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Versions: 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 RFC 6484

Secure Inter-Domain Routing (sidr)                              Seo, K.
Internet Draft                                                Watro, R.
Expires: April 13, 2007                                        Kong, D.
                                                                Kent, S.
                                                        BBN Technologies
                                                         October 13 2006



                           Certificate Policy (CP)
               for the Internet IP Address and AS Number (PKI)
                          draft-ietf-sidr-cp-00.txt


Status of this Memo

    By submitting this Internet-Draft, each author represents that
    any applicable patent or other IPR claims of which he or she is
    aware have been or will be disclosed, and any of which he or she
    becomes aware will be disclosed, in accordance with Section 6 of
    BCP 79.

    Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
    Task Force (IETF), its areas, and its working groups.  Note that
    other groups may also distribute working documents as Internet-
    Drafts.

    Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six
    months and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents
    at any time.  It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as
    reference material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."

    The list of current Internet-Drafts can be accessed at

         http://www.ietf.org/ietf/1id-abstracts.txt

    The list of Internet-Draft Shadow Directories can be accessed at

         http://www.ietf.org/shadow.html

    This Internet-Draft will expire on April 13, 2007.

Abstract

    This document describes the certificate policy for a PKI used to
    support improved routing security. Each organization that allocates
    IP addresses or AS numbers to an organization will, in parallel,



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    issue a certificate reflecting this allocation. These certificates
    will enable verification that the holder of the associated private
    key has been allocated the resources indicated in the certificate,
    and is the current, unique holder of these resources. The PKI in
    which the certificates issued under this policy are employed, in
    conjunction with ancillary digitally signed data structures, will
    provide critical inputs for routing security mechanisms, e.g.,
    generation of route filters by ISPs.

Conventions used in this document

    The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
    "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
    document are to be interpreted as described in RFC-2119 [RFC2119].

Table of Contents

    Preface...........................................................9
    1. Introduction...................................................9
       1.1. Overview..................................................9
       1.2. Document name and identification.........................11
       1.3. PKI participants.........................................11
          1.3.1. Certification authorities...........................11
          1.3.2. Registration authorities............................12
          1.3.3. Subscribers.........................................12
          1.3.4. Relying parties.....................................12
          1.3.5. Other participants..................................12
       1.4. Certificate usage........................................13
          1.4.1. Appropriate certificate uses........................13
          1.4.2. Prohibited certificate uses.........................13
       1.5. Policy administration....................................13
          1.5.1. Organization administering the document.............13
          1.5.2. Contact person......................................14
          1.5.3. Person determining CP suitability for the policy....14
          1.5.4. CP approval procedures..............................14
       1.6. Definitions and acronyms.................................14
    2. Publication And Repository Responsibilities...................16
       2.1. Repositories.............................................16
       2.2. Publication of certification information.................16
       2.3. Time or frequency of publication.........................16
       2.4. Access controls on repositories..........................16
    3. Identification And Authentication.............................17
       3.1. Naming...................................................17
          3.1.1. Types of names......................................17
          3.1.2. Need for names to be meaningful.....................17
          3.1.3. Anonymity or pseudonymity of subscribers............17
          3.1.4. Rules for interpreting various name forms...........17
          3.1.5. Uniqueness of names.................................17


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          3.1.6. Recognition, authentication, and role of trademarks.18
       3.2. Initial identity validation..............................18
          3.2.1. Method to prove possession of private key...........18
          3.2.2. Authentication of organization identity.............18
          3.2.3. Authentication of individual identity...............18
          3.2.4. Non-verified subscriber information.................19
          3.2.5. Validation of authority.............................19
          3.2.6. Criteria for interoperation.........................19
       3.3. Identification and authentication for re-key requests....19
          3.3.1. Identification and authentication for routine re-key19
          3.3.2. Identification and authentication for re-key after
          revocation.................................................19
       3.4. Identification and authentication for revocation request.20
    4. Certificate Life-Cycle Operational Requirements...............21
       4.1. Certificate Application..................................21
          4.1.1. Who can submit a certificate application............21
          4.1.2. Enrollment process and responsibilities.............21
       4.2. Certificate application processing.......................21
          4.2.1. Performing identification and authentication functions
          ...........................................................22
          4.2.2. Approval or rejection of certificate applications...22
          4.2.3. Time to process certificate applications............22
       4.3. Certificate issuance.....................................22
          4.3.1. CA actions during certificate issuance..............22
          4.3.2. Notification to subscriber by the CA of issuance of
          certificate................................................22
          4.3.3. Notification of certificate issuance by the CA to other
          entities [OMITTED].........................................23
       4.4. Certificate acceptance...................................23
          4.4.1. Conduct constituting certificate acceptance.........23
          4.4.2. Publication of the certificate by the CA............23
       4.5. Key pair and certificate usage...........................23
          4.5.1. Subscriber private key and certificate usage........23
          4.5.2. Relying party public key and certificate usage......23
       4.6. Certificate renewal......................................24
          4.6.1. Circumstance for certificate renewal................24
          4.6.2. Who may request renewal.............................24
          4.6.3. Processing certificate renewal requests.............24
          4.6.4. Notification of new certificate issuance to subscriber
          ...........................................................24
          4.6.5. Conduct constituting acceptance of a renewal
          certificate................................................24
          4.6.6. Publication of the renewal certificate by the CA....24
          4.6.7. Notification of certificate issuance by the CA to other
          entities [OMITTED].........................................25
       4.7. Certificate re-key.......................................25
          4.7.1. Circumstance for certificate re-key.................25
          4.7.2. Who may request certification of a new public key...25


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          4.7.3. Processing certificate re-keying requests...........25
          4.7.4. Notification of new certificate issuance to subscriber
          ...........................................................26
          4.7.5. Conduct constituting acceptance of a re-keyed
          certificate................................................26
          4.7.6. Publication of the re-keyed certificate by the CA...26
          4.7.7. Notification of certificate issuance by the CA to other
          entities [OMITTED].........................................26
       4.8. Certificate modification.................................26
          4.8.1. Circumstance for certificate modification...........26
          4.8.2. Who may request certificate modification............26
          4.8.3. Processing certificate modification requests........27
          4.8.4. Notification of new certificate issuance to subscriber
          ...........................................................27
          4.8.5. Conduct constituting acceptance of modified certificate
          ...........................................................27
          4.8.6. Publication of the modified certificate by the CA...27
          4.8.7. Notification of certificate issuance by the CA to other
          entities [OMITTED].........................................27
       4.9. Certificate revocation and suspension....................27
          4.9.1. Circumstances for revocation........................27
          4.9.2. Who can request revocation..........................27
          4.9.3. Procedure for revocation request....................27
          4.9.4. Revocation request grace period.....................28
          4.9.5. Time within which CA must process the revocation
          request....................................................28
          4.9.6. Revocation checking requirement for relying parties.28
          4.9.7. CRL issuance frequency..............................28
          4.9.8. Maximum latency for CRLs............................28
          4.9.9. On-line revocation/status checking availability
          [OMITTED]..................................................29
          4.9.10. On-line revocation checking requirements [OMITTED].29
          4.9.11. Other forms of revocation advertisements available
          [OMITTED]..................................................29
          4.9.12. Special requirements re key compromise [OMITTED]...29
          4.9.13. Circumstances for suspension [OMITTED].............29
          4.9.14. Who can request suspension [OMITTED]...............29
          4.9.15. Procedure for suspension request [OMITTED].........29
          4.9.16. Limits on suspension period [OMITTED]..............29
       4.10. Certificate status services.............................29
          4.10.1. Operational characteristics [OMITTED]..............29
          4.10.2. Service availability [OMITTED].....................29
          4.10.3. Optional features [OMITTED]........................29
       4.11. End of subscription [OMITTED]...........................29
       4.12. Key escrow and recovery [OMITTED].......................29
          4.12.1. Key escrow and recovery policy and practices [OMITTED]
          ...........................................................29



