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SIMPLE WG                                                    M. Lonnfors
Internet-Draft                                               E. Leppanen
Expires: April 25, 2005                                     H. Khartabil
                                                                   Nokia
                                                           J. Urpalainen
                                                   Nokia Research Center
                                                        October 25, 2004



     Presence Information Data format (PIDF) Extension for Partial
                                Presence
                draft-ietf-simple-partial-pidf-format-02


Status of this Memo


   This document is an Internet-Draft and is subject to all provisions
   of section 3 of RFC 3667.  By submitting this Internet-Draft, each
   author represents that any applicable patent or other IPR claims of
   which he or she is aware have been or will be disclosed, and any of
   which he or she become aware will be disclosed, in accordance with
   RFC 3668.


   Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
   Task Force (IETF), its areas, and its working groups.  Note that
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   Internet-Drafts.


   Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
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   The list of current Internet-Drafts can be accessed at
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   The list of Internet-Draft Shadow Directories can be accessed at
   http://www.ietf.org/shadow.html.


   This Internet-Draft will expire on April 25, 2005.


Copyright Notice


   Copyright (C) The Internet Society (2004).


Abstract


   The Presence Information Document Format (PIDF) specifies the
   baseline XML based format for describing presence information.  One
   of the characteristic of the PIDF is that document always needs to




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   carry all presence information available for the presentity.  In some
   environments where low bandwidth and high latency links can exist it
   is often beneficial to limit the amount of information that is
   transported over the network.  This document introduces a new MIME
   type which enables transporting of only changed parts of the PIDF
   based presence information.


Table of Contents


   1.  Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  3
   2.  Conventions  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  3
   3.  Structure of partial PIDF documents  . . . . . . . . . . . . .  3
     3.1   "version" attribute  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  4
     3.2   "entity" attribute . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  5
     3.3   <add> element  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  5
     3.4   <replace> element  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  5
     3.5   <remove> element . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  5
   4.  Usage of 'application/pidf-diff+xml' . . . . . . . . . . . . .  5
   5.  Node Selector  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  6
   6.  IANA Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  6
     6.1   Content-type registration for
           'application/pidf-diff+xml'  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  6
     6.2   URN sub-namespace registration for
           'urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:pidf-diff' . . . . . . . . . . . .  7
   7.  Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  8
   8.  XML Schema . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
   9.  Interoperability Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
   10.   Security Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
   11.   Acknowledgments  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
   12.   References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
   12.1  Normative references . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
   12.2  Informative references . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
       Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
       Intellectual Property and Copyright Statements . . . . . . . . 17


















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1.  Introduction


   The Presence Information Document Format (PIDF) specifies the
   baseline XML based format for describing presence information.  One
   of the characteristic of the PIDF is that document always needs to
   carry all presence information available for the presentity.  In some
   environments where low bandwidth and high latency links can exist it
   is often beneficial to limit the amount of information that is
   transported over the network.


   This document introduces a new MIME-Type 'application/pidf-diff+xml'
   which enables transporting of only changed parts of the PIDF based
   presence information.


2.  Conventions


   In this document, the key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED",
   "SHALL", "SHALL NOT", "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY",
   and "OPTIONAL" are to be interpreted as described in RFC 2119 [1] and
   indicate requirement levels for compliant implementations.


   This memo makes use of the vocabulary defined in RFC2778 [2].  In
   addition, the following terms are defined:


   Full presence document: A presence document that contains all the
      presentity's presence information that is available to a
      particular watcher.


   Partial presence document: A presence document that represents a
      fragment of the full presence document.  A partial presence
      documents can only be understood in the context of the full
      presence document, i.e., a partial presence document modifies a
      local copy of the full presence document.  A document with MIME
      type 'application/pidf-diff+xml' represents a partial presence
      document.



3.  Structure of partial PIDF documents


   The mechanism for implementing the partial PIDF requires defining a
   new MIME type which is named as 'application/pidf-diff+xml'.


   The data format is in principle similar to XCAP package [12] except
   that instead of the ETag a "version" attribute is used to ensure
   consistent updates.  The "version" attribute contains a sequence
   number that is progressively incremented by one between subsequent
   document updates i.e.  a more recent document update has a higher
   "version" value than the previous one.  The recipient of the document




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   can use the "version" attribute to properly order received documents.


