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Versions: (draft-vasseur-roll-terminology) 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 08 09 12 13 RFC 7102

Networking Working Group                                     JP. Vasseur
Internet-Draft                                        Cisco Systems, Inc
Intended status: Informational                            March 11, 2013
Expires: September 12, 2013


              Terminology in Low power And Lossy Networks
                   draft-ietf-roll-terminology-12.txt

Abstract

   The documents defines a terminology for discussing routing
   requirements and solutions for networks referred to as Low power and
   Lossy Networks (LLN).  An LLN is typically composed of many embedded
   devices with limited power, memory, and processing resources
   interconnected by a variety of links.  There is a wide scope of
   application areas for LLNs, including industrial monitoring, building
   automation (e.g.  Heating, Ventilating, Air Conditioning, lighting,
   access control, fire), connected home, healthcare, environmental
   monitoring, urban sensor networks, energy management, assets
   tracking, refrigeration.


Status of This Memo

   This Internet-Draft is submitted to IETF in full conformance with the
   provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.

   Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
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   This Internet-Draft will expire on September 12, 2013.

Copyright Notice





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   Copyright (c) 2013 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
   document authors.  All rights reserved.

This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal Provisions
Relating to IETF Documents (http://trustee.ietf.org/license-info)
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and are provided without warranty as described in the Simplified
BSD License.

Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   2
   2.  Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   3
   3.  IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   6
   4.  Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   7
   5.  Acknowledgements  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   7
   6.  References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   7
     6.1.  Normative References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   7
     6.2.  Informative References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   7
   Author's Address  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   7

1.  Introduction

   This document defines a terminology for discussing routing
   requirements and solutions for networks referred to as Low power and
   Lossy Networks (LLN).

   Low power and Lossy networks (LLNs) are typically composed of many
   embedded devices with limited power, memory, and processing resources
   interconnected by a variety of links, such as IEEE 802.15.4, Low
   Power WiFi.  There is a wide scope of application areas for LLNs,
   including industrial monitoring, building automation (HVAC, lighting,
   access control, fire), connected home, healthcare, environmental
   monitoring, urban sensor networks, energy management, assets tracking
   and refrigeration.

   Since these applications are usually highly specific (for example
   Industrial Automation, Building Automation, ...), it is not uncommon
   to see a number of disparate terms to describe the same device or
   functionality.  Thus in order to avoid confusion or discrepancies,
   this document specifies the common terminology to be used in all ROLL
   Working Group documents.  The terms defined in this document are used
   in [RFC5548],[RFC5673], [RFC5826] and [RFC5867].

   Terminology specific to a particular application are out of the scope
   of this document.




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   It is expected that all routing requirements documents defining
   requirements or specifying routing solutions for LLN will use the
   common terminology specified in this document.  This document should
   be listed as an informative reference.

2.  Terminology

   Actuator: a field device that controls a set of equipment.  For
   example, an actuator might control and/or modulate the flow of a gas
   or liquid, control electricity distribution, perform a mechanical
   operation, ...

   AMI: Advanced Metering Infrastructure that makes use of Smart Grid
   technologies.  A canonical Smart Grid application is smart-metering.

   Channel: Radio frequency sub-band used to transmit a modulated signal
   carrying packets.

   Channel Hopping: A procedure by which field devices synchronously
   change channels during operation.

   Commissioning Tool: Any physical or logical device temporarily added
   to the network for the express purpose of setting up the network and
   device operational parameters.  The commisioning tool can also be
   temporarily added to the LLN for scheduled or unscheduled
   maintenance.

   Closed Loop Control: A procedure whereby a device controller controls
   an actuator based on input information sensed by one or more field
   devices.

   Controller: A field device that can receive sensor input and
   automatically change the environment in the facility by manipulating
   digital or analog actuators.

   DA: Distribution Automation, part of Smart Grid.  Encompasses
   technologies for maintenance and management of electrical
   distribution systems.

   Directed Acyclic Graph: A directed graph with no directed cycles (a
   graph formed by a collection of vertices and directed edges where
   each edge connects one vertex to another, such that there is no way
   to start at some vertex v and follow a sequence of edges that
   eventually loops back to the edge v again)

   Data sink: A device that collects data from nodes in an LLN.





