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Versions: (draft-ymbk-rpki-rtr-protocol) 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 RFC 6810

Network Working Group                                            R. Bush
Internet-Draft                                 Internet Initiative Japan
Intended status: Standards Track                              R. Austein
Expires: August 6, 2012                             Dragon Research Labs
                                                        February 3, 2012


                        The RPKI/Router Protocol
                      draft-ietf-sidr-rpki-rtr-26

Abstract

   In order to verifiably validate the origin ASs of BGP announcements,
   routers need a simple but reliable mechanism to receive RPKI
   [I-D.ietf-sidr-arch] prefix origin data from a trusted cache.  This
   document describes a protocol to deliver validated prefix origin data
   to routers.

Requirements Language

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
   document are to be interpreted as described in [RFC2119].

Status of this Memo

   This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the
   provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.

   Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
   Task Force (IETF).  Note that other groups may also distribute
   working documents as Internet-Drafts.  The list of current Internet-
   Drafts is at http://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/.

   Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
   and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any
   time.  It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
   material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."

   This Internet-Draft will expire on August 6, 2012.

Copyright Notice

   Copyright (c) 2012 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
   document authors.  All rights reserved.

   This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
   Provisions Relating to IETF Documents



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   (http://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of
   publication of this document.  Please review these documents
   carefully, as they describe your rights and restrictions with respect
   to this document.  Code Components extracted from this document must
   include Simplified BSD License text as described in Section 4.e of
   the Trust Legal Provisions and are provided without warranty as
   described in the Simplified BSD License.


Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  3
   2.  Glossary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  3
   3.  Deployment Structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  4
   4.  Operational Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  4
   5.  Protocol Data Units (PDUs) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  5
     5.1.  Fields of a PDU  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  6
     5.2.  Serial Notify  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  7
     5.3.  Serial Query . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  8
     5.4.  Reset Query  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  9
     5.5.  Cache Response . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  9
     5.6.  IPv4 Prefix  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
     5.7.  IPv6 Prefix  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
     5.8.  End of Data  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
     5.9.  Cache Reset  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
     5.10. Error Report . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
   6.  Protocol Sequences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
     6.1.  Start or Restart . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
     6.2.  Typical Exchange . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
     6.3.  No Incremental Update Available  . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
     6.4.  Cache has No Data Available  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
   7.  Transport  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
     7.1.  SSH Transport  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
     7.2.  TLS Transport  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
     7.3.  TCP MD5 Transport  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
     7.4.  TCP-AO Transport . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
   8.  Router-Cache Set-Up  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
   9.  Deployment Scenarios . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
   10. Error Codes  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
   11. Security Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
   12. IANA Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
   13. Acknowledgments  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
   14. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
     14.1. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
     14.2. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
   Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27





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1.  Introduction

   In order to verifiably validate the origin ASs of BGP announcements,
   routers need a simple but reliable mechanism to receive RPKI
   (Resource Public Key Infrastructure) [I-D.ietf-sidr-arch]
   cryptographically validated prefix origin data from a trusted cache.
   This document describes a protocol to deliver validated prefix origin
   data to routers.  The design is intentionally constrained to be
   usable on much of the current generation of ISP router platforms.

   Section 3 describes the deployment structure and Section 4 then
   presents an operational overview.  The binary payloads of the
   protocol are formally described in Section 5, and the expected PDU
   sequences are described in Section 6.  The transport protocol options
   are described in Section 7.  Section 8 details how routers and caches
   are configured to connect and authenticate.  Section 9 describes
   likely deployment scenarios.  The traditional security and IANA
   considerations end the document.

   The protocol is extensible to support new PDUs with new semantics
   when and as needed, as indicated by deployment experience.  PDUs are
   versioned should deployment experience call for change.

   For an implementation (not inter-op) report, see
   [I-D.ymbk-rpki-rtr-impl]


2.  Glossary

   The following terms are used with special meaning:

   Global RPKI:  The authoritative data of the RPKI are published in a
      distributed set of servers at the IANA, RIRs, NIRs, and ISPs, see
      [I-D.ietf-sidr-repos-struct].

   Cache:  A coalesced copy of the RPKI which is periodically fetched/
      refreshed directly or indirectly from the global RPKI using the
      [RFC5781] protocol/tools.  Relying party software is used to
      gather and validate the distributed data of the RPKI into a cache.
      Trusting this cache further is a matter between the provider of
      the cache and a relying party.

   Serial Number:  A 32-bit strictly increasing unsigned integer which
      wraps from 2^32-1 to 0.  It denotes the logical version of a
      cache.  A cache increments the value when it successfully updates
      its data from a parent cache or from primary RPKI data.  As a
      cache is receiving, new incoming data and implicit deletes are
      associated with the new serial but MUST NOT be sent until the



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      fetch is complete.  A serial number is not commensurate between
      caches, nor need it be maintained across resets of the cache
      server.  See [RFC1982] on DNS Serial Number Arithmetic for too
      much detail on serial number arithmetic.

   Session ID:  When a cache server is started, it generates a session
      identifier to uniquely identify the instance of the cache and to
      bind it to the sequence of Serial Numbers that cache instance will
      generate.  This allows the router to restart a failed session
      knowing that the Serial Number it is using is commensurate with
      that of the cache.


3.  Deployment Structure

   Deployment of the RPKI to reach routers has a three level structure
   as follows:

   Global RPKI:  The authoritative data of the RPKI are published in a
      distributed set of servers, RPKI publication repositories, e.g.
      the IANA, RIRs, NIRs, and ISPs, see [I-D.ietf-sidr-repos-struct].

