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Versions: (draft-pelletier-rohc-context-replication) 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 RFC 4164

Network Working Group                       Ghyslain Pelletier, Ericsson
INTERNET-DRAFT
Expires: April 2005                                      October 5, 2004


                    RObust Header Compression (ROHC):
                  Context Replication for ROHC Profiles
                <draft-ietf-rohc-context-replication-06.txt>


Status of this memo

   By submitting this Internet-Draft, I (we) certify that any applicable
   patent or other IPR claims of which I am (we are) aware have been
   disclosed, and any of which I (we) become aware will be disclosed, in
   accordance with RFC 3668 (BCP 79).

   By submitting this Internet-Draft, I (we) accept the provisions of
   Section #3 of RFC 3667 (BCP 78).

   Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
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   This document is a submission of the IETF ROHC WG. Comments should be
   directed to the ROHC WG mailing list, rohc@ietf.org.


Abstract

   This document defines context replication, a complement to the
   context initialization procedure found in ROHC (Robust Header
   Compression) [2]. Profiles defining support for context replication
   may use the mechanism described herein to establish a new context
   based on another already existing context. Context replication is
   introduced to reduce the overhead of the context establishment
   procedure, and may be especially useful for the compression of
   multiple short-lived flows that may be occurring simultaneously or
   near-simultaneously, such as short-lived TCP flows.



Pelletier                                                       [Page 1]

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Table of Contents

   1. Introduction.....................................................2
   2. Terminology......................................................3
   3. Context Replication for ROHC profiles............................4
      3.1. Robustness considerations...................................4
      3.2. Replication of Control Fields...............................5
      3.3. Compressor states and logic.................................5
         3.3.1. Context replication (CR) state.........................6
         3.3.2. State machine with context replication.................6
         3.3.3. State transition logic.................................7
            3.3.3.1. Selection of base context, upward transition......7
            3.3.3.2. Optimistic approach, upward transition............8
            3.3.3.3. Optional acknowledgements (ACKs), upward transition
            ...........................................................8
            3.3.3.4. Negative ACKs (NACKs), downward transition........9
      3.4. Decompressor logic..........................................9
         3.4.1. Replication and context initialization.................9
         3.4.2. Reconstruction and verification........................9
         3.4.3. Actions upon failure..................................10
         3.4.4. Feedback logic........................................10
      3.5. Packet Formats.............................................10
         3.5.1. CRCs in the IR-CR packet..............................11
            3.5.1.1. 7-bit CRC........................................12
            3.5.1.2. 8-bit CRC........................................12
         3.5.2. General format of the IR-CR packet....................12
         3.5.3. Properties of the Base Context Identifier (BCID)......14
   4. Security Considerations.........................................14
   5. Acknowledgments.................................................14
   6. Authors' Addresses..............................................14
   7. References......................................................15
      7.1. Normative references.......................................15
      7.2. Informative References.....................................15
   Appendix A - General format of the IR-CR packet (informative)......16
   Appendix B - Inter-profile context replication (informative).......17


1. Introduction

   There is often some redundancy between header fields of different
   flows passing through the same compressor-decompressor pair. This
   means that some of the information needed to initialize the context
   for decompressing the headers of a new flow may already be present at
   the decompressor. It may be desirable to reuse this information and
   remove some of the overhead normally required for the initialization
   of a new header compression context at both compressor and
   decompressor.

   Reducing the overhead of the context establishment procedure is
   particularly useful when multiple short-lived connections (or flows)
   occur simultaneously, or near-simultaneously, between the same



Pelletier                                                       [Page 2]

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   compressor-decompressor pair. As each new packet stream requires most
   of the header information to be sent during the initialization phase
   before smaller compressed headers can be used, a multitude of short-
   lived connections may significantly reduce the overall gain from
   header compression.

   Context replication allows some header fields, such as the IP source
   and/or destination addresses (16 octets each for IPv6), to be omitted
   within the special IR packet type specifically defined for
   replication. It also allows other fields, such as source and/or
   destination ports, to be either omitted or sent in a compressed form
   from the very first packet of the header compressed flow.

   Context replication is herein defined as a general ROHC mechanism.
   The benefits of context replication are not limited to any particular
   protocol and its support may be defined for any ROHC profile.