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   Downstream: Data direction traveling from outside of the LLN (e.g.
   traffic coming from a LAN, WAN or the Internet) via a LBR, or in
   general "deeper" in the Directed Acyclic Graph computed by the
   routing protocol.

   Field Device: A field device is a physical device placed in the
   network's operating environment (e.g.  plant, urban or home).  Field
   devices include sensors, actuators as well as routers and Low power
   and Lossy Network Border Router (LBR).  A field device is usually
   (but not always) a device with constrained CPU, memory footprint,
   storage capacity, bandwidth and sometimes power (battery operated).
   At the time of writing, for the sake of illustration, a typical
   sensor or actuator would have a few KBytes of RAM, a few dozens of
   KBytes of ROM/Flash memory, a 8/16/32 bit microcontroller and
   communication capabilities ranging from a few Kbits/s to a few
   hundreds of KBits/s.  Although it is expected to see continuous
   improvements of hardware and software technologies, such devices will
   likely continue to be seen as resource constrained devices compared
   compared to computers and routers used in the rest of the Internet.

   Flash memory: non-volatile memory that can be re-programmed.

   FMS: Facility Management System.  A global term applied across all
   the vertical designations within a building including, Heating,
   Ventilating, and Air Conditioning also referred to as HVAC, Fire,
   Security, Lighting and Elevator control.

   HART: "Highway Addressable Remote Transducer", a group of
   specifications for industrial process and control devices
   administered by the HART Foundation (see [HART]).  The latest version
   for the specifications is HART7 which includes the additions for
   WirelessHART.

   HVAC: Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning.  A term applied to
   the comfort level of an internal space.

   ISA: "International Society of Automation".  ISA is an ANSI
   accredited standards-making society.  ISA100 is an ISA committee
   whose charter includes defining a family of standards for industrial
   automation.  [ISA100.11a] is a working group within ISA100 that is
   working on a standard for monitoring and non-critical process control
   applications.

   LAN: Local Area Network.

   LBR: Low power and Lossy Network Border Router.  The LBR is a device
   that connects the Low power and Lossy Network to another routing
   domain such as a Local Area Network (LAN), Wide Area Network (WAN) or



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   the Internet where a possibly different routing protocol is in
   operation.  The LBR acts as a routing device and may possibly host
   other functions such as data collector or aggregator.

   LLN: Low power and Lossy networks (LLNs) are typically composed of
   many embedded devices with limited power, memory, and processing
   resources interconnected by a variety of links, such as IEEE 802.15.4
   or Low Power WiFi.  There is a wide scope of application areas for
   LLNs, including industrial monitoring, building automation (HVAC,
   lighting, access control, fire), connected home, healthcare,
   environmental monitoring, urban sensor networks, energy management,
   assets tracking and refrigeration..

   MP2P: Multipoint-to-Point is used to describe a particular traffic
   pattern (e.g.  MP2P flows collecting information from many nodes
   flowing upstream towards a collecting sink or an LBR).

   MAC: Medium Access Control.  Refers to algorithms and procedures used
   by the data link layer to coordinate use of the physical layer.

   Non-sleepy Node: A non-sleepy node is a node that always remains in a
   fully powered on state (i.e.  always awake) where it has the
   capability to perform communication.

   Open Loop Control: A process whereby a plant operator manually
   manipulates an actuator over the network where the decision is
   influenced by information sensed by field devices.

   PER: Packet Error Rate.  A ratio of the number of unusable packets
   (not received at all, or received in error- even after any applicable
   error correction has been applied) to the total number of packets
   that would have been been received in the absence of errors.

   P2P: Point To Point.  This refers to traffic exchanged between two
   nodes (regardless of the number of hops between the two nodes).

   P2MP: Point-to-Multipoint traffic refers to traffic between one node
   and a set of nodes.  This is similar to the P2MP concept in Multicast
   or MPLS Traffic Engineering ([RFC4461]and [RFC4875]).  A common RPL
   use case involves P2MP flows from or through a DAG root outward
   towards other nodes contained in the DAG.