   Local Caches:  A local set of one or more collected and verified
      caches.  A relying party, e.g. router or other client, MUST have a
      trust relationship with, and a trusted transport channel to, any
      authoritative cache(s) it uses.

   Routers:  A router fetches data from a local cache using the protocol
      described in this document.  It is said to be a client of the
      cache.  There MAY be mechanisms for the router to assure itself of
      the authenticity of the cache and to authenticate itself to the
      cache.


4.  Operational Overview

   A router establishes and keeps open a connection to one or more
   caches with which it has client/server relationships.  It is
   configured with a semi-ordered list of caches, and establishes a
   connection to the most preferred cache, or set of caches, which
   accept the connections.

   The router MUST choose the most preferred, by configuration, cache or
   set of caches so that the operator may control load on their caches
   and the Global RPKI.

   Periodically, the router sends to the cache the serial number of the
   highest numbered data it has received from that cache, i.e. the



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   router's current serial number.  When a router establishes a new
   connection to a cache, or wishes to reset a current relationship, it
   sends a Reset Query.

   The Cache responds with all data records which have serial numbers
   greater than that in the router's query.  This may be the null set,
   in which case the End of Data PDU is still sent.  Note that 'greater'
   must take wrap-around into account, see [RFC1982].

   When the router has received all data records from the cache, it sets
   its current serial number to that of the serial number in the End of
   Data PDU.

   When the cache updates its database, it sends a Notify message to
   every currently connected router.  This is a hint that now would be a
   good time for the router to poll for an update, but is only a hint.
   The protocol requires the router to poll for updates periodically in
   any case.

   Strictly speaking, a router could track a cache simply by asking for
   a complete data set every time it updates, but this would be very
   inefficient.  The serial number based incremental update mechanism
   allows an efficient transfer of just the data records which have
   changed since last update.  As with any update protocol based on
   incremental transfers, the router must be prepared to fall back to a
   full transfer if for any reason the cache is unable to provide the
   necessary incremental data.  Unlike some incremental transfer
   protocols, this protocol requires the router to make an explicit
   request to start the fallback process; this is deliberate, as the
   cache has no way of knowing whether the router has also established
   sessions with other caches that may be able to provide better
   service.

   As a cache server must evaluate certificates and ROAs (Route Origin
   Attestations, see [I-D.ietf-sidr-arch]) which are time dependent,
   servers' clocks MUST be correct to a tolerance of approximately an
   hour.


5.  Protocol Data Units (PDUs)

   The exchanges between the cache and the router are sequences of
   exchanges of the following PDUs according to the rules described in
   Section 6.

   Fields with unspecified content MUST be zero on transmission and MAY
   be ignored on receipt.




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5.1.  Fields of a PDU

   PDUs contain the following data elements:

   Protocol Version:  An eight-bit unsigned integer, currently 0,
      denoting the version of this protocol.

   PDU Type:  An eight-bit unsigned integer, denoting the type of the
      PDU, e.g.  IPv4 Prefix, etc.

   Serial Number:  The serial number of the RPKI Cache when this set of
      PDUs was received from an up-stream cache server or gathered from
      the global RPKI.  A cache increments its serial number when
      completing a rigorously validated update from a parent cache or
      the Global RPKI.

   Session ID:  When a cache server is started, it generates a Session
      ID to identify the instance of the cache and to bind it to the
      sequence of Serial Numbers that cache instance will generate.
      This allows the router to restart a failed session knowing that
      the Serial Number it is using is commensurate with that of the
      cache.  If, at any time, either the router or the cache finds the
      value of the session identifiers they hold disagree, they MUST
      completely drop the session and the router MUST flush all data
      learned from that cache.

      Should a cache erroneously reuse a Session ID so that a router
      does not realize that the session has changed (old session ID and
      new session ID have same numeric value), the router may become
      confused as to the content of the cache.  The time it takes the
      router to discover it is confused will depend on whether the
      serial numbers are also reused.  If the serial numbers in the old
      and new sessions are different enough, the cache will respond to
      the router's Serial Query with a Cache Reset, which will solve the
      problem.  If, however, the serial numbers are close, the cache may
      respond with a Cache Response, which may not be enough to bring
      the router into sync.  In such cases, it's likely but not certain
      that the router will detect some discrepancy between the state
      that the cache expects and its own state.  For example, the Cache
      Response may tell the router to drop a record which the router
      does not hold, or may tell the router to add a record which the
      router already has.  In such cases, a router will detect the error
      and reset the session.  The one case in which the router may stay
      out of sync is when nothing in the Cache Response contradicts any
      data currently held by the router.






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      Using persistent storage for the session identifier or a clock-
      based scheme for generating session identifiers should avoid the
      risk of session identifier collisions.

      The Session ID might be a pseudo-random, a strictly increasing
      value if the cache has reliable storage, etc.

   Length:  A 32-bit unsigned integer which has as its value the count
      of the bytes in the entire PDU, including the eight bytes of
      header which end with the length field.

   Flags:  The lowest order bit of the Flags field is 1 for an
      announcement and 0 for a withdrawal, whether this PDU announces a
      new right to announce the prefix or withdraws a previously
      announced right.  A withdraw effectively deletes one previously
      announced IPvX Prefix PDU with the exact same Prefix, Length, Max-
      Len, and ASN.

   Prefix Length:  An eight-bit unsigned integer denoting the shortest
      prefix allowed for the prefix.