   In particular, context replication is applicable to TCP compression,
   since many TCP transfers are short-lived; a behavior analysis of
   TCP/IP header fields among multiple short-lived connections may be
   found in [5]. In addition, [4] introduces considerations and
   requirements for the ROHC-TCP profile [3] to efficiently compress
   such short-lived TCP transfers.

   For profiles supporting this mechanism, the compressor performs
   context replication by  reusing or creating a copy of an existing
   context, i.e. a base context, to create the replicated context. The
   replicated context is then updated to match the header fields of the
   new flow. The compressor then sends to the decompressor a packet that
   contains a reference to the selected base context, along with some
   data for the fields that need to be updated when creating the
   replicated context. Finally, the decompressor creates the replicated
   context based on the reference to the base context along with the
   uncompressed and compressed data from the received packet.

   This document specifies the context replication procedure for ROHC
   profiles. It defines the general compressor and decompressor logic
   used during context replication, as well as the general format of the
   special IR packet required for this procedure. Profiles defining
   support for context replication must further specify the specific
   format(s) of this packet.

   The fundamentals of the ROHC framework may be found in [2]. It is
   assumed throughout this document that these are understood.


2. Terminology

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "SHOULD, "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
   document are to be interpreted as described in RFC 2119 [1].



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   This document reuses some of the terminology found in [2]. In
   addition, this document defines the following terms:

   Base context

     A base context is a context that has been validated by both the
     compressor and the decompressor. The compressor can use a base
     context as the reference when building a new context using
     replication.

   Base CID (BCID)

     The Base Context Identifier is the CID used to identify the base
     context, from where information needed for context replication can
     be extracted.

   Context replication

     Context replication is the mechanism that initializes a new context
     based on another already existing context (a base context).


3. Context Replication for ROHC profiles

   For profiles defining its support, context replication may be used as
   an alternative to the context initialization procedure found in [2].
   Note that for such profiles, only the decompressor is mandated to
   support context replication; the use of the IR-CR packet is optional
   for the compressor.

   This section describes the compressor and decompressor logic as well
   as the general format of the IR packet used with context replication.


3.1. Robustness considerations

   Context replication deviates from the initialization procedure
   defined in [2] by its capacity to achieve a certain level of
   compression already from the first packet used to initialize the
   context for a new flow. It is therefore of particular importance that
   the context replication procedure be robust. This requires that a
   base context suitable for replication be used, that the integrity of
   the initialization packet be guaranteed and finally that the outcome
   of the replication process be verified.

   The primary mechanisms used to achieve robustness of the context
   replication procedure are the selection of the base context based on
   prior feedback from the decompressor and the use of checksums.
   Specifically, the compressor must obtain enough confidence that the
   base context selected for replication is valid and available at the
   decompressor before initiating the replication procedure. The most



Pelletier                                                       [Page 4]

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   reliable way to select the base context is thus to choose a context
   for which at least the static part to be replicated has previously
   been acknowledged by the decompressor.

   In addition, the presence of a CRC covering the information that
   initializes the context ensures the integrity of the IR header used
   for replication. Finally, an additional CRC calculated over the
   original uncompressed header allows the decompressor to validate the
   reconstructed header and the outcome of the replication process.


3.2. Replication of Control Fields

   Control fields are fields that are either transmitted from a ROHC
   compressor to a ROHC decompressor or inferred based on the behavior
   of other fields, but are not part of the uncompressed header itself.

   They can be used to control compression and decompression behavior,
   in particular what set of packet formats is used. Control fields are
   profile-specific. Example of such fields include the NBO and RND
   flags [2] that indicate whether the IP-ID field is in Network Byte
   Order and the type of behavior of the field, respectively. Another
   example is the parameter indicating the mode of operation [2].

   The IR-CR differs from the IR packet [2] in that its purpose is to
   entirely specify what part of the base context is replicated, and to
   convey the complementary information needed to create a new context.
   Because of this, a profile supporting the use of the IR-CR packet
   SHOULD define for each control field if the value of the field is
   replicated from the base context to the new context, or if its value
   is reinitialized.

