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Versions: (draft-barnes-sipcore-rfc4244bis) 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 RFC 7044

Network Working Group                                          M. Barnes
Internet-Draft                                                   Polycom
Obsoletes: 4244 (if approved)                                   F. Audet
Intended status: Standards Track                                   Skype
Expires: August 18, 2011                                     S. Schubert
                                                                     NTT
                                                           J. van Elburg
                                              Detecon International Gmbh
                                                             C. Holmberg
                                                                Ericsson
                                                       February 14, 2011


   An Extension to the Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) for Request
                          History Information
                  draft-ietf-sipcore-rfc4244bis-03.txt

Abstract

   This document defines a standard mechanism for capturing the history
   information associated with a Session Initiation Protocol (SIP)
   request.  This capability enables many enhanced services by providing
   the information as to how and why a SIP request arrives at a specific
   application or user.  This document defines an optional SIP header
   field, History-Info, for capturing the history information in
   requests.  The document also defines SIP header field parameters for
   the History-Info and Contact header fields to tag the method by which
   the target of a request is determined.  In addition, this document
   defines a value for the Privacy header field specific to the History-
   Info header field.

Status of this Memo

   This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the
   provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.

   Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
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   Drafts is at http://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/.

   Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
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   time.  It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
   material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."

   This Internet-Draft will expire on August 18, 2011.




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Copyright Notice

   Copyright (c) 2011 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
   document authors.  All rights reserved.

   This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
   Provisions Relating to IETF Documents
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   This document may contain material from IETF Documents or IETF
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   Without obtaining an adequate license from the person(s) controlling
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   it for publication as an RFC or to translate it into languages other
   than English.

























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Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  4
   2.  Conventions and Terminology  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  4
   3.  Background . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  5
   4.  Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  6
   5.  History-Info Header Field Protocol Structure . . . . . . . . .  7
     5.1.  History-Info Header Field Example Scenario . . . . . . . .  9
   6.  User Agent Handling of the History-Info Header Field . . . . . 12
     6.1.  User Agent Client (UAC) Behavior . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
     6.2.  User Agent Server (UAS) Behavior . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
       6.2.1.  Processing of Requests with History-Info . . . . . . . 12
       6.2.2.  Generation of Responses with History-Info  . . . . . . 13
   7.  Proxy/Intermediary Handling of History-Info Header Fields  . . 13
     7.1.  Adding the History-Info Header Field to Requests . . . . . 13
       7.1.1.  Forwarding a Request . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
       7.1.2.  Retargeting based on failure or 3xx response . . . . . 14
     7.2.  Sending History-Info in Responses  . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
   8.  Redirect Server Handling of History-Info Header Fields . . . . 16
   9.  Processing the History-Info Header Field Parameters  . . . . . 16
     9.1.  Privacy in the History-Info Header Field . . . . . . . . . 16
       9.1.1.  Indicating Privacy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
       9.1.2.  Applying Privacy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
     9.2.  Reason in the History-info Header Field  . . . . . . . . . 18
     9.3.  Indexing in the History-Info Header Field  . . . . . . . . 19
     9.4.  Mechanism for Target Determination in the History-Info
           Header Field . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
   10. Application Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
   11. Security Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
   12. IANA Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
     12.1. Registration of New SIP History-Info Header Field  . . . . 24
     12.2. Registration of "history" for SIP Privacy Header Field . . 24
     12.3. Registration of Header Field Parameters  . . . . . . . . . 25
   13. Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
   14. Changes from RFC 4244  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
     14.1. Backwards compatibility  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
   15. Changes since last Version . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
   16. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
     16.1. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
     16.2. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
   Appendix A.  Request History Requirements  . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
     A.1.  Security Requirements  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
     A.2.  Privacy Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
   Appendix B.  Example call flows  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
     B.1.  Sequentially Forking (History-Info in Response)  . . . . . 37
     B.2.  History-Info with Privacy Header Field . . . . . . . . . . 44
     B.3.  Privacy for a Specific History-Info Entry  . . . . . . . . 46
   Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47



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1.  Introduction

   Many services that SIP is anticipated to support require the ability
   to determine why and how a SIP requests arrived at a specific
   application.  Examples of such services include (but are not limited
   to) sessions initiated to call centers via "click to talk" SIP
   Uniform Resource Locators (URLs) on a web page, "call history/
   logging" style services within intelligent "call management" software
   for SIP User Agents (UAs), and calls to voicemail servers.  Although
   SIP implicitly provides the retarget capabilities that enable SIP
   requests to be routed to chosen applications, there is a need for a
   standard mechanism within SIP for communicating the retargeting
   history of the requests.  This "request history" information allows
   the receiving application to determine hints about how and why the
   SIP request arrived at the application/user.

   This document defines a SIP header field, History-Info, to provide a
   standard mechanism for capturing the request history information to
   enable a wide variety of services for networks and end-users.  SIP
   header field parameters are defined for the History-Info and Contact
   header fields to tag the method by which the target of a request is
   determined.  In addition, this document defines a value for the
   Privacy header field specific to the History-Info header.

   The History-info header field provides a building block for
   development of SIP based applications and services.  The requirements
   for the solution described in this document are included in
   Appendix A.  Example scenarios using the History-info header field
   are included in Appendix B.


2.  Conventions and Terminology

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
   document are to be interpreted as described in [RFC2119].

   The term "retarget" is used in this document to refer to the process
   of a SIP entity changing a Uniform Resource Identifier (URI) in a
   request based on the rules for determining request targets as
   described in Section 16.5 of [RFC3261] and of the subsequent
   forwarding of that request as described in step 2 in section 16.6 of
   [RFC3261].  This includes changing the Request-URI due to a location
   service lookup and redirect processing.  This also includes internal
   (to a proxy/SIP intermediary) changes of the URI prior to forwarding
   of the request.

   The terms "location service", "forward", "redirect" and "AOR" are



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   used consistent with the terminology in [RFC3261].

   The references to "domain for which the SIP entity/Proxy/Intermediary
   is responsible" are consistent with and intended to convey the same
   context as the usage of that terminology in [RFC3261].  The
   applicability of History-Info to architectures or models outside the
   context of [RFC3261] is outside the scope of this specification.


3.  Background

   SIP implicitly provides retargeting capabilities that enable SIP
   requests to be routed to specific applications as defined in
   [RFC3261].  The motivation for capturing the request history is that
   in the process of retargeting a request, old routing information can
   be forever lost.  This lost information may be important history that
   allows elements to which the request is retargeted to process the
   request in a locally defined, application-specific manner.  This
   document defines a mechanism for transporting the request history.
   Application-specific behavior is outside the scope of this
   specification.

   Current network applications provide the ability for elements
   involved with the request to obtain additional information relating
   to how and why the request was routed to a particular destination.
   The following are examples of such applications:

   1.  Web "referral" applications, whereby an application residing
       within a web server determines that a visitor to a website has
       arrived at the site via an "associate" site that will receive
       some "referral" commission for generating this traffic

   2.  Email forwarding whereby the forwarded-to user obtains a
       "history" of who sent the email to whom and at what time

   3.  Traditional telephony services such as voicemail, call-center
       "automatic call distribution", and "follow-me" style services

   Several of the aforementioned applications currently define
   application-specific mechanisms through which it is possible to
   obtain the necessary history information.

   In addition, request history information could be used to enhance
   basic SIP functionality by providing the following:

   o  Some diagnostic information for debugging SIP requests.





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   o  Capturing aliases and Globally Routable User Agent URIs (GRUUs)
      [RFC5627], which can be overwritten by a home proxy upon receipt
      of the initial request.

   o  Facilitating the use of limited use addresses (minted on demand)
      and sub-addressing.

   o  Preserving service specific URIs that can be overwritten by a
      downstream proxy, such as those defined in [RFC3087], and control
      of network announcements and IVR with SIP URI [RFC4240].


4.  Overview

   The fundamental functionality provided by the request history
   information is the ability to inform proxies and UAs involved in
   processing a request about the history or progress of that request.
   The solution is to capture the Request-URIs as a request is
   retargeted, in a SIP header field: History-Info.  This allows for the
   capturing of the history of a request that would be lost with the
   normal SIP processing involved in the subsequent retargeting of the
   request.

   The History-info header field is added to a Request when a new
   request is created by a UAC or forwarded by a Proxy, or when the
   target of a request is changed.  It is possible for the target of a
   request to be changed by the same proxy/SIP Intermediary multiple
   times (referred to as 'internal retargeting').  A SIP entity changing
   the target of a request in response to a redirect also propagates any
   History-info header field from the initial request in the new
   request.  The ABNF and detailed description of the History-Info
   header field parameters, along with examples is provided in
   Section 5.  Section 6, Section 7 and Section 8 provide the detailed
   handling of the History-Info header field by SIP User Agents, Proxies
   and Redirect Servers respectively.