   The partial PIDF document contains a collection of add, remove or
   replace operations which will be applied one-by-one in the given
   order to the current local composition presence document.  Each of
   the operations contains at least one XPath [15] compatible selector
   which is used to select a specific part within the local document.
   Furthermore, also the changed or added data content is given.  For
   example, when an add operation is being requested, the element onto
   which new data is going to be appended is searched first and then the
   new content is added.


   It is an error condition if any of the given operations can not be
   unambiguously fulfilled.


   In order to keep the update document as small as possible, the
   defined namespace prefixes and uri's within the current local
   document are used to expand location step prefixes just like in XCAP
   [11].  Given the full presence document is using a "pres" prefixed
   namespace definition and there's a selector "pres:presence" that has
   to be interpreted, the namespace definition has to be found from the
   local composition document.  As <presence> node happens to be the
   root node the definition for the namespace uri must be within that
   node.  As default namespaces can also be used, a selector like
   "presence" is interpreted as if it had an implicit default namespace
   uri attached.  It should be noted that when using add operation it is
   also possible that the namespace definition can be within the content
   of corresponding <add> element.


   Implementations using this document format must follow guidelines
   specified in the PIDF [4].  Specifically, the XML document MUST be
   well formed and SHOULD be valid.  Presence documents MUST be based on
   XML 1.0 and MUST be encoded using UTF-8.  This specification makes
   use of XML namespaces for identifying presence documents and document
   fragments.  The namespace URI for elements defined by this
   specification is a URN [5], using the namespace identifier 'ietf'
   specified in RFC 2648 [6] and extended by RFC3688 [7].  This URN is:


   urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:pidf-diff


3.1  "version" attribute


   Every presence document compliant with this specification contains a
   "version" attribute in the <pidf-diff> element.


   Implementations MUST support a 32 bit integer in the version number.






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3.2  "entity" attribute


   Every presence document compliant with this specification may contain
   an "entity" attribute in <pidf-diff> element.  It's content MUST then
   be the same than that of the full presence document.


3.3  <add> element


   The <add> element has two selection attributes: "parent" and "sel".
   The content of the "parent" attribute is used to select a single
   element from the local composition document onto which new data will
   be appended.  The second selector "sel" is a relative location step
   that will uniquely point after the append to the newly created
   element, text-node content or attribute within the "parent" selection
   context.  If there are several sibling elements in the new document
   the "sel" selector MUST include a position constraint to fulfill an
   unambiguous request.  The content of the <add> element is text for
   attributes and elements which have only text-content i.e.  XPath
   text() function is being used in the last location step.  For other
   elements the content of <add> element is enclosed with CDATA section
   and it inludes all the attributes and child elements and e.g.
   possible namespace definitions.


3.4  <replace> element


   The <replace> element has only one attribute: "sel" the content of
   which is used to select an element, a text-node content or an
   attribute that is going to be replaced with the new content.  The
   content of the <replace> element is the same as with <add> operation.


3.5  <remove> element


   The <remove> element has only one attribute: "sel" the content of
   which is used to select an element, text-node content or an attribute
   that is going to be removed.


4.  Usage of 'application/pidf-diff+xml'


   The partial presence document SHOULD only contain those elements or
   attributes that have changed.  However, when there are a lot of
   queued changes it may be desirable to send the full presence document
   content instead.  How this will be done in practice is beyond the
   scope of this document.  This document format allows to use the root
   node selector i.e.  "presence" which actually contains the full
   content of the presence document as there can only be one root node
   in any valid XML document.  It should be noted that it is still
   impossible to create a new document with this format, i.e.  first the
   full presence document has to be sent with the PIDF format and then




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   only patches are sent with this format.


5.  Node Selector


   The ABNF [14] is used to describe the syntax for the node selector
   expressions.  The node selector syntax is defined to be XPath [15]
   compatible, but has a more restricted set of capabilities.  Each
   element selection has to point to a single node.  As the document
   root is always the starting point for selections relative location
   paths can be used.



   node-sel      = element-sel ["/" (attribute-sel / "text()")]
   element-sel   = element-step *("/" element-step)
   element-step  = ("*" / node-name) [conditions]
   conditions    = *("[" condition "]")
   condition     = 1*DIGIT /                       ; positional
                   cond-name "=" <"> value <">     ; value comparison
   cond-name     = "@" node-name /                 ; attribute selection
                   node-name     /                 ; element selection
                   "."                             ; current node selection
   node-name     = [prefix ":"] string
   prefix        = <any sequence of data supported by XML for namespace
                    prefixes>
   string        = <any sequence of data supported by XML for element or
                    attribute names>
   value         = <any sequence of data supported by XML for element or
                    attribute values>


   attribute-sel = "@" node-name




6.  IANA Considerations


   This memo calls for IANA to:


   o  register a new XML namespace URN per [7].


   o  register a new content type 'application/pidf-diff+xml' per
      RFC2048 [10].



