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Versions: (draft-martocci-roll-building-routing-reqs) 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 RFC 5867

Networking Working Group                                J. Martocci, Ed.
Internet-Draft                                     Johnson Controls Inc.
Intended status: Informational                            Pieter De Mil
Expires: July 28, 2010                            Ghent University IBCN
                                                           W. Vermeylen
                                                    Arts Centre Vooruit
                                                           Nicolas Riou
                                                     Schneider Electric
                                                       January 28, 2010


      Building Automation Routing Requirements in Low Power and Lossy
                                 Networks
                 draft-ietf-roll-building-routing-reqs-09


Status of this Memo

   This Internet-Draft is submitted to IETF in full conformance with the
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   This Internet-Draft will expire on July 28, 2010.



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   publication of this document.  Please review these documents



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   carefully, as they describe your rights and restrictions with respect
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   than English.

Abstract

   The Routing Over Low power and Lossy network (ROLL) Working Group has
   been chartered to work on routing solutions for Low Power and Lossy
   networks (LLN) in various markets: Industrial, Commercial (Building),
   Home and Urban networks. Pursuant to this effort, this document
   defines the IPv6 routing requirements for building automation.

Requirements Language

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
   document are to be interpreted as described in (RFC2119).

Table of Contents

   1. Terminology....................................................4
   2. Introduction...................................................4
   3. Overview of Building Automation Networks.......................6
      3.1. Introduction..............................................6
      3.2. Building Systems Equipment................................7
         3.2.1. Sensors/Actuators....................................7
         3.2.2. Area Controllers.....................................7
         3.2.3. Zone Controllers.....................................7
      3.3. Equipment Installation Methods............................8
      3.4. Device Density............................................8
         3.4.1. HVAC Device Density..................................9
         3.4.2. Fire Device Density..................................9
         3.4.3. Lighting Device Density..............................9


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         3.4.4. Physical Security Device Density.....................9
   4. Traffic Pattern...............................................10
   5. Building Automation Routing Requirements......................11
      5.1. Device and Network Commissioning.........................12
         5.1.1. Zero-Configuration Installation.....................12
         5.1.2. Local Testing.......................................12
         5.1.3. Device Replacement..................................12
      5.2. Scalability..............................................13
         5.2.1. Network Domain......................................13
         5.2.2. Peer-to-Peer Communication..........................13
      5.3. Mobility.................................................13
         5.3.1. Mobile Device Requirements..........................14
      5.4. Resource Constrained Devices.............................15
         5.4.1. Limited Memory Footprint on Host Devices............15
         5.4.2. Limited Processing Power for Routers................15
         5.4.3. Sleeping Devices....................................15
      5.5. Addressing...............................................16
      5.6. Manageability............................................16
         5.6.1. Diagnostics.........................................17
         5.6.2. Route Tracking......................................17
      5.7. Route Selection..........................................17
         5.7.1. Route Cost..........................................17
         5.7.2. Route Adaptation....................................18
         5.7.3. Route Redundancy....................................18
         5.7.4. Route Discovery Time................................18
         5.7.5. Route Preference....................................18
         5.7.6. Real-time Performance Measures......................18
         5.7.7. Prioritized Routing.................................18
      5.8. Security Requirements....................................19
         5.8.1. Building Security Use Case..........................19
         5.8.2. Authentication......................................20
         5.8.3. Encryption..........................................20
         5.8.4. Disparate Security Policies.........................21
         5.8.5. Routing Security Policies To Sleeping Devices.......21
   6. Security Considerations.......................................21
   7. IANA Considerations...........................................22
   8. Acknowledgments...............................................22
   9. Disclaimer for pre-RFC5378 work...............................22
   10. References...................................................22
      10.1. Normative References....................................22
      10.2. Informative References..................................23
   11. Appendix A: Additional Building Requirements.................23
      11.1. Additional Commercial Product Requirements..............23
         11.1.1. Wired and Wireless Implementations.................23
         11.1.2. World-wide Applicability...........................23
      11.2. Additional Installation and Commissioning Requirements..23
         11.2.1. Unavailability of an IP network....................23


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      11.3. Additional Network Requirements.........................23
         11.3.1. TCP/UDP............................................23
         11.3.2. Interference Mitigation............................24
         11.3.3. Packet Reliability.................................24
         11.3.4. Merging Commissioned Islands.......................24
         11.3.5. Adjustable Routing Table Sizes.....................24
         11.3.6. Automatic Gain Control.............................24
         11.3.7. Device and Network Integrity.......................24
      11.4. Additional Performance Requirements.....................25
         11.4.1. Data Rate Performance..............................25
         11.4.2. Firmware Upgrades..................................25
         11.4.3. Route Persistence..................................25
   12. Authors' Addresses...........................................26




1. Terminology

   For description of the terminology used in this specification, please
   see [I-D.ietf-roll-terminology].



2. Introduction

   The Routing Over Low power and Lossy network (ROLL) Working Group has
   been chartered to work on routing solutions for Low Power and Lossy
   networks (LLN) in various markets: Industrial, Commercial (Building),
   Home and Urban networks. Pursuant to this effort, this document
   defines the IPv6 routing requirements for building automation.