   This specification also defines two new SIP header field parameters,
   "rc" and "mp", for the History-Info and Contact header fields, to tag
   the method by which the target of a request is determined.  Further
   detail on the use of these header field parameters is provided in
   Section 9.4.

   In addition, this specification defines a priv-value for the Privacy
   header, "history", that applies to all the History-info header field
   entries in a Request or to a specific History-info header field hi-
   entry as described above.  Further detail is provided in Section 9.1.





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5.  History-Info Header Field Protocol Structure

   The History-info header field can appear in any request not
   associated with an early or established dialog (e.g., INVITE,
   REGISTER, MESSAGE, REFER and OPTIONS, PUBLISH and SUBSCRIBE, etc.)
   and any non-100 provisional or final responses to these requests
   (ISSUER-req, see Appendix A).

   The following provides details for the information that is captured
   in the History-Info header field entries for each target used for
   forwarding a request:

   o  hi-targeted-to-uri: A mandatory parameter for capturing the
      Request-URI for the specific request as it is forwarded.

   o  hi-index: A mandatory parameter for History-Info reflecting the
      chronological order of the information, indexed to also reflect
      the forking and nesting of requests.  The format for this
      parameter is a string of digits, separated by dots to indicate the
      number of forward hops and retargets.  This results in a tree
      representation of the history of the request, with the lowest-
      level index reflecting a branch of the tree.  By adding the new
      entries in order (i.e., following existing entries per the details
      in Section 9.3), including the index and securing the header, the
      ordering of the History-info header fields in the request is
      assured.  In addition, applications may extract a variety of
      metrics (total number of retargets, total number of retargets from
      a specific branch, etc.) based upon the index values.

   o  hi-target-param: An optional parameter reflecting the mechanism by
      which the Request URI captured in the hi-targeted-to-uri in the
      hi-entry was determined.  This parameter contains either an "rc"
      or "mp" header field parameter, which is interpreted as follows:

         "rc": The hi-targeted-to-URI is a contact for the Request-URI,
         in the incoming request, that is bound to an AOR in an abstract
         location service.  The AOR-to-contact binding has been placed
         into the location service by a SIP Registrar that received a
         SIP REGISTER request.  The "rc" header field parameter contains
         the value of the hi-index in the hi-entry with an
         hi-targeted-to- uri that reflects the Request-URI that was
         retargeted

         "mp": The hi-targeted-to-URI represents a user other than the
         user associated with the Request-URI in the incoming request
         that was retargeted.  This occurs when a request is to
         statically or dynamically retargeted to another user.  The
         value of the index in the "mp" header field parameter



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         represents the value of the hi-index in the hi-entry with an
         hi-targeted-to- uri that reflects the Request-URI that was
         retargeted, thus identifying the "mapped from" target.

   o  Extension (hi-extension): A parameter to allow for future optional
      extensions.  As per [RFC3261], any implementation not
      understanding an extension MUST ignore it.

   The ABNF syntax for the History-info header field and header field
   parameters is as follows:

   History-Info = "History-Info" HCOLON hi-entry *(COMMA hi-entry)

   hi-entry = hi-targeted-to-uri *(SEMI hi-param)

   hi-targeted-to-uri = name-addr

   hi-param = hi-index / hi-target / hi-extension

   index-val =  1*DIGIT *("." 1*DIGIT)

   hi-index = "index" EQUAL index-val

   hi-target-param = rc-param / mp-param

   rc-param = "rc" EQUAL index-val

   mp-param = "mp" EQUAL index-val

   hi-extension = generic-param


   The ABNF definitions for "generic-param" and "name-addr" are from
   [RFC3261].

   This document also extends the "contact-params" for the Contact
   header field as defined in [RFC3261] with the "rc" and "mp" header
   field parameters defined above.

   In addition to the parameters defined by the ABNF, an hi-entry may
   also include a Reason header field and a Privacy header field, which
   are both escaped in the hi-targeted-to-uri as described below:

   o  Reason: An optional parameter for History-Info, reflected in the
      History-info header field by including the Reason header field
      [RFC3326] escaped in the hi-targeted-to-uri.  A reason is included
      for the hi-targeted-to-uri that was retargeted as opposed to the
      hi-targeted-to-uri to which it was retargeted.



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   o  Privacy: An optional parameter for History-Info, reflected in the
      History-Info header field values by including the Privacy Header
      [RFC3323] escaped in the hi- targeted-to-uri or by adding the
      Privacy header field to the request.  The latter case indicates
      that the History-Info entries for the domain MUST be anonymized
      prior to forwarding, whereas the use of the Privacy header field
      escaped in the hi-targeted-to-uri means that a specific hi-entry
      MUST be anonymized.

   Note that since both the Reason and Privacy parameters are escaped in
   the hi-targeted-to-uri, these fields will not be available in the
   case that the hi-targeted-to-uri is a Tel-URI [RFC3966].  In such
   cases, the Tel-URI SHOULD be transformed into a SIP URI per section
   19.1.6 of [RFC3261].

   The following provides examples of the format for the History-info
   header field.  Note that the backslash and CRLF between the fields in
   the examples below are for readability purposes only.


   History-Info: <sip:UserA@ims.example.com>;index=1;foo=bar

   History-Info: <sip:UserA@ims.example.com?Reason=SIP%3B\
                 cause%3D302>;index=1.1,\
                 <sip:UserB@example.com?Privacy=history&Reason=SIP%3B\
                 cause%3D486>;index=1.2;mp=1.1,\
                 <sip:45432@192.168.0.3>;index=1.3;rc=1.2

5.1.  History-Info Header Field Example Scenario

   The following is an illustrative example of usage of History-Info.

   In this example, Alice (sip:alice@atlanta.example.com) calls Bob
   (sip:bob@biloxi.example.com).  Alice's proxy in her home domain (sip:
   atlanta.example.com) forwards the request to Bob's proxy (sip:
   biloxi.example.com).  When the request arrives at sip:
   biloxi.example.com, it does a location service lookup for
   bob@biloxi.example.com and changes the target of the request to Bob's
   Contact URIs provided as part of normal SIP registration.  In this
   example, Bob is simultaneously contacted on a PC client and on a
   phone, and Bob answers on the PC client.

   One important thing illustrated by this call flow is that without
   History-Info, Bob would "lose" the target information, including any
   parameters in the request URI.  Bob can recover that information by
   locating the last hi-entry with an "rc" header field parameter.  This
   "rc" parameter contains the index of the hi-entry containing the lost
   target information - i.e., the sip:bob@biloxi.example.com hi-entry



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   with index=1.1.  Note that an hi-entry is not included for the fork
   to sip:bob@192.0.2.7 since there was no response at the time the 200
   OK is sent to Alice.

   The formatting in this scenario is for visual purposes; thus,
   backslash and CRLF are used between the fields for readability and
   the headers in the URI are not shown properly formatted for escaping.
   Refer to Section 5.1 for the proper formatting.  Additional detailed
   scenarios are available in Appendix B.

      Note: This example uses loose routing procedures.








































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   Alice   atlanta.example.com  biloxi.example.com   Bob@pc  Bob@phone
   |                |                |                |          |
   |   INVITE sip:bob@biloxi.example.com;p=x          |          |
   |--------------->|                |                |          |
   | Supported: histinfo             |                |          |
   |                |                |                |          |
   |                |   INVITE sip:bob@biloxi.example.com;p=x    |
   |                |--------------->|                |          |
   | History-Info: <sip:bob@biloxi.example.com;p=x>;index=1
   | History-Info: <sip:bob@biloxi.example.com;p=x>;index=1.1    |
   |                |                |                |          |
   |                |                |   INVITE sip:bob@192.0.2.3|
   |                |                |--------------->|          |
   | History-Info: <sip:bob@biloxi.example.com;p=x>;index=1
   | History-Info: <sip:bob@biloxi.example.com;p=x>;index=1.1
   | History-Info: <sip:bob@192.0.2.3>;index=1.1.1;rc=1.1
   |                |                |                |          |
   |                |                |   INVITE sip:bob@192.0.2.7|
   |                |                |-------------------------->|
   | History-Info: <sip:bob@biloxi.example.com;p=x>;index=1
   | History-Info: <sip:bob@biloxi.example.com;p=x>;index=1.1
   | History-Info: <sip:bob@192.0.2.7>;index=1.1.2;rc=1.1
   |                |                |     200        |          |
   |                |                |<---------------|          |
   | History-Info: <sip:bob@biloxi.example.com;p=x>;index=1
   | History-Info: <sip:bob@biloxi.example.com;p=x>;index=1.1
   | History-Info: <sip:bob@192.0.2.3>;index=1.1.1;rc=1.1
   |                |                |                |          |
   |                |     200        |                |          |
   |                |<---------------|                |          |
   | History-Info: <sip:bob@biloxi.example.com;p=x>;index=1
   | History-Info: <sip:bob@biloxi.example.com;p=x>;index=1.1
   | History-Info: <sip:bob@192.0.2.3>;index=1.1.1;rc=1.1
   |                |                |                |          |
   |                |                | Proxy Cancels INVITE      |
   |                |                |<=========================>|
   |                |                |                |          |
   |     200        |                |                |          |
   |<---------------|                |                |          |
   | History-Info: <sip:bob@biloxi.example.com;p=x>;index=1
   | History-Info: <sip:bob@biloxi.example.com;p=x>;index=1.1
   | History-Info: <sip:bob@192.0.2.3;index=1.1.1;rc=1.1
   |                |                |                |          |
   |     ACK        |                |                |          |
   |--------------->|    ACK         |                |          |
   |                |--------------->|     ACK        |          |
   |                |                |--------------->|          |




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                           Figure 1: Basic Call


6.  User Agent Handling of the History-Info Header Field

   This section describes the processing specific to UAs for the
   History-info header field.

