P  |    |  V  | Y  |
   Management-Transport-Protection  |    |     |    |     |    |
                         Enumerated | M  |  P  |    |  V  | Y  |
   Management-Policy-Id             |    |     |    |     |    |
                         UTF8String | M  |  P  |    |  V  | Y  |
   Management-Privilege-Level       |    |     |    |     |    |
                         Integer    | M  |  P  |    |  V  | Y  |
   ---------------------------------|----+-----+----+-----|----|


   The attributes in this specification have no special translation
   requirements for Diameter to RADIUS or RADIUS to Diameter gateways;
   they are copied as is, except for changes relating to headers,
   alignment, and padding.  See also [RFC3588] Section 4.1 and [RFC4005]
   Section 9.

   What this specification says about the applicability of the
   attributes for RADIUS Access-Request packets applies in Diameter to
   AA-Request [RFC4005].

   What is said about Access-Accept applies in Diameter to AA-Answer
   messages that indicate success.


11.  RADIUS Proxy Operation Considerations

   The device management access authorization attributes presented in
   this document present certain considerations when used in RADIUS
   proxy environments.  These considerations are not different from
   those that exist in RFC 2865 [RFC2865] with respect to the Service-
   Type Attribute values of Administrative and NAS-Prompt.

   Most RADIUS proxy environments are also multi-party environments.  In
   multi-party proxy environments it is important to distinguish which
   entities have the authority to provision management access to the
   edge devices, i.e.  NASes, and which entities only have authority to
   provision network access services of various sorts.

   It may be important that operators of the NAS are able to ensure that



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   access to the CLI, or other management interfaces of the NAS, is only
   provisioned to their own employees or contractors.  One way for the
   NAS to enforce this requirement is to use only local, non-proxy
   RADIUS servers for management access requests.  Proxy RADIUS servers
   could be used for non-management access requests, based on local
   policy.  This "bifurcation" of RADIUS authentication and
   authorization is a simple case of separate administrative realms.
   The NAS may be designed so as to maintain separate lists of RADIUS
   servers for management AAA use and for non-management AAA use.

   An alternate method of enforcing this requirement would be for the
   first-hop RADIUS proxy server, operated by the owner of the NAS, to
   filter out any RADIUS attributes that provision management access
   rights that originate from "up-stream" proxy servers not operated by
   the NAS owner.  Access-Accept messages that provision such locally
   un-authorized management access MAY be treated as if they were an
   Access-Reject by the first-hop proxy server.

   These issues are not of concern when all the RADIUS servers, local
   and proxy, used by the NAS are under the sole administrative control
   of the NAS owner.


12.  Table of Attributes

   The following table provides a guide to which attributes may be found
   in which kinds of packets, and in what quantity.
























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 Access-
 Request Accept Reject Challenge  #    Attribute
 ---------------------------------------------------------------------
 0-1     0-1      0        0     TBA-2   Framed-Management-Protocol
 0-1     0-1      0        0     TBA-3   Management-Transport-Protection
 0       0-1      0        0     TBA-4   Management-Policy-Id
 0       0-1      0        0     TBA-5   Management-Privilege-Level

 Accounting-
 Request Response  #    Attribute
 ---------------------------------------------------------------------
 0-1     0        TBA-2   Framed-Management-Protocol
 0-1     0        TBA-3   Management-Transport-Protection
 0-1     0        TBA-4   Management-Policy-Id
 0-1     0        TBA-5   Management-Privilege-Level

 The following table defines the meaning of the above table entries.

 0    This attribute MUST NOT be present in a packet.
 0+   Zero or more instances of this attribute MAY be present in
      a packet.
 0-1  Zero or one instance of this attribute MAY be present in
      a packet.
 1    Exactly one instance of this attribute MUST be present in
      a packet.


13.  IANA Considerations

   Note to RFC Editor: Remove the following paragraphs upon publication
   of this document as an RFC.

   This document contains placeholders ("TBA-n") for assigned numbers
   within the RADIUS Attributes Types registry
   (http://www.iana.org/assignments/radius-types), to be assigned by
   IANA at the time this document should be published as an RFC.
   o  New enumerated value for the existing Service-Type Attribute:
      *  Framed-Management (TBA-1)
   o  New RADIUS Attribute Types:
      *  Framed-Management-Protocol (TBA-2)
      *  Management-Transport-Protection (TBA-3)
      *  Management-Policy-Id (TBA-4)
      *  Management-Privilege-Level (TBA-5)

   The enumerated values of the newly assigned RADIUS Attribute Types as
   defined in this document are to be assigned at the same time as the
   new Attribute Types.