   Commercial buildings have been fitted with pneumatic and subsequently
   electronic communication routes connecting sensors to their
   controllers for over one hundred years.  Recent economic and
   technical advances in wireless communication allow facilities to
   increasingly utilize a wireless solution in lieu of a wired solution;
   thereby reducing installation costs while maintaining highly reliant
   communication.

   The cost benefits and ease of installation of wireless sensors allow
   customers to further instrument their facilities with additional
   sensors; providing tighter control while yielding increased energy
   savings.

   Wireless solutions will be adapted from their existing wired
   counterparts in many of the building applications including, but not


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   limited to Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning (HVAC),
   Lighting, Physical Security, Fire, and Elevator/Lift systems. These
   devices will be developed to reduce installation costs; while
   increasing installation and retrofit flexibility, as well as
   increasing the sensing fidelity to improve efficiency and building
   service quality.

   Sensing devices may be battery-less; battery or mains powered.
   Actuators and area controllers will be mains powered.  Due to
   building code and/or device density (e.g., equipment room), it is
   envisioned that a mix of wired and wireless sensors and actuators
   will be deployed within a building.

   Facility Management Systems (FMS) are deployed in a large set of
   vertical markets including universities; hospitals; government
   facilities; Kindergarten through High School (K-12); pharmaceutical
   manufacturing facilities; and single-tenant or multi-tenant office
   buildings. These buildings range in size from 100K sqft structures (5
   story office buildings), to 1M sqft skyscrapers (100 story
   skyscrapers) to complex government facilities such as the Pentagon.
   The described topology is meant to be the model to be used in all
   these types of environments, but clearly must be tailored to the
   building class, building tenant and vertical market being served.

   Section 3 describes the necessary background to understand the
   context of building automation including the sensor, actuator, area
   controller and zone controller layers of the topology; typical device
   density; and installation practices.

   Section 4 defines the traffic flow of the aforementioned sensors,
   actuators and controllers in commercial buildings.

   Section 5 defines the full set of IPv6 routing requirements for
   commercial buildings.

   Appendix A documents important commercial building requirements that
   are out of scope for routing yet will be essential to the final
   acceptance of the protocols used within the building.

   Sections 3 and Appendix A are mainly included for educational
   purposes.

   The expressed aim of this document is to provide the set of IPv6
   routing requirements for LLNs in buildings as described in Section 5.





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3. Overview of Building Automation Networks

3.1. Introduction

   To understand the network systems requirements of a facility
   management system in a commercial building, this document uses a
   framework to describe the basic functions and composition of the
   system. An FMS is a hierarchical system of sensors, actuators,
   controllers and user interface devices that interoperate to provide a
   safe and comfortable environment while constraining energy costs.

   An FMS is divided functionally across alike, but different building
   subsystems such as heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC);
   Fire; Security; Lighting; Shutters and Elevator/Lift control systems
   as denoted in Figure 1.

   Much of the makeup of an FMS is optional and installed at the behest
   of the customer.  Sensors and actuators have no standalone
   functionality. All other devices support partial or complete
   standalone functionality.  These devices can optionally be tethered
   to form a more cohesive system.  The customer requirements dictate
   the level of integration within the facility.  This architecture
   provides excellent fault tolerance since each node is designed to
   operate in an independent mode if the higher layers are unavailable.



              +------+ +-----+ +------+ +------+ +------+ +------+

Bldg App'ns   |      | |     | |      | |      | |      | |      |

              |      | |     | |      | |      | |      | |      |

Building Cntl |      | |     | |   S  | |   L  | |   S  | |  E   |

              |      | |     | |   E  | |   I  | |   H  | |  L   |

Area Control  |  H   | |  F  | |   C  | |   G  | |   U  | |  E   |

              |  V   | |  I  | |   U  | |   H  | |   T  | |  V   |

Zone Control  |  A   | |  R  | |   R  | |   T  | |   T  | |  A   |

              |  C   | |  E  | |   I  | |   I  | |   E  | |  T   |

Actuators     |      | |     | |   T  | |   N  | |   R  | |  O   |



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              |      | |     | |   Y  | |   G  | |   S  | |  R   |

Sensors       |      | |     | |      | |      | |      | |      |

              +------+ +-----+ +------+ +------+ +------+ +------+

                  Figure 1: Building Systems and Devices



3.2. Building Systems Equipment

 3.2.1. Sensors/Actuators

   As Figure 1 indicates an FMS may be composed of many functional
   stacks or silos that are interoperably woven together via Building
   Applications.  Each silo has an array of sensors that monitor the
   environment and actuators that effect the environment as determined
   by the upper layers of the FMS topology.   The sensors typically are
   at the edge of the network structure providing environmental data
   into the system.  The actuators are the sensors' counterparts
   modifying the characteristics of the system based on the sensor data
   and the applications deployed.