6.1.  User Agent Client (UAC) Behavior

   The UAC MUST include the "histinfo" option tag in the Supported
   header in any new or out-of-dialog request for which the UAC would
   like the History-info header field in the response.  In addition, the
   UAC MUST add a History-info header field, using the Request-URI of
   the request as the hi-targeted-to-uri.  The hi-index MUST be set to a
   value of 1 in the hi-entry.  This allows intermediaries and the UAS
   to at least know the original Request-URI.  In the case of a B2BUA, a
   UAC MAY add the hi-entries received in the incoming request at the
   UAS to the subsequent outgoing request.

   In the case where a UAC receives a 3xx response with a Contact header
   field and sends a new request in response to it, the UAC MAY include
   in the outgoing request the previous hi-entry(s) received in the
   response.  In this case, the UAC MUST escape the Reason header field
   in the previous (last) hi-entry, as described in Section 9.2.  The
   UAC MUST add an hi-entry using the Request-URI of the outgoing
   request as the hi-targeted-to-uri.  An hi-index MUST be added to the
   hi-entry.  The value for the index is determined following the rules
   for "Retargeting based upon a Response" as prescribed in Section 9.3.
   If the Contact header field contains an "rc" or "mp" header field
   parameter, the UAC MUST add the header field parameter to the new hi-
   entry as described in Section 9.4.  The procedures defined in
   Section 9.1 are followed to indicate any privacy that the UAC wants
   applied to the hi-targeted-to-uri.

6.2.  User Agent Server (UAS) Behavior

6.2.1.  Processing of Requests with History-Info

   Once the request terminates at the UAS, the UAS evaluates the
   History-info header field.  The last hi-entry reflects the most
   recent target and contains the Request-URI for the received request,
   unless the previous entity that forwarded the request does not
   support the History-info header field.  If the Request-URI of the
   incoming request does not match the last hi-entry (e.g., the previous
   entity does not support History-Info), the UAS MUST insert an hi-
   entry.  The UAS MUST set the hi-targeted-to-uri based to the value of
   Request-URI in the incoming request.  If privacy is required for the



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   hi-entry in the response, the UAS MUST escape a Privacy header field
   with a value of "history" in the hi-entry.  The UAS MUST include an
   hi-index parameter as described in Section 9.3.  The UAS MUST NOT
   include a hi-target attribute, since the UAS has no way to know the
   mechanism by which the Request-URI was determined.  The addition of
   the missing hi-entry ensures that the most complete information can
   be provided in the response and provides consistency in the
   information presented to applications.  The information can also be
   useful for implementations with B2BUAs that include the History-Info,
   received in the incoming request, in the outgoing request.

   Prior to any application usage of the information, the UAS ascertains
   the validity of the information as described in Section 10.

6.2.2.  Generation of Responses with History-Info

   If the "histinfo" option tag is received in a request, the UAS MUST
   include any History-Info received in the request and any hi-entries
   added by the UAS.  In addition, in the case of a B2BUA, the UAS MAY
   include any hi-entries received by the UAC in the subsequent
   response.  If privacy is required, entries MUST be anonymized as
   described in Section 9.1.  The UAS MUST follow the rules for a
   redirect server per Section 8 in generating a 3xx response.


7.  Proxy/Intermediary Handling of History-Info Header Fields

   This section describes the procedures for proxies and other SIP
   intermediaries for adding History-Info headers when requests are
   retargeted.

7.1.  Adding the History-Info Header Field to Requests

   This section describes the process of adding the History-Info header
   to requests in the case of retargeting due to normal forwarding of
   requests (Section 7.1.1) and in the case of failure or redirection
   responses (Section 7.1.2).  Retargeting is an iterative process,
   i.e., an intermediary may retarget "internally " more than one time.
   A typical example would be a proxy that retargets a request first to
   a different user (i.e., it maps to a different AOR), and then
   forwards to a registered contact bound to that new AOR.  In cases of
   internal retargeting, an intermediary MUST add multiple hi-entries.
   For example, an intermediary that retargets bob@example.com to
   office@example.com and then to office@192.0.2.5 adds hi-entries for
   both office@example.com and office@192.0.2.5, in order to provide a
   logical description of the retargeting process internal to the
   intermediary.  Thus, the intermediary MAY escape a Reason header
   field in the hi-entry with the hi-targeted-to-uri that has been



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   retargeted as shown in the INVITE (F6) in the example in
   Appendix B.1.

7.1.1.  Forwarding a Request

   Upon receipt of a request for a dialog, or a standalone request, a
   proxy or intermediary forwarding the request performs the following
   steps.  Note that those steps below do not apply if the request is
   being retargeted as a result of failure (i.e., timeout, reception of
   an error response).

   Step 1:  Adding Entries on Behalf of Previous Hops

      If an incoming request does not already have a History-Info header
      field (i.e., the UAC does not include any History-info header
      field and none of the previous SIP intermediaries support History-
      Info) or if the Request-URI of the incoming request does not match
      the hi-targeted-to-uri in the last hi-entry (i.e., the previous
      intermediary does not support History-Info) an hi-entry MUST be
      inserted on behalf of the UAC or intermediary.  The SIP
      intermediary MUST set the hi-targeted-to-uri to the value of the
      Request-URI in the incoming request.  If privacy is required, the
      procedures of Section 9.1 are followed.  The SIP intermediary MUST
      NOT include an "rc" or "mp" header field parameter.  The hi-index
      parameter MUST be set to a value of "1", as described in
      Section 9.3.

   Step 2:  Generating New Entries for Each Outgoing Request

      The SIP intermediary then proceeds to request forwarding as per
      16.6/[RFC3261].  For each outgoing request relating to a target in
      the target set, the intermediary MUST add an hi-entry for the
      specific target.  The intermediary MUST set the hi-targeted-to-uri
      in the hi-entry to the value of the Request-URI of the current
      (outgoing) request.  If privacy is required, the procedures of
      Section 9.1 are followed.  The proxy MUST include an hi-index for
      the hi-entry as described in Section 9.3.  The proxy then includes
      an "rc" or "mp" header field parameter in the hi-entry, if
      applicable, as described in Section 9.4.

7.1.2.  Retargeting based on failure or 3xx response

   When retargeting a request because of a failure (i.e., either
   reception of error responses or a timeout which is considered to be
   an implicit 408 error response) or receipt of a 3XX response, the SIP
   entity performs the following steps:





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   Step 1:  Including the Entries from Responses

      Along with the History-Info header fields sent in the original
      request that received an error or 3xx response or timed out, the
      SIP entity MUST include any new History-Info header field(s)
      contained in all responses received thus far (including any new
      hi-entries in the error or 3xx response) in the new outgoing
      request.  The hi-entries MUST be added to the new outgoing request
      in the order indicated by the values in the hi-index parameters of
      the hi-entries.

   Step 2:  Tagging the Last Entries

      The SIP entity then examines the History-Info header fields
      generated in Step 1.  For each of the branches that generated
      failures or timeouts or received a 3xx response, the SIP entity
      MUST add a Reason header field to the hi-entry for each of those
      branches per the procedures of Section 9.2.

   Step 3:  Generating New Entries for Each Outgoing Requests

      Same as per Step 2 above for the normal forwarding case
      Section 7.1.1.