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          4.12.2. Session key encapsulation and recovery policy and
          practices [OMITTED]........................................29
    5. Facility, Management, And Operational Controls................30
       5.1. Physical controls........................................30
          5.1.1. Site location and construction [OMITTED]............30
          5.1.2. Physical access [OMITTED]...........................30
          5.1.3. Power and air conditioning [OMITTED]................30
          5.1.4. Water exposures [OMITTED]...........................30
          5.1.5. Fire prevention and protection [OMITTED]............30
          5.1.6. Media storage [OMITTED].............................30
          5.1.7. Waste disposal [OMITTED]............................30
          5.1.8. Off-site backup [OMITTED]...........................30
       5.2. Procedural controls......................................30
          5.2.1. Trusted roles [OMITTED].............................30
          5.2.2. Number of persons required per task [OMITTED].......30
          5.2.3. Identification and authentication for each role
          [OMITTED]..................................................30
          5.2.4. Roles requiring separation of duties [OMITTED]......30
       5.3. Personnel controls.......................................30
          5.3.1. Qualifications, experience, and clearance requirements
          [OMITTED]..................................................31
          5.3.2. Background check procedures [OMITTED]...............31
          5.3.3. Training requirements [OMITTED].....................31
          5.3.4. Retraining frequency and requirements [OMITTED].....31
          5.3.5. Job rotation frequency and sequence [OMITTED].......31
          5.3.6. Sanctions for unauthorized actions [OMITTED]........31
          5.3.7. Independent contractor requirements [OMITTED].......31
          5.3.8. Documentation supplied to personnel [OMITTED].......31
       5.4. Audit logging procedures.................................31
          5.4.1. Types of events recorded............................31
          5.4.2. Frequency of processing log.........................31
          5.4.3. Retention period for audit log......................31
          5.4.4. Protection of audit log.............................32
          5.4.5. Audit log backup procedures.........................32
          5.4.6. Audit collection system (internal vs. external)
          [OMITTED]..................................................32
          5.4.7. Notification to event-causing subject [OMITTED].....32
          5.4.8. Vulnerability assessments...........................32
       5.5. Records archival [OMITTED]...............................32
          5.5.1. Types of records archived [OMITTED].................32
          5.5.2. Retention period for archive [OMITTED]..............32
          5.5.3. Protection of archive [OMITTED].....................32
          5.5.4. Archive backup procedures [OMITTED].................32
          5.5.5. Requirements for time-stamping of records [OMITTED].32
          5.5.6. Archive collection system (internal or external)
          [OMITTED]..................................................32
          5.5.7. Procedures to obtain and verify archive information
          [OMITTED]..................................................32


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       5.6. Key changeover...........................................32
       5.7. Compromise and disaster recovery [OMITTED]...............33
          5.7.1. Incident and compromise handling procedures [OMITTED]33
          5.7.2. Computing resources, software, and/or data are
          corrupted [OMITTED]........................................33
          5.7.3. Entity private key compromise procedures [OMITTED]..33
          5.7.4. Business continuity capabilities after a disaster
          [OMITTED]..................................................33
       5.8. CA or RA termination.....................................33
    6. Technical Security Controls...................................34
       6.1. Key pair generation and installation.....................34
          6.1.1. Key pair generation.................................34
          6.1.2. Private key delivery to subscriber..................34
          6.1.3. Public key delivery to certificate issuer...........34
          6.1.4. CA public key delivery to relying parties...........34
          6.1.5. Key sizes...........................................35
          6.1.6. Public key parameters generation and quality checking35
          6.1.7. Key usage purposes (as per X.509 v3 key usage field)35
       6.2. Private Key Protection and Cryptographic Module Engineering
       Controls......................................................35
          6.2.1. Cryptographic module standards and controls.........35
          6.2.2. Private key (n out of m) multi-person control.......35
          6.2.3. Private key escrow..................................36
          6.2.4. Private key backup..................................36
          6.2.5. Private key archival [OMITTED]......................36
          6.2.6. Private key transfer into or from a cryptographic
          module [OMITTED]...........................................36
          6.2.7. Private key storage on cryptographic module [OMITTED]36
          6.2.8. Method of activating private key [OMITTED]..........36
          6.2.9. Method of deactivating private key [OMITTED]........36
          6.2.10. Method of destroying private key [OMITTED].........36
          6.2.11. Cryptographic Module Rating [OMITTED]..............36
       6.3. Other aspects of key pair management.....................36
          6.3.1. Public key archival.................................36
          6.3.2. Certificate operational periods and key pair usage
          periods....................................................36
       6.4. Activation data [OMITTED]................................37
          6.4.1. Activation data generation and installation [OMITTED]37
          6.4.2. Activation data protection [OMITTED]................37
          6.4.3. Other aspects of activation data [OMITTED]..........37
       6.5. Computer security controls...............................37
          6.5.1. Specific computer security technical requirements
          [OMITTED]..................................................37
          6.5.2. Computer security rating [OMITTED]..................37
       6.6. Life cycle technical controls............................37
          6.6.1. System development controls.........................37
          6.6.2. Security management controls........................37
          6.6.3. Life cycle security controls........................37


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       6.7. Network security controls................................37
       6.8. Time-stamping............................................37
    7. Certificate and CRL Profiles..................................38
       7.1. Certificate profile [OMITTED]............................38
          7.1.1. Version number(s) [OMITTED].........................38
          7.1.2. Certificate extensions [OMITTED]....................38
          7.1.3. Algorithm object identifiers [OMITTED]..............38
          7.1.4. Name forms [OMITTED]................................38
          7.1.5. Name constraints [OMITTED]..........................38
          7.1.6. Certificate policy object identifier [OMITTED]......38
          7.1.7. Usage of Policy Constraints extension [OMITTED].....38
          7.1.8. Policy qualifiers syntax and semantics [OMITTED]....38
          7.1.9. Processing semantics for the critical Certificate
          Policies extension [OMITTED]...............................38
       7.2. CRL profile [OMITTED]....................................38
          7.2.1. Version number(s) [OMITTED].........................38
          7.2.2. CRL and CRL entry extensions [OMITTED]..............38
       7.3. OCSP profile [OMITTED]...................................38
          7.3.1. Version number(s) [OMITTED].........................38
          7.3.2. OCSP extensions [OMITTED]...........................39
    8. Compliance Audit And Other Assessments........................40
       8.1. Frequency or circumstances of assessment [OMITTED].......40
       8.2. Identity/qualifications of assessor [OMITTED]............40
       8.3. Assessor's relationship to assessed entity [OMITTED].....40
       8.4. Topics covered by assessment [OMITTED]...................40
       8.5. Actions taken as a result of deficiency [OMITTED]........40
       8.6   Communication of results [OMITTED]......................40
    9. Other Business And Legal Matters..............................41
       9.1. Fees.....................................................41
          9.1.1. Certificate issuance or renewal fees................41
          9.1.2. Fees for other services (if applicable).............41
          9.1.3. Refund policy.......................................41
          9.1.4. Fees for other services [OMITTED]...................41
          9.1.5. Refund policy [OMITTED].............................41
       9.2. Financial responsibility.................................41
          9.2.1. Insurance coverage..................................41
          9.2.2. Other assets [OMITTED]..............................41
          9.2.3. Insurance or warranty coverage for end-entities
          [OMITTED]..................................................41
       9.3. Confidentiality of business information..................41
          9.3.1. Scope of confidential information...................41
          9.3.2. Information not within the scope of confidential
          information................................................41
          9.3.3. Responsibility to protect confidential information..41
       9.4. Privacy of personal information..........................41
          9.4.1. Privacy plan........................................42
          9.4.2. Information treated as private......................42
          9.4.3. Information not deemed private......................42


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          9.4.4. Responsibility to protect private information.......42
          9.4.5. Notice and consent to use private information.......42
          9.4.6. Disclosure pursuant to judicial or administrative
          process....................................................42
          9.4.7. Other information disclosure circumstances..........42
       9.5. Intellectual property rights (if applicable).............42
       9.6. Representations and warranties...........................42
          9.6.1. CA representations and warranties...................42
          9.6.2. Subscriber representations and warranties...........42
          9.6.3. Relying party representations and warranties [OMITTED]
          ...........................................................42
          9.6.4. Representations and warranties of other participants
          [OMITTED]..................................................42
       9.7. Disclaimers of warranties................................42
       9.8. Limitations of liability.................................42
       9.9. Indemnities..............................................42
       9.10. Term and termination....................................42
          9.10.1. Term...............................................42
          9.10.2. Termination........................................42
          9.10.3. Effect of termination and survival.................42
       9.11. Individual notices and communications with participants.42
       9.12. Amendments..............................................42
          9.12.1. Procedure for amendment............................42
          9.12.2. Notification mechanism and period..................42
          9.12.3. Circumstances under which OID must be changed
          [OMITTED]..................................................43
       9.13. Dispute resolution provisions...........................43
       9.14. Governing law...........................................43
       9.15. Compliance with applicable law..........................43
       9.16. Miscellaneous provisions................................43
          9.16.1. Entire agreement...................................43
          9.16.2. Assignment.........................................43
          9.16.3. Severability.......................................43
          9.16.4. Enforcement (attorneys' fees and waiver of rights).43
          9.16.5. Force Majeure......................................43
       9.17. Other provisions [OMITTED]..............................43
    10. Security Considerations......................................44
    11. IANA Considerations..........................................44
    12. Acknowledgments..............................................44
    13. References...................................................44
       13.1. Normative References....................................44
       13.2. Informative References..................................44
    Author's Addresses...............................................45
    Intellectual Property Statement..................................46
    Disclaimer of Validity...........................................47
    Copyright Statement..............................................47




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Preface

1. Introduction

    This document describes the certificate policy for a PKI used to
    support improved routing security. An organization that allocates IP
    addresses or AS numbers to an organization will, in parallel, issue
    a certificate reflecting this allocation. These certificates will
    enable verification that the holder of the associated private key
    has been allocated the resources indicated in the certificate, and
    is the current, unique holder of these resources. The PKI in which
    the certificates issued under this policy are employed can be used
    in a number of ways, for example, in conjunction with ancillary
    digitally signed data structures, it can be used to provide critical
    inputs for routing security mechanisms, e.g., generation of route
    filters by ISPs.