   Max Length:  An eight-bit unsigned integer denoting the longest
      prefix allowed by the prefix.  This MUST NOT be less than the
      Prefix Length element.

   Prefix:  The IPv4 or IPv6 prefix of the ROA.

   Autonomous System Number:  ASN allowed to announce this prefix, a 32-
      bit unsigned integer.

   Zero:  Fields shown as zero or reserved MUST be zero.  The value of
      such a field MUST be ignored on receipt.

5.2.  Serial Notify

   The cache notifies the router that the cache has new data.

   The Session ID reassures the router that the serial numbers are
   commensurate, i.e. the cache session has not been changed.

   Serial Notify is only message that the cache can send that is not in
   response to a message from the router.









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   0          8          16         24        31
   .-------------------------------------------.
   | Protocol |   PDU    |                     |
   | Version  |   Type   |     Session ID      |
   |    0     |    0     |                     |
   +-------------------------------------------+
   |                                           |
   |                Length=12                  |
   |                                           |
   +-------------------------------------------+
   |                                           |
   |               Serial Number               |
   |                                           |
   `-------------------------------------------'

5.3.  Serial Query

   Serial Query: The router sends Serial Query to ask the cache for all
   payload PDUs which have serial numbers higher than the serial number
   in the Serial Query.

   The cache replies to this query with a Cache Response PDU
   (Section 5.5) if the cache has a, possibly null, record of the
   changes since the serial number specified by the router.  If there
   have been no changes since the router last queried, the cache then
   sends an End Of Data PDU.

   If the cache does not have the data needed to update the router,
   perhaps because its records do not go back to the Serial Number in
   the Serial Query, then it responds with a Cache Reset PDU
   (Section 5.9).

   The Session ID tells the cache what instance the router expects to
   ensure that the serial numbers are commensurate, i.e. the cache
   session has not been changed.
















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   0          8          16         24        31
   .-------------------------------------------.
   | Protocol |   PDU    |                     |
   | Version  |   Type   |     Session ID      |
   |    0     |    1     |                     |
   +-------------------------------------------+
   |                                           |
   |                 Length=12                 |
   |                                           |
   +-------------------------------------------+
   |                                           |
   |               Serial Number               |
   |                                           |
   `-------------------------------------------'

5.4.  Reset Query

   Reset Query: The router tells the cache that it wants to receive the
   total active, current, non-withdrawn, database.  The cache responds
   with a Cache Response PDU (Section 5.5).

   0          8          16         24        31
   .-------------------------------------------.
   | Protocol |   PDU    |                     |
   | Version  |   Type   |    reserved = zero  |
   |    0     |    2     |                     |
   +-------------------------------------------+
   |                                           |
   |                 Length=8                  |
   |                                           |
   `-------------------------------------------'

5.5.  Cache Response

   Cache Response: The cache responds with zero or more payload PDUs.
   When replying to a Serial Query request (Section 5.3), the cache
   sends the set of all data records it has with serial numbers greater
   than that sent by the client router.  When replying to a Reset Query,
   the cache sends the set of all data records it has; in this case the
   withdraw/announce field in the payload PDUs MUST have the value 1
   (announce).

   In response to a Reset Query, the new value of the Session ID tells
   the router the instance of the cache session for future confirmation.
   In response to a Serial Query, the Session ID being the same
   reassures the router that the serial numbers are commensurate, i.e.
   the cache session has not changed.




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   0          8          16         24        31
   .-------------------------------------------.
   | Protocol |   PDU    |                     |
   | Version  |   Type   |     Session ID      |
   |    0     |    3     |                     |
   +-------------------------------------------+
   |                                           |
   |                 Length=8                  |
   |                                           |
   `-------------------------------------------'

5.6.  IPv4 Prefix

   0          8          16         24        31
   .-------------------------------------------.
   | Protocol |   PDU    |                     |
   | Version  |   Type   |    reserved = zero  |
   |    0     |    4     |                     |
   +-------------------------------------------+
   |                                           |
   |                 Length=20                 |
   |                                           |
   +-------------------------------------------+
   |          |  Prefix  |   Max    |          |
   |  Flags   |  Length  |  Length  |   zero   |
   |          |   0..32  |   0..32  |          |
   +-------------------------------------------+
   |                                           |
   |                IPv4 Prefix                |
   |                                           |
   +-------------------------------------------+
   |                                           |
   |         Autonomous System Number          |
   |                                           |
   `-------------------------------------------'

   The lowest order bit of the Flags field is 1 for an announcement and
   0 for a withdrawal.

   In the RPKI, nothing prevents a signing certificate from issuing two
   identical ROAs.  In this case there would be no semantic difference
   between the objects, merely a process redundancy.

   In the RPKI, there is also an actual need for what might appear to a
   router as identical IPvX (IPv4 or IPv6) PDUs.  This can occur when an
   upstream certificate is being reissued or there is an address
   ownership transfer up the validation chain.  The ROA would be
   identical in the router sense, i.e. have the same {prefix, len, max-



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   len, asn}, but a different validation path in the RPKI.  This is
   important to the RPKI, but not to the router.

   The cache server MUST ensure that it has told the router client to
   have one and only one IPvX PDU for a unique {prefix, len, max-len,
   asn} at any one point in time.  Should the router client receive an
   IPvX PDU with a {prefix, len, max-len, asn} identical to one it
   already has active, it SHOULD raise a Duplicate Announcement Received
   error.