7.2.  Sending History-Info in Responses

   A SIP entity that receives a request with the "histinfo" option tag
   in the Supported header, MUST forward captured History-Info in
   subsequent, provisional, and final responses to the request sent by
   the ultimate UAS (see Section 6.2), applying the privacy procedures
   as described in Section 9.1.2.  The captured History-Info includes
   all hi-entries received in the request, as well as the hi-entries
   that are generated by a SIP entity as a request is retargeted as
   described in Section 7.1, which also includes hi-entries that are
   received in other responses.  Note that in the case of parallel
   forking where one branch is successful, only the branches for which
   responses have been received at the time the proxy sends the
   successful response are included in that response.  For example, an
   intermediary receives a request with the last hi-entry having an hi-
   index of 1.1.  The intermediary forks three requests in parallel with
   each request containing a unique hi-entry with the hi-targeted-to-
   uris set to the value of the Request URI for the request.  The hi-
   entries each have unique hi-index values of 1.1.1, 1.1.2 and 1.1.3
   respectively.  If the processing entity receives a failure response
   for the branch reflected by the hi-entry with the index of 1.1.2 and
   a successful response for the branch reflected by the hi-entry with
   the index of 1.1.3, but has not yet received a response for the
   branch reflected by the hi-entry with an index of 1.1.1, it would



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   return only the 1.1.2 and 1.1.3 entries with indices of 1.1.2 and
   1.1.3 to the entity that generated the hi-entry with index of 1.1.
   See Appendix B.1 for an example.

   The the addition of the History-Info header fields to responses
   described above follows the methodology described in Section 16.7 of
   [RFC3261] for the addition of header fields, with the inclusion of
   History-info header fields adding an additional step, just before
   Step 9, "Forwarding the Response".


8.  Redirect Server Handling of History-Info Header Fields

   A redirect server MUST include the History-info header fields
   received in the request in the 3XX response that it sends.  A
   redirect server MUST add any new History-Info entries in cases of
   retargeting (both internal and to other SIP entities) in the same
   manner as prescribed for SIP intermediaries Section 7.  In generating
   the Contact header field in the 3xx response, the redirect server
   adds the appropriate target header field parameter to each Contact
   header field as described in Section 9.4.


9.  Processing the History-Info Header Field Parameters

   The following sections describe the procedures for processing
   History-Info header field parameters and the header fields escaped in
   the History-info header field.  These procedures are applicable to
   SIP entities such as Proxies/Intermediaries, Redirect Servers or User
   Agents.

9.1.  Privacy in the History-Info Header Field

   The privacy requirements for this document are described in
   Appendix A.2.  Section 9.1.1 describes the use of the Privacy header
   field defined in [RFC3323] to indicate the privacy to be applied to
   the History-Info header field entries.  Section 9.1.2 describes the
   processing of the priv-values in the Privacy header field to privacy
   protect the History-Info header field entries in the request or
   response that is being forwarded.

9.1.1.  Indicating Privacy

   As with other SIP headers described in [RFC3323], the hi-targeted-to-
   uris in the History-info header field can inadvertently reveal
   information about the initiator of the request.  Thus, the UAC needs
   a mechanism to indicate that the hi-targeted-to-uris in the hi-
   entries need to be privacy protected.  The Privacy header field is



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   used by the UAC to indicate the privacy to be applied to all the hi-
   entries in the request as follows:

   o  If the UAC is including a Privacy header field with a priv-value
      of "header" in the request, then the UAC SHOULD NOT include a
      priv-value of "history" in the the Privacy header field in the
      Request.

   o  If the UAC is including any priv-values other than "header" in the
      Privacy header field, then the UAC MUST also include a priv-value
      of "history" in the Privacy header field in the Request.

   o  If the UAC is not including any priv-values in the Privacy header
      field in the request, then the UAC MUST add a Privacy header
      field, with a priv-value of "history", to the request.  The UAC
      MUST NOT include a priv-value of "critical" in the Privacy header
      field in the Request in this case.

   In addition, the History-info header field can reveal general routing
   and diverting information within an intermediary, which the
   intermediary wants to privacy protect.  In this case, the
   intermediary MUST set a Privacy header field to a priv-value of
   "history" and escape the Privacy header field in the hi-targeted-to-
   uri, for each hi-entry added by intermediary, as the request is
   retargeted within the domain for which the SIP entity is responsible.
   The intermediary MUST NOT include any other priv-values in this
   Privacy header field.  Note that the priv-value in the Privacy header
   for the incoming request does not necessarily influence whether the
   intermediary includes a Privacy header field in the hi-entries.  For
   example, even if the Privacy header for the incoming request
   contained a priv-value of "none", the Proxy can still set a priv-
   value of "history" in the Privacy header field escaped in the hi-
   targeted-to-uri.

   Finally, the terminator of the request may not want to reveal the
   final reached target to the originator.  In this case, the terminator
   MUST include a Privacy header field with a priv-value of "history",
   escaped in the hi-targeted-to-uri in the last hi-entry, in the
   response.  As noted above, the terminator of the request MUST NOT use
   any other priv-values in the Privacy header field escaped in the hi-
   entry.

9.1.2.  Applying Privacy

   When a request is retargeted to a URI associated with a domain for
   which the SIP intermediary is not responsible or a response is
   forwarded, a Privacy Service at the boundary of the domain applies
   the appropriate privacy based on the value of the Privacy header



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   field in the request and in the individual hi-entries.

   If there is a Privacy header field in the request with a priv-value
   of "header" or "history", then the hi-targeted-to-uris in the hi-
   entries, associated with the domain for which a SIP intermediary is
   responsible, are anonymized.  The Privacy Service MUST change any hi-
   targeted-to-uris in the hi-entries that have not been anonymized to
   anonymous URIs containing a domain of anonymous.invalid (e.g.,
   anonymous@anonymous.invalid).  If the hi-entry has an escaped Privacy
   header field value, then the Privacy header field value MUST be
   removed from the hi-entry.  Once all the appropriate hi-entries have
   been anonymized, the priv-value of "history" MUST be removed from the
   Privacy header field.  If there are no remaining priv-values in the
   Privacy header field, the Privacy header field MUST be removed from
   the request per [RFC3323].

   If there is not a Privacy header field in the request or response
   that is being forwarded, the Privacy Service MUST anonymize any hi-
   entries, associated with the domain for which a SIP intermediary is
   responsible, that contain a Privacy header field with a priv-value of
   "history".  The Privacy Service MUST populate the hi-targeted-to-uri
   with an anonymous URI with a domain of anonymous.invalid (e.g.,
   anonymous@anonymous.invalid).  Any other priv-values in the Privacy
   header field in the hi-entries MUST be ignored.  In any case, the
   Privacy Service MUST remove the Privacy header field from the hi-
   entries prior to forwarding.

9.2.  Reason in the History-info Header Field

   If the retargeting is due to receipt of an explicit SIP response and
   the response contains any Reason header fields (see [RFC3326]), then
   the SIP entity MUST escape the Reason header fields in the hi-entry
   with the hi-targeted-to-uri containing the URI of the request that
   was retargeted.  If the SIP response does not contain a Reason header
   field, the SIP entity MUST include an escaped Reason header field,
   containing the SIP Response Code that triggered the retargeting, in
   the hi-entry with the hi-targeted-to-uri containing the URI of the
   request that was retargeted.

   If a request has timed out (instead of being explicitly rejected),
   the SIP entity MUST escape a Reason header field, containing a SIP
   error response code of 408 "Request Timeout" in in the hi-entry with
   the hi-targeted-to-uri containing the URI of the request that was
   retargeted.  The SIP entity MAY also be escape a Reason header field
   in the hi-entry with the hi-targeted-to-uri containing the URI of the
   request that was retargeted as a result of internal retargeting.

   If additional Reason headers are defined in the future per [RFC3326],



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   the use of these Reason headers for the History-Info header field
   MUST follow the same rules as described above.

9.3.  Indexing in the History-Info Header Field

   In order to maintain ordering and accurately reflect the retargeting
   of the request, the SIP entity MUST add an hi-index to each hi-entry.
   Per the syntax in Section 5, the hi-index consists of a series of
   digits separated by dots (e.g., 1.1.2).  Each dot reflects a SIP
   forwarding hop.  The digit following each dot reflects the order in
   which a request was retargeted at the hop.  The highest digit at each
   hop reflects the number of entities to which the request has been
   retargeted at the specific hop (i.e., the number of branches).  Thus,
   the indexing results in a logical tree representation for the history
   of the request.

   The first index in a series of History-Info entries MUST be set to 1.
   In the case that a SIP entity (intermediary or UAS) adds an hi-entry
   on behalf of the previous hop, the hi-index MUST be set to 1.  For
   each forward hop (i.e., each new level of indexing), the hi-index
   MUST start at 1.  An increment of 1 MUST be used for advancing to a
   new branch.

   The basic rules for adding the hi-index are summarized as follows:

   1.  Basic Forwarding: In the case of a request that is being
       forwarded, the hi-index reflects the increasing length of the
       branch.  In this case, the SIP entity MUST read the value from
       the History-info header field in the received request and MUST
       add another level of indexing by appending the dot delimiter
       followed by an initial hi-index for the new level of 1.  For
       example, if the hi-index in the last History-info header field in
       the received request is 1.1, a proxy would add an hi-entry with
       an hi-index to 1.1.1 and forward the request.