 3.2.2. Area Controllers

   An area describes a small physical locale within a building,
   typically a room.  HVAC (temperature and humidity) and Lighting (room
   lighting, shades, solar loads) vendors often times deploy area
   controllers. Area controls are fed by sensor inputs that monitor the
   environmental conditions within the room.  Common sensors found in
   many rooms that feed the area controllers include temperature,
   occupancy, lighting load, solar load and relative humidity.  Sensors
   found in specialized rooms (such as chemistry labs) might include air
   flow, pressure, CO2 and CO particle sensors.  Room actuation includes
   temperature setpoint, lights and blinds/curtains.

 3.2.3. Zone Controllers

   Zone Control supports a similar set of characteristics as the Area
   Control albeit to an extended space.  A zone is normally a logical
   grouping or functional division of a commercial building.  A zone may
   also coincidentally map to a physical locale such as a floor.

   Zone Control may have direct sensor inputs (smoke detectors for
   fire), controller inputs (room controllers for air-handlers in HVAC)
   or both (door controllers and tamper sensors for security).  Like


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   area/room controllers, zone controllers are standalone devices that
   operate independently or may be attached to the larger network for
   more synergistic control.



 3.3. Equipment Installation Methods

   An FMS is installed very differently from most other IT networks.  IT
   networks are typically installed as an overlay onto the existing
   environment and are installed from the inside out.  That is, the
   network wiring infrastructure is installed; the switches, routers and
   servers are connected and made operational; and finally the endpoints
   (e.g., PCs, VoIP phones) added.

   FMS systems, on the other hand, are installed from the outside in.
   That is, the endpoints (thermostats, lights, smoke detectors) are
   installed in the spaces first; local control is established in each
   room and tested for proper operation.  The individual rooms are later
   lashed together into a subsystem (e.g. Lighting).  The individual
   subsystems (e.g., lighting, HVAC) then coalesce.  Later the entire
   system may be merged onto the enterprise network.

   The rational for this is partly due to the different construction
   trades having access to a building under construction at different
   times.  The sheer size of a building often dictates that even a
   single trade may have multiple independent teams working
   simultaneously.  Furthermore, the HVAC, lighting and fire systems
   must be fully operational before the building can obtain its
   occupancy permit.  Hence, the FMS must be in place and configured
   well before any of the IT servers (DHCP, AAA, DNS, etc) are
   operational.

   This implies that the FMS cannot rely on the availability of the IT
   network infrastructure or application servers.  Rather, the FMS
   installation should be planned to dovetail to the IT system once the
   IT system is available for easy migration onto the IT network.
   Front-end planning of available switch ports, cable runs, AP
   placement, firewalls and security policies will facilitate this
   adoption.

 3.4. Device Density

   Device density differs depending on the application and as dictated
   by the local building code requirements.  The following sections
   detail typical installation densities for different applications.



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 3.4.1. HVAC Device Density

   HVAC room applications typically have sensors/actuators and
   controllers spaced about 50ft apart.  In most cases there is a 3:1
   ratio of sensors/actuators to controllers.  That is, for each room
   there is an installed temperature sensor, flow sensor and damper
   actuator for the associated room controller.

   HVAC equipment room applications are quite different.  An air handler
   system may have a single controller with upwards to 25 sensors and
   actuators within 50 ft of the air handler.  A chiller or boiler is
   also controlled with a single equipment controller instrumented with
   25 sensors and actuators.  Each of these devices would be
   individually addressed since the devices are mandated or optional as
   defined by the specified HVAC application.  Air handlers typically
   serve one or two floors of the building.  Chillers and boilers may be
   installed per floor, but many times service a wing, building or the
   entire complex via a central plant.

   These numbers are typical.  In special cases, such as clean rooms,
   operating rooms, pharmaceuticals and labs, the ratio of sensors to
   controllers can increase by a factor of three.  Tenant installations
   such as malls would opt for packaged units where much of the sensing
   and actuation is integrated into the unit.  Here a single device
   address would serve the entire unit.

 3.4.2. Fire Device Density

   Fire systems are much more uniformly installed with smoke detectors
   installed about every 50 feet.  This is dictated by local building
   codes.  Fire pull boxes are installed uniformly about every 150 feet.
   A fire controller will service a floor or wing.  The fireman's fire
   panel will service the entire building and typically is installed in
   the atrium.

 3.4.3. Lighting Device Density

   Lighting is also very uniformly installed with ballasts installed
   approximately every 10 feet.  A lighting panel typically serves 48 to
   64 zones.  Wired systems tether many lights together into a single
   zone.  Wireless systems configure each fixture independently to
   increase flexibility and reduce installation costs.

 3.4.4. Physical Security Device Density

   Security systems are non-uniformly oriented with heavy density near
   doors and windows and lighter density in the building interior space.


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   The recent influx of interior and perimeter camera systems is
   increasing the security footprint.  These cameras are atypical
   endpoints requiring upwards to 1 megabit/second (Mbit/s) data rates
   per camera as contrasted by the few Kbits/s needed by most other FMS
   sensing equipment.  Previously, camera systems had been deployed on
   proprietary wired high speed network. More recent implementations
   utilize wired or wireless IP cameras integrated to the enterprise
   LAN.