5.7.  IPv6 Prefix

   0          8          16         24        31
   .-------------------------------------------.
   | Protocol |   PDU    |                     |
   | Version  |   Type   |    reserved = zero  |
   |    0     |    6     |                     |
   +-------------------------------------------+
   |                                           |
   |                 Length=32                 |
   |                                           |
   +-------------------------------------------+
   |          |  Prefix  |   Max    |          |
   |  Flags   |  Length  |  Length  |   zero   |
   |          |  0..128  |  0..128  |          |
   +-------------------------------------------+
   |                                           |
   +---                                     ---+
   |                                           |
   +---            IPv6 Prefix              ---+
   |                                           |
   +---                                     ---+
   |                                           |
   +-------------------------------------------+
   |                                           |
   |         Autonomous System Number          |
   |                                           |
   `-------------------------------------------'

   Analogous to the IPv4 Prefix PDU, 96 more bits no magic.

5.8.  End of Data

   End of Data: Cache tells router it has no more data for the request.

   The Session ID MUST be the same as that of the corresponding Cache
   Response which began the, possibly null, sequence of data PDUs.




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   0          8          16         24        31
   .-------------------------------------------.
   | Protocol |   PDU    |                     |
   | Version  |   Type   |     Session ID      |
   |    0     |    7     |                     |
   +-------------------------------------------+
   |                                           |
   |                 Length=12                 |
   |                                           |
   +-------------------------------------------+
   |                                           |
   |               Serial Number               |
   |                                           |
   `-------------------------------------------'

5.9.  Cache Reset

   The cache may respond to a Serial Query informing the router that the
   cache cannot provide an incremental update starting from the serial
   number specified by the router.  The router must decide whether to
   issue a Reset Query or switch to a different cache.

   0          8          16         24        31
   .-------------------------------------------.
   | Protocol |   PDU    |                     |
   | Version  |   Type   |    reserved = zero  |
   |    0     |    8     |                     |
   +-------------------------------------------+
   |                                           |
   |                 Length=8                  |
   |                                           |
   `-------------------------------------------'

5.10.  Error Report

   This PDU is used by either party to report an error to the other.

   Error reports are only sent as responses to other PDUs.

   The Error Code is described in Section 10.

   If the error is not associated with any particular PDU, the Erroneous
   PDU field MUST be empty and the Length of Encapsulated PDU field MUST
   be zero.

   An Error Report PDU MUST NOT be sent for an Error Report PDU.  If an
   erroneous Error Report PDU is received, the session SHOULD be
   dropped.



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   If the error is associated with a PDU of excessive length, i.e. too
   long to be any legal PDU other than another Error Report, or possibly
   corrupt length, the Erroneous PDU field MAY be truncated.

   The diagnostic text is optional, if not present the Length of Error
   Text field MUST be zero.  If error text is present, it MUST be a
   string in UTF-8 encoding (see [RFC3269]).

   0          8          16         24        31
   .-------------------------------------------.
   | Protocol |   PDU    |                     |
   | Version  |   Type   |     Error Code      |
   |    0     |    10    |                     |
   +-------------------------------------------+
   |                                           |
   |                  Length                   |
   |                                           |
   +-------------------------------------------+
   |                                           |
   |       Length of Encapsulated PDU          |
   |                                           |
   +-------------------------------------------+
   |                                           |
   ~           Copy of Erroneous PDU           ~
   |                                           |
   +-------------------------------------------+
   |                                           |
   |           Length of Error Text            |
   |                                           |
   +-------------------------------------------+
   |                                           |
   |              Arbitrary Text               |
   |                    of                     |
   ~          Error Diagnostic Message         ~
   |                                           |
   `-------------------------------------------'


6.  Protocol Sequences

   The sequences of PDU transmissions fall into three conversations as
   follows:









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6.1.  Start or Restart

   Cache                         Router
     ~                             ~
     | <----- Reset Query -------- | R requests data (or Serial Query)
     |                             |
     | ----- Cache Response -----> | C confirms request
     | ------- IPvX Prefix ------> | C sends zero or more
     | ------- IPvX Prefix ------> |   IPv4 and IPv6 Prefix
     | ------- IPvX Prefix ------> |   Payload PDUs
     | ------  End of Data ------> | C sends End of Data
     |                             |   and sends new serial
     ~                             ~

   When a transport session is first established, the router MAY send a
   Reset Query and the cache responds with a data sequence of all data
   it contains.

   Alternatively, if the router has significant unexpired data from a
   broken session with the same cache, it MAY start with a Serial Query
   containing the Session ID from the previous session to ensure the
   serial numbers are commensurate.

   This Reset Query sequence is also used when the router receives a
   Cache Reset, chooses a new cache, or fears that it has otherwise lost
   its way.

   To limit the length of time a cache must keep the data necessary to
   generate incremental updates, a router MUST send either a Serial
   Query or a Reset Query no less frequently than once an hour.  This
   also acts as a keep alive at the application layer.

   As the cache MAY not keep updates for little more than one hour, the
   router MUST have a polling interval of no greater than once an hour.

















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6.2.  Typical Exchange

   Cache                         Router
     ~                             ~
     | -------- Notify ----------> |  (optional)
     |                             |
     | <----- Serial Query ------- | R requests data
     |                             |
     | ----- Cache Response -----> | C confirms request
     | ------- IPvX Prefix ------> | C sends zero or more
     | ------- IPvX Prefix ------> |   IPv4 and IPv6 Prefix
     | ------- IPvX Prefix ------> |   Payload PDUs
     | ------  End of Data ------> | C sends End of Data
     |                             |   and sends new serial
     ~                             ~

   The cache server SHOULD send a notify PDU with its current serial
   number when the cache's serial changes, with the expectation that the
   router MAY then issue a serial query earlier than it otherwise might.
   This is analogous to DNS NOTIFY in [RFC1996].  The cache MUST rate
   limit Serial Notifies to no more frequently than one per minute.