   2.  Retargeting within a processing entity - 1st instance: For the
       first instance of retargeting within a processing entity, the SIP
       entity MUST calculate the hi-index as prescribed for basic
       forwarding.

   3.  Retargeting within a processing entity - subsequent instance: For
       each subsequent retargeting of a request by the same SIP entity,
       the SIP entity MUST add another branch.  The SIP entity MUST
       calculate the hi-index for each new branch by incrementing the
       value from the hi-index in the last hi-entry at the current
       level.  Per the example above, the hi-index in the next request
       forwarded by this same SIP entity would be 1.1.2.




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   4.  Retargeting based upon a Response: In the case of retargeting due
       to a specific response (e.g., 302), the SIP entity MUST calculate
       the hi-index calculated per rule 3.  That is, the lowest/last
       digit of the hi-index MUST be incremented (i.e., a new branch is
       created), with the increment of 1.  For example, if the hi-index
       in the History-Info header of the sent request is 1.2 and the
       response to the request is a 302, then the hi-index in the
       History-Info header field for the new hi-targeted- to-URI would
       be 1.3.

   5.  Forking requests: If the request forwarding is done in multiple
       forks (sequentially or in parallel), the SIP entity MUST set the
       hi-index for each hi-entry for each forked request per the rules
       above, with each new request having a unique index.  Each index
       MUST be sequentially assigned.  For example, if the index in the
       last History-Info header field in the received request is 1.1,
       this processing entity would initialize its index to 1.1.1 for
       the first fork, 1.1.2 for the second, and so forth (see Figure 1
       for an example).  Note that for each individual fork, only the
       hi-entry corresponding to that fork is included (e.g., the hi-
       entry for fork 1.1.1 is not included in the request sent to fork
       1.1.2, and vice-versa).

9.4.  Mechanism for Target Determination in the History-Info Header
      Field

   This specification defines two header field parameters, "rc" and
   "mp", indicating two non-inclusive mechanisms by which a new target
   for a request is determined.  Both parameters contain an index whose
   value is the hi-index of the hi-entry with an hi-targeted-to-uri that
   represents the Request-URI that was retargeted.

   The SIP entity MUST determine the specific parameter field to be
   included in the History-info header field as the targets are added to
   the target set per the procedures in section 16.5 of [RFC3261] or per
   section 8.1.3.4 [RFC3261] in the case of 3xx responses.  In the
   latter case, the specific header parameter field in the Contact
   header becomes the header field parameter that is used in the hi-
   entry when the request is retargeted.  If the Contact header field
   does not contain an "rc" or "mp" header field parameter, then the SIP
   entity MUST NOT include an "rc" or "mp" in the hi-entry when the
   request is retargeted.

   The SIP entity (intermediary or redirect server) determines the
   specific header field parameter to be used based on the following
   criteria:





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   o  "rc": The target was determined based on a contact that is bound
      to an AOR in an abstract location service for the Request-URI
      being retargeted.

   o  "mp": The target was determined based on a mapping to a user other
      than the user associated with the Request-URI being retargeted.

   Note that there are two scenarios by which the "mp" parameter can be
   derived.

   o  The mapping was done by the receiving entity on its own authority,
      in which case the mp-value is the parent index of the hi-entry's
      index.

   o  The mapping was done due to receiving a 3xx response, in which
      case the mp-value is an earlier sibling of the hi-entry's index,
      that of the downstream request which received the 3xx response.

   The SIP entity MUST add the "rc" or "mp" header field parameter to
   the hi-entry when the request is forwarded to the target per step 2
   in Section 7.1.1.


10.  Application Considerations

   History-Info provides a very flexible building block that can be used
   by intermediaries and UAs for a variety of services.  Prior to any
   application usage of the History-Info header field parameters, the
   SIP entity that processes the hi-entries MUST evaluate the hi-
   entries.  The SIP entity MUST determine if there are gaps in the
   indices.  Gaps are possible if the request is forwarded through
   intermediaries that do not support the History-info header field and
   are reflected by the existence of multiple hi-entries with an index
   of "1".  Gaps are also possible in the case of parallel forking if
   there is an outstanding request at the time the SIP entity sends a
   response as described in Section 7.2.  Thus, if gaps are detected,
   the SIP entity MUST NOT treat this as an error, but rather indicate
   to any applications that there are gaps.  The most complete
   information available to the application is the History-Info entries
   starting with the last hi-entry with an index of "1".  The
   interpretation of the information in the History-info header field
   depends upon the specific application; an application might need to
   provide special handling in some cases where there are gaps.

   The following summarizes the categories of information that
   applications can use:





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   1.  Complete history information - e.g., for debug or other
       operational and management aspects, optimization of determining
       targets to avoid retargeting to the same URI, etc.  This
       information is relevant to proxies, UACs and UASs.

   2.  Hi-entry with the index that matches the value of the last hi-
       entry with a "rc" header parameter in the Request received by a
       UAS - i.e., the Request URI associated with the destination of
       the request was determined based on an AOR-to-contact binding in
       an abstract location service.

   3.  Hi-entry with the index that matches the value of the last hi-
       entry with a "mp" header parameter in the Request received by a
       UAS - i.e., the last Request URI that was mapped to reach the
       destination.

   4.  Hi-entry with the index that matches the value of the first hi-
       entry with a "rc" header parameter in the Request received by a
       UAS.  Note, this would be the original AoR if all the entities
       involved support the History-info header field and there is
       absence of a "mp" header parameter prior to the "rc" header
       parameter in the History-info header field.  However, there is no
       guarantee that all entities will support History-Info, thus the
       first hi-entry with an "rc" header parameter within the domain
       associated with the target URI at the destination is more likely
       to be useful.

   5.  Hi-entry with the index that matches the value of the first hi-
       entry with a "mp" header parameter in the Request received by a
       UAS.  Note, this would be the original mapped URI if all entities
       supported the History-info header field.  However, there is no
       guarantee that all entities will support History-Info, thus the
       first hi-entry with an "mp" header parameter within the domain
       associated with the target URI at the destination is more likely
       to be useful.

   In many cases, applications are most interested in the information
   within a particular domain(s), thus only a subset of the information
   is required.

   Some applications may use multiple types of information.  For
   example, an Automatic Call Distribution (ACD)/Call center application
   that utilizes the hi-entry who index matches the index of the first
   History-Info entry with an hi-target value of "mp", may also display
   other agents, reflected by other History-Info entries prior to
   entries with hi-target values of "rc", to whom the call was targeted
   prior to its arrival at the current agent.  This could allow the
   agent the ability to decide how they might forward or reroute the



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   call if necessary (avoiding agents that were not previously available
   for whatever reason, etc.).

   Since support for History-info header field is optional, a service
   MUST define default behavior for requests and responses not
   containing History-Info headers.  For example, an entity may receive
   only partial History-Info entries or entries which are not tagged
   appropriately with an hi-target parameter.  This may not impact some
   applications (e.g., debug), however, it could require some
   applications to make some default assumptions in this case.  For
   example, in an ACD scenario, the application could select the oldest
   hi-entry with the domain associated with the ACD system and display
   that as the original called party.  Depending upon how and where the
   request may have been retargeted, the complete list of agents to whom
   the call was targeted may not be available.


11.  Security Considerations

   The security requirements for this document are specified in
   Appendix A.1.

   This document defines a header for SIP.  The use of the Transport
   Layer Security (TLS) protocol [RFC5246] as a mechanism to ensure the
   overall confidentiality of the History-Info headers (SEC-req-4) is
   strongly RECOMMENDED.  This results in History-Info having at least
   the same level of security as other headers in SIP that are inserted
   by intermediaries.  With TLS, History-Info headers are no less, nor
   no more, secure than other SIP headers, which generally have even
   more impact on the subsequent processing of SIP sessions than the
   History-info header field.

   Note that while using the SIPS scheme (as per [RFC5630]) protects
   History-Info from tampering by arbitrary parties outside the SIP
   message path, all the intermediaries on the path are trusted
   implicitly.  A malicious intermediary could arbitrarily delete,
   rewrite, or modify History-Info.  This specification does not attempt
   to prevent or detect attacks by malicious intermediaries.


12.  IANA Considerations

   This document requires several IANA registrations detailed in the
   following sections.

   This document updates [RFC4244] but uses the same SIP header field
   name and option tag.  The IANA registry needs to update the
   references to [RFC4244] with [RFCXXXX].



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12.1.  Registration of New SIP History-Info Header Field

   This document defines a SIP header field name: History-Info and an
   option tag: histinfo.  The following changes have been made to
   http:///www.iana.org/assignments/sip-parameters The following row has
   been added to the header field section:.