6.1   Content-type registration for 'application/pidf-diff+xml'


      MIME media type name: application


      MIME subtype name: pidf-diff+xml




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      Mandatory parameters: none


      Optional parameters: charset
      Indicates the character encoding of enclosed XML.  Default is
      UTF-8.


      Encoding considerations:
      Uses XML, which can employ 8-bit characters, depending on the
      character encoding used.  See RFC 3023 [8], section 3.2.


      Security considerations:
      This content type is designed to carry presence data, which may be
      considered private information.  Appropriate precautions should be
      adopted to limit disclosure of this information.  Please refer to
      [[[RFCXXXX]]] security considerations section for more
      information.


      Interoperability considerations: none


      Published specification: [[[RFCXXXX]]]


      Applications which use this media type: SIP-based presence systems


      Additional information:


         Magic Number: None


         File Extension: .xml


         Macintosh file type code: "TEXT"


      Personal and email address for further information: Mikko
      Lonnfors, mikko.lonnfors@nokia.com


      Intended usage: LIMITED USE


      Author/Change controller:
      This specification is a work item of the IETF SIMPLE working
      group, with mailing list address <simple@ietf.org>.



6.2  URN sub-namespace registration for
    'urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:pidf-diff'


      URI:
      urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:pidf-diff


      Description:




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      This is the XML namespace for XML elements defined by
      [[[RFCXXXX]]] to describe the 'application/pidf-diff+xml' content
      type for partial PIDF.


      Registrant Contact:
      IETF, SIMPLE working group, <simple@ietf.org>
      Mikko Lonnfors, <mikko.lonnfors@nokia.com>


   XML:


     BEGIN
         <?xml version="1.0"?>
         <!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD XHTML Basic 1.0//EN"
         "http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml-basic/xhtml-basic10.dtd">
         <html xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml
         <head>
              <meta http-equiv="content-type"
              content="text/html;charset=iso-8859-1"/>
              <title>PIDF extension for partial PIDF</title>
         </head>
         <body>
             <h1>Namespace for PIDF extension for partial
                  notifications</h1>
             <h2>urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:pidf-diff</h2>
             <p>See <a href="[[[URL of published RFC]]]">
             RFCXXXX</a>.</p>
          </body>
          </html>
     END



7.  Examples


   An 'application/pidf+xml' document that contains full state
   information:


   <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
   <presence xmlns="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:pidf"
          xmlns:pe="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:pidf:person"
          xmlns:de="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:pidf:device"
          xmlns:rs="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:pidf:status:rpid-status"
          xmlns:rt="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:pidf:rpid-tuple"
          xmlns:ci="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:pidf:cipid"
          xmlns:sc="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:pidf:status:servcaps"
          xmlns:dc="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:pidf:status:devcaps"
          entity="pres:someone@example.com">


    <tuple id="sg89ae">




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     <status>
      <basic>open</basic>
      <rs:relationship>assistant</rs:relationship>
     </status>
     <sc:servcaps>
      <sc:video>false</sc:video>
      <sc:audio>true</sc:audio>
      <sc:message>true</sc:message>
     </sc:servcaps>
     <contact priority="0.8">tel:09012345678</contact>
    </tuple>


    <tuple id="cg231jcr">
     <status>
      <basic>open</basic>
     </status>
     <contact priority="1.0">im:pep@example.com</contact>
    </tuple>


    <tuple id="r1230d">
     <status>
      <basic>closed</basic>
      <rs:activity>meeting</rs:activity>
     </status>
     <ci:homepage>http://example.com/~pep/</ci:homepage>
     <ci:icon>http://example.com/~pep/icon.gif</ci:icon>
     <ci:card>http://example.com/~pep/card.vcd</ci:card>
     <contact priority="0.9">sip:pep@example.com</contact>
    </tuple>


    <pe:person>
     <pe:status>
      <rs:activities>
       <rs:activity>on-the-phone</rs:activity>
       <rs:activity>busy</rs:activity>
      </rs:activities>
     </pe:status>
    </pe:person>


    <de:device device-id="urn:esn:600b40c7">
     <de:status>
      <dc:devcaps>
       <dc:supported>
        <dc:fixed/>
       </dc:supported>
      </dc:prescaps>
     </de:status>
    </de:device>