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   For the Framed-Management-Protocol Attribute:

         1      SNMP
         2      Web-based
         3      NETCONF
         4      FTP
         5      TFTP
         6      SFTP
         7      RCP
         8      SCP

   For the Management-Transport-Protection Attribute:

         1      No-Protection
         2      Integrity-Protection
         3      Integrity-Confidentiality-Protection

   Note to RFC Editor: Retain the following paragraph upon publication
   of this document as an RFC.

   Assignments of additional enumerated values for the RADIUS attributes
   defined in this document are to be processed as described in
   [RFC3575], subject to the additional requirement of a published
   specification.


14.  Security Considerations

   This specification describes the use of RADIUS and Diameter for
   purposes of authentication, authorization and accounting for
   management access to devices within networks.  RADIUS threats and
   security issues for this application are described in [RFC3579] and
   [RFC3580]; security issues encountered in roaming are described in
   [RFC2607].  For Diameter, the security issues relating to this
   application are described in [RFC4005] and [RFC4072].

   This document specifies new attributes that can be included in
   existing RADIUS packets, which may be protected as described in
   [RFC3579] and [RFC5176].  In Diameter, the attributes are protected
   as specified in [RFC3588].  See those documents for a more detailed
   description.

   The security mechanisms supported in RADIUS and Diameter are focused
   on preventing an attacker from spoofing packets or modifying packets
   in transit.  They do not prevent an authorized RADIUS/Diameter server
   or proxy from inserting attributes with malicious intent.

   Any of the attributes described in this memo, with the exception of



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   Service-Type, may not be understood by the NAS which receives it.  A
   legacy NAS not compliant with this specification may silently discard
   these attributes while permitting the user to access the management
   interface(s) of the NAS.  This can lead to users improperly receiving
   unauthorized management access to the NAS, or access with greater
   levels of access rights than were intended.  RADIUS servers SHOULD
   attempt to ascertain whether or not the NAS supports these attributes
   before sending them in an Access-Accept.

   It is possible that certain NAS implementations may not be able to
   determine the protection properties of the underlying transport
   protocol as specified by the Management-Transport-Protection
   Attribute.  This may be a limitation of the standard application
   programming interface of the underlying transport implementation or
   of the integration of the transport into the NAS implementation.  In
   either event, NASes conforming to this specification, which cannot
   determine the protection state of the remote management connection
   MUST treat an Access-Accept message containing a Management-
   Transport-Protection Attribute containing a value other than No-
   Protection (1) as if it were an Access-Reject message, unless
   specifically overridden by local policy configuration.


15.  Acknowledgments

   Many thanks to all reviewers, including Bernard Aboba, Alan DeKok,
   David Harrington, Mauricio Sanchez, Juergen Schoenwaelder, Barney
   Wolff and Glen Zorn.


16.  References

16.1.  Normative References

   [RFC2119]  Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
              Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997.

   [RFC2865]  Rigney, C., Willens, S., Rubens, A., and W. Simpson,
              "Remote Authentication Dial In User Service (RADIUS)",
              RFC 2865, June 2000.

   [RFC3629]  Yergeau, F., "UTF-8, a transformation format of ISO
              10646", STD 63, RFC 3629, November 2003.

16.2.  Informative References

   [RFC0959]  Postel, J. and J. Reynolds, "File Transfer Protocol",
              STD 9, RFC 959, October 1985.



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   [RFC1350]  Sollins, K., "The TFTP Protocol (Revision 2)", STD 33,
              RFC 1350, July 1992.

   [RFC2607]  Aboba, B. and J. Vollbrecht, "Proxy Chaining and Policy
              Implementation in Roaming", RFC 2607, June 1999.

   [RFC2616]  Fielding, R., Gettys, J., Mogul, J., Frystyk, H.,
              Masinter, L., Leach, P., and T. Berners-Lee, "Hypertext
              Transfer Protocol -- HTTP/1.1", RFC 2616, June 1999.

   [RFC2866]  Rigney, C., "RADIUS Accounting", RFC 2866, June 2000.