   The following row has been added to the header field section:

   Header Name             Compact Form               Reference
   -----------             ------------               ---------
   History-Info               none                    [RFCXXXX]


   The following has been added to the Options Tags section:

   Name          Description                          Reference
   ----          -----------                          ---------
   histinfo      When used with the Supported header, [RFCXXXX]
                 this option tag indicates the UAC
                 supports the History Information to be
                 captured for requests and returned in
                 subsequent responses.  This tag is not
                 used in a Proxy-Require or Require
                 header field since support of
                 History-Info is optional.


   Note to RFC Editor: Please replace RFC XXXX with the RFC number of
   this specification.

12.2.  Registration of "history" for SIP Privacy Header Field

   This document defines a priv-value for the SIP Privacy header field:
   history The following changes have been made to
   http://www.iana.org/assignments/sip-priv-values The following has
   been added to the registration for the SIP Privacy header field:

   Name      Description               Registrant   Reference
   ----      -----------               ----------   ---------
   history   Privacy requested for     Mary Barnes  [RFCXXXX]
             History-info header       mary.barnes@polycom.com
             fields(s)


   Note to RFC Editor: Please replace RFC XXXX with the RFC number of
   this specification.




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12.3.  Registration of Header Field Parameters

   This specification defines the following new SIP header field
   parameters in the SIP Header Field parameter sub-registry in the SIP
   Parameter Registry, http:/www.iana.org/assignments/sip-parameters.


   Header Field                  Parameter Name   Predefined  Reference
                                                    Values
   _____________________________________________________________________
   History-Info                  mp                   No     [RFC xxxx]
   History-Info                  rc                   No     [RFC xxxx]
   Contact                       mp                   No     [RFC xxxx]
   Contact                       rc                   No     [RFC xxxx]


   Note to RFC Editor: Please replace RFC XXXX with the RFC number of
   this specification.


13.  Acknowledgements

   Jonathan Rosenberg et al produced the document that provided
   additional use cases precipitating the requirement for the new header
   parameters to capture the method by which a Request URI is
   determined.  The authors would like to acknowledge the constructive
   feedback provided by Ian Elz, Paul Kyzivat, John Elwell, Hadriel
   Kaplan and Dale Worley.

   Mark Watson, Cullen Jennings and Jon Peterson provided significant
   input into the initial work that resulted in the development of of
   [RFC4244].  The editor would like to acknowledge the constructive
   feedback provided by Robert Sparks, Paul Kyzivat, Scott Orton, John
   Elwell, Nir Chen, Palash Jain, Brian Stucker, Norma Ng, Anthony
   Brown, Jayshree Bharatia, Jonathan Rosenberg, Eric Burger, Martin
   Dolly, Roland Jesske, Takuya Sawada, Sebastien Prouvost, and
   Sebastien Garcin in the development of [RFC4244].

   The editor would like to acknowledge the significant input from Rohan
   Mahy on some of the normative aspects of the ABNF for [RFC4244],
   particularly around the need for and format of the index and around
   the security aspects.


14.  Changes from RFC 4244

   This RFC replaces [RFC4244].




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   Deployment experience with [RFC4244] over the years has shown a
   number of issues, warranting an update:

   o  In order to make [RFC4244] work in "real life", one needs to make
      "assumptions" on how History-Info is used.  For example, many
      implementations filter out many entries, and only leave specific
      entries corresponding, for example, to first and last redirection.
      Since vendors uses different rules, it causes significant
      interoperability isssues.

   o  [RFC4244] is overly permissive and evasive about recording
      entries, causing interoperability issues.

   o  The examples in the call flows had errors, and confusing because
      they often assume "loose routing".

   o  [RFC4244] has lots of repetitive and unclear text due to the
      combination of requirements with solution.

   o  [RFC4244] gratuitously mandates the use of TLS on every hop.  No
      existing implementation enforces this rule, and instead, the use
      of TLS or not is a general SIP issue, not an [RFC4244] issue per
      se.

   o  [RFC4244] does not include clear procedures on how to deliver
      current target URI information to the UAS when the Request-URI is
      replaced with a contact.

   o  [RFC4244] does not allow for marking History-Info entries for easy
      processing by User Agents.

   The following summarizes the functional changes between this
   specification and [RFC4244]:

   1.  Added header field parameters to capture the specific method by
       which a target is determined to facilitate processing by users of
       the History-info header field entries.  A specific header field
       parameter is captured for each of the target URIs as the target
       set is determined (per section 16.5 of [RFC3261]).  The header
       field parameter is used in both the History-Info and the Contact
       header fields.

   2.  Rather than recommending that entries be removed in the case of
       certain values of the Privacy header field, the entries are
       anonymized.

   3.  Updated the security section to be equivalent to the security
       recommendations for other SIP headers inserted by intermediaries.



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   The first 2 changes are intended to facilitate application usage of
   the History-info header field and eliminate the need to make
   assumptions based upon the order of the entries and ensure that the
   most complete set of information is available to the applications.

   In addition, editorial changes were done to both condense and clarify
   the text, moving the requirements to an appendix and removing the
   inline references to the requirements.  The examples were simplified
   and updated to reflect the protocol changes.  Several of the call
   flows in the appendix were removed and put into a separate document
   that includes additional use cases that require the new header
   parameters.

14.1.  Backwards compatibility

   This specification is backwards compatible since [RFC4244] allows for
   the addition of new optional parameters.  This specification adds an
   optional SIP header field parameter to the History-Info and Contact
   headers.  Entities that have not implemented this specification MUST
   ignore these parameters, however, per [RFC4244] an entity MUST NOT
   remove this parameter from an hi-entry.


15.  Changes since last Version

   NOTE TO THE RFC-Editor: Please remove this section prior to
   publication as an RFC.

   Changes from 02 to 03:

   1.  Lots of editorial:

       A.  Reorganized sections similar to the RFC 4244 order - i.e.,
           introduce header field parameters and syntax first, then
           describe how the functional entities use the header.  This
           removes redundant (and often inconsistent) text describing
           the parameters.

       B.  Expanded use of "header" to "header field"

       C.  More precision in terms of "escaping" of the Privacy and
           Reason headers in the hi-targeted-to-uri (versus
           "adding"/"setting"/etc. them to the hi-entry).

       D.  Consistent use of parameter names (i.e., hi-entry versus
           entry, hi-target versus target, etc.)





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       E.  Moved item 6 in the Index section to the section on Response
           handling

       F.  Removed last remaining vestiges of inline references to
           requirements.

   2.  Clarifications of functionality/applicability including:

       A.  which messages may contain History-Info

       B.  removing security text with regards to being able to figure
           out if there are missing entries when using TLS (issue #44)

       C.  More complete information on the new header field parameters
           as they relate to the hi-target parameter.

       D.  Changed wording from passive to active for normative
           statements in many cases and removed superfluous normative
           language.

   3.  Rewrite of the Privacy section to address issues and splitting
       into the setting of the Privacy header fields and the processing/
       application of the privacy header field priv-values.

   4.  Rewrite of the Reason header field section - simplifying the text
       and adding back the RFC 4244 text with regards to the use of the
       Reason header field in cases of internal retargeting.

   Changes from 01 to 02:

   1.   Editorial nits/clarifications.  [Issues: 1,6,17,18,21-
        23,25,26,30-33,35-37,39,40]

   2.   Removing extraneous 4244 text - e.g., errors in flows,
        "stronger" security, "session" privacy.  [Issues: 3,5,7,11 ]

   3.   Updated definition of "retarget" to be all encompassing - i.e.,
        also includes internal changes of target URI.  Clarified text
        for "internal retarging" in proxy section.  [Issues: 2,8,9]

   4.   Clarified that the processing for Proxies is equally applicable
        to other SIP intermediaries.  [Issue: 9].

   5.   Changed more SHOULDs to MUSTs.  [Issue: 10]

   6.   Fixes to Application considerations section.  [Issues: 12-15]





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   7.   Changed language in the procedure for Indexing to normative
        language.

   8.   Clarifications for UAC processing:

        *  MUST add hi-entry.  [Issue: 28]

        *  Clarify applicability to B2BUA.  [Issue: 29]

        *  Fixed text for indexing for UAC in case of 3xx.

   9.   Changed "hit" URI parameter to header parameters: [Issues:4,40]

        *  Added index to all target header parameters.  [Issues: 41]

        *  Updated all the relevant sections documenting setting and use
           of new header parameters.  [Issue: 40]

   10.  Updated/clarified privacy handling.  [Issue: 16]

   11.  Updated Redirect Server section to allow adding History-info
        header fields.  [Issue: 24 ]

   12.  Added text around restrictions for Tel-URIs - i.e., no privacy
        or reason.  [Issues: 4, 12]

   13.  Updated text for forking - what goes in response.  [Issues:
        19,20]

   Changes from 00 to 01:

   1.  Moved examples (except first) in appendix to a new
       (informational) document.

   2.  Updated UAS and UAC sections to clarify and expand on the
       handling of the History-info header field.

   3.  Updated the Application considerations section:

       *  Included more detail with regards to how applications can make
          use of the information, in particular based on the new tags.