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    <note xml:lang="en">Full state presence document</note>
   </presence>



    An 'application/pidf-diff+xml' document that contains partial
   updates:



   <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
   <pidf-diff xmlns="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:pidf-diff"
              entity="pres:someone@example.com"
              version="1">


    <add parent="presence" sel="*[4]">
     <![CDATA[
      <tuple id="ert4773">
       <status>
        <basic>open</basic>
       </status>
       <contact priority="0.4">mailto:pep@example.com</contact>
       <note xml:lang="en">This is a new tuple inserted
           between the last tuple and person element</note>
      </tuple>
     ]] >
    </add>


    <replace
     sel="presence/tuple[@id=&quot;r1230d&quot;]/status/basic/text()"
     >open</replace>


    <remove sel="presence/tuple[@id=&quot;r1230d&quot;]/status/
   rs:activity"/>


    <remove sel="presence/pe:person/pe:status/rs:activities/rs:activity
   [.=&quot;busy&quot;]"></remove>


    <replace
     sel="presence/tuple[@id=&quot;cg231jcr&quot;]/contact/@priority"
     >0.7</replace>


   </pidf-diff>



    An updated local composition presence document:


   <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
   <presence xmlns="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:pidf"
          xmlns:pe="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:pidf:person"




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          xmlns:de="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:pidf:device"
          xmlns:rs="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:pidf:status:rpid-status"
          xmlns:rt="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:pidf:rpid-tuple"
          xmlns:ci="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:pidf:cipid"
          xmlns:sc="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:pidf:status:servcaps"
          xmlns:dc="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:pidf:status:devcaps"
          entity="pres:someone@example.com">


    <tuple id="sg89ae">
     <status>
      <basic>open</basic>
      <rs:relationship>assistant</rs:relationship>
     </status>
     <sc:servcaps>
      <sc:video>false</sc:video>
      <sc:audio>true</sc:audio>
      <sc:message>true</sc:message>
     </sc:servcaps>
     <contact priority="0.8">tel:09012345678</contact>
    </tuple>


    <tuple id="cg231jcr">
     <status>
      <basic>open</basic>
     </status>
     <contact priority="0.7">im:pep@example.com</contact>
    </tuple>


    <tuple id="r1230d">
     <status>
      <basic>open</basic>
     </status>
     <ci:homepage>http://example.com/~pep/</ci:homepage>
     <ci:icon>http://example.com/~pep/icon.gif</ci:icon>
     <ci:card>http://example.com/~pep/card.vcd</ci:card>
     <contact priority="0.9">sip:pep@example.com</contact>
    </tuple>


    <tuple id="ert4773">
     <status>
      <basic>open</basic>
     </status>
     <contact priority="0.4">mailto:pep@example.com</contact>
     <note xml:lang="en">This is a new tuple inserted
         between the last tuple and person element</note>
    </tuple>


    <pe:person>




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     <pe:status>
      <rs:activities>
       <rs:activity>on-the-phone</rs:activity>
      </rs:activities>
     </pe:status>
    </pe:person>


    <de:device device-id="urn:esn:600b40c7">
     <de:status>
      <dc:devcaps>
       <dc:supported>
        <dc:fixed/>
       </dc:supported>
      </dc:prescaps>
     </de:status>
    </de:device>


    <note xml:lang="en">Full state presence document</note>
   </presence>




8.  XML Schema


   The XML schema for the 'application/pidf-diff+xml' data format.



   <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
   <xs:schema
       targetNamespace="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:pidf-diff"
       xmlns:tns="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:pidf-diff"
       xmlns:xs="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema"
       elementFormDefault="qualified"
       attributeFormDefault="unqualified">
    <xs:element name="pidf-diff">


     <xs:complexType>
      <xs:sequence minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded">


       <xs:choice>
        <xs:element name="add">
         <xs:complexType>
          <xs:simpleContent>
           <xs:extension base="xs:string">
            <xs:attribute name="parent" type="xs:string"
                          use="required"/>
            <xs:attribute name="sel" type="xs:string"
                          use="required"/>




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           </xs:extension>
          </xs:simpleContent>
         </xs:complexType>
        </xs:element>


        <xs:element name="remove">
         <xs:complexType>
          <xs:attribute name="sel" type="xs:string" use="required"/>
         </xs:complexType>
        </xs:element>