   When the transport layer is up and either a timer has gone off in the
   router, or the cache has sent a Notify, the router queries for new
   data by sending a Serial Query, and the cache sends all data newer
   than the serial in the Serial Query.

   To limit the length of time a cache must keep old withdraws, a router
   MUST send either a Serial Query or a Reset Query no less frequently
   than once an hour.

6.3.  No Incremental Update Available

   Cache                         Router
     ~                             ~
     | <-----  Serial Query ------ | R requests data
     | ------- Cache Reset ------> | C cannot supply update
     |                             |   from specified serial
     | <------ Reset Query ------- | R requests new data
     | ----- Cache Response -----> | C confirms request
     | ------- IPvX Prefix ------> | C sends zero or more
     | ------- IPvX Prefix ------> |   IPv4 and IPv6 Prefix
     | ------- IPvX Prefix ------> |   Payload PDUs
     | ------  End of Data ------> | C sends End of Data
     |                             |   and sends new serial
     ~                             ~

   The cache may respond to a Serial Query with a Cache Reset, informing



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   the router that the cache cannot supply an incremental update from
   the serial number specified by the router.  This might be because the
   cache has lost state, or because the router has waited too long
   between polls and the cache has cleaned up old data that it no longer
   believes it needs, or because the cache has run out of storage space
   and had to expire some old data early.  Regardless of how this state
   arose, the cache replies with a Cache Reset to tell the router that
   it cannot honor the request.  When a router receives this, the router
   SHOULD attempt to connect to any more preferred caches in its cache
   list.  If there are no more preferred caches it MUST issue a Reset
   Query and get an entire new load from the cache.

6.4.  Cache has No Data Available

   Cache                         Router
     ~                             ~
     | <-----  Serial Query ------ | R requests data
     | ---- Error Report PDU ----> | C No Data Available
     ~                             ~

   Cache                         Router
     ~                             ~
     | <-----  Reset Query ------- | R requests data
     | ---- Error Report PDU ----> | C No Data Available
     ~                             ~

   The cache may respond to either a Serial Query or a Reset Query
   informing the router that the cache cannot supply any update at all.
   The most likely cause is that the cache has lost state, perhaps due
   to a restart, and has not yet recovered.  While it is possible that a
   cache might go into such a state without dropping any of its active
   sessions, a router is more likely to see this behavior when it
   initially connects and issues a Reset Query while the cache is still
   rebuilding its database.

   When a router receives this kind of error, the router SHOULD attempt
   to connect to any other caches in its cache list, in preference
   order.  If no other caches are available, the router MUST issue
   periodic Reset Queries until it gets a new usable load from the
   cache.


7.  Transport

   The transport layer session between a router and a cache carries the
   binary Protocol Data Units (PDUs) in a persistent session.

   To prevent cache spoofing and DoS attacks by illegitimate routers, it



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   is highly desirable that the router and the cache are authenticated
   to each other.  Integrity protection for payloads is also desirable
   to protect against monkey in the middle (MITM) attacks.
   Unfortunately, there is no protocol to do so on all currently used
   platforms.  Therefore, as of this document, there is no mandatory to
   implement transport which provides authentication and integrity
   protection.

   To reduce exposure to dropped but non-terminated sessions, both
   caches and routers SHOULD enable keep alives when available in the
   chosen transport protocol.

   It is expected that, when TCP-AO [RFC5925] is available on all
   platforms deployed by operators, it will become the mandatory to
   implement transport.

   Caches and routers MUST implement unprotected transport over TCP
   using a port, rpki-rtr, to be assigned, see Section 12.  Operators
   SHOULD use procedural means, e.g. access control lists (ACLs), to
   reduce the exposure to authentication issues.

   Caches and routers SHOULD use TCP-AO, SSHv2, TCP MD5, or IPsec
   transport.

   If unprotected TCP is the transport, the cache and routers MUST be on
   the same trusted and controlled network.

   If available to the operator, caches and routers MUST use one of the
   following more protected protocols.

   Caches and routers SHOULD use TCP-AO transport [RFC5925] over the
   rpki-rtr port.

   Caches and routers MAY use SSHv2 transport [RFC4252] using a the
   normal SSH port.  For an example, see Section 7.1.

   Caches and routers MAY use TCP MD5 transport [RFC2385] using the
   rpki-rtr port.  Note that TCP MD5 has been obsoleted by TCP-AO
   [RFC5925].

   Caches and routers MAY use IPsec transport [RFC4301] using the rpki-
   rtr port.

   Caches and routers MAY use TLS transport [RFC5246] using using a
   port, rpki-rtr-tls, to be assigned, see Section 12.






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7.1.  SSH Transport

   To run over SSH, the client router first establishes an SSH transport
   connection using the SSHv2 transport protocol, and the client and
   server exchange keys for message integrity and encryption.  The
   client then invokes the "ssh-userauth" service to authenticate the
   application, as described in the SSH authentication protocol RFC 4252
   [RFC4252].  Once the application has been successfully authenticated,
   the client invokes the "ssh-connection" service, also known as the
   SSH connection protocol.

   After the ssh-connection service is established, the client opens a
   channel of type "session", which results in an SSH session.