    The most important and distinguishing aspect of the PKI for which
    this policy was created is that it does not purport to identify an
    address space holder or AS number holder via the subject name
    contained in the certificate issued to that entity. Rather, each
    certificate issued under this policy is intended to enable an entity
    to assert in a verifiable fashion, that it is the current holder of
    an address block or an AS number, based on the current records of
    the CA responsible for the resources in question. Verification of
    the assertion is based on the ability of the entity to digitally
    sign data that is verifiable using the public key contained in the
    corresponding certificate, and validation of that certificate in the
    context of this PKI. This PKI is designed exclusively for use in
    support of validation of claims related to address space and AS
    number holdings, with emphasis on support of routing security
    mechanisms. Use of the certificates and CRLs managed under this PKI
    for any other purpose is a violation of this CP, and relying parties
    should reject such uses.

    Note: This document is based on the template specified in RFC 3647.
    A number of sections contained in the template were omitted from
    this policy because they did not apply to this PKI.  However, in
    order to maintain the section numbering scheme intact, the relevant
    section headings are included and marked [OMITTED]. In the Table of
    Contents the relevant sections are also marked [OMITTED].

1.1. Overview

    This PKI is designed to support validation of claims by current
    holders of IP (v4 and v6) address space, and AS numbers, in


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    accordance with the (current) records of the registries and ISPs
    that act as CAs in this PKI. The ability to verify such claims is
    essential to ensuring the unique, unambiguous allocation of these
    resources, and this, in turn, is an essential underpinning of
    routing in the public Internet.

    Internet routing is based on a distributed system of many routers,
    which are grouped into management domains called Autonomous Systems
    (ASes). Routing information is exchanged between ASes using Border
    Gateway Protocol (BGP) [BGP4] UPDATE messages. BGP has proven to be
    highly vulnerable to a variety of attacks [Murphy], due to the lack
    of a scalable means of verifying the authenticity and legitimacy of
    BGP control traffic, e.g., route originations. This PKI, and
    ancillary, signed data, will support detection of bogus route
    originations and facilitate routing security enhancements by
    Internet Service Providers (ISPs), e.g., creation of accurate route
    filters. (Bogus route origination occurs whenever an AS advertises
    itself as the origin AS for a prefix, without being authorized to do
    so by the legitimate holder of the prefix.)

    The proposed security infrastructure consists of three components: a
    PKI, route origination authorizations (ROAs), and repositories. The
    PKI authoritatively documents the current allocation of address
    blocks and AS numbers to organizations. (For brevity, this document
    uses the term "organization" to refer to every resource holder, even
    if the holder is an individual.)  A ROA is a digitally signed object
    by which an address space holder explicitly authorizes one or more
    ASes to originate routes to its address space. Repositories provide
    the means of distributing the PKI data (certificates and CRLs) and
    ROA data to relying parties. The intent is that network operators
    upload their PKI and ROA data periodically to repositories, e.g.,
    daily, and at the same time, download new data uploaded by others.
    From this data, operators extract authenticated address block
    origination data, which can be used to validate routing requests or
    to construct route filters in a more secure fashion than is
    currently offered via Internet Routing Registries (IRRs).

    This PKI parallels the existing IP address and AS number allocation
    hierarchy. These resources are allocated by the Regional Internet
    Registries (RIRs -- ARIN (North America), RIPE NCC (Europe), APNIC
    (Asia -Pacific), LACNIC (Latin America and Caribbean), and AFRINIC
    (Africa) which act as trust anchors for the PKI.  In some regions,
    national or local registries (NIRs or LIRs) form a tier of the
    hierarchy below the RIRs for address allocation. ISPs and network
    subscribers form additional tiers below registries.

    The PKI encompasses several types of certificates (see RFCzzzz
    [RFCzzzz] for more details):


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   . CA certificates for each organization allocating address blocks
      and AS numbers, and for each address space holder

   . End entity certificates for operations personnel to support access
      control for the repository system

   . End entity ("shadow") certificates for organizations to use in
      verifying ROAs

1.2. Document name and identification

    The name of this document is "Certificate Policy for the Internet IP
    Address and AS Number PKI".

    This policy has been assigned the following OID:

    id-cp-ipAddr-asNumber

        OBJECT IDENTIFIER ::= { iso(1) identified-organization(3)

                dod(6) internet(1) security(5) mechanisms(5) pkix(7)
    cp(14) 2 }

1.3. PKI participants

    Note: In a PKI, the term "subscriber" refers to an individual or
    organization that is a Subject of a certificate issued by a CA. The
    term is used in this fashion throughout this document, without
    qualification, and should not be confused with the networking use of
    the term to refer to an individual or organization that receives
    service from an ISP.  Thus, in this PKI, the term "subscriber" can
    refer both to ISPs, which can be subscribers of RIRs, NIRs/LIRs and
    other ISPs, and also to organizations that are not ISPs, which are
    subscribers of ISPs in the networking sense of the term. Also note
    that, for brevity, this document always refers to subscribers as
    organizations, even though some subscribers are individuals. When
    necessary, the phrase "network subscriber" is used to refer to an
    organization that receives network services from an ISP.

1.3.1. Certification authorities

    The organizations that allocate IP addresses (RIRs, NIRs/LIRs, and
    ISPs) and AS numbers (RIRs and NIRs) act as CAs in this PKI.

    Non-ISP organizations that hold address space will create and sign
    ROAs and hence will issue shadow certificates and operator
    certificates. Thus they too must act as CAs in this PKI.



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1.3.2. Registration authorities

    This function will be provided by the CAs listed in Section 1.3.1.
    The RIRs (and NIRs/LIRs where applicable) already perform this
    function and assume responsibility for allocating and tracking the
    current allocation of address space and AS numbers. ISPs do the same
    for sub-allocation of address space that they hold.  With regard to
    allocation of IP address and AS numbers, RIRs et al. establish a
    relationship with an organization and allocate these resources to
    that organization.

1.3.3. Subscribers

    These are the organizations receiving allocations of IP addresses
    and AS numbers as shown in Figures 1 and 2.

   . For IP address allocations,

        o a non-ISP organization can be a subscriber of ISPs, LIRs,
           NIRs, and RIRs,

        o ISPs can be subscribers of other ISPs, LIRs/NIRs, and RIRs

        o NIRs/LIRs are subscribers of RIRs

   . For AS number allocations,

        o network subscribers and ISPs are subscribers of RIRs and NIRs.

1.3.4. Relying parties

    Entities that need to validate claims of address space and/or AS
    number current holdings are relying parties.  Thus, for example,
    entities that make use of address and AS number allocation
    certificates in support of improved routing security are relying
    parties. This includes ISPs, multi-homed organizations exchanging
    BGP traffic with ISPs, and subscribers who have received an
    allocation of address space from ISP A but want to authorize ISP B
    to originate routes to this space.

    Repositories make use of certificates for access control - checking
    for authorization to upload certificate, CRL, and ROA update
    packages, and thus they too act as relying parties.

1.3.5. Other participants

    RIRs will operate repositories that hold certificates, CRLs, and
    ROAs.


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1.4. Certificate usage

1.4.1. Appropriate certificate uses

    The certificates issued under this hierarchy are for authorization
    in support of validation of claims of current holdings of address
    space and/or AS numbers, e.g., for routing security. With regard to
    routing security, the intent is to allow the holder of a set of
    address blocks to be able to declare, in a secure fashion, the AS
    number of each entity that is authorized to originate a route to
    these addresses.

    Some of the certificates issued under this hierarchy support
    operation of this infrastructure, e.g., access control for the
    repository system.

1.4.2. Prohibited certificate uses

    Any uses other than those described in Section 1.4.1 are prohibited
    under this policy.