        <xs:element name="replace">
         <xs:complexType>
          <xs:simpleContent>
           <xs:extension base="xs:string">
            <xs:attribute name="sel" type="xs:string" use="required"/>
           </xs:extension>
          </xs:simpleContent>
         </xs:complexType>
        </xs:element>


       </xs:choice>
      </xs:sequence>


      <xs:attribute name="entity" type="xs:anyURI" use="optional"/>
      <xs:attribute name="version" type="xs:nonNegativeInteger"
                    use="required"/>


     </xs:complexType>


    </xs:element>
   </xs:schema>




9.  Interoperability Considerations


   Systems compliant with CPP [9] will not be by default able to use
   this specification.  However, this will not cause any
   interoperability problems because all endpoints and gateways must
   support the default MIME type (application/pidf+xml) regardless if
   they support this specification.  Thus if a gateway or another end
   point does not understand this specification it will not be used.


   Other CPP compliant (other than SIP based) systems can also support
   this specification if they have a mechanism to indicate support for
   it.  If they do it is possible to build a gateway which will preserve
   end-to-end integrity with usage of partial PIDF.




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10.  Security Considerations


   Presence information may contain highly sensitive information about
   the presentities.  The protocol used to distribute it SHOULD ensure
   privacy, message integrity and authentication.  Furthermore, the
   protocol should provide access controls which restrict who can see
   who else's presence information.  All security considerations
   identified for PIDF [4] apply unchanged for this document.


11.  Acknowledgments


   The authors would like to thank Jose Costa-Requena, Jyrki Aarnos,
   Jonathan Rosenberg, Dean Willis, Miguel Garcia, Kriztian Kiss, Ben
   Cambell, Robert Sparks, Anders kristenssen and Aki Niemi for their
   valuable comments and contributions.


12.  References


12.1  Normative references


   [1]  Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate Requirement
        Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997.


   [2]  Day, M., Rosenberg, J. and H. Sugano, "A Model for Presence and
        Instant Messaging", RFC 2778, February 2000.


   [3]  Rosenberg, J., "SIP Extensions for Presence",
        draft-ietf-simple-presence-10 (work in progress), January 2003.


   [4]  Sugano, H., "CPIM presence information data format", RFC 3863,
        May 2003.


   [5]  Moats, R., "URN syntax", RFC 2141, May 1997.


   [6]  Moats, R., "A URN namespace for IETF documents", RFC 2648, Aug.
        1999.


12.2  Informative references


   [7]   Mealling, M., "The IETF XML Registry", RFC 3688, BCP 81,
         January 2004.


   [8]   Murata, M., "XML media types", RFC 3023, January 2001.


   [9]   Peterson, J., "Common Profile for Presence (CPP)", RFC 3859.


   [10]  Freed, N., Klensin, J. and J. Postel, "Multipurpose Internet
         Mail Extensions (MIME) Part Four: Registration Procedures", RFC




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         2048, November 1996.


   [11]  Rosenberg, J., "The Extensible Markup Language (XML)
         Configuration Access Protoco (XCAP)",
         draft-ietf-simple-xcap-04 (work in progress), October 2004.


   [12]  Rosenberg, J., "An Extensible Markup Language (XML) Document
         Format For Indicating Changes in XML Configuration Access
         Protocol (XCAP) Resources",  draft-ietf-simple-xcap-package-02
         (work in progress), July 2004.


   [13]  Rosenberg, J., "A Data Model for Presence",
         draft-ietf-simple-presence-data-model-00 (work in progress),
         September 2004.


   [14]  Crocker, D., "Augmented BNF for Syntax Specifications: ABNF",
         RFC 2234, November 1997.


   [15]  "XML Path Language (XPath) Version 1.0", W3C REC
         REC-xpath-19991116 , November 1999.



Authors' Addresses


   Mikko Lonnfors
   Nokia
   Itamerenkatu 11-13 00180
   Helsinki
   Finland


   Phone: +358 71 8008000
   EMail: mikko.lonnfors@nokia.com



   Eva Leppanen
   Nokia
   P.O BOX 785
   Tampere
   Finland


   Phone: +358 7180 77066
   EMail: eva-maria.leppanen@nokia.com










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   Hisham Khartabil
   Nokia
   P.O. Box 321
   Helsinki
   Finland


   Phone: +358 7180 76161
   EMail: hisham.khartabil@nokia.com



   Jari Urpalainen
   Nokia Research Center
   Itamerenkatu 11-13 00180
   Helsinki
   Finland


   Phone: +358 7180 37686
   EMail: jari.urpalainen@nokia.com


































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