   Once the SSH session has been established, the application invokes
   the application transport as an SSH subsystem called "rpki-rtr".
   Subsystem support is a feature of SSH version 2 (SSHv2) and is not
   included in SSHv1.  Running this protocol as an SSH subsystem avoids
   the need for the application to recognize shell prompts or skip over
   extraneous information, such as a system message that is sent at
   shell start-up.

   It is assumed that the router and cache have exchanged keys out of
   band by some reasonably secured means.

   Cache servers supporting SSH transport MUST accept RSA and DSA
   authentication, and SHOULD accept ECDSA authentication.  User
   authentication MUST be supported; host authentication MAY be
   supported.  Implementations MAY support password authentication.
   Client routers SHOULD verify the public key of the cache, to avoid
   monkey in the middle attacks.

7.2.  TLS Transport

   Client routers using TLS transport MUST present client-side
   certificates to authenticate themselves to the cache, to allow the
   cache to manage load by rejecting connections from unauthorized
   routers.  While in principle any type of certificate and certificate
   authority (CA) may be used, in general cache operators will generally
   wish to create their own small-scale CA and issue certificates to
   each authorized router.  This simplifies credential roll-over; any
   unrevoked, unexpired certificate from the proper CA may be used.

   Certificates used to authenticate client routers in this protocol
   MUST include a subjectAltName extension [RFC5280] containing one or
   more iPAddress identities; when authenticating the router's
   certificate, the cache MUST check the IP address of the TLS
   connection against these iPAddress identities and SHOULD reject the



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   connection if none of the iPAddress identities match the connection.

   Routers MUST also verify the cache's TLS server certificate, using
   subjectAltName dNSName identities as described in [RFC6125], to avoid
   monkey in the middle attacks.  The rules and guidelines defined in
   [RFC6125] apply here, with the following considerations:

      Support for DNS-ID identifier type (that is, the dNSName identity
      in the subjectAltName extension) is REQUIRED in rpki-rtr server
      and client implementations which use TLS.  Certification
      authorities which issue rpki-rtr server certificates MUST support
      the DNS-ID identifier type, and the DNS-ID identifier type MUST be
      present in rpki-rtr server certificates.

      DNS names in rpki-rtr server certificates SHOULD NOT contain the
      wildcard character "*".

      rpki-rtr implementations which use TLS MUST NOT use CN-ID
      identifiers; a CN field may be present in the server certificate's
      subject name, but MUST NOT be used for authentication within the
      rules described in [RFC6125].

      The client router MUST set its "reference identifier" to the DNS
      name of the rpki-rtr cache.

7.3.  TCP MD5 Transport

   If TCP-MD5 is used, implementations MUST support key lengths of at
   least 80 printable ASCII bytes, per section 4.5 of [RFC2385].
   Implementations MUST also support hexadecimal sequences of at least
   32 characters, i.e., 128 bits.

   Key rollover with TCP-MD5 is problematic.  Cache servers SHOULD
   support [RFC4808].

7.4.  TCP-AO Transport

   Implementations MUST support key lengths of at least 80 printable
   ASCII bytes.  Implementations MUST also support hexadecimal sequences
   of at least 32 characters, i.e., 128 bits.  MAC lengths of at least
   96 bits MUST be supported, per section 5.3 of [RFC2385].

   The cryptographic algorithms and associcated parameters described in
   [RFC5926] MUST be supported.







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8.  Router-Cache Set-Up

   A cache has the public authentication data for each router it is
   configured to support.

   A router may be configured to peer with a selection of caches, and a
   cache may be configured to support a selection of routers.  Each must
   have the name of, and authentication data for, each peer.  In
   addition, in a router, this list has a non-unique preference value
   for each server in order of preference.  This preference merely
   denotes proximity, not trust, preferred belief, etc.  The client
   router attempts to establish a session with each potential serving
   cache in preference order, and then starts to load data from the most
   preferred cache to which it can connect and authenticate.  The
   router's list of caches has the following elements:

   Preference:  An unsigned integer denoting the router's preference to
      connect to that cache, the lower the value the more preferred.

   Name:  The IP Address or fully qualified domain name of the cache.

   Key:  Any needed public key of the cache.

   MyKey:  Any needed private key or certificate of this client.

   Due to the distributed nature of the RPKI, caches simply can not be
   rigorously synchronous.  A client may hold data from multiple caches,
   but MUST keep the data marked as to source, as later updates MUST
   affect the correct data.

   Just as there may be more than one covering ROA from a single cache,
   there may be multiple covering ROAs from multiple caches.  The
   results are as described in [I-D.ietf-sidr-pfx-validate].

   If data from multiple caches are held, implementations MUST NOT
   distinguish between data sources when performing validation.

   When a more preferred cache becomes available, if resources allow, it
   would be prudent for the client to start fetching from that cache.

   The client SHOULD attempt to maintain at least one set of data,
   regardless of whether it has chosen a different cache or established
   a new connection to the previous cache.

   A client MAY drop the data from a particular cache when it is fully
   in synch with one or more other caches.

   A client SHOULD delete the data from a cache when it has been unable



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   to refresh from that cache for a configurable timer value.  The
   default for that value is twice the polling period for that cache.

   If a client loses connectivity to a cache it is using, or otherwise
   decides to switch to a new cache, it SHOULD retain the data from the
   previous cache until it has a full set of data from one or more other
   caches.  Note that this may already be true at the point of
   connection loss if the client has connections to more than one cache.


9.  Deployment Scenarios

   For illustration, we present three likely deployment scenarios.