1.5. Policy administration

    [What organization/contact would you like to put here?  This section
    includes the name and mailing address of the organization that is
    responsible for the drafting, registering, maintaining, and updating
    of this CP.  It also includes the name, electronic mail address,
    telephone number, and fax number of a contact person.  As an
    alternative to naming an actual person, the document may name a
    title or role, an e-mail alias, and other generalized contact
    information.  We have left "NRO" for now since it would be simplest
    to have just one organization/contact handle these responsibilities.
    Another possibility would be to have Section 1.5.1 point to:

      . IETF RFC Editor for distribution and making the document
         available.

      . IETF SIDR Working Group for document drafting, content
         maintenance and updating.

    And have Section 1.5.2 have the corresponding contact info, i.e.,
    the email addresses for the IETF RFC Editor and the Working Group
    Chairs for the SIDR Working Group.]

1.5.1. Organization administering the document

    This CP is administered by the NRO.



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    [It would be nice to have a single organization responsible for

1.5.2. Contact person

    [insert NRO contact info here]

1.5.3. Person determining CP suitability for the policy

    Not applicable.  Each organization issuing a certificate in this PKI
    is attesting to the allocation of resources (IP addresses, AS
    numbers) to the holder of the private key corresponding to the
    public key in the certificate. These are the same organizations that
    perform the allocation hence they are authoritative with respect to
    the accuracy of this binding.

1.5.4. CP approval procedures

    Not applicable. Each organization issuing a certificate in this PKI
    is attesting to the allocation of resources (IP addresses, AS
    numbers) to the holder of the private key corresponding to the
    public key in the certificate. The issuing organization is the same
    organization as the one that performs the allocation.

1.6. Definitions and acronyms

BGP -  Border Gateway Protocol.  This is the protocol used in the
        Internet for propagating the connectivity information used as a
        basis for inter-domain routing. [BGP4]

CPS - Certification Practice Statement. A CPS is a document that
        specifies the practices that a Certification Authority employs
        in issuing certificates.

ISP -  Internet Service Provider. This is an organization managing and
        selling Internet services to other organizations.

LIR/NIR -   Local/National Internet Registry. This is an organization
        that manages the assignment of IP address and AS numbers for a
        portion of the area covered by a Regional Registry. These form
rd            an optional 3   tier in the tree scheme used to manage
IP
        address and AS number allocation.

RIR --  Regional Internet Registry.  This is an organization that
        manages the assignment of IP address and AS numbers for a
        geopolitical area.  At present, there are five RIRs: ARIN (North
        America), RIPE NCC (Europe), APNIC (Asia -Pacific), LACNIC
        (Latin America and Caribbean), and AFRINIC (Africa).



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ROA -  Route Origination Authorization.  This is a digitally signed
        object that identifies the ASes that are authorized to originate
        routes to the address blocks contained in the ROA. Optionally,
        it also may identify one or more ASes that are authorized to
        advertise address blocks by the route originator.













































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2. Publication And Repository Responsibilities

2.1. Repositories

    Certificates, CRLs, and ROAs must be made available for downloading
    by all network operators, to enable them to validate this data for
    use in support of routing security. This motivates use of a robust
    repository system. Since this data will be accessed by a very large
    number of network operators around the world, multiple repositories
    are required to provide redundancy and for load sharing. As a
    starting point, a repository will be operated by each RIR.

2.2. Publication of certification information

    CAs will publish certificates via the repository system.

    CRLS will be uploaded to the repository system by the issuing CA.

    ROAs will be uploaded to the repository system by address space
    holders, e.g., network subscribers and ISPs.

    An organization may choose to outsource publication of PKI data.

2.3. Time or frequency of publication

    A certificate will be published within 24 hours after a CA has
    received acknowledgement from the subject of the certificate that
    the certificate is accurate.

    Each CA will publish its CRL prior to the nextScheduledUpdate value
    in the scheduled CRL previously issued by the CA. Within 12 hours of
    effecting revocation, a CA will publish a CRL with an entry for the
    revoked certificate.

    A new ROA will be published before a predecessor ROA has expired, or
    within 24 hours after an address space holder has changed the set of
    ASes that is authorized to advertise the address blocks it holds.

2.4. Access controls on repositories

    Access controls for repositories are TBD.









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3. Identification And Authentication

3.1. Naming

3.1.1. Types of names

    Names for RIRs and NIRs will be directory distinguished names, using
    a subset of the following attributes: C, O, OU, and CN. Names for
    ISPs and subscribers will consist of a single CN attribute with a
    value generated by the issuer.

3.1.2. Need for names to be meaningful

    The Subject name in each certificate must be unique relative to all
    Subject names certified by an Issuer, but the name does not need to
    be meaningful. The certificates issued under this hierarchy are used
    for authorization in support of routing security, not for
    identification. The intent is to allow the holder of a set of
    address blocks to be able to announce to the Internet, in a secure
    fashion, the AS number of each entity that is authorized to
    originate a route to these addresses. The PKI binds a public key to
    each address block or AS number.  The name of the holder of the
    address block or AS number need not be "meaningful" or even
    accurate. For purposes of routing security, the issuer and subject
    name in each certificate are not relevant, other than the usual PKI
    requirements for contextual uniqueness in support of unambiguous
    certificate path chaining.

3.1.3. Anonymity or pseudonymity of subscribers

    Although Subject (and Issuer) names need not be meaningful, and may
    appear "random," anonymity is not a function of this PKI, and thus
    no explicit support for this feature is provided.

3.1.4. Rules for interpreting various name forms

    None

3.1.5. Uniqueness of names

    Each CA certifies Subject names that must be unique among the
    certificates that it issues. It is desirable that these Subject
    names be unique throughout the PKI, to facilitate certificate path
    discovery, but such uniqueness is not mandated nor enforced through
    technical means.





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3.1.6. Recognition, authentication, and role of trademarks

    Because the Subject names are not intended to be meaningful, there
    is no provision to recognize nor authenticate trademarks, service
    marks, etc.

3.2. Initial identity validation

3.2.1. Method to prove possession of private key

    Each CA operating within the context of this PKI will require each
    Subject to demonstrate  proof-of-possession (PoP) of the private key
    corresponding to the public key in the certificate, prior to issuing
    the certificate. The means by which PoP is achieved is determined by
    each CA and will be declared in the CPS of that CA.

3.2.2. Authentication of organization identity

    Each CA operating within the context of this PKI will employ
    procedures to ensure that each certificate it issues accurately
    reflects its records with regard to the organization to which the CA
    has allocated (or sub-allocated) the address space identified in the
    certificate. The same requirement is imposed on the binding of one
    or more AS numbers in a certificate to the organization represented
    by the Subject. The specific procedures employed for this purpose
    may vary among CAs. Relying parties can expect each CA to employ
    procedures commensurate with those it already employs as a registry
    or ISP, in the maintenance of address (and AS number) allocation.

3.2.3. Authentication of individual identity

    Each CA operating within the context of this PKI will employ
    procedures to identify at least one individual as a representative
    of each organization that is an address space (AS number) holder.
    This is done in support of issuance, renewal, and revocation of the
    certificate issued to the organization. The specific means by which
    each CA authenticates individuals as representatives for an
    organization may vary, and will be specified in the CPS of the CA.
    Relying parties can expect each CA to employ procedures commensurate
    with those it already employs as a registry or ISP, in
    authenticating individuals as representatives for address space (AS
    number) holders. Moreover, this individual authentication is solely
    for use by each CA in dealing with the organizations to which it
    allocates (or sub-allocates) address space (or AS numbers), and thus
    must not be relied upon outside of this CA-subscriber relationship.





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3.2.4. Non-verified subscriber information

    No non-verified subscriber data is included in certificates issued
    under this certificate policy.

3.2.5. Validation of authority

    Each CA operating within the context of this PKI will employ
    procedures to verify that an individual claiming to represent an
    organization to which a certificate is issued, is authorized to
    represent that organization in this context. Relying parties can
    expect each CA to employ procedures commensurate with those it
    already employs as a registry or ISP, in authenticating individuals
    as representatives for address space (AS number) holders.

3.2.6. Criteria for interoperation

    This PKI is neither intended nor designed to interoperate with any
    other PKI. All CAs will issue certificates under the policy defined
    herein.

3.3. Identification and authentication for re-key requests

3.3.1. Identification and authentication for routine re-key

    Each CA operating within the context of this PKI will employ
    procedures to ensure that an organization requesting a re-key is the
    legitimate holder of the certificate (and associated address space
    and AS numbers) to be re-keyed and will require PoP of the private
    key corresponding to the new public key.  The specific procedures
    employed for these purposes may vary among CAs. The means by which
    PoP is achieved is up to each CA and will be declared in the CPS of
    that CA.  With respect to authentication of the holder of the
    address space and AS numbers, relying parties can expect each CA to
    employ procedures commensurate with those it already employs as a
    registry or ISP, in the maintenance of address (and AS number)
    allocation.

