[Docs] [txt|pdf] [Tracker] [WG] [Email] [Diff1] [Diff2] [Nits]

Versions: (draft-huston-sidr-repos-struct) 00 01 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 RFC 6481

Secure Inter-Domain Routing                                    G. Huston
Internet-Draft                                                R. Loomans
Intended status: BCP                                       G. Michaelson
Expires: November 16, 2010                                         APNIC
                                                            May 15, 2010


        A Profile for Resource Certificate Repository Structure
                  draft-ietf-sidr-repos-struct-04.txt

Abstract

   This document defines a profile for the structure of repository
   publication points that contain X.509 / PKIX Resource Certificates,
   Certificate Revocation Lists and signed objects.  This profile
   contains the proposed object naming scheme, the contents of
   repository publication points, the contents of publication point
   manifests and a suggested internal structure of a local repository
   cache that is intended to facilitate synchronisation across a
   distributed collection of repository publication points and
   facilitate certification path construction.

Status of this Memo

   This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the
   provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.

   Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
   Task Force (IETF).  Note that other groups may also distribute
   working documents as Internet-Drafts.  The list of current Internet-
   Drafts is at http://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/.

   Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
   and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any
   time.  It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
   material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."

   This Internet-Draft will expire on November 16, 2010.

Copyright Notice

   Copyright (c) 2010 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
   document authors.  All rights reserved.

   This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
   Provisions Relating to IETF Documents
   (http://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of
   publication of this document.  Please review these documents



Huston, et al.          Expires November 16, 2010               [Page 1]

Internet-Draft        ResCert Respository Structure             May 2010


   carefully, as they describe your rights and restrictions with respect
   to this document.  Code Components extracted from this document must
   include Simplified BSD License text as described in Section 4.e of
   the Trust Legal Provisions and are provided without warranty as
   described in the Simplified BSD License.


Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  3
     1.1.  Terminology  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  3
   2.  RPKI Repository Publication Point Content and Structure  . . .  3
     2.1.  Manifests  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  5
     2.2.  CA Repository Publication Point  . . . . . . . . . . . . .  6
     2.3.  EE Repository Publication Point  . . . . . . . . . . . . .  8
   3.  Resource Certificate Publication Repository Considerations . .  9
   4.  Certificate Reissuance and Repositories  . . . . . . . . . . . 10
   5.  Synchronising Repositories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
   6.  Security Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
   7.  IANA Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
   8.  Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
   Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12





























Huston, et al.          Expires November 16, 2010               [Page 2]

Internet-Draft        ResCert Respository Structure             May 2010


1.  Introduction

   To validate attestations made in the context of the Resource Public
   Key Infrastructure (RPKI) [I-D.sidr-arch] Relying Parties (RPs) need
   access to all the X.509 / PKIX Resource Certificates, Certificate
   Revocation Lists (CRLs), and signed objects that collectively define
   the RPKI.

   Each issuer of a certificate, CRL or a signed object makes it
   available for download to RPs through the publication of the object
   in a RPKI repository.

   The repository system is the central clearing-house for all signed
   objects that must be globally accessible to all RPs.  When
   certificates, CRLs and signed objects are created, they are uploaded
   to a repository publication point, from whence they can be downloaded
   for use by RPs.

   This document defines a profile for the structure of RPKI
   repositories.  This profile contains the proposed object naming
   scheme, the contents of repository publication points, the contents
   of publication point manifests and a possible internal structure of a
   Repository Cache that is intended to facilitate synchronisation
   across a distributed collection of repositories and facilitate
   certificate path construction.

   A Resource Certificate describes an attestation by an Issuer that
   binds a list of IP address blocks and AS numbers to the Subject of a
   certificate, identified by the unique association of the Subject's
   private key with the public key contained in the Resource
   Certificate.

1.1.  Terminology

   It is assumed that the reader is familiar with the terms and concepts
   described in "Internet X.509 Public Key Infrastructure Certificate
   and Certificate Revocation List (CRL) Profile" [RFC5280], "X.509
   Extensions for IP Addresses and AS Identifiers" [RFC3779], and
   related regional Internet registry address management policy
   documents.


2.  RPKI Repository Publication Point Content and Structure

   The RPKI does not use a single repository publication point to
   publish RPKI objects.  Instead, the RPKI repository system is
   comprised of multiple repository publication points.  Each repository
   publication point is associated with one or more RPKI certificates'



Huston, et al.          Expires November 16, 2010               [Page 3]

Internet-Draft        ResCert Respository Structure             May 2010


   publication points, as defined in the certificate's Subject
   Information Authority (SIA) extension.