   In addition, a compressor MUST NOT initiate context replication while
   a control field that is not reinitialized by replication is being
   updated, such as for the case where the handshake for a mode
   transition [2] is taking place.


3.3. Compressor states and logic

   Compression with ROHC normally starts in the IR state, where IR
   packets must be sent to initialize a new context at the decompressor.
   IR packets include all static and non-static fields of the original
   header in uncompressed form plus some additional information. The
   compressor stays in the IR state until it obtains confidence that the
   decompressor has received the information.

   Context replication provides an optional mechanism to complement the
   ROHC initialization procedure. It defines a packet type, the IR
   packet for Context Replication (IR-CR), which can be used to
   initialize a new context. Consequently, the Context Replication (CR)



Pelletier                                                       [Page 5]

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   state is introduced to the compressor state machine to encompass the
   additional logic required for the use of the IR-CR packet.

   For profiles defining support for context replication, the compressor
   may thus transit directly from the IR state to the CR state if an
   already existing context can be selected as a base context for
   replication. This effectively replaces any IR/IR-DYN packets sent
   during the context establishment procedure with an IR-CR packet.


3.3.1. Context replication (CR) state

   The purpose of the CR state is to initialize a new context by reusing
   an already existing context. In this state, the compressor sends a
   combination of uncompressed and compressed information, along with a
   reference to a base context plus some additional information. Header
   information pertaining to fields that are being replicated is
   therefore not sent.

   The compressor stays in the CR state until it is confident that the
   decompressor has received the replication information correctly.


3.3.2. State machine with context replication

   The compressor always starts in the lower compression state (IR), and
   transits to the context replication state (CR) under the constraint
   that the compressor can select a base context that is suitable for
   the flow being compressed (see also section 3.3.3.1).

   The transition from the CR state to a higher compression state (e.g.
   the CO state for [3]) is based on the optimistic approach principle
   or feedback received from the decompressor.

   The figure below shows the additional state for the compressor. The
   details of the state transitions and compression logic are given in
   sub-sections following the figure.


           BCID selection       Optimistic approach / ACK
        +----->----->------+    +----->----->----->-----+
        |                  |    |                       |
        |                  v    |                       v
   +---------+          +---------+              +-------------+
   |   IR    |          |   CR    |              |   Higher    |
   |  state  |          |  state  |              | order state |
   +---------+          +---------+              +-------------+
        ^                    |
        | NACK / STATIC-NACK |
        +---<-----<-----<----+




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   Note that context replication is a complement to the normal
   initialization procedure for ROHC profiles supporting it. The
   compressor transition to the CR state is therefore an optional
   addition to the state machine, and this does not affect already
   existing transitions between the IR state and higher order state(s).


3.3.3. State transition logic

   Decisions about transition to and from the CR state are taken by
   the compressor on the basis of:

   - availability of a base context
   - positive feedback from the decompressor (Acknowledgements -- ACKs)
   - negative feedback from the decompressor (Negative ACKs -- NACKs)
   - confidence level regarding error-free decompression of a packet

   Context replication is designed to operate over links where a
   feedback channel is available. This is necessary to ensure that the
   information used to create a new context is synchronized between the
   compressor and the decompressor. In addition, context replication may
   also make use of feedback from decompressor to compressor for
   transition back to the IR state and for OPTIONAL improved forward
   transition towards a state with a higher compression ratio.

   The format that must be used by all profiles for the feedback field
   within the general ROHC format is specified in section 5.2.2 of [2];
   the feedback information is structured using two possible formats:
   FEEDBACK-1 and FEEDBACK-2. In particular, FEEDBACK-2 can carry one of
   three possible types of feedback information: ACK, NACK or STATIC-
   NACK.


3.3.3.1. Selection of base context, upward transition

   The compressor may initiate a transition from the IR state to the CR
   state when a suitable base context can be identified. To perform this
   transition, the compressor select a context that has previously been
   acknowledged by the decompressor as the base context. The selected
   context MUST have been acknowledged by the decompressor using the CRC
   option (see also [2], section 5.7.6.3) in the feedback message. The
   static part of the base context to be replicated MUST have been
   acknowledged by the decompressor and the base context MUST be valid
   at replication time.