   [RFC3411]  Harrington, D., Presuhn, R., and B. Wijnen, "An
              Architecture for Describing Simple Network Management
              Protocol (SNMP) Management Frameworks", STD 62, RFC 3411,
              December 2002.

   [RFC3412]  Case, J., Harrington, D., Presuhn, R., and B. Wijnen,
              "Message Processing and Dispatching for the Simple Network
              Management Protocol (SNMP)", STD 62, RFC 3412,
              December 2002.

   [RFC3413]  Levi, D., Meyer, P., and B. Stewart, "Simple Network
              Management Protocol (SNMP) Applications", STD 62,
              RFC 3413, December 2002.

   [RFC3414]  Blumenthal, U. and B. Wijnen, "User-based Security Model
              (USM) for version 3 of the Simple Network Management
              Protocol (SNMPv3)", STD 62, RFC 3414, December 2002.

   [RFC3415]  Wijnen, B., Presuhn, R., and K. McCloghrie, "View-based
              Access Control Model (VACM) for the Simple Network
              Management Protocol (SNMP)", STD 62, RFC 3415,
              December 2002.

   [RFC3416]  Presuhn, R., "Version 2 of the Protocol Operations for the
              Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP)", STD 62,
              RFC 3416, December 2002.

   [RFC3417]  Presuhn, R., "Transport Mappings for the Simple Network
              Management Protocol (SNMP)", STD 62, RFC 3417,
              December 2002.

   [RFC3418]  Presuhn, R., "Management Information Base (MIB) for the
              Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP)", STD 62,
              RFC 3418, December 2002.

   [RFC3575]  Aboba, B., "IANA Considerations for RADIUS (Remote



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              Authentication Dial In User Service)", RFC 3575,
              July 2003.

   [RFC3579]  Aboba, B. and P. Calhoun, "RADIUS (Remote Authentication
              Dial In User Service) Support For Extensible
              Authentication Protocol (EAP)", RFC 3579, September 2003.

   [RFC3580]  Congdon, P., Aboba, B., Smith, A., Zorn, G., and J. Roese,
              "IEEE 802.1X Remote Authentication Dial In User Service
              (RADIUS) Usage Guidelines", RFC 3580, September 2003.

   [RFC3588]  Calhoun, P., Loughney, J., Guttman, E., Zorn, G., and J.
              Arkko, "Diameter Base Protocol", RFC 3588, September 2003.

   [RFC4005]  Calhoun, P., Zorn, G., Spence, D., and D. Mitton,
              "Diameter Network Access Server Application", RFC 4005,
              August 2005.

   [RFC4072]  Eronen, P., Hiller, T., and G. Zorn, "Diameter Extensible
              Authentication Protocol (EAP) Application", RFC 4072,
              August 2005.

   [RFC4741]  Enns, R., "NETCONF Configuration Protocol", RFC 4741,
              December 2006.

   [RFC4742]  Wasserman, M. and T. Goddard, "Using the NETCONF
              Configuration Protocol over Secure SHell (SSH)", RFC 4742,
              December 2006.

   [RFC4743]  Goddard, T., "Using NETCONF over the Simple Object Access
              Protocol (SOAP)", RFC 4743, December 2006.

   [RFC4744]  Lear, E. and K. Crozier, "Using the NETCONF Protocol over
              the Blocks Extensible Exchange Protocol (BEEP)", RFC 4744,
              December 2006.

   [RFC5176]  Chiba, M., Dommety, G., Eklund, M., Mitton, D., and B.
              Aboba, "Dynamic Authorization Extensions to Remote
              Authentication Dial In User Service (RADIUS)", RFC 5176,
              January 2008.











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Authors' Addresses

   David B. Nelson
   Elbrys Networks, Inc.
   75 Rochester Avenue, Unit 3
   Portsmouth, NH  03801
   USA

   Email: d.b.nelson@comcast.net


   Greg Weber
   Individual Contributor
   Knoxville, TN  37932
   USA

   Email: gdweber@gmail.com


































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Full Copyright Statement

   Copyright (C) The IETF Trust (2008).

   This document is subject to the rights, licenses and restrictions
   contained in BCP 78, and except as set forth therein, the authors
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   "AS IS" basis and THE CONTRIBUTOR, THE ORGANIZATION HE/SHE REPRESENTS
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   The IETF invites any interested party to bring to its attention any
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