   This section describes the collection of objects (RPKI certificates,
   CRLs, manifests and signed objects) held in repository publication
   points.

   For every certificate in the PKI, there will be a corresponding
   repository publication point file system directory that is the
   authoritative publication point for all objects signed by the private
   key part of the key pair whose public key part is the subject public
   key of this certificate.

   Objects are added to the publication point when issued by the
   associated CA, or when signed by the private key part of a key pair
   whose subject public key is described in an EE certificate that is
   associated with the repository publication point, and are removed
   when expired or revoked.

   The certificate's Subject Information Authority (SIA) extension
   provides a URI that references this repository publication point and
   supported repository access mechanisms.  Additionally, a
   certificate's Authority Information Authority (AIA) extension
   contains a URI that references the authoritative location for the
   Certification Authority (CA) certificate under which the given
   certificate was issued.  That is, if the subject of certificate A has
   issued certificate B, then the AIA extension of certificate B points
   to certificate A, and the SIA extension of certificate A points to a
   repository publication point file system directory containing
   certificate B (see Figure 1).





















Huston, et al.          Expires November 16, 2010               [Page 4]

Internet-Draft        ResCert Respository Structure             May 2010


                      +--------+
           +--------->| Cert A |<----+
           |          | CRLDP  |     |
           |          |  AIA   |     |
           |  +--------- SIA   |     |
           |  |       +--------+     |
           |  |                      |
           |  |                      |
           |  |                      |
           |  |  +-------------------|------------------+
           |  |  |                   |                  |
           |  +->|   +--------+      |   +--------+     |
           |     |   | Cert B |      |   | Cert C |     |
           |     |   | CRLDP ----+   |   | CRLDP -+-+   |
           +----------- AIA   |  |   +----- AIA   | |   |
                 |   |  SIA   |  |       |  SIA   | |   |
                 |   +--------+  |       +--------+ |   |
                 |               V                  |   |
                 |           +---------+            |   |
                 |           | A's CRL |<-----------+   |
                 |           +---------+                |
                 | A's Repository Publication Directory |
                 +--------------------------------------+

   Figure 1: Example Repository Structure.

   In the example shown in Figure 1, certificates B and C are issued by
   CA A. Therefore, the AIA extensions of certificates B and C point to
   the object publication point where Certificate A is published, and
   the SIA extension of certificate A points to the repository
   publication point of CA A's subordinate products, including
   certificates B and C, as well as A's CRL.

   The general intent of this distributed repository structure is that
   an instance of a CA's repository publication point contains all the
   signed products of that CA, and an End Entity's (EE's) repository
   publication point contains all the objects that have been signed by
   the private key part of a key pair whose public key is described in
   the subject public key of the associated EE certificate.

2.1.  Manifests

   All CA's and all EE's that have repository publication points
   ("multi-use" EE certificates, as defined in [I-D.sidr-res-certs])
   MUST maintain a manifest [I-D.sidr-rpki-manifests] of their published
   subordinate products.  The manifest contains a list of the names of
   all objects issued by that CA, or signed by the private key part of a
   key pair whose public key is the subject public key of the associated



Huston, et al.          Expires November 16, 2010               [Page 5]

Internet-Draft        ResCert Respository Structure             May 2010


   EE certificate, and published in a repository publication point file
   system directory, as well as the hash value of each object's
   contents.

   An authority MAY perform a number of object operations on a
   publication repository within the scope of a repository change before
   issuing a single manifest that covers all the operations within the
   scope of this change.  Repository operators SHOULD implement some
   form of synchronisation function on the repository to ensure that
   relying parties who are performing retrieval operations on the
   repository are not exposed to intermediate states during changes to
   the repository and the associated manifest.

2.2.  CA Repository Publication Point

   A CA Certificate has two accessMethod elements specified in its SIA
   field.  The id-ad-caRepository accessMethod element has an associated
   accessLocation element that points to the repository publication
   point of the products of this CA, as specified in
   [I-D.sidr-res-certs].  The id-ad-rpkiManifest accessMethod element
   has an associated accessLocation element that points to the manifest
   object, as an object URL, that is associated with this CA.