   This also implies that a compressor is not allowed to use the context
   replication mechanism if a feedback channel is not present. Note
   however that the presence of the feedback channel cannot provide the
   guarantee that a base context selected for replication has not been
   corrupted after it has been acknowledged, or that it is still part of




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   the state managed by the decompressor when the IR-CR will be
   received.

   More specifically, RFC 3095 [2] defines the context identifier (CID)
   as a reference to the state information (i.e. the context) used for
   compression and decompression. Multiple packet streams - each having
   their own context - may thus share a channel, and the CID space along
   with its representation within packet formats may be negotiated as
   part of the channel state. However, because RFC 3095 [2] does not
   explicitly define context state management between compressor and
   decompressor, in particular for connection-oriented flows (e.g. TCP),
   no more than a high degree of confidence can be achieved when
   selecting a base context.

   In the case where feedback is not used by the decompressor, the
   compressor may have to periodically transit back to the IR state. In
   such case, the same logic applies for the transition back to the
   higher order state via the CR state: a base context previously
   acknowledged and suitable for replication must be re-selected.

   The criteria for whether an existing context is a suitable base
   context for replication for a new flow are left to implementations.

   Whenever available, the compressor MAY also use the sequencing
   information from the last acknowledgement received to determine what
   fields can be replicated, and not replicate any fields that have
   changed significantly from the state corresponding to the
   acknowledged packet.


3.3.3.2. Optimistic approach, upward transition

   Transition to a higher order state can be carried out according to
   the optimistic approach principle. This means that the compressor may
   perform an upward state transition when it is fairly confident that
   the decompressor has received enough information to correctly
   decompress packets sent according to the higher compression state.

   In general, there are many approaches where the compressor can obtain
   such information. The compressor may obtain its confidence by sending
   several IR-CR packets with the same information.


3.3.3.3. Optional acknowledgements (ACKs), upward transition

   An ACK may be sent by the decompressor to indicate that a context has
   been successfully initialized during context replication.

   Upon reception of an ACK, the compressor may assume that the context
   replication procedure was successful and transit from its initial
   state (e.g. IR state) to a higher compression state.



Pelletier                                                       [Page 8]

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3.3.3.4. Negative ACKs (NACKs), downward transition

   A STATIC-NACK sent by the decompressor may indicate that the
   decompressor could not initialize a valid context during context
   replication, and the corresponding context has been invalidated.

   Upon reception of a STATIC-NACK, the compressor MUST transit back to
   its initial no context state. The compressor SHOULD also refrain from
   sending IR-CR packets using the same base context, at least until an
   acknowledgement subsequent to the reception of the STATIC-NACK makes
   this context suitable for replication (section 3.3.3.1). The
   compressor SHOULD re-initialize the decompressor context using an IR
   packet.

   A NACK sent by the decompressor may indicate that a valid context has
   been successfully initialized but that the decompression of one or
   more subsequent packets has failed.

   Upon reception of a NACK, the compressor MAY assume that the static
   part of the decompressor context is valid but that the dynamic part
   is invalid, and take actions accordingly.


3.4. Decompressor logic


3.4.1. Replication and context initialization

   Upon reception of an IR-CR packet, the decompressor first determines
   its content ([2], section 5.2.6). The profile indicated in the IR-CR
   packet determines how it is to be processed. If the CRC (8-bit CRC)
   fails to verify the packet, the packet MUST be discarded.

   If the profile as indicated in the IR-CR packet defines the use of
   the Base CID and if its corresponding field is present within the
   packet format, this field is used to identify the base context;
   otherwise the CID is used.


3.4.2. Reconstruction and verification

   The decompressor creates a new context using the information present
   in the IR-CR packet together with the identified base context, and
   decompresses the original header.

   The CRC calculated over the original uncompressed header and carried
   within the profile specific part of the IR-CR headers (7-bit CRC)
   MUST be used to verify decompression.

   When the decompression is verified and successful, the decompressor
   initializes or updates the context with the information received in



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   the current header. The decompressor SHOULD send an ACK when it
   succeeds to validate the context as a result of the decompression of
   one or more IR-CR packets.

   Otherwise if the reconstructed header fails the CRC check, changes
   (either initialization or update) to the context MUST NOT be
   performed. When the decompressor fails to validate the header,
   actions as specified in section 3.4.3 are taken.