4. Traffic Pattern

   The independent nature of the automation subsystems within a building
   plays heavy onto the network traffic patterns.  Much of the real-time
   sensor environmental data and actuator control stays within the local
   LLN environment; while alarming and other event data will percolate
   to higher layers.

   Each sensor in the LLN unicasts P2P about 200 bytes of sensor data to
   its associated controller each minute and expects an application
   acknowledgment unicast returned from the destination.  Each
   controller unicasts messages at a nominal rate of 6kB/min to peer or
   supervisory controllers.  30% of each node's packets are destined for
   other nodes within the LLN.  70% of each node's packets are destined
   for an aggregation device (MP2P)and routed off the LLN.  These
   messages also require a unicast acknowledgment from the destination.
   The above values assume direct node-to-node communication; meshing
   and error retransmissions are not considered.

   Multicasts (P2MP) to all nodes in the LLN occur for node and object
   discovery when the network is first commissioned. This data is
   typically a one-time bind that is henceforth persisted.  Lighting
   systems will also readily use multicasting during normal operations
   to turn banks of lights 'on' and 'off' simultaneously.

   FMS systems may be either polled or event based.  Polled data systems
   will generate a uniform and constant packet load on the network.
   Polled architectures, however have proven not scalable.  Today, most
   vendors have developed event based systems which pass data on event.
   These systems are highly scalable and generate low data on the
   network at quiescence.  Unfortunately, the systems will generate a
   heavy load on startup since all initial sensor data must migrate to
   the controller level.  They also will generate a temporary but heavy
   load during firmware upgrades.  This latter load can normally be
   mitigated by performing these downloads during off-peak hours.



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   Devices will also need to reference peers periodically for sensor
   data or to coordinate operation across systems.  Normally, though,
   data will migrate from the sensor level upwards through the local,
   area then supervisory level.  Traffic bottlenecks will typically form
   at the funnel point from the area controllers to the supervisory
   controllers.

   Initial system startup after a controlled outage or unexpected power
   failure puts tremendous stress on the network and on the routing
   algorithms.  An FMS system is comprised of a myriad of control
   algorithms at the room, area, zone, and enterprise layers.  When
   these control algorithms are at quiescence, the real-time data rate
   is small and the network will not saturate.  An overall network
   traffic load of 6KBps is typical at quiescence.  However, upon any
   power loss, the control loops and real-time data quickly atrophy.  A
   short power disruption of only ten minutes may have a long-term
   deleterious impact on the building control systems taking many hours
   to regain proper control.  Control application that cannot handle
   this level of disruption (e.g., Hospital Operating Rooms) must be
   fitted with a secondary power source.

   Power disruptions are unexpected and in most cases will immediately
   impact lines-powered devices.  Power disruptions however, are
   transparent to battery powered devices.  These devices will continue
   to attempt to access the LLN during the outage.  Battery powered
   devices designed to buffer data that has not been delivered will
   further stress the network operation when power returns.

   Upon restart, lines-powered devices will naturally dither due to
   primary equipment delays or variance in the device self-tests.
   However, most lines-powered devices will be ready to access the LLN
   network within 10 seconds of power up. Empirical testing indicates
   that routes acquired during startup will tend to be very oblique
   since the available neighbor lists are incomplete.  This demands an
   adaptive routing protocol to allow for route optimization as the
   network stabilizes.



5. Building Automation Routing Requirements

   Following are the building automation routing requirements for
   networks used to integrate building sensor, actuator and control
   products.  These requirements are written not presuming any
   preordained network topology, physical media (wired) or radio
   technology (wireless).



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5.1. Device and Network Commissioning

   Building control systems typically are installed and tested by
   electricians having little computer knowledge and no network
   communication knowledge whatsoever.  These systems are often
   installed during the building construction phase before the drywall
   and ceilings are in place.  For new construction projects, the
   building enterprise IP network is not in place during installation of
   the building control system.  For retrofit applications, the
   installer will still operate independently from the IP network so as
   not to affect network operations during the installation phase.

   In traditional wired systems correct operation of a light
   switch/ballast pair was as simple as flipping on the light switch.
   In wireless applications, the tradesperson has to assure the same
   operation, yet be sure the operation of the light switch is
   associated to the proper ballast.

   System level commissioning will later be deployed using a more
   computer savvy person with access to a commissioning device (e.g., a
   laptop computer).  The completely installed and commissioned
   enterprise IP network may or may not be in place at this time.
   Following are the installation routing requirements.

 5.1.1. Zero-Configuration Installation

   It MUST be possible to fully commission network devices without
   requiring any additional commissioning device (e.g., laptop). From
   the ROLL perspective, zero-configuration means that a node can obtain
   an address and join the network on its own, without human
   intervention.

 5.1.2. Local Testing

   During installation, the room sensors, actuators and controllers
   SHOULD be able to route packets amongst themselves and to any other
   device within the LLN without requiring any additional routing
   infrastructure or routing configuration.