    Note: An issuer may choose to require periodic re-keying consistent
    with contractual agreements with the recipient.

3.3.2. Identification and authentication for re-key after revocation

    Each CA operating within the context of this PKI will employ
    procedures to ensure that an organization requesting a re-key after
    revocation is the legitimate holder of the certificate (and
    associated address space and AS numbers) to be re-keyed and will
    require PoP of the private key corresponding to the new public key.


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    The specific procedures employed for these purposes may vary among
    CAs. The means by which PoP is achieved is up to each CA and will be
    declared in the certification practice statement of that CA.  With
    respect to authentication of the holder of the address space and AS
    numbers, relying parties can expect each CA to employ procedures
    commensurate with those it already employs as a registry or ISP, in
    the maintenance of address (and AS number) allocation.

3.4. Identification and authentication for revocation request

    Each CA operating within the context of this PKI will employ
    procedures to ensure that an organization requesting revocation is
    the legitimate holder of the certificate (and associated address
    space and AS numbers) to be revoked.  The specific procedures
    employed for these purposes may vary among CAs. Relying parties can
    expect each CA to employ procedures commensurate with those it
    already employs as a registry or ISP, in the maintenance of address
    (and AS number) allocation.

    Note:  If new IP addresses or AS numbers are being added to an
    organization's existing allocation, the old certificate is not
    revoked. Instead, a new certificate is issued with both the old and
    the new resources and the old key.  If IP addresses or AS numbers
    are being removed or if there has been a key compromise, then there
    will be a revocation and a re-key.

























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4. Certificate Life-Cycle Operational Requirements

4.1. Certificate Application

4.1.1. Who can submit a certificate application

    The IP Address and AS Number PKI issues several types of
    certificates.  Any entity that assigns Internet IP address space or
    AS numbers should acquire a certificate.  This includes registries
    and ISPs. Additionally, entities that hold AS numbers or that have
    address space assignments from a registry, or that are multi-homed,
    should acquire a certificate under this PKI, even if they do not
    exchange BGP UPDATEs with ISPs. The (CA) certificates issued to
    these entities will include one or both of the extensions defined by
    RFC 3779, X.509 Extensions for IP Addresses and AS Identifiers.

    Each individual or role that engages in the maintenance of the
    repository system for this PKI must acquire an end-entity
    certificate in support of authorization for such maintenance
    activities.

    Most of the certificates in this PKI are issued as part of registry
    and ISP normal business practices, as an adjunct to address space
    and AS number allocation, and thus a separate specific application
    to request a certificate may not necessary.

4.1.2. Enrollment process and responsibilities

    The enrollment process and procedures are based on the individual
    polices of RIRs, NIRs/LIRs, and ISPs.  Entities that desire
    certificates should contact the authorized registry for their
    geographic location, or contact their ISP if they receive address
    allocations from an ISP.  During the initial deployment of this PKI,
    registries and ISPs should contact their existing network
    subscribers about obtaining appropriate credentials.

4.2. Certificate application processing

    CAs should make use of existing standards for certificate
    application processing.  Relevant standards include RFC 4210,
    Internet X.509 Public Key Infrastructure Certificate Management
    Protocol (CMP), RFC 2797, Certificate Management Messages over CMS,
    and RSA Labs standards PKCS #7 and PKCS #10.  Each CA will define
    the certificate request/response standards that it employs, via its
    CPS.





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4.2.1. Performing identification and authentication functions

    Existing practices employed by registries and ISPs to identify and
    authenticate organizations form the basis for issuance of
    certificates to these subscribers.  It is important to note that the
    IP Address and AS Number PKI is never used to authenticate the
    identity of an organization, but rather to bind subscribers to the
    address blocks and AS numbers they hold.  Because identity is not
    being vouched for by this PKI, certificate application procedures
    need not verify legal organization names, etc.

4.2.2. Approval or rejection of certificate applications

    Certificate applications will be approved based on the normal
    business practices of the entity operating the CA, based on the CA's
    records of address space and AS number holders. Each CA will verify
    that the requester holds the corresponding private key for the
    public key that will be bound to the certificate the CA issues to
    the requestor.

4.2.3. Time to process certificate applications

    No stipulation.  Each CA may declare its expected time frame for
    processing certificate applications as part of its CPS.

4.3. Certificate issuance

4.3.1. CA actions during certificate issuance

    If a CA determines that the request is acceptable, it will generate
    a draft version of the proposed certificate and make it available to
    the subscriber for review.  Typically the draft form is a complete
    certificate except for the issuer's signature.  The CA may directly
    transmit the draft certificate to the subscriber (applying PKCS #7
    or other defined syntax).  Alternatively, the CA might establish a
    repository where draft certificates can be examined.   In any case,
    the subscriber will review and either approve or reject the draft
    certificate.  If approved, the certificate is finalized and made
    available for repository access.  If rejected, the certificate
    modification procedures in section 4.7 below can be applied, or a
    new certificate request can be submitted.

4.3.2. Notification to subscriber by the CA of issuance of certificate

    The subscriber shall be notified when a draft certificate is
    available for examination and approval.  The means by which a
    subscriber is notified is defined by each CA in its CPS.



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4.3.3. Notification of certificate issuance by the CA to other entities
    [OMITTED]

4.4. Certificate acceptance

4.4.1. Conduct constituting certificate acceptance

    Positive acknowledgement from the certificate holder is required as
    part of certificate acceptance.  When a draft certificate is
    generated and the subscriber is notified, it is required that the
    subscriber review the proposed certificate and either approve or
    reject it.  However, if a certificate remains unprocessed by the
    requester after 30 days, the CA at its option may either cancel the
    certificate or finalize it and place it in the repository.  Each CA
    shall state in its CPS the default action for draft certificates
    that are not approved within the 30-day review period.

4.4.2. Publication of the certificate by the CA

    Certificates will be published in the repository system once
    approved.

4.5. Key pair and certificate usage

    A summary of the use model for the IP Address and AS Number PKI is
    provided below.

4.5.1. Subscriber private key and certificate usage

    Each holder of an address space or AS number allocation will be
    issued an X.509 certificate using RFC 3779 extensions.  When the
    subjects of these certificates are ISPs or network subscribers, they
    also shall issue "shadow" certificates to themselves for use in
    verifying ROAs.  Subjects also will issue subordinate, end-entity
    certificates to their personnel for repository maintenance.

4.5.2. Relying party public key and certificate usage

    The primary relying parties in this PKI are ISPs, who will use
    certificates to verify ROAs, e.g., in support of generating route
    filters.  Repositories use certificates to verify the authorization
    of entities to engage in repository maintenance activities, and thus
    represent a secondary type of relying party.







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4.6. Certificate renewal

4.6.1. Circumstance for certificate renewal

    A certificate should be processed for renewal based on its
    expiration date or a renewal request from the certificate Subject.
    If the issuing CA initiates the renewal process based on the
    certificate expiration date, then that CA shall notify the holder in
    advance of the renewal process.  The validity interval of the new
    (renewed) certificate should overlap that of the previous
    certificate, to ensure uninterrupted coverage.

    Certificate renewal should incorporate the same public key as the
    previous certificate, unless the private key has been reported as
    compromised.  If a new key pair is being used, the stipulations of
    Section 4.7 will apply.

4.6.2. Who may request renewal

    The certificate holder or the issuing CA may initiate the renewal
    process.  For example, a certificate holder may request an early
    renewal if it wishes to change the public key, or if it expects to
    be unavailable to support the renewal process at the normal
    expiration cycle.

4.6.3. Processing certificate renewal requests

    Renewal processing must verify that the certificate in question has
    not been revoked.

4.6.4. Notification of new certificate issuance to subscriber

    No additional stipulations beyond those of section 4.3.2.

4.6.5. Conduct constituting acceptance of a renewal certificate

    No additional stipulations beyond those of section 4.4.1.

4.6.6. Publication of the renewal certificate by the CA

    No additional stipulations beyond those of section 4.4.2.









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4.6.7. Notification of certificate issuance by the CA to other entities
    [OMITTED]

4.7. Certificate re-key

4.7.1. Circumstance for certificate re-key

    Re-key of a certificate should be performed only when required,
    based on:

   (1) knowledge or suspicion of compromise or loss of the associated
      private key, or

   (2) the expiration of the cryptographic lifetime of the associated
      key pair

    The re-key operation can have dramatic consequences, requiring the
    re-issuance of all certificates issued by a re-keyed entity, so it
    should be performed sparingly.  In particular, if a certificate is
    revoked to replace the RFC 3779 extensions, the replacement
    certificate can and should incorporate the same public key rather
    that a new key.