       *  Removed privacy consideration (2nd bullet) since privacy is
          now accomplished by anonymizing rather than removal of
          entries.

   Changes from (individual) barnes-sipcore-4244bis-03 to (WG) ietf-
   sipcore-4244bis-00:



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   1.  Added a new SIP/SIPS URI parameter to tag the URIs as they are
       added to the target list and those returned in the contact header
       in a 3xx response.

   2.  Updated description of "target" parameter to use the new URI
       parameter value in setting the value for the parameter.

   3.  Clarified privacy.

   4.  Changed handling at redirect server to include the use of the new
       URI parameter and to remove the functionality of adding the
       History-Info entries (basically reverting to core 4244
       processing).

   5.  Additional text to clarify that a service such as voicemail can
       be done in multiple ways.

   6.  Editorial changes including removal of some vestiges of tagging
       all entries (including the "aor" tag).

   Changes from barnes-sipcore-4244bis-02 to 03:

   1.  Fixed problem with indices in example in voicemail example.

   2.  Removed oc and rt from the Hi-target parameter.

   3.  Removed aor tag

   4.  Added index parameter to "mp"

   5.  Added use-cases and call-flows from target-uri into appendix.

   Changes from barnes-sipcore-4244bis-01 to 02:

   1.  Added hi-aor parameter that gets marked on the "incoming" hi-
       entry.

   2.  Hi-target parameter defined to be either rc, oc, mp, rt, and now
       gets included when adding an hi-entry.

   3.  Added section on backwards compatibility, as well as added the
       recognition and handling of requests that do not support this
       specification in the appropriate sections.

   4.  Updated redirect server/3xx handling to support the new
       parameters - i.e., the redirecting entity must add the new hi-
       entry since the proxy does not have access to the information as
       to how the Contact was determined.



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   5.  Added section on normative differences between this document and
       RFC 4244.

   6.  Restructuring of document to be more in line with current IETF
       practices.

   7.  Moved Requirements section into an Appendix.

   8.  Fixed ABNF to remove unintended ordering requirement on hi-index
       that was introduced in attempting to illustrate it was a
       mandatory parameter.

   Changes from barnes-sipcore-4244bis-00 to 01 :

   1.  Clarified "retarget" definition.

   2.  Removed privacy discussion from optionality section - just refer
       to privacy section.

   3.  Removed extraneous text from target-parameter (leftover from sip-
       4244bis).  Changed the terminology from the "reason" to the
       "mechanism" to avoid ambiguity with parameter.

   4.  Various changes to clarify some of the text around privacy.

   5.  Reverted proxy response handling text to previous form - just
       changing the privacy aspects to anonymize, rather than remove.

   6.  Other editorial changes to condense and simplify.

   7.  Moved Privacy examples to Appendix.

   8.  Added forking to Basic call example.

   Changes from barnes-sipcore-4244bis-00 to 01 :

   1.  Clarified "retarget" definition.

   2.  Removed privacy discussion from optionality section - just refer
       to privacy section.

   3.  Removed extraneous text from target-parameter (leftover from sip-
       4244bis).  Changed the terminology from the "reason" to the
       "mechanism" to avoid ambiguity with parameter.

   4.  Various changes to clarify some of the text around privacy.





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   5.  Reverted proxy response handling text to previous form - just
       changing the privacy aspects to anonymize, rather than remove.

   6.  Other editorial changes to condense and simplify.

   7.  Moved Privacy examples to Appendix.

   8.  Added forking to Basic call example.

   Changes from barnes-sip-4244bis-00 to barnes-sipcore-4244bis-00:

   1.   Added tags for each type of retargeting including proxy hops,
        etc. - i.e., a tag is defined for each specific mechanism by
        which the new Request-URI is determined.  Note, this is
        extremely helpful in terms of backwards compatibility.

   2.   Fixed all the examples.  Made sure loose routing was used in all
        of them.

   3.   Removed example where a proxy using strict routing is using
        History-Info for avoiding trying same route twice.

   4.   Remove redundant Redirect Server example.

   5.   Index is now mandated to start at "1" instead of recommended.

   6.   Updated 3xx behavior as the entity sending the 3XX response MUST
        add the hi-target attribute to the previous hi-entry to ensure
        that it is appropriately tagged (i.e., it's the only one that
        knows how the contact in the 3xx was determined.)

   7.   Removed lots of ambiguity by making many "MAYs" into "SHOULDs"
        and some "SHOULDs" into "MUSTs".

   8.   Privacy is now recommended to be done by anonymizing entries as
        per RFC 3323 instead of by removing or omitting hi-entry(s).

   9.   Requirement for TLS is now same level as per RFC 3261.

   10.  Clarified behavior for "Privacy" (i.e., that Privacy is for Hi-
        entries, not headers).

   11.  Removed "OPTIONALITY" as specific requirements, since it's
        rather superflous.

   12.  Other editorial changes to remove redundant text/sections.

   Changes from RFC4244 to barnes-sip-4244bis-00:



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   1.  Clarified that HI captures both retargeting as well as cases of
       just forwarding a request.

   2.  Added descriptions of the usage of the terms "retarget",
       "forward" and "redirect" to the terminology section.

   3.  Added additional examples for the functionality provided by HI
       for core SIP.

   4.  Added hi-target parameter values to HI header to ABNF and
       protocol description, as well as defining proxy, UAC and UAS
       behavior for the parameter.

   5.  Simplified example call flow in section 4.5.  Moved previous call
       flow to appendix.

   6.  Fixed ABNF per RFC4244 errata "dot" -> "." and added new
       parameter.


16.  References

16.1.  Normative References

   [RFC3261]  Rosenberg, J., Schulzrinne, H., Camarillo, G., Johnston,
              A., Peterson, J., Sparks, R., Handley, M., and E.
              Schooler, "SIP: Session Initiation Protocol", RFC 3261,
              June 2002.

   [RFC3326]  Schulzrinne, H., Oran, D., and G. Camarillo, "The Reason
              Header Field for the Session Initiation Protocol (SIP)",
              RFC 3326, December 2002.

   [RFC3323]  Peterson, J., "A Privacy Mechanism for the Session
              Initiation Protocol (SIP)", RFC 3323, November 2002.

   [RFC2119]  Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
              Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997.

   [RFC5246]  Dierks, T. and E. Rescorla, "The Transport Layer Security
              (TLS) Protocol Version 1.2", RFC 5246, August 2008.

   [RFC4244]  Barnes, M., "An Extension to the Session Initiation
              Protocol (SIP) for Request History Information", RFC 4244,
              November 2005.






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16.2.  Informative References

   [RFC5627]  Rosenberg, J., "Obtaining and Using Globally Routable User
              Agent URIs (GRUUs) in the Session Initiation Protocol
              (SIP)", RFC 5627, October 2009.

   [RFC5630]  Audet, F., "The Use of the SIPS URI Scheme in the Session
              Initiation Protocol (SIP)", RFC 5630, October 2009.

   [RFC3087]  Campbell, B. and R. Sparks, "Control of Service Context
              using SIP Request-URI", RFC 3087, April 2001.

   [RFC4240]  Burger, E., Van Dyke, J., and A. Spitzer, "Basic Network
              Media Services with SIP", RFC 4240, December 2005.

   [RFC3969]  Camarillo, G., "The Internet Assigned Number Authority
              (IANA) Uniform Resource Identifier (URI) Parameter
              Registry for the Session Initiation Protocol (SIP)",
              BCP 99, RFC 3969, December 2004.

   [RFC3966]  Schulzrinne, H., "The tel URI for Telephone Numbers",
              RFC 3966, December 2004.


Appendix A.  Request History Requirements

   The following list constitutes a set of requirements for a "Request
   History" capability.

   1.  CAPABILITY-req: The "Request History" capability provides a
       capability to inform proxies and UAs involved in processing a
       request about the history/progress of that request.  Although
       this is inherently provided when the retarget is in response to a
       SIP redirect, it is deemed useful for non-redirect retargeting
       scenarios, as well.

   2.  GENERATION-req: "Request History" information is generated when
       the request is retargeted.

       A.  In some scenarios, it might be possible for more than one
           instance of retargeting to occur within the same Proxy.  A
           proxy MUST also generate Request History information for the
           'internal retargeting'.

       B.  An entity (UA or proxy) retargeting in response to a redirect
           or REFER MUST include any Request History information from
           the redirect/REFER in the new request.