 5.1.3. Device Replacement

   To eliminate the need to reconfigure the application upon replacing a
   failed device in the LLN; the replaced device must be able to
   advertise the old IP address of the failed device in addition to its
   new IP address.  The routing protocols MUST support hosts and routers
   that advertise multiple IPv6 addresses.



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5.2. Scalability

   Building control systems are designed for facilities from 50000 sq.
   ft. to 1M+ sq. ft.  The networks that support these systems must
   cost-effectively scale accordingly.  In larger facilities
   installation may occur simultaneously on various wings or floors, yet
   the end system must seamlessly merge.  Following are the scalability
   requirements.

 5.2.1. Network Domain

   The routing protocol MUST be able to support networks with at least
   2000 nodes where 1000 nodes would act as routers and the other 1000
   nodes would be hosts.  Subnetworks (e.g., rooms, primary equipment)
   within the network must support upwards to 255 sensors and/or
   actuators.



 5.2.2. Peer-to-Peer Communication

   The data domain for commercial FMS systems may sprawl across a vast
   portion of the physical domain.  For example, a chiller may reside in
   the facility's basement due to its size, yet the associated cooling
   towers will reside on the roof.  The cold-water supply and return
   pipes serpentine through all the intervening floors.  The feedback
   control loops for these systems require data from across the
   facility.

   A network device MUST be able to communicate in an end-to-end manner
   with any other device on the network. Thus, the routing protocol MUST
   provide routes between arbitrary hosts within the appropriate
   administrative domain.



5.3. Mobility

   Most devices are affixed to walls or installed on ceilings within
   buildings.  Hence the mobility requirements for commercial buildings
   are few.  However, in wireless environments location tracking of
   occupants and assets is gaining favor.  Asset tracking applications,
   such as tracking capital equipment (e.g., wheel chairs) in medical
   facilities, require monitoring movement with granularity of a minute;



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   however tracking babies in a pediatric ward would require latencies
   less than a few seconds.

   The following subsections document the mobility requirements in the
   routing layer for mobile devices.  Note however; that mobility can be
   implemented at various layers of the system, and the specific
   requirements depend on the chosen layer. For instance, some devices
   may not depend on a static IP address and are capable of re-
   establishing application-level communications when given a new IP
   address.  Alternatively, mobile IP may be used or the set of routers
   in a building may give an impression of a building-wide network and
   allow devices to retain their addresses regardless of where they are,
   handling routing between the devices in the background.



5.3.1. Mobile Device Requirements

   To minimize network dynamics, mobile devices while in motion should
   not be allowed to act as forwarding devices (routers) for other
   devices in the LLN. Network configuration should allow devices to be
   configured as routers or hosts.

5.3.1.1. Device Mobility within the LLN

   An LLN typically spans a single floor in a commercial building.
   Mobile devices may move within this LLN.  For example, a wheel chair
   may be moved from one room on the floor to another room on the same
   floor.

   A mobile LLN device that moves within the confines of the same LLN
   SHOULD reestablish end-to-end communication to a fixed device also in
   the LLN within 5 seconds after it ceases movement.   The LLN network
   convergence time should be less than 10 seconds once the mobile
   device stops moving.

5.3.1.2. Device Mobility across LLNs

   A mobile device may move across LLNs, such as a wheel chair being
   moved to a different floor.

   A mobile device that moves outside its original LLN SHOULD
   reestablish end-to-end communication to a fixed device also in the
   new LLN within 10 seconds after the mobile device ceases movement.
   The network convergence time should be less than 20 seconds once the
   mobile device stops moving.



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5.4. Resource Constrained Devices

   Sensing and actuator device processing power and memory may be 4
   orders of magnitude less (i.e., 10,000x) than many more traditional
   client devices on an IP network.  The routing mechanisms must
   therefore be tailored to fit these resource constrained devices.

5.4.1. Limited Memory Footprint on Host Devices

   The software size requirement for non-routing devices (e.g., sleeping
   sensors and actuators) SHOULD be implementable in 8-bit devices with
   no more than 128KB of memory.

5.4.2. Limited Processing Power for Routers

   The software size requirements for routing devices (e.g., room
   controllers) SHOULD be implementable in 8-bit devices with no more
   than 256KB of flash memory.

5.4.3. Sleeping Devices

   Sensing devices will, in some cases, utilize battery power or energy
   harvesting techniques for power and will operate mostly in a sleep
   mode to maintain power consumption within a modest budget.  The
   routing protocol MUST take into account device characteristics such
   as power budget.

   Typically, sensor battery life (2000mAh) needs to extend for at least
   5 years when the device is transmitting its data (200 octets) once
   per minute over a low power transceiver (25ma) and expecting an
   application acknowledgment.  In this case the transmitting device
   must leave its receiver in a high powered state awaiting the return
   of the application ACK.  To minimize this latency, a highly efficient
   routing protocol that minimizes hops and hence end-to-end
   communication is required. The routing protocol MUST take into
   account node properties such as 'Low-powered node' which produce
   efficient low latency routes that minimize radio 'on' time for these
   devices.