    If the re-key is based on a suspected compromise, then the previous
    certificate must be revoked. If the re-key is based on the
    expiration of the key pair, then the certificate should not require
    revocation, since the certificate should expire on or before the
    date when the associated key pair expires.

    Section 5.6 below notes that when a CA signs a certificate, the
    signing key should have a validity period that exceeds the validity
    period of the certificate.  This places additional constraints on
    when a CA should request a re-key.

4.7.2. Who may request certification of a new public key

    The holder of the certificate may request a re-key.  In addition,
    the CA that issued the certificate may initiate a re-key based on
    compromise reports.  Note that care must be taken to verify the
    authorization of a subscriber to request a re-key when the private
    key has been reported as compromised.

4.7.3. Processing certificate re-keying requests

    The re-key process follows the general procedures of certificate
    generation as defined in section 4.3.




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4.7.4. Notification of new certificate issuance to subscriber

    No stipulation beyond the notification process for any new
    certificate (see section 4.3.2)

4.7.5. Conduct constituting acceptance of a re-keyed certificate

    No stipulation beyond the acceptance process for any new certificate
    (see section 4.4.1)

4.7.6. Publication of the re-keyed certificate by the CA

    No stipulation beyond the publication process for any new
    certificate (see section 4.4.2)

4.7.7. Notification of certificate issuance by the CA to other entities
    [OMITTED]

4.8. Certificate modification

4.8.1. Circumstance for certificate modification

    Modification of a certificate occurs to implement minor changes to
    selected attribute values in a certificate.  In the context of this
    PKI, the only changes that are accommodated by certificate
    modification are additions to the address space and/or AS number
    holdings described by the RFC 3779 extension.

    When previously allocated address space or AS numbers are removed
    from a certificate, then the old certificate is revoked and a new
    certificate is issued.

    When a certificate modification is approved, a new certificate is
    issued.  The new certificate will contain the same public key and
    the same expiration date as the original certificate, but with the
    incidental information corrected and/or the address space and AS
    allocations expanded.  Revocation of the previous certificate is not
    required.

4.8.2. Who may request certificate modification

    The certificate holder or issuer may initiate the certificate
    modification process.







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4.8.3. Processing certificate modification requests

    The CA must determine that the requested modification is appropriate
    and the procedures for the issuance of a new certificate are
    followed.

4.8.4. Notification of new certificate issuance to subscriber

    No stipulation beyond the notification process for any new
    certificate (see section 4.3.2)

4.8.5. Conduct constituting acceptance of modified certificate

    No stipulation beyond the acceptance process for any new certificate
    (see section 4.4.1).

4.8.6. Publication of the modified certificate by the CA

    No stipulation beyond the publication process for any new
    certificate (see section 4.4.2).

4.8.7. Notification of certificate issuance by the CA to other entities
    [OMITTED]

4.9. Certificate revocation and suspension

4.9.1. Circumstances for revocation

    Certificates can be revoked for several reasons.  Either the issuer
    or subject may choose to end the relationship expressed in the
    certificate, thus creating cause to revoke the certificate.  A
    certificate also may be revoked due to loss or compromise of the
    private key corresponding to the public key in the certificate.
    Finally, a certificate may be revoked in order to invalidate data
    signed by that certificate.  For example, if the private key
    associated with a shadow certificate has been used to sign a ROA,
    then that shadow certificate can be revoked to effect revocation of
    the ROA.

4.9.2. Who can request revocation

    The certificate holder or issuer may request a revocation.

4.9.3. Procedure for revocation request

    A certificate holder must submit a request to the certificate issuer
    for a revocation.  A certificate issuer must notify the certificate



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    holder when revoking a certificate, however this notification
    requirement is satisfied by publication of a CRL by the issuer.

4.9.4. Revocation request grace period

    A subscriber should request revocation as soon as possible after the
    need for revocation has been identified.  There is no specified
    grace period for the subscriber in this process.

4.9.5. Time within which CA must process the revocation request

    No stipulation. Each CA is free to specify its expected revocation
    processing time in its CPS.

4.9.6. Revocation checking requirement for relying parties

    A relying party is responsible for checking the most recent,
    scheduled CRL whenever it validates a certificate.

4.9.7. CRL issuance frequency

    As indicated in section 2.3, it is expected that CAs will publish
    CRLs approximately every 24 hours.  Each CRL carries a
    nextScheduledUpdate value and a new CRL must be published at or
    before that time.  A CA must modify the nextScheduledUpdate value
    when it issues a CRL, to signal when the next scheduled CRL will be
    issued.

4.9.8. Maximum latency for CRLs

    It is expected that a CRL will be posted to the repository system
    with minimal delay after generation.


















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4.9.9. On-line revocation/status checking availability [OMITTED]

4.9.10. On-line revocation checking requirements [OMITTED]

4.9.11. Other forms of revocation advertisements available [OMITTED]

4.9.12. Special requirements re key compromise [OMITTED]

4.9.13. Circumstances for suspension [OMITTED]

4.9.14. Who can request suspension [OMITTED]

4.9.15. Procedure for suspension request [OMITTED]

4.9.16. Limits on suspension period [OMITTED]

4.10. Certificate status services

    This PKI does not make use of OCSP or SCVP, because it is
    anticipated that the primary relying parties (ISPs) will acquire and
    validate certificates for all participating resource holders on a
    daily basis. These protocols are not designed for such large-scale,
    bulk certificate status checking. Instead, retrieval of all changed
    or new certificates and CRLs on a daily basis is the anticipated
    mode of certificate status verification.

4.10.1. Operational characteristics [OMITTED]

4.10.2. Service availability [OMITTED]

4.10.3. Optional features [OMITTED]

4.11. End of subscription [OMITTED]

4.12. Key escrow and recovery [OMITTED]

4.12.1. Key escrow and recovery policy and practices [OMITTED]

4.12.2. Session key encapsulation and recovery policy and practices
    [OMITTED]










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5. Facility, Management, And Operational Controls

5.1. Physical controls

    Each CA will maintain physical security controls for its operation
    that are commensurate with those already employed by the
    organization in the management of address space and AS number
    allocation. The details for each CA will be specified in the
    relevant CPS.

5.1.1. Site location and construction [OMITTED]

5.1.2. Physical access [OMITTED]

5.1.3. Power and air conditioning [OMITTED]

5.1.4. Water exposures [OMITTED]

5.1.5. Fire prevention and protection [OMITTED]

5.1.6. Media storage [OMITTED]

5.1.7. Waste disposal [OMITTED]

5.1.8. Off-site backup [OMITTED]

5.2. Procedural controls

    Each CA will maintain procedural security controls that are
    commensurate with those already employed by the organization in the
    management of address space and AS number allocation. The details
    for each CA will be specified in the relevant CPS.

5.2.1. Trusted roles [OMITTED]

5.2.2. Number of persons required per task [OMITTED]

5.2.3. Identification and authentication for each role [OMITTED]

5.2.4. Roles requiring separation of duties [OMITTED]

5.3. Personnel controls

    Each CA will maintain personnel security controls that are
    commensurate with those already employed by the organization in the
    management of address space and AS number allocation. The details
    for each CA will be specified in the relevant CPS.



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5.3.1. Qualifications, experience, and clearance requirements [OMITTED]

5.3.2. Background check procedures [OMITTED]

5.3.3. Training requirements [OMITTED]

5.3.4. Retraining frequency and requirements [OMITTED]

5.3.5. Job rotation frequency and sequence [OMITTED]

5.3.6. Sanctions for unauthorized actions [OMITTED]

5.3.7. Independent contractor requirements [OMITTED]

5.3.8. Documentation supplied to personnel [OMITTED]

5.4. Audit logging procedures

5.4.1. Types of events recorded

    Audit records should be generated for the basic operations of the
    certification authority computing equipment.  Audit records should
    include the date, time, responsible user or process, and summary
    content data relating to the event.  Auditable events include

   . Access to CA computing equipment (e.g., logon, logout)

   . Messages received requesting CA actions  (e.g., certificate
      requests, certificate revocation requests, compromise
      notifications)

   . Certificate creation, modification, revocation, or renewal actions

   . Posting of any material to a repository

   . Any attempts to change or delete audit data

5.4.2. Frequency of processing log

    Each CA will establish its own procedures for review of audit logs.

5.4.3. Retention period for audit log

    Each CA will establish its own polices for retention of audit logs.






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5.4.4. Protection of audit log

    The audit log should be protected based on current industry
    standards.

5.4.5. Audit log backup procedures

    The audit log should be backed up based on current industry
    standards.

5.4.6. Audit collection system (internal vs. external) [OMITTED]

5.4.7. Notification to event-causing subject [OMITTED]

5.4.8. Vulnerability assessments

    The PKI subsystems of a registry or ISP should participate in any
    vulnerability assessments that these organizations run as part of
    their normal business practice.