   In the case of a CA's publication repository in the scope of the
   RPKI, the repository contains the current unrevoked certificates
   issued by this CA, the most recent CRL that is associated with the
   CA's non-revoked key pairs, the current unrevoked manifest, and all
   current objects that are signed using the private key of a key pair
   whose public key is the subject public key of a current unrevoked
   "single-use" EE certificate, where the EE certificate was issued by
   this CA.

   The CA's manifest describes all the current unrevoked objects that
   are to be found in that publication point that were issued by this
   CA, and all published objects signed using the private key of a key
   pair whose public key is the subject public key of a current
   unrevoked "single-use" EE certificate that has been issued by this
   CA, and the hash value of each object (excluding the manifest itself)
   [I-D.sidr-rpki-manifests].

   Because an instance of a CA is associated with a single key pair, an
   entity performs the equivalent of a key rollover operation by
   generating a new CA instance as well as a new key pair.  In such
   cases the entity may chose to continue the use of a single repository
   publication point for both CA instances.  In such cases the
   repository publication point will contain the CRL, manifest,
   subordinate certificates and signed objects of both CA instances.




Huston, et al.          Expires November 16, 2010               [Page 6]

Internet-Draft        ResCert Respository Structure             May 2010


   Some guidelines for naming objects in a CA's repository publication
   point are as follows:

   CRL:  The scope of a CRL in the RPKI is all objects issued by a CA,
      implying that publication of successive instances of a CA's CRL
      should overwrite previous instances of CRLs signed by the same
      CA's private key in the publication repository.  It is consistent
      with this objective that the name chosen for the CRL in the
      publication repository be a value derived from the public key part
      of the CA's key pair whose private key was used to sign the CRL.
      One such method of generating a CRL publication name is described
      in section 2.1 of [RFC4387], converting the 160-bit hash of the
      CA's public key value into a 27-character string using a modified
      form of Base64 encoding, with an additional modification as
      proposed in section 5, table 2, of [RFC4648].  A CRL MAY use a
      filesystem name extension of ".crl" to denote the object as a CRL.

   Manifest:  When a new instance of a manifest is published by the CA,
      there is no requirement within the RPKI for any RP to have
      continuing access to older instances of the CA's manifest.  When
      multiple CA's share a common repository publication point their
      respective manifests must be distinct.  It is consistent with this
      objective that the name chosen for the manifest in the publication
      repository be a value derived from the public key part of the CA's
      key pair, using the algorithm described above for CRL object
      names.  A manifest MAY use a filesystem name extension of ".mft"
      to denote the object as a manifest.

   Certificates:  Within the RPKI framework it is possible that a CA may
      issue a series of certificates for the same subject name, the same
      subject public key, and the same resource collection.  Within the
      context of each such series of certificates a RP has an interest
      only in the most recently published current certificate.  The
      publication repository object name scheme for the CA may use a
      unique name for each such series of certificates, thereby ensuring
      that each successive issued certificate in such a series
      effectively overwrites the previous instance of the certificate in
      the publication repository.  If the CA adopts a local policy that
      each subject uses a unique key pair for each unique instance of a
      certified resource collection then the CA can use a certificate
      object name scheme that is derived from the subject's public key,
      applying the algorithm described above for CRL object names to the
      subject's public key value.  A certificate MAY use a filesystem
      name extension of ".cer" to denote the object as a certificate.







Huston, et al.          Expires November 16, 2010               [Page 7]

Internet-Draft        ResCert Respository Structure             May 2010


   Signed Objects:  Within the RPKI framework there are two kinds of EE
      certificates that are used in conjunction with digital
      certificates: "single-use" EE certificates, where the private key
      of the key pair whose public key is the subject public key of the
      EE certificate is used to sign a single object, and "multi-use" EE
      Certificates, whose private key of the key pair whose public key
      is the subject public key of the EE certificate may be used to
      sign multiple objects.  In the case of "single-use" EE
      certificates, the single signed object is to be published in the
      same repository publication point as the associated EE
      certificate.  The signed object name scheme for such objects can
      be derived from the associated EE certificate's subject public
      key, applying the algorithm described above for CRL object names
      to the EE certificates's subject public key value.  The signed
      object is listed in the manifest associated with this repository
      publication point.  In the case of "multi-use" EE certificates the
      repository publication point is described in the following
      section.