   Sleeping devices MUST be able to receive inbound data.  Messages sent
   to battery powered nodes MUST be buffered and retried by the last hop
   router for a period of at least 20 seconds when the destination node
   is currently in its sleep cycle.






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5.5. Addressing

   Facility Management systems require different communication schemes
   to solicit or post network information. Multicasts or anycasts need
   be used to resolve unresolved references within a device when the
   device first joins the network.

   As with any network communication, multicasting should be minimized.
   This is especially a problem for small embedded devices with limited
   network bandwidth.   Multicasts are typically used for network joins
   and application binding in embedded systems.  Routing MUST support
   anycast, unicast, and multicast.

5.6. Manageability

   As previously noted in Clause 3.3, installation of LLN devices
   follows a bottoms-up work flow.  Edge devices are installed first and
   tested for communication and application integrity.  These devices
   are then aggregated into islands, then LLNs and later affixed onto
   the enterprise network.

   The need for diagnostics most often occurs during the installation
   and commissioning phase; although at times diagnostic information may
   be requested during normal operation.  Battery powered wireless
   devices typically will have a self diagnostic mode that can be
   initiated via a button press on the device.  The device will display
   its link status and/or end-to-end connectivity when the button is
   depressed.  Lines-powered devices will continuously display
   communication status via a bank of LEDs; possibly denoting signal
   strength and end-to-end application connectivity.

   The local diagnostics noted above often times are suitable for
   defining room level networks.  However, as these devices aggregate,
   system level diagnostics may need to be executed to ameliorate route
   vacillation, excessive hops, communication retries and/or network
   bottlenecks.

   On operational networks, due to the mission critical nature of the
   application, the LLN devices will be temporally monitored by the
   higher layers to assure communication integrity is maintained.
   Failure to maintain this communication will result in an alarm being
   forwarded to the enterprise network from the monitoring node for
   analysis and remediation.

   In addition to the initial installation and commissioning of the
   system, it is equally important for the ongoing maintenance of the
   system to be simple and inexpensive.  This implies a straightforward


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   device swap when a failed device is replaced as noted in Clause
   5.1.3.

5.6.1. Diagnostics

   To improve diagnostics, the routing protocol SHOULD be able to be
   placed in and out of 'verbose' mode.  Verbose mode is a temporary
   debugging mode that provides additional communication information
   including at least total number of routed packets sent and received,
   number of routing failures (no route available), neighbor table
   members, and routing table entries.  The data provided in verbose
   mode should be sufficient that a network connection graph could be
   constructed and maintained by the monitoring node.

   Diagnostic data should be kept by the routers continuously and be
   available for solicitation at anytime by any other node on the
   internetwork.  Verbose mode will be activated/deactivated via a
   unicast, multicast or other means.  Devices having available
   resources may elect to support verbose mode continually.

5.6.2. Route Tracking

   Route diagnostics SHOULD be supported providing information such as
   route quality; number of hops; available alternate active routes with
   associated costs.  Route quality is the relative measure of
   'goodness' of the selected source to destination route as compared to
   alternate routes.  This composite value may be measured as a function
   of hop count, signal strength, available power, existing active
   routes or any other criteria deemed by ROLL as the route cost
   differentiator.



5.7. Route Selection

   Route selection determines reliability and quality of the
   communication among the devices by optimizing routes over time and
   resolving any nuances developed at system startup when nodes are
   asynchronously adding themselves to the network.

5.7.1. Route Cost

   The routing protocol MUST support a metric of route quality and
   optimize selection according to such metrics within constraints
   established for links along the routes. These metrics SHOULD reflect
   metrics such as signal strength, available bandwidth, hop count,
   energy availability and communication error rates.


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5.7.2. Route Adaptation

   Communication routes MUST be adaptive and converge toward optimality
   of the chosen metric (e.g., signal quality, hop count) in time.

5.7.3. Route Redundancy

   The routing layer SHOULD be configurable to allow secondary and
   tertiary routes to be established and used upon failure of the
   primary route.

5.7.4. Route Discovery Time

   Mission critical commercial applications (e.g., Fire, Security)
   require reliable communication and guaranteed end-to-end delivery of
   all messages in a timely fashion.  Application layer time-outs must
   be selected judiciously to cover anomalous conditions such as lost
   packets and/or route discoveries; yet not be set too large to over
   damp the network response.  If route discovery occurs during packet
   transmission time (proactive routing), it SHOULD NOT add more than
   120ms of latency to the packet delivery time.

5.7.5. Route Preference

   The routing protocol SHOULD allow for the support of manually
   configured static preferred routes.

5.7.6. Real-time Performance Measures

   A node transmitting a 'request with expected reply' to another node
   must send the message to the destination and receive the response in
   not more than 120ms.  This response time should be achievable with 5
   or less hops in each direction.  This requirement assumes network
   quiescence and a negligible turnaround time at the destination node.

5.7.7. Prioritized Routing

   Network and application packet routing prioritization must be
   supported to assure that mission critical applications (e.g., Fire
   Detection) cannot be deferred while less critical applications access
   the network.  The routing protocol MUST be able to provide routes
   with different characteristics, also referred to as "QoS" routing.