5.5. Records archival [OMITTED]

5.5.1. Types of records archived [OMITTED]

5.5.2. Retention period for archive [OMITTED]

5.5.3. Protection of archive [OMITTED]

5.5.4. Archive backup procedures [OMITTED]

5.5.5. Requirements for time-stamping of records [OMITTED]

5.5.6. Archive collection system (internal or external) [OMITTED]

5.5.7. Procedures to obtain and verify archive information [OMITTED]

5.6. Key changeover

    The private key that a CA uses to sign a certificate or CRL must
    have a validity period that is at least as long as that of the
    certificate being signed.  This means that a CA must create a new
    signature key pair, and acquire a new certificate containing the
    public key of the pair, well in advance of the expiration of the
    current signature key pair.






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5.7. Compromise and disaster recovery [OMITTED]

5.7.1. Incident and compromise handling procedures [OMITTED]

5.7.2. Computing resources, software, and/or data are corrupted
    [OMITTED]

5.7.3. Entity private key compromise procedures [OMITTED]

5.7.4. Business continuity capabilities after a disaster [OMITTED]

5.8. CA or RA termination

    In the IP Address and AS Number PKI, each CA is authoritative for a
    specified range IP address and set of AS numbers.  If an
    organization acting as a CA in this PKI terminates operation without
    identifying a replacement, then a portion of the address space and
    AS numbers will need to be managed without support for validating
    authorizations until a new CA is brought on-line.































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6. Technical Security Controls

    The organizations that allocate IP addresses and AS numbers to
    subscribers are authoritative for these allocations.  This PKI is
    designed to enable ISPs and subscribers to demonstrate that they are
    the holders of the resources that have been allocated to them.
    Accordingly, the security controls used by CAs and subscribers for
    this PKI need only to be as secure as those that apply to the
    procedures for administering the allocation of IP address space and
    AS number data by the extant organizations. Details of each CA's
    security controls are described in the CPS issued by the CA.

6.1. Key pair generation and installation

6.1.1. Key pair generation

    In most instances, public-key pairs will be generated by the
    subject, i.e., the organization receiving the allocation of address
    space or AS numbers.  However, some CAs may offer to generate key
    pairs on behalf of their subjects at the subjects request, e.g., to
    accommodate subscribers who do not have the ability to perform key
    generation in a secure fashion. Since the keys used in this PKI are
    not for non-repudiation purposes, generation of key pairs by CAs
    does not undermine the security of the PKI. Each CA will describe
    its key pair generation procedures in its CPS.

6.1.2. Private key delivery to subscriber

    If a CA provides key pair generation services for subscribers, its
    CPS will describe the means by which private keys are delivered to
    subscribers in a secure fashion.

6.1.3. Public key delivery to certificate issuer

    Each CA operating within the context of this PKI defines procedures
    whereby a subscriber requests IP address space (and/or AS numbers),
    authenticates itself, pays for the resources, etc. The CPS of each
    CA will describe how these procedures are extended to support
    certificate issuance. The security of the procedures used by a
    subject to deliver its public key to a CA need only be commensurate
    with the security of the procedures already employed for management
    of the IP address space and AS numbers.

6.1.4. CA public key delivery to relying parties

    CA public keys for all entities other than RIRs are contained in
    certificates issued by other CAs.  These certificates plus
    certificates used to represent inter-RIR transfers of address space


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    or AS numbers will be published via a repository system. Relying
    parties will download these certificates from the repositories.
    Public key values and associated data for the trust anchors (RIRs)
    will be distributed out of band, embedded in path validation
    software that will be made available to the Internet community.

    [Do you (RIRs) want to make provisions for additional mechanisms for
    distribution of your public keys for use as a cross-check on the
    downloaded path validation software?]

6.1.5. Key sizes

    For RIR certificates, the RSA key size will be 2048 bits. For NIR,
    ISP, and non-ISP subscriber certificates, the RSA keys will be
    either 2048 or 1024 bits.

6.1.6. Public key parameters generation and quality checking

    The RSA algorithm [RSA] is used in this PKI with the public exponent
    (e) F (65,537). Each subscriber is responsible for performing
checks             4
    on the quality of its key pair. CAs are not responsible for
    performing such checks for subscribers.

6.1.7. Key usage purposes (as per X.509 v3 key usage field)

    The Key usage extension bit values shall be consistent with RFC
    3280. For CA certificates, the keyCertSign and cRLSign bits shall be
    set TRUE. All other bits (including digitalSignature) shall be set
    FALSE, and the extension shall be marked critical. End entity
    certificates in this PKI may include this extension, with
    appropriate bit values, as per RFC 3280, but such inclusion is not
    required.

6.2. Private Key Protection and Cryptographic Module Engineering
    Controls

6.2.1. Cryptographic module standards and controls

    The cryptographic module standards and controls employed by each CA
    will be described in the CPS issued by that CA.

6.2.2. Private key (n out of m) multi-person control

    Some CAs, e.g., the registry CAs, may employ multi-person controls
    to constrain access to their private keys, but this is not a
    requirement for all CAs in the PKI. The CPS for a CA will describe
    any multi-person controls it employs.



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6.2.3. Private key escrow

    No private key escrow procedures are required for this PKI.

6.2.4. Private key backup

    Because of the adverse operational implications associated with the
    loss of use of a CA private key in the PKI, each CA should employ a
    secure means to backup its private keys. The details of the
    procedures for backing up a CA's private key will be described in
    the CPS issued by the CA.

6.2.5. Private key archival [OMITTED]

6.2.6. Private key transfer into or from a cryptographic module
    [OMITTED]

6.2.7. Private key storage on cryptographic module [OMITTED]

6.2.8. Method of activating private key [OMITTED]

6.2.9. Method of deactivating private key [OMITTED]

6.2.10. Method of destroying private key [OMITTED]

6.2.11. Cryptographic Module Rating [OMITTED]

6.3. Other aspects of key pair management

6.3.1. Public key archival

    Because this PKI does not support non-repudiation, there is no need
    to archive public keys.

6.3.2. Certificate operational periods and key pair usage periods

    The RIR and NIR key pairs and certificates should have long validity
    intervals, e.g., 10 years, to minimize the disruption caused by key
    changeover for top tier CAs. ISP and subscriber certificates
    typically will have validity periods commensurate with the duration
    of service agreements. The validity periods will be chosen by the
    issuing CA and described in its CPS.








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6.4. Activation data [OMITTED]

6.4.1. Activation data generation and installation [OMITTED]

6.4.2. Activation data protection [OMITTED]

6.4.3. Other aspects of activation data [OMITTED]

6.5. Computer security controls

    Each CA will document the technical security requirements it employs
    for CA computer operation in its CPS.

6.5.1. Specific computer security technical requirements [OMITTED]

6.5.2. Computer security rating [OMITTED]

6.6. Life cycle technical controls

6.6.1. System development controls

    The CPS for each CA will document any system development controls
    required by that CA, if applicable.

6.6.2. Security management controls

    The security for the software and equipment used for this PKI shall
    be commensurate with that used for the systems used by the CAs for
    managing and allocating IP address and AS number resources.

6.6.3. Life cycle security controls

    Equipment (hardware and software) used for this PKI shall be
    procured, installed, maintained, and updated in a fashion
    commensurate with the way in which equipment for the management and
    allocation of IP address space and AS numbers is handled.

6.7. Network security controls

    Each CA shall employ network security controls for CA operation
    commensurate with the protection it employs for the computers used
    for managing allocation of IP addresses and AS numbers.

6.8. Time-stamping

    The PKI in question does not make use of time stamping.




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7. Certificate and CRL Profiles

    Please refer to the Certificate and CRL Profile [draft-ietf-sidr-
    res-certs-01].

7.1. Certificate profile [OMITTED]

7.1.1. Version number(s) [OMITTED]

7.1.2. Certificate extensions [OMITTED]

7.1.2.1. Required certificate extensions [OMITTED]

7.1.2.2. Deprecated certificate extensions [OMITTED]

7.1.2.3. Optional certificate extensions [OMITTED]

7.1.3. Algorithm object identifiers [OMITTED]

7.1.4. Name forms [OMITTED]

7.1.5. Name constraints [OMITTED]

7.1.6. Certificate policy object identifier [OMITTED]

7.1.7. Usage of Policy Constraints extension [OMITTED]

7.1.8. Policy qualifiers syntax and semantics [OMITTED]

7.1.9. Processing semantics for the critical Certificate Policies
extension [OMITTED]

7.2. CRL profile [OMITTED]

7.2.1. Version number(s) [OMITTED]

7.2.2. CRL and CRL entry extensions [OMITTED]

7.2.2.1. Required CRL extensions [OMITTED]

7.2.2.2. Deprecated CRL extensions [OMITTED]

7.2.2.3. Optional CRL extensions [OMITTED]

7.3. OCSP profile [OMITTED]

7.3.1. Version number(s) [OMITTED]



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7.3.2. OCSP extensions [OMITTED]

















































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8. Compliance Audit And Other Assessments

    The Certificate Policy for a typical PKI defines the criteria
    against which prospective CAs are evaluated and establishes
    requirements that they must meet. In this PKI, the CAs are already
    authoritative for the management of IP address space and AS numbers,
    and the PKI simply supports verification of the allocation if these
    resources to subscribers. Accordingly, whatever audit and other
    assessments are already used to ensure the security of the
    administration of IP addresses and AS numbers is sufficient for this
    PKI.