2.3.  EE Repository Publication Point

   EE repository publication points are used in conjunction with "multi-
   use" EE Certificates.  In this case the EE Certificate has two
   accessMethod elements specified in its SIA field.  The id-ad-
   signedObjectRepository accessMethod element has an associated
   accessLocation element that points to the repository publication
   point of the objects signed by the private key of a key pair whose
   public key is the subject public key of this EE certificate, as
   specified in [I-D.sidr-res-certs].  The id-ad-rpkiManifest
   accessMethod element has an associated accessLocation element that
   points to the manifest object as an object URL, that is associated
   with this repository publication point.  This manifest describes all
   the signed objects that are to be found in that publication point
   that have been signed by the private key of a key pair whose public
   key is the subject public key of this EE certificate, and the hash
   value of each product (excluding the manifest itself)
   [I-D.sidr-rpki-manifests].

   In the case of an EE's publication repository in the scope of the
   RPKI, the repository contains objects that have been signed by the
   private key of the key pair whose public key is the subject public
   key of the EE certificate, and a manifest of all such signed objects.

   The objects published in a EE repository publication point do not
   form a logical sequence, and must be named uniquely in the context of
   the publication repository.

   It is consistent with this specification, but not recommended



Huston, et al.          Expires November 16, 2010               [Page 8]

Internet-Draft        ResCert Respository Structure             May 2010


   practice, that all subordinate EE's of a given CA share a common
   publication repository.  In this case the repository publication
   point would contain multiple manifest objects, one for each EE that
   has placed objects into this common publication point.  Each manifest
   is limited in scope to listing the objects signed by the EE
   certificate.  The implication is that all objects signed by the
   private key of a key pair whose public key is the subject key of a
   single EE certificate, including the EE's manifest, share a base name
   element that is generated from the public key of the EE certificate.
   The choice of whether to use a common single publication repository
   or a dedicated publication repository for each EE certificate is an
   implementation choice.


3.  Resource Certificate Publication Repository Considerations

   Each issuer may publish their issued certificates and CRL in any
   location of their choice.  However, there are a number of
   considerations which guide the choice of a suitable repository
   publication structure.

   o  The publication repository SHOULD be hosted on a highly available
      service and high capacity publication platform.

   o  The publication repository MUST be available using RSYNC
      [RFC5781][I-D.sidr-res-certs] Support of additional retrieval
      mechanisms is the choice of the repository operator.  The
      supported retrieval mechanisms should be consistent with the
      accessMethod element value(s) specified in the SIA of the
      associated CA or EE.

   o  Each CA repository publication point file system directory in the
      publication repository should contain the products of this CA,
      including those objects signed by single-use EE certificates that
      have been issued by this CA.  The signed products of related CA's
      that are operated by the same entity may share the CA repository
      publication point file system directory.  Aside from
      subdirectories, no other objects should be placed in a repository
      publication point file system directory.

      Any such subdirectory should be the repository publication point
      file system directory of a CA or EE certificate that is contained
      in the CA's repository publication point file system directory.
      There are no constraints on the name of a repository publication
      point file system subdirectory.  These considerations also apply
      recursively to subdirectories of these repository publication
      point file system subdirectories directories.




Huston, et al.          Expires November 16, 2010               [Page 9]

Internet-Draft        ResCert Respository Structure             May 2010


   o  Signed Objects are published in the location indicated by the SIA
      field of the EE certificate that has certified the public key part
      of the key pair whose private key part was used to sign the
      object.  The choice of the repository publication point is
      determined by the nature of the signing EE certificate.  In the
      case of "multi-use" EE certificates the signed object is published
      in an EE repository publication point as referenced by the SIA
      extension of the EE certificate.  In the case of "single-use" EE
      certificates the signed object is published in the repository
      publication point of the CA certificate that issued the EE
      certificate, and the SIA extension of the single use EE
      certificate references this object rather than the repository
      publication point file system directory[I-D.sidr-res-certs].


4.  Certificate Reissuance and Repositories

   If a CA certificate is reissued, it should not be necessary to
   reissue all certificates signed by the certificate being reissued.
   Therefore, a CA SHOULD use a persistent naming scheme for the
   certificate's repository publication point that is persistent across
   certificate re-issuance events.  That is, reissued certificates
   SHOULD use the same repository publication point as previously issued
   certificates having the same subject and subject public key, and
   SHOULD overwrite previously issued certificates within the repository
   publication point file system directory.