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5.8. Security Requirements

   Due to the variety of buildings and tenants, the FMS systems must be
   completely configurable on-site.

   Due to the quantity of the BMS devices (1000s) and their
   inaccessibility (often times above the ceilings) security
   configuration over the network is preferred over local configuration

   Wireless encryption and device authentication security policies need
   to be considered in commercial buildings, while keeping in mind the
   impact on the limited processing capabilities and additional latency
   incurred on the sensors, actuators and controllers.

   FMS systems are typically highly configurable in the field and hence
   the security policy is most often dictated by the type of building to
   which the FMS is being installed.   Single tenant owner occupied
   office buildings installing lighting or HVAC control are candidates
   for implementing a low level of security on the LLN.  Antithetically,
   military or pharmaceutical facilities require strong security
   policies.



5.8.1. Building Security Use Case

   LLNs for commercial building applications would always implement and
   use encrypted packets.  However, depending on the state of the LLN,
   the security keys may either be:

      1) a key obtained from a trust center already operable on the LLN;

      2) a pre-shared static key as defined by the general contractor or
      its designee or

      3)a well-known default static key.

   Unless a node entering the network had previously received its
   credentials from the trust center, the entering node will try to
   solicit the trust center for the network key.  If the trust center is
   accessible, the trust center will MAC authenticate the entering node
   and return the security keys.  If the Trust Center is not available,
   the entering node will check if it has been given a network key in an
   off-band means and use it to access the network.  If no network key
   has been configured in the device it will revert to the default
   network key and enter the network.  If neither of these keys were
   valid, the device would signal via a fault LED.


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   This approach would allow for independent simplified commissioning,
   yet centralized authentication.  The building owner or building type
   would then dictate when the trust center would be deployed.  In many
   cases the trust center need not be deployed until all the local room
   commissioning was complete.  Yet at the province of the owner, the
   trust center may be deployed from the onset thereby trading
   installation and commissioning flexibility for tighter security.



5.8.2. Authentication

   Authentication SHOULD be optional on the LLN.  Authentication SHOULD
   be fully configurable on-site. Authentication policy and updates MUST
   be routable over-the-air.  Authentication SHOULD occur upon joining
   or rejoining a network.  However, once authenticated devices SHOULD
   NOT need to reauthenticate with any other devices in the LLN.
   Packets may need authentication at the source and destination nodes,
   however, packets routed through intermediate hops should not need
   reauthentication at each hop.

   These requirements mean that at least one LLN routing protocol
   solution specification MUST include support for authentication.

5.8.3. Encryption

5.8.3.1. Encryption Types

   Data encryption of packets MUST be supported by all protocol solution
   specifications. Support can be provided by use of either a network
   wide key and/or an application key.  The network key would apply to
   all devices in the LLN.  The application key would apply to a subset
   of devices on the LLN.

   The network key and application keys would be mutually exclusive.
   The routing protocol MUST allow routing a packet encrypted with an
   application key through forwarding devices without requiring each
   node in the route to have the application key.

5.8.3.2. Packet Encryption

   The encryption policy MUST support both encryption of the payload
   only or of the entire packet.  Payload only encryption would
   eliminate the decryption/re-encryption overhead at every hop
   providing more real-time performance.




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5.8.4. Disparate Security Policies

   Due to the limited resources of an LLN, the security policy defined
   within the LLN MUST be able to differ from that of the rest of the IP
   network within the facility yet packets MUST still be able to route
   to or through the LLN from/to these networks.

5.8.5. Routing Security Policies To Sleeping Devices

   The routing protocol MUST gracefully handle routing temporal security
   updates (e.g., dynamic keys) to sleeping devices on their 'awake'
   cycle to assure that sleeping devices can readily and efficiently
   access the network.



6. Security Considerations

   The requirements placed on the LLN routing protocol in order to
   provide the correct level of security support are presented in
   Section 5.8.

   LLNs deployed in a building environment may be entirely isolated from
   other networks, attached to normal IP networks within the building
   yet physically disjoint from the wider Internet, or connected either
   directly or through other IP networks to the Internet. Additionally,
   even where no wired connectivity exists out of the building, the use
   of wireless infrastructure within the building means that physical
   connectivity to the LLN is possible for an attacker.

   Therefore, it is important that any routing protocol solution
   designed to meet the requirements included in this document addresses
   the security features requirements described in Section 5.8.
   Implementations of these protocols will be required in the protocol
   specifications to provide the level of support indicated in Section
   5.8, and will be encouraged to make the support flexibly configurable
   to enable an operator to make a judgment of the level of security
   that they want to deploy at any time.

   As noted in Section 5.8, use/deployment of the different security
   features is intended to be optional. This means that, although the
   protocols developed must conform to the requirements specified, the
   operator is free to determine the level of risk and the trade-offs
   against performance. An implementation must not make those choices on
   behalf of the operator by avoiding implementing any mandatory-to-
   implement security features.



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   This informational requirements specification introduces no new
   security concerns.