   Small End Site:  The small multi-homed end site may wish to outsource
      the RPKI cache to one or more of their upstream ISPs.  They would
      exchange authentication material with the ISP using some out of
      band mechanism, and their router(s) would connect to one or more
      up-streams' caches.  The ISPs would likely deploy caches intended
      for customer use separately from the caches with which their own
      BGP speakers peer.

   Large End Site:  A larger multi-homed end site might run one or more
      caches, arranging them in a hierarchy of client caches, each
      fetching from a serving cache which is closer to the global RPKI.
      They might configure fall-back peerings to up-stream ISP caches.

   ISP Backbone:  A large ISP would likely have one or more redundant
      caches in each major PoP, and these caches would fetch from each
      other in an ISP-dependent topology so as not to place undue load
      on the global RPKI publication infrastructure.

   Experience with large DNS cache deployments has shown that complex
   topologies are ill-advised as it is easy to make errors in the graph,
   e.g. not maintaining a loop-free condition.

   Of course, these are illustrations and there are other possible
   deployment strategies.  It is expected that minimizing load on the
   global RPKI servers will be a major consideration.

   To keep load on global RPKI services from unnecessary peaks, it is
   recommended that primary caches which load from the distributed
   global RPKI not do so all at the same times, e.g. on the hour.
   Choose a random time, perhaps the ISP's AS number modulo 60 and
   jitter the inter-fetch timing.






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10.  Error Codes

   This section contains a preliminary list of error codes.  The authors
   expect additions to this section during development of the initial
   implementations.  There is an IANA registry where valid error codes
   are listed, see Section 12.  Errors which are considered fatal SHOULD
   cause the session to be dropped.

   0: Corrupt Data (fatal):  The receiver believes the received PDU to
      be corrupt in a manner not specified by other error codes.

   1: Internal Error (fatal):  The party reporting the error experienced
      some kind of internal error unrelated to protocol operation (ran
      out of memory, a coding assertion failed, et cetera).

   2: No Data Available:  The cache believes itself to be in good
      working order, but is unable to answer either a Serial Query or a
      Reset Query because it has no useful data available at this time.
      This is likely to be a temporary error, and most likely indicates
      that the cache has not yet completed pulling down an initial
      current data set from the global RPKI system after some kind of
      event that invalidated whatever data it might have previously held
      (reboot, network partition, et cetera).

   3: Invalid Request (fatal):  The cache server believes the client's
      request to be invalid.

   4: Unsupported Protocol Version (fatal):  The Protocol Version is not
      known by the receiver of the PDU.

   5: Unsupported PDU Type (fatal):  The PDU Type is not known by the
      receiver of the PDU.

   6: Withdrawal of Unknown Record (fatal):  The received PDU has Flag=0
      but a record for the Prefix/PrefixLength/MaxLength triple does not
      exist in the receiver's database.

   7: Duplicate Announcement Received (fatal):  The received PDU has an
      identical {prefix, len, max-len, asn} tuple as a PDU which is
      still active in the router.


11.  Security Considerations

   As this document describes a security protocol, many aspects of
   security interest are described in the relevant sections.  This
   section points out issues which may not be obvious in other sections.




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   Cache Validation:  In order for a collection of caches as described
      in Section 9 to guarantee a consistent view, they need to be given
      consistent trust anchors to use in their internal validation
      process.  Distribution of a consistent trust anchor is assumed to
      be out of band.

   Cache Peer Identification:  The router initiates a transport session
      to a cache, which it identifies by either IP address or fully
      qualified domain name.  Be aware that a DNS or address spoofing
      attack could make the correct cache unreachable.  No session would
      be established, as the authorization keys would not match.

   Transport Security:  The RPKI relies on object, not server or
      transport, trust.  I.e. the IANA root trust anchor is distributed
      to all caches through some out of band means, and can then be used
      by each cache to validate certificates and ROAs all the way down
      the tree.  The inter-cache relationships are based on this object
      security model, hence the inter-cache transport can be lightly
      protected.

      But this protocol document assumes that the routers can not do the
      validation cryptography.  Hence the last link, from cache to
      router, is secured by server authentication and transport level
      security.  This is dangerous, as server authentication and
      transport have very different threat models than object security.

      So the strength of the trust relationship and the transport
      between the router(s) and the cache(s) are critical.  You're
      betting your routing on this.

      While we can not say the cache must be on the same LAN, if only
      due to the issue of an enterprise wanting to off-load the cache
      task to their upstream ISP(s), locality, trust, and control are
      very critical issues here.  The cache(s) really SHOULD be as
      close, in the sense of controlled and protected (against DDoS,
      MITM) transport, to the router(s) as possible.  It also SHOULD be
      topologically close so that a minimum of validated routing data
      are needed to bootstrap a router's access to a cache.

      The identity of the cache server SHOULD be verified and
      authenticated by the router client, and vice versa, before any
      data are exchanged.

      Transports which can not provide the necessary authentication and
      integrity (see Section 7) must rely on network design and
      operational controls to provide protection against spoofing/
      corruption attacks.  As pointed out in Section 7, TCP-AO is the
      long term plan.  Protocols which provide integrity and



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      authenticity SHOULD be used, and if they can not, i.e.  TCP is
      used as the transport, the router and cache MUST be on the same
      trusted, controlled network.