5.  Synchronising Repositories

   It is possible to perform the validation-related task of certificate
   path construction using retrieval of individual certificates and
   certificate revocation lists using online retrieval of individual
   certificates, sets of candidate certificates and certificate
   revocation lists based on the Authority Information Access, Subject
   Information Access and CRL Distribution Points certificate fields.
   This is not recommended in circumstances where speed and efficiency
   are relevant considerations.  Where an efficient validation operation
   is required, it is RP MAY maintain a local repository containing a
   synchronised copy of all current valid certificates, current
   certificate revocation lists, and all related signed objects,
   maintained as a local current copy of the complete distributed RPKI
   repository collection.

   The general approach to repository synchronisation is one of a "top-
   down" walk of the distributed repository structure, commencing with
   the initial configured trust anchor certificates, and then populating
   the local repository cache will all valid certificates that have been



Huston, et al.          Expires November 16, 2010              [Page 10]

Internet-Draft        ResCert Respository Structure             May 2010


   issued by these issuers, and then recursively applying the same
   approach to each of these subordinate certificates.  Such a
   repository traversal process would need to support some locally
   configured maximal chain length from the initial trust anchors to the
   current working validation point in order to ensure that the process
   does not follow a loop or a non-terminating certificate chain.


6.  Security Considerations

   Repositories are not "protected" structures, and repository retrieval
   operations are vulnerable to various forms of "man-in-the-middle"
   attacks.  Corruption of retrieved objects is detectable by a RP
   through the RPKI validation of the retrieved object.  Insertion of
   older objects is detectable by the CRL, assuming that the older
   object has been revoked by the issuer.  However, certain forms of
   substitution and removal attacks are not directly detectable.  For
   this reason all published RPKI objects are described in a manifest
   [I-D.sidr-rpki-manifests].  The manifest can improve the level of
   assurance that a RP is receiving an authentic copy of the repository,
   and that the set of retrieved objects is complete.


7.  IANA Considerations

   [There are no IANA considerations in this document.]


8.  Normative References

   [I-D.sidr-arch]
              Lepinski, M. and S. Kent, "An Infrastructure to Support
              Secure Internet Routing", draft-ietf-sidr-arch-08.txt
              (work in progress), July 2009.

   [I-D.sidr-res-certs]
              Huston, G., Michaelson, G., and R. Loomans, "A Profile for
              X.509 PKIX Resource Certificates",
              draft-ietf-sidr-res-certs-16.txt (work in progress),
              February 2008.

   [I-D.sidr-rpki-manifests]
              Austein, R., Huston, G., Kent, S., and M. Lepinski,
              "Manifests for the Resource Public Key Infrastructure",
              draft-ietf-sidr-rpki-manifests (work in progress),
              August 2009.

   [RFC3779]  Lynn, C., Kent, S., and K. Seo, "X.509 Extensions for IP



Huston, et al.          Expires November 16, 2010              [Page 11]

Internet-Draft        ResCert Respository Structure             May 2010


              Addresses and AS Identifiers", RFC 3779, June 2004.

   [RFC4387]  Gutmann, P., "Internet X.509 Public Key Infrastructure
              Operational Protocols: Certificate Store Access via HTTP",
              RFC 4387, February 2006.

   [RFC4648]  Josefsson, S., "The Base16, Base32, and Base64 Data
              Encodings", RFC 4648, October 2006.

   [RFC5280]  Cooper, D., Santesson, S., Farrell, S., Boeyen, S.,
              Housley, R., and W. Polk, "Internet X.509 Public Key
              Infrastructure Certificate and Certificate Revocation List
              (CRL) Profile", RFC 5280, May 2008.

   [RFC5781]  Weiler, S., Ward, D., and R. Housley, "The rsync URI
              Scheme", RFC 5781, February 2010.


Authors' Addresses

   Geoff Huston
   Asia Pacific Network Information Centre

   Email: gih@apnic.net
   URI:   http://www.apnic.net


   Robert Loomans
   Asia Pacific Network Information Centre

   Email: robertl@apnic.net
   URI:   http://www.apnic.net


   George Michaelson
   Asia Pacific Network Information Centre

   Email: ggm@apnic.net
   URI:   http://www.apnic.net












Huston, et al.          Expires November 16, 2010              [Page 12]


Html markup produced by rfcmarkup 1.107, available from http://tools.ietf.org/tools/rfcmarkup/