7. IANA Considerations

   This document includes no request to IANA.



8. Acknowledgments

   In addition to the authors; JP. Vasseur, David Culler, Ted Humpal and
   Zach Shelby are gratefully acknowledged for their contributions to
   this document.



9. Disclaimer for pre-RFC5378 work

   This document may contain material from IETF Documents or IETF
   Contributions published or made publicly available before November
   10, 2008.  The person(s) controlling the copyright in some of this
   material may not have granted the IETF Trust the right to allow
   modifications of such material outside the IETF Standards Process.
   Without obtaining an adequate license from the person(s) controlling
   the copyright in such materials, this document may not be modified
   outside the IETF Standards Process, and derivative works of it may
   not be created outside the IETF Standards Process, except to format
   it for publication as an RFC or to translate it into languages other
   than English.



10. References

10.1. Normative References

   [RFC2119]  Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
             Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997.








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10.2. Informative References

   [I-D.ietf-roll-terminology]Vasseur, JP., "Terminology in Low power
   And Lossy Networks", draft-ietf-roll-terminology-00 (work in
   progress), October 2008.



11. Appendix A: Additional Building Requirements

   Appendix A contains additional building requirements that were deemed
   out of scope for ROLL, yet provided ancillary substance for the
   reader.

11.1. Additional Commercial Product Requirements

11.1.1. Wired and Wireless Implementations

   Vendors will likely not develop a separate product line for both
   wired and wireless networks.  Hence, the solutions set forth must
   support both wired and wireless implementations.

11.1.2. World-wide Applicability

   Wireless devices must be supportable unlicensed bands.



11.2.    Additional Installation and Commissioning Requirements

11.2.1.  Unavailability of an IP network

   Product commissioning must be performed by an application engineer
   prior to the installation of the IP network (e.g., switches, routers,
   DHCP, DNS).



11.3.    Additional Network Requirements

11.3.1.  TCP/UDP

   Connection based and connectionless services must be supported






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11.3.2.  Interference Mitigation

   The network must automatically detect interference and seamlessly
   migrate the network hosts channel to improve communication.  Channel
   changes and nodes response to the channel change must occur within 60
   seconds.

11.3.3.  Packet Reliability

   In building automation, it is required for the network to meet the
   following minimum criteria:

   < 1% MAC layer errors on all messages; After no more than three
   retries

   < .1% Network layer errors on all messages;

   After no more than three additional retries;

   < 0.01% Application layer errors on all messages.

   Therefore application layer messages will fail no more than once
   every 100,000 messages.

11.3.4.  Merging Commissioned Islands

   Subsystems are commissioned by various vendors at various times
   during building construction.  These subnetworks must seamlessly
   merge into networks and networks must seamlessly merge into
   internetworks since the end user wants a holistic view of the system.

11.3.5.  Adjustable Routing Table Sizes

   The routing protocol must allow constrained nodes to hold an
   abbreviated set of routes.  That is, the protocol should not mandate
   that the node routing tables be exhaustive.

11.3.6.  Automatic Gain Control

   For wireless implementations, the device radios should incorporate
   automatic transmit power regulation to maximize packet transfer and
   minimize network interference regardless of network size or density.

11.3.7. Device and Network Integrity

   Commercial Building devices must all be periodically scanned to
   assure that the device is viable and can communicate data and alarm


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   information as needed. Router should maintain previous packet flow
   information temporally to minimize overall network overhead.



11.4. Additional Performance Requirements

11.4.1.  Data Rate Performance

   An effective data rate of 20kbits/s is the lowest acceptable
   operational data rate acceptable on the network.

11.4.2. Firmware Upgrades

   To support high speed code downloads, routing should support
   transports that provide parallel downloads to targeted devices yet
   guarantee packet delivery.  In cases where the spatial position of
   the devices requires multiple hops, the algorithm should recurse
   through the network until all targeted devices have been serviced.
   Devices receiving a download may cease normal operation, but upon
   completion of the download must automatically resume normal
   operation.

11.4.3. Route Persistence

   To eliminate high network traffic in power-fail or brown-out
   conditions previously established routes should be remembered and
   invoked prior to establishing new routes for those devices reentering
   the network.




















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12. Authors' Addresses


   Jerry Martocci
   Johnson Control
   507 E. Michigan Street
   Milwaukee, Wisconsin, 53202
   USA
   Phone: +1 414 524 4010
   Email: jerald.p.martocci@jci.com

   Nicolas Riou
   Schneider Electric
   Technopole 38TEC T3
   37 quai Paul Louis Merlin
   38050 Grenoble Cedex 9
   France
   Phone: +33 4 76 57 66 15
   Email: nicolas.riou@fr.schneider-electric.com

   Pieter De Mil
   Ghent University - IBCN
   G. Crommenlaan 8 bus 201
   Ghent  9050
   Belgium
   Phone: +32 9331 4981
   Fax:   +32 9331 4899
   Email: pieter.demil@intec.ugent.be

   Wouter Vermeylen
   Arts Centre Vooruit
   Ghent  9000
   Belgium
   Email: wouter@vooruit.be















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