3.4.3. Actions upon failure

   For profiles supporting context replication, the feedback logic of a
   decompressor is similar to the logic used for context initialization,
   as described in [2].

   Specifically, when the decompressor fails to validate the context
   following the decompression of one or more initial IR-CR packets, it
   MUST invalidate the context and remain in its initial state. In
   addition, the decompressor SHOULD send a STATIC-NACK. In particular,
   a decompressor implementation performing strict memory management,
   such as deleting context state information when a connection-oriented
   flow (e.g. TCP) is known to have terminated, SHOULD send STATIC-NACK
   in this case. Otherwise there is a risk that the compressor maintains
   a specific CID as a potential candidate for a later replication
   attempt, while there actually is insufficient state left in the
   decompressor for this CID to act as a Base CID.

   If the context has been successfully validated from the decompression
   of one or more initial IR-CR packets, the decompressor SHOULD send a
   NACK when it fails to verify the context following the decompression
   of one or more subsequent IR-CR packets.


3.4.4. Feedback logic

   The decompressor SHOULD use the CRC option (see [2], section 5.7.6.3)
   when sending feedback corresponding to an IR or an IR-CR packet.

3.5. Packet Formats

   The format of the IR-CR packet has been designed under the following
   constraints:

   a) it must be possible to either overwrite a CID during context
      replication, or to use a CID different than the Base CID for
      the replicated context;
   b) it must be possible to selectively include or exclude from the
      packet format some fields that may be replicable;
   c) it must be possible for some fields that may be replicable to be
      represented within the packet format using either a compressed or



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      an uncompressed form;
   d) it must be possible for the decompressor to verify the success of
      the replication procedure;
   e) it is anticipated that profiles other than [ROHC-TCP] will also
      define support for context replication, therefore it is desirable
      that the packet format be profile independent.


3.5.1. CRCs in the IR-CR packet

   The IR packet, as defined in [2], is used to communicate static
   and/or dynamic parts of a context, and typically initialize the
   context. For example, the static and dynamic chains of IR packets may
   contain an uncompressed representation of the original header.

   The IR packet format includes an 8-bit CRC, calculated over the
   initial part of the IR packet. This CRC is meant to protect any
   information that initializes the context. In particular, its coverage
   always includes any CID information as well as the profile used to
   interpret the remainder of the IR packet.

   The purpose of the 8-bit CRC is to ensure the integrity of the IR
   header itself. Profiles may extend the coverage of this CRC to
   include the entire IR header, thus allowing the verification of the
   integrity of the entire uncompressed header. However because the
   format of the IR packet is common to all ROHC profiles and verified
   as part of the initial processing of a ROHC decompressor (see  [2],
   section 5.2.6.), profiles may not redefine this CRC beyond the extent
   of its coverage.

   RFC 3095 [2] also defines a 3-bit CRC and a 7-bit CRC for compressed
   headers, used to verify proper decompression and validate the
   context. This type of CRC is calculated over the original
   uncompressed header, as it is not sufficient to only protect the
   compressed data being exchanged between compressor and decompressor
   to ensure a robust reconstruction of the original header.

   There is thus a clear distinction in purpose between the 8-bit CRC
   found in the IR packet and the 3-bit or 7-bit CRC found in compressed
   headers. With context replication, where the IR-CR packet may contain
   both compressed as well as uncompressed information and omit entirely
   replicable fields, this distinction in no longer present.

   Profiles supporting context replication MUST define a CRC over the
   original uncompressed header as part of the profile specific
   information in the IR-CR packet. This is necessary to allow a
   decompressor to verify that the replication process has succeeded.







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3.5.1.1. 7-bit CRC

   The 7-bit CRC in the IR-CR packet is calculated over all octets of
   the entire original header, before replication, in the same manner as
   described in section 5.9.2 of [2].
   The initial content of the CRC register is to be preset to all 1's.
   The CRC polynomial used for the 7-bit CRC in the IR-CR is:

      C(x) = 1 + x + x^2 + x^3 + x^6 + x^7


3.5.1.2. 8-bit CRC

   The coverage of the 8-bit CRC in the IR-CR packet is not profile-
   dependent, as opposed to the ROHC IR(-DYN) packet (see [2], sections
   5.2.3. and 5.2.4.). It MUST cover the entire packet, excluding the
   payload. In particular, this includes the CID or any add-CID octet as
   well as the Base CID field, if present. For profiles that define the
   usage of the Base CID within the packet format of the IR-CR as
   optional, this CRC MUST also cover the information used to indicate
   the presence of this field within the packet.