   RAM: Random Access Memory.  The RAM is a volatile memory.

   RFID: Radio Frequency IDentification.

   ROM: Read Only Memory.




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   ROLL: Routing Over Low power and Lossy networks.

   RPL: An IPv6 Routing Protocol for Low-Power and Lossy Networks that
   provides a mechanism whereby multipoint-to-point traffic from devices
   inside the LLN towards a central control point as well as point-to-
   multipoint traffic from the central control point to the devices
   inside the LLN are supported.  RPL also support point-to-point
   traffic between any arbitratry node in the LLN.

   RPL Domain: A RPL routing domain is a collection of RPL routers under
   the control of a single administration.  The boundaries of routing
   domains are defined by network management by setting some links to be
   exterior, or inter-domain, links.

   Schedule: An agreed execution, wake-up, transmission, reception,
   etc., time-table between two or more field devices.

   Sensor: A sensor is a device that measures a physical quantity and
   converts it to an analog or digital signal that can be read by a
   program or a user.  Sensed data can be of many types: electromagnetic
   (e.g.  current, voltage, power, resistance, ...) , mechanical (e.g.
   pressure, flow, liquid density, humidity, ...), chemical (e.g.
   oxygen, carbon monoxide, ...), acoustic (e.g.  noise, ultrasound),
   ...

   Sleepy Node: A sleepy node is a node that may sometimes go into a
   sleep mode (i.e.  go into a low power state to conserve power) and
   temporarily suspend protocol communication.  When no in a sleep mode,
   the sleepy node is in a fully powered on state where it has the
   capability to perform communication.

   Smart Grid: A Smart Grid is a broad class of applications to network
   and automate utility infrastructure.

   Timeslot: A Timeslot is a fixed time interval that may be used for
   the transmission or reception of a packet between two field devices.
   A timeslot used for communications is associated with a slotted-link

   Upstream: Data direction traveling from the LLN via the LBR to
   outside of the LLN (LAN, WAN, Internet) or general closer to the root
   of the Directed Acyclic Graph computed by the routing protocol.

   WAN: Wide Area Network.

3.  IANA Considerations

   This document includes no request for IANA action.




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4.  Security Considerations

   Since this document specifies terminology and does not specify new
   procedure or protocols, it raises no new security issue.

5.  Acknowledgements

   The authors would like to thank Christian Jacquenet, Tim Winter,
   Pieter De Mil, David Meyer, Mukul Goyal and Abdussalam Baryun for
   their valuable feed-back.

6.  References

6.1.  Informative References

   [HART]     HART Communication Foundation (http://www.hartcomm.org)

   [RFC4461]  Yasukawa, S., "Signaling Requirements for Point-to-
              Multipoint Traffic-Engineered MPLS Label Switched Paths
              (LSPs)", RFC 4461, April 2006.

   [RFC4875]  Aggarwal, R., Papadimitriou, D., and S. Yasukawa,
              "Extensions to Resource Reservation Protocol - Traffic
              Engineering (RSVP-TE) for Point-to-Multipoint TE Label
              Switched Paths (LSPs)", RFC 4875, May 2007.

   [RFC5548]  Dohler, M., Watteyne, T., Winter, T., and D. Barthel,
              "Routing Requirements for Urban Low-Power and Lossy
              Networks", RFC 5548, May 2009.

   [RFC5673]  Pister, K., Thubert, P., Dwars, S., and T. Phinney,
              "Industrial Routing Requirements in Low-Power and Lossy
              Networks", RFC 5673, October 2009.

   [RFC5826]  Brandt, A., Buron, J., and G. Porcu, "Home Automation
              Routing Requirements in Low-Power and Lossy Networks", RFC
              5826, April 2010.

   [RFC5867]  Martocci, J., De Mil, P., Riou, N., and W. Vermeylen,
              "Building Automation Routing Requirements in Low-Power and
              Lossy Networks", RFC 5867, June 2010.

Author's Address





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   JP Vasseur
   Cisco Systems, Inc
   1414 Massachusetts Avenue
   Boxborough, MA  01719
   USA

   Email: jpv@cisco.com











































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