12.  IANA Considerations

   This document requests the IANA to assign 'well known' TCP Port
   Numbers to the RPKI-Router Protocol for the following, see Section 7:

           rpki-rtr
           rpki-rtr-tls

   This document requests the IANA to create a registry for tuples of
   Protocol Version / PDU Type, each of which may range from 0 to 255.
   The name of the registry should be rpki-rtr-pdu.  The policy for
   adding to the registry is RFC Required per [RFC5226], either
   standards track or experimental.  The initial entries should be as
   follows:

           Protocol
           Version    PDU Type
           --------   -------------------
               0        0 - Serial Notify
               0        1 - Serial Query
               0        2 - Reset Query
               0        3 - Cache Response
               0        4 - IPv4 Prefix
               0        6 - IPv6 Prefix
               0        7 - End of Data
               0        8 - Cache Reset
               0       10 - Error Report
               0      255 - Reserved

   This document requests the IANA to create a registry for Error Codes
   0 to 255.  The name of the registry should be rpki-rtr-error.  The
   policy for adding to the registry is Expert Review per [RFC5226],
   where the responsible IESG area director should appoint the Expert
   Reviewer.  The initial entries should be as follows:

               0 - Corrupt Data
               1 - Internal Error
               2 - No Data Available
               3 - Invalid Request
               4 - Unsupported Protocol Version
               5 - Unsupported PDU Type
               6 - Withdrawal of Unknown Record
               7 - Duplicate Announcement Received



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             255 - Reserved

   This document requests the IANA to add an SSH Connection Protocol
   Subsystem Name, as defined in [RFC4250], of 'rpki-rtr'.


13.  Acknowledgments

   The authors wish to thank Steve Bellovin, Rex Fernando, Paul Hoffman,
   Russ Housley, Pradosh Mohapatra, Keyur Patel, Sandy Murphy, Robert
   Raszuk, John Scudder, Ruediger Volk, and David Ward.  Particular
   thanks go to Hannes Gredler for showing us the dangers of unnecessary
   fields.


14.  References

14.1.  Normative References

   [I-D.ietf-sidr-pfx-validate]
              Mohapatra, P., Scudder, J., Ward, D., Bush, R., and R.
              Austein, "BGP Prefix Origin Validation",
              draft-ietf-sidr-pfx-validate-03 (work in progress),
              October 2011.

   [RFC1982]  Elz, R. and R. Bush, "Serial Number Arithmetic", RFC 1982,
              August 1996.

   [RFC2119]  Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
              Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997.

   [RFC2385]  Heffernan, A., "Protection of BGP Sessions via the TCP MD5
              Signature Option", RFC 2385, August 1998.

   [RFC3269]  Kermode, R. and L. Vicisano, "Author Guidelines for
              Reliable Multicast Transport (RMT) Building Blocks and
              Protocol Instantiation documents", RFC 3269, April 2002.

   [RFC4250]  Lehtinen, S. and C. Lonvick, "The Secure Shell (SSH)
              Protocol Assigned Numbers", RFC 4250, January 2006.

   [RFC4252]  Ylonen, T. and C. Lonvick, "The Secure Shell (SSH)
              Authentication Protocol", RFC 4252, January 2006.

   [RFC4301]  Kent, S. and K. Seo, "Security Architecture for the
              Internet Protocol", RFC 4301, December 2005.

   [RFC5226]  Narten, T. and H. Alvestrand, "Guidelines for Writing an



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              IANA Considerations Section in RFCs", BCP 26, RFC 5226,
              May 2008.

   [RFC5246]  Dierks, T. and E. Rescorla, "The Transport Layer Security
              (TLS) Protocol Version 1.2", RFC 5246, August 2008.

   [RFC5925]  Touch, J., Mankin, A., and R. Bonica, "The TCP
              Authentication Option", RFC 5925, June 2010.

   [RFC5926]  Lebovitz, G. and E. Rescorla, "Cryptographic Algorithms
              for the TCP Authentication Option (TCP-AO)", RFC 5926,
              June 2010.

   [RFC6125]  Saint-Andre, P. and J. Hodges, "Representation and
              Verification of Domain-Based Application Service Identity
              within Internet Public Key Infrastructure Using X.509
              (PKIX) Certificates in the Context of Transport Layer
              Security (TLS)", RFC 6125, March 2011.

14.2.  Informative References

   [I-D.ietf-sidr-arch]
              Lepinski, M. and S. Kent, "An Infrastructure to Support
              Secure Internet Routing", draft-ietf-sidr-arch-13 (work in
              progress), May 2011.

   [I-D.ietf-sidr-repos-struct]
              Huston, G., Loomans, R., and G. Michaelson, "A Profile for
              Resource Certificate Repository Structure",
              draft-ietf-sidr-repos-struct-09 (work in progress),
              July 2011.

   [I-D.ymbk-rpki-rtr-impl]
              Bush, R., Austein, R., Patel, K., Gredler, H., and M.
              Waehlisch, "RPKI Router Implementation Report",
              draft-ymbk-rpki-rtr-impl-01 (work in progress),
              January 2012.

   [RFC1996]  Vixie, P., "A Mechanism for Prompt Notification of Zone
              Changes (DNS NOTIFY)", RFC 1996, August 1996.

   [RFC4808]  Bellovin, S., "Key Change Strategies for TCP-MD5",
              RFC 4808, March 2007.

   [RFC5781]  Weiler, S., Ward, D., and R. Housley, "The rsync URI
              Scheme", RFC 5781, February 2010.





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Authors' Addresses

   Randy Bush
   Internet Initiative Japan
   5147 Crystal Springs
   Bainbridge Island, Washington  98110
   US

   Phone: +1 206 780 0431 x1
   Email: randy@psg.com


   Rob Austein
   Dragon Research Labs

   Email: sra@hactrn.net



































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