   The initial content of the CRC register is to be preset to all 1's.
   The CRC polynomial used for the 8-bit CRC in the IR-CR is:

      C(x) = 1 + x + x^2 + x^8


3.5.2. General format of the IR-CR packet

   The context replication mechanism requires a dedicated IR packet
   format that uniquely identifies the IR-CR packet. This packet
   communicates the static and the dynamic parts of the replicated
   context. It may also communicate a reference to a base context.

   With consideration to the extensibility of the IR packet type defined
   in [2], support for replication can be added using the profile
   specific part of the IR packet. Note that there is one bit, (x), left
   in the IR header for "Profile specific information". The definition
   of this bit is profile-specific. Thus, profiles supporting context
   replication MAY use this bit as a flag indicating whether the packet
   is an IR packet or an IR-CR packet. Note also that profiles may
   define an alternative method to identify the IR-CR packet within the
   profile specific information, instead of using this bit.

   The IR-CR header associates a CID with a profile, and initializes the
   context using the context replication mechanism. It is not
   recommended to use this packet to repair a damaged context.






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   The IR-CR has the following general format:

     0   1   2   3   4   5   6   7
    --- --- --- --- --- --- --- ---
   :         Add-CID octet         : if for small CIDs and (CID != 0)
   +---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+
   | 1   1   1   1   1   1   0   x | IR type octet
   +---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+
   :                               :
   /      0-2 octets of CID        / 1-2 octets if for large CIDs
   :                               :
   +---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+
   |            Profile            | 1 octet
   +---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+
   |              CRC              | 1 octet
   +---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+
   |                               |
   / Profile specific information  / variable length
   |                               |
    - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
   |                               |
   /           Payload             / variable length
   |                               |
    - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

     x:  Profile specific information.  Interpreted according to the
         profile indicated in the Profile field.

     Profile:  The profile to be associated with the CID.  In the
         IR-CR packet, the profile identifier is abbreviated to the
         8 least significant bits.  It selects the highest-number
         profile in the channel state parameter PROFILES that matches
         the 8 LSBs given (see also [2]).

     CRC:  8-bit CRC computed using the polynomial of section 3.5.1.2.

     Profile specific information:  The contents of this part of the
         IR-CR packet are defined by the individual profiles. This
         information is interpreted according to the profile indicated
         in the Profile field. It MUST include a 7-bit CRC over the
         original uncompressed header using the polynomial of section
         3.5.1.1. It also includes the static and dynamic subheader
         information used for replication; what header fields are
         replicated along with their respective encoding methods is
         thus outside the scope of this document.

     Payload:  The payload of the corresponding original packet, if any.







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3.5.3. Properties of the Base Context Identifier (BCID)

   The Base CID within the packet format of the IR-CR may be assigned a
   different value than the context identifier associated to the new
   flow (i.e. BCID != CID); otherwise the base context is overwritten
   with the new context by the replication process.

   When the channel uses small CIDs, a four-bit field within the packet
   format of the IR-CR minimally represents the BCID with a value from 0
   to 15. In particular, the four bits of Add-CID used with small CIDs
   [2] are not needed for the BCID, as this information is already
   provided from the CID of the IR-CR packet itself. When large CIDs are
   used, the BCID is represented in the IR-CR with one or two octets,
   and it is coded in the same way as a large CID [2].


4. Security Considerations

   This document adds an alternative mechanism for ROHC profiles to
   increase the compression efficiency when initializing a new context,
   by reusing information already existing at the decompressor. This is
   achieved by introducing new state transition logic, new feedback
   logic, and a new packet type - all based on logic and packet formats
   already defined in RFC 3095 [2].