8.1. Frequency or circumstances of assessment [OMITTED]

8.2. Identity/qualifications of assessor [OMITTED]

8.3. Assessor's relationship to assessed entity [OMITTED]

8.4. Topics covered by assessment [OMITTED]

8.5. Actions taken as a result of deficiency [OMITTED]

8.6  Communication of results [OMITTED]



























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9. Other Business And Legal Matters

    As noted throughout this certificate policy, the organizations
    managing the allocation of IP addresses and AS numbers are
    authoritative in their roles as managers of this data.  They will
    operate this PKI to allow the holders of address space and AS number
    allocations to generate digitally signed data that attests to these
    allocations, and to the authorization of ISPs to originate routes
    for address blocks (via ROAs). Therefore, the manner in which the
    organizations in question manage their business and legal matters
    for this PKI should be commensurate with the way in which they
    already manage business and legal matters in their existing roles.
    The topics listed below may be covered in the CPS issued by each CA.
    Not every CA may choose to address all of these topics.

9.1. Fees

9.1.1. Certificate issuance or renewal fees

9.1.2. Fees for other services (if applicable)

9.1.3. Refund policy

9.1.4. Fees for other services [OMITTED]



9.1.5. Refund policy [OMITTED]

9.2. Financial responsibility

9.2.1. Insurance coverage

9.2.2. Other assets [OMITTED]



9.2.3. Insurance or warranty coverage for end-entities [OMITTED]

9.3. Confidentiality of business information

9.3.1. Scope of confidential information

9.3.2. Information not within the scope of confidential information

9.3.3. Responsibility to protect confidential information

9.4. Privacy of personal information


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9.4.1. Privacy plan

9.4.2. Information treated as private

9.4.3. Information not deemed private

9.4.4. Responsibility to protect private information

9.4.5. Notice and consent to use private information

9.4.6. Disclosure pursuant to judicial or administrative process

9.4.7. Other information disclosure circumstances

9.5. Intellectual property rights (if applicable)

9.6. Representations and warranties

9.6.1. CA representations and warranties

9.6.2. Subscriber representations and warranties

9.6.3. Relying party representations and warranties [OMITTED]

9.6.4. Representations and warranties of other participants [OMITTED]

9.7. Disclaimers of warranties

9.8. Limitations of liability

9.9. Indemnities

9.10. Term and termination

9.10.1. Term

9.10.2. Termination

9.10.3. Effect of termination and survival

9.11. Individual notices and communications with participants

9.12. Amendments

9.12.1. Procedure for amendment

9.12.2. Notification mechanism and period



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9.12.3. Circumstances under which OID must be changed [OMITTED]

9.13. Dispute resolution provisions

9.14. Governing law

9.15. Compliance with applicable law

9.16. Miscellaneous provisions

9.16.1. Entire agreement

9.16.2. Assignment

9.16.3. Severability

9.16.4. Enforcement (attorneys' fees and waiver of rights)

9.16.5. Force Majeure

9.17. Other provisions [OMITTED]





























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10. Security Considerations

    According to X.509, a certificate policy (CP) is "a named set of
    rules that indicates the applicability of a certificate to a
    particular community and/or class of applications with common
    security requirements."  A CP may be used by a relying party to help
    in deciding whether a certificate, and the binding therein, are
    sufficiently trustworthy and otherwise appropriate for a particular
    application. This document describes the CP for the Internet Address
    and AS Number PKI.  There are separate documents (Certification
    Practice Statements (CPS's) that cover the factors that determine
    the degree to which a relying party can trust the binding embodied
    in a certificate. The degree to which such a binding can be trusted
    depends on several factors, e.g., the practices followed by the
    certification authority (CA) in authenticating the subject; the CA's
    operating policy, procedures, and technical security controls,
    including the scope of the subscriber's responsibilities (for
    example, in protecting the private key), and the stated
    responsibilities and liability terms and conditions of the CA (for
    example, warranties, disclaimers of warranties, and limitations of
    liability).

11. IANA Considerations

    None.

12. Acknowledgments

    The authors would like to thank Geoff Huston for reviewing this
    document.

13. References

13.1. Normative References

[RFC2119]   Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
        Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997.

[draft-ietf-sidr-res-certs-01]   Huston, G., Loomans, R., Michaelson,
        G., "A Profile for X.509 PKIX Resource Certificates", work in
        progress, June 19, 2006.

13.2. Informative References

[BGP4] Y. Rekhter, T. Li (editors),  A Border Gateway Protocol 4 (BGP-
        4). IETF RFC 1771, March 1995.




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[Murphy] Murphy, S., BGP Security Vulnerabilities Analysis, draft-ietf-
        idr-bgp-vuln-01.txt, October 2004 (work in progress).

[RSA] Rivest, R., Shamir, A., and Adelman, L. M. 1978. A method for
        obtaining digital signatures and public-key cryptosystems.
        Communications ACM 21, 2 (Feb.), 120-126.

[S-BGP] Kent, S., Lynn, C., and Seo, K. Secure Border Gateway Protocol
        (S-BGP). IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications, v.18,
        n. 4, Apr. 2000, pages 582-592.

[soBGP] Russ White, Securing BGP Through Secure Origin BGP, The Internet
        Protocl Journal, Volume 6, Number 3, September 2003, pages 15-
        22.

[SPV] Hu, Y.-C., Perrig, A., and Sirbu, M., SPV: Secure Path Vector
        Routing for Securing BGP. In  Proceedings of ACM SIGCOMM 2004,
        pages 179-192.

Author's Addresses

    Stephen Kent
    BBN Technologies
    10 Moulton Street
    Cambridge MA 02138
    USA
























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    Phone: +1 (617) 873-3988
    Email: skent@bbn.com

    Derrick Kong
    BBN Technologies
    10 Moulton Street
    Cambridge MA 02138
    USA

    Phone: +1 (617) 873-1951
    Email: dkong@bbn.com

    Karen Seo
    BBN Technologies
    10 Moulton Street
    Cambridge MA 02138
    USA

    Phone: +1 (617) 873-3152
    Email: kseo@bbn.com

    Ronald Watro
    BBN Technologies
    10 Moulton Street
    Cambridge MA 02138
    USA

    Phone: +1 (617) 873-2551
    Email: rwatro@bbn.com


Intellectual Property Statement

    The IETF takes no position regarding the validity or scope of any
    Intellectual Property Rights or other rights that might be claimed
    to pertain to the implementation or use of the technology described
    in this document or the extent to which any license under such
    rights might or might not be available; nor does it represent that
    it has made any independent effort to identify any such rights.
    Information on the procedures with respect to rights in RFC
    documents can be found in BCP 78 and BCP 79.

    Copies of IPR disclosures made to the IETF Secretariat and any
    assurances of licenses to be made available, or the result of an
    attempt made to obtain a general license or permission for the use
    of such proprietary rights by implementers or users of this
    specification can be obtained from the IETF on-line IPR repository
    at http://www.ietf.org/ipr.


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    The IETF invites any interested party to bring to its attention any
    copyrights, patents or patent applications, or other proprietary
    rights that may cover technology that may be required to implement
    this standard.  Please address the information to the IETF at ietf
    ipr@ietf.org.

Disclaimer of Validity

    This document and the information contained herein are provided on
    an "AS IS" basis and THE CONTRIBUTOR, THE ORGANIZATION HE/SHE
    REPRESENTS OR IS SPONSORED BY (IF ANY), THE INTERNET SOCIETY AND THE
    INTERNET ENGINEERING TASK FORCE DISCLAIM ALL WARRANTIES, EXPRESS OR
    IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO ANY WARRANTY THAT THE USE OF
    THE INFORMATION HEREIN WILL NOT INFRINGE ANY RIGHTS OR ANY IMPLIED
    WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.

Copyright Statement

    Copyright (C) The Internet Society (2006).

    This document is subject to the rights, licenses and restrictions
    contained in BCP 78, and except as set forth therein, the authors
    retain all their rights.



























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