   In this respect, this document is not believed to bring any
   additional weakness to potential attacks to those already listed in
   [2]. However, it does increase the potential impacts of these attacks
   by creating dependencies between multiple contexts. Specifically,
   corruption of one context can fail compressor attempts to initialize
   another context at the decompressor, or propagate to another context,
   if the compressor uses a corrupted context as a base for replication.


5. Acknowledgments

   The author would like to thank Richard Price, Kristofer Sandlund,
   Fredrik Lindstroem, Zhigang Liu and HongBin Liao for valuable input,
   as well as Mark West and Lars-Erik Jonsson who also served as
   committed working group document reviewers.


6. Authors' Addresses

   Ghyslain Pelletier
   Box 920
   Ericsson AB
   SE-971 28 Lulea, Sweden
   Phone: +46 8 404 29 43
   Fax:   +46 920 996 21
   Email: ghyslain.pelletier@ericsson.com



Pelletier                                                      [Page 14]

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7. References


7.1. Normative references

   [1]  S. Bradner, "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate Requirement
        Levels", RFC 2119, March 1997.

   [2]  Bormann, C., Burmeister, C., Degermark, M., Fukushima, H.,
        Hannu, H., Jonsson, L-E., Hakenberg, R., Koren, T., Le, K., Liu,
        Z., Martensson, A., Miyazaki, A., Svanbro, K., Wiebke, T.,
        Yoshimura, T. and H. Zheng, "RObust Header Compression (ROHC):
        Framework and four profiles: RTP, UDP, ESP, and uncompressed",
        RFC 3095, July 2001.


7.2. Informative References

   [3]  Pelletier, G., Jonsson, L-E., West, M., Price, R. and K.
        Sandlund, "RObust Header Compression (ROHC): TCP/IP Profile
        (ROHC-TCP)", Internet Draft (work in progress), <draft-ietf-
        rohc-tcp-07.txt>, July 2004.

   [4]  Jonsson, L-E., "Requirements on ROHC IP/TCP header compression",
        Internet Draft (work in progress), <draft-ietf-rohc-tcp-
        requirements-08.txt>, September 2004.

   [5]  West, M. and S. McCann, "TCP/IP Field Behavior", Internet Draft
        (work in progress), <draft-ietf-rohc-tcp-field-behavior-03.txt>,
        July 2004.

   [6]  R. Price, R. Finking and G. Pelletier, "Formal Notation for
        Robust Header Compression (ROHC-FN)", Internet Draft (work in
        progress), <draft-ietf-rohc-formal-notation-03.txt>, July 2004.




















Pelletier                                                      [Page 15]

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Appendix A - General format of the IR-CR packet (informative)

Appendix A.1.  General structure (informative)

   This section provides an example of the format of the profile
   specific information within the general format of the IR-CR.

     0   1   2   3   4   5   6   7
   +---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+
   |                               |
   / replication base information  / variable length
   |                               |
   +---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+
   |                               |
   /    replication information    / variable length
   |                               |
    - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

   Replication base information: The contents of this part of the IR-CR
       packet are defined by the individual profiles. This information
       is interpreted according to the profile indicated in the Profile
       field. It MUST include a 7-bit CRC over the original uncompressed
       header using the polynomial of section 3.4.1.1. See Appendix A.2.

   Replication information: The contents of this part of the IR-CR
       packet are also defined by the individual profiles. This part
       contains the static and dynamic subheader information used for
       replication. How this information is structured is profile
       specific; profiles may define the contents of this field using a
       chain structure (static and dynamic replication chains) or by
       defining header formats for replication (e.g. [ROHC-TCP]).

Appendix A.2.  Profile specific replication information (informative)

   This section provides a more detailed example of the possible format
   of the replication information field described in Appendix A.1:

   +---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+
   | B |          CRC7             |  1 octet
   +---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+
   |                               |  present if B = 1,
   /           Base CID            /  1 octet if for small CIDs, or
   |                               |  1-2 octets if for large CIDs
   +---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+

   B:  B = 1 indicates that the Base CID field is present.

   CRC7: The CRC over the original, uncompressed, header. This 7-bit CRC
       is computed according to section 3.4.1.1.

Base CID: The CID identifying the base context used for replication.



Pelletier                                                      [Page 16]

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Appendix B - Inter-profile context replication (informative)

   Context replication as defined in this document does not explicitly
   support the concept of context replication between profiles. However,
   it might be of interest when developing new compression profiles.

   Inter-profile context replication would require that the decompressor
   have access to data structures from the base context, which belongs
   to a profile different than the profile using replication. This
   information would have to be made available in a format consistent
   with the data structures and encoding method(s) in use for all header
   fields that are being replicated.


Appendix B.1.  Defining support for inter-profile context replication

   A ROHC profile describes how to compress a specific protocol stack,
   and includes one or more sets of packet formats. The packet formats
   will typically compress the protocol headers relative to a context of
   field values from previous headers in a flow. This context may also
   contain some control data. The packet formats thus specify a mapping
   between the uncompressed and compressed version of a protocol field.

   This mapping is achieved through the use of one or more encoding
   methods, which are simply functions applied to compress or decompress
   a field. An encoding method is in turn defined using a name, a set of
   function parameters and a formal expression (i.e. using the ROHC-FN
   [6]) or a textual description (i.e. a la RFC 3095 [2]) of its
   behaviour.

   To compress one or more fields of a specific protocol stack,
   different profiles may define their packet formats using different
   encoding methods, or using a variant of a similar technique. A
   typical example of the latter is list compression, such as used for
   IP extension headers. This implies that context entries for a field
   belonging to a specific protocol stack may differ in their content,
   representation and structure from one profile to another.

   As a consequence of the above, a profile supporting context
   replication can only use a base context from another profile
   explicitly supporting the concept of a base context. That is,
   existing profiles not supporting this concept must be updated first
   to ensure that they can export the necessary context data entries
   using a meaningful representation during replication.

   Specifically, inter-profile context replication would require that
   decompressor implementations (including existing ones) of other
   profiles be updated when adding support for a profile using context
   replication. Inter-profile context replication can therefore not be
   seen as being only a specific implementation issue.




Pelletier                                                      [Page 17]

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   The compressor must know if the decompressor supports inter-profile
   context replication before initiating the procedure. The compressor
   must also know which contexts belonging to what profile may be used
   as a base context. Therefore, a compressor cannot initiate context
   replication using a base context belonging to a different profile,
   unless this profile explicitly provides the proper mapping for its
   context entries or unless this profile is defined formally using
   ROHC-FN [6] in manner that makes both profiles compatible. The set of
   profiles negotiated for the channel (see also RFC 3095 [2]) can then
   be used to determine if a context for a specific profile can be used
   as a base context.


Appendix B.2.  Compatibility between different profiles (informative)

   Compatibility between profiles, when replicating a field for a
   particular protocol stack, can be expressed as follow: a field that
   is compressed by different profiles is compatible for inter-profile
   replication if it is defined in the set of packet formats using the
   same mapping function between its uncompressed and compressed
   version.

   For example, the IP Destination Address field which, based on the
   packet formats and compression strategies defined in RFC 3095 [2], is
   implicitly compressed using an encoding method equivalent to the
   static() method defined in ROHC-FN [6].

   In particular, for profiles that define their packet formats using a
   formal notation such as ROHC-FN [6], two different encoding methods
   may not have the same name. A field from a protocol stack is thus
   said to be compatible for replication between two different profiles
   if it has an equivalent definition within respective packet formats.






















Pelletier                                                      [Page 18]

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Copyright Statement

   Copyright (C) The Internet Society (2004). This document is subject
   to the rights, licenses and restrictions contained in BCP 78, and
   except as set forth therein, the authors retain all their rights.


Disclaimer of Validity

   This document and the information contained herein are provided on an
   "AS IS" basis and THE CONTRIBUTOR, THE ORGANIZATION HE/SHE REPRESENTS
   OR IS SPONSORED BY (IF ANY), THE INTERNET SOCIETY AND THE INTERNET
   ENGINEERING TASK FORCE DISCLAIM ALL WARRANTIES, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED,
   INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO ANY WARRANTY THAT THE USE OF THE
   INFORMATION HEREIN WILL NOT INFRINGE ANY RIGHTS OR ANY IMPLIED
   WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.
































This Internet-Draft expires April 5, 2005.





Pelletier                                                      [Page 19]


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