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   3.  ISSUER-req: "Request History" information can be generated by a
       UA or proxy.  It can be passed in both requests and responses.

   4.  CONTENT-req: The "Request History" information for each
       occurrence of retargeting shall include the following:

       A.  The new URI or address to which the request is in the process
           of being retargeted,

       B.  The URI or address from which the request was retargeted, and
           wether the retarget URI was an AOR

       C.  The mechanism by which the new URI or address was determined,

       D.  The reason for the Request-URI or address modification,

       E.  Chronological ordering of the Request History information.

   5.  REQUEST-VALIDITY-req: Request History is applicable to requests
       not sent within an early or established dialog (e.g., INVITE,
       REGISTER, MESSAGE, and OPTIONS).

   6.  BACKWARDS-req: Request History information may be passed from the
       generating entity backwards towards the UAC.  This is needed to
       enable services that inform the calling party about the dialog
       establishment attempts.

   7.  FORWARDS-req: Request History information may also be included by
       the generating entity in the request, if it is forwarded onwards.

A.1.  Security Requirements

   The Request History information is being inserted by a network
   element retargeting a Request, resulting in a slightly different
   problem than the basic SIP header problem, thus requiring specific
   consideration.  It is recognized that these security requirements can
   be generalized to a basic requirement of being able to secure
   information that is inserted by proxies.

   The potential security problems include the following:

   1.  A rogue application could insert a bogus Request History-Info
       entry either by adding an additional hi-entry as a result of
       retargeting or entering invalid information.

   2.  A rogue application could re-arrange the Request History
       information to change the nature of the end application or to
       mislead the receiver of the information.



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   3.  A rogue application could delete some or all of the Request
       History information.

   Thus, a security solution for "Request History" must meet the
   following requirements:

   1.  SEC-req-1: The entity receiving the Request History must be able
       to determine whether any of the previously added Request History
       content has been altered.

   2.  SEC-req-2: The ordering of the Request History information must
       be preserved at each instance of retargeting.

   3.  SEC-req-3: The entity receiving the information conveyed by the
       Request History must be able to authenticate the entity providing
       the request.

   4.  SEC-req-4: To ensure the confidentiality of the Request History
       information, only entities that process the request SHOULD have
       visibility to the information.

   It should be noted that these security requirements apply to any
   entity making use of the Request History information.

A.2.  Privacy Requirements

   Since the Request-URI that is captured could inadvertently reveal
   information about the originator, there are general privacy
   requirements that MUST be met:

   1.  PRIV-req-1: The entity retargeting the Request must ensure that
       it maintains the network-provided privacy (as described in
       [RFC3323]) associated with the Request as it is retargeted.

   2.  PRIV-req-2: The entity receiving the Request History must
       maintain the privacy associated with the information.  In
       addition, local policy at a proxy may identify privacy
       requirements associated with the Request-URI being captured in
       the Request History information.

   3.  PRIV-req-3: Request History information subject to privacy shall
       not be included in ougoing messages unless it is protected as
       described in [RFC3323].








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Appendix B.  Example call flows

   The scenarios in this section provide sample use cases for the
   History-info header field for informational purposes only.  They are
   not intended to be normative.  A basic forking use case is included,
   along with two use cases illustrating the use of the privacy.

B.1.  Sequentially Forking (History-Info in Response)

   This scenario highlights an example where the History-Info in the
   response is useful to an application or user that originated the
   request.

   Alice sends a call to Bob via sip:example.com.  The proxy sip:
   example.com sequentially tries Bob on a SIP UA that has bound a
   contact with the sip:bob@example.com AOR, and then several alternate
   addresses (Office and Home) unsuccessfully before sending a response
   to Alice.  The hi-entry containing the initial contact is the hi-
   entry just prior to the first hi-entry tagged with an hi-target value
   of "rc".  In this example, the Office and Home are not the same AOR
   as sip:bob@example.com, but rather different AORs that have been
   configured as alternate addresses for Bob in the proxy.  In other
   words, Office and Bob are not bound through SIP Registration with
   Bob's AOR.  This type of arrangement is common for example when a
   "routing" rule to a PSTN number is manually configured in a Proxy.
   These hi-entries are identified by the index contained in the hi-
   target "mp" parameter in the hi-entries.

   This scenario illustrates that by providing the History-Info to
   Alice, the end-user or an application at Alice could make a decision
   on how best to attempt finding Bob without sending multiple requests
   to the same destination.  Upon receipt of the response containing the
   History-Info entries, the Request URIs for the History-Info entries
   tagged with "mp" are extracted.  Those Request-URIs can be compared
   to other URIs (if any) that might be attempted in order to establish
   the session with Bob. Thus, avoiding another INVITE to Bob's home
   phone.  Without this mechanism, Alice might well attempt to reach Bob
   at his office phone, which would then retarget the request to Bob's
   home phone.  When that attempt failed, then Alice might attempt to
   reach Bob directly at his home phone, unknowingly for a third time.











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   Alice   example.com            Bob     Office    Home
   |            |                  |        |        |
   | INVITE F1  |                  |        |        |
   |----------->|    INVITE F2     |        |        |
   |            |----------------->|        |        |
   | 100 Trying F3                 |        |        |
   |<-----------|  302 Move Temporarily F4  |        |
   |            |<-----------------|        |        |
   |            |   ACK F5         |        |        |
   |            |----------------->|        |        |
   |            |       INVITE F6           |        |
   |            |-------------------------->|        |
   |            |      180 Ringing F7       |        |
   |            |<--------------------------|        |
   |  180 Ringing F8                        |        |
   |<-----------|   retransmit INVITE       |        |
   |            |-------------------------->|        |
   |            |      ( timeout )          |        |
   |            |             INVITE F9              |
   |            |----------------------------------->|
   |            |           100 Trying F10           |
   |            |<-----------------------------------|
   |            |           486 Busy Here F11        |
   |            |<-----------------------------------|
   |  486 Busy Here F12                              |
   |<-----------|             ACK F13                |
   |            |----------------------------------->|
   |  ACK F14   |                                    |
   |----------->|                                    |



   Message Details

   F1 INVITE alice -> example.com

   INVITE sip:alice@example.com SIP/2.0
   Via: SIP/2.0/TCP 192.0.2.3:5060
   From: Alice <sip:alice@example.com>
   To: Bob <sip:bob@example.com>
   Supported: histinfo
   Call-Id: 12345600@example.com
   CSeq: 1 INVITE
   History-Info: <sip:bob@example.com>;index=1
   Contact: Alice <sip:alice@192.0.2.3>
   Content-Type: application/sdp
   Content-Length: <appropriate value>
   <!-- SDP Not Shown -->



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   F2 INVITE  example.com -> Bob

   INVITE sip:bob@192.0.2.4 SIP/2.0
   Via: SIP/2.0/TCP proxy.example.com:5060
   Via: SIP/2.0/TCP 192.0.2.3:5060
   From: Alice <sip:alice@example.com>
   To: Bob <sip:bob@example.com>
   Supported: histinfo
   Call-Id: 12345600@example.com
   CSeq: 1 INVITE
   Record-Route: <sip:proxy.example.com;lr>
   History-Info: <sip:bob@example.com>;index=1
   History-Info: <sip:bob@192.0.2.4>;index=1.1;rc=1
   Contact: Alice <sip:alice@192.0.2.3>
   Content-Type: application/sdp
   Content-Length: <appropriate value>
   <!-- SDP Not Shown -->



   F3 100 Trying example.com -> alice

   SIP/2.0 100 Trying
   Via: SIP/2.0/TCP 192.0.2.3:5060
   From: Alice <sip:alice@example.com>
   To: Bob <sip:bob@example.com>
   Call-Id: 12345600@example.com
   CSeq: 1 INVITE
   Content-Length: 0




   F4 302 Moved Temporarily Bob -> example.com

   SIP/2.0 302 Moved Temporarily
   Via: SIP/2.0/TCP proxy.example.com:5060
   Via: SIP/2.0/TCP 192.0.2.3:5060
   From: Alice <sip:alice@example.com>
   To: Bob <sip:bob@example.com>;tag=3
   Call-Id: 12345600@example.com
   CSeq: 1 INVITE
   Record-Route: <sip:proxy.example.com;lr>
   History-Info: <sip:bob@example.com>;index=1
   History-Info: <sip:bob@192.0.2.4>;index=1.1;rc=1
   Contact: <sip:office@example.com>;mp=1
   Content-Length: 0




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   F5 ACK 192.0.2.4 -> Bob

   ACK sip:home@example.com SIP/2.0
   Via: SIP/2.0/TCP proxy.example.com:5060
   From: Alice <sip:alice@example.com>
   To: Bob <sip:bob@example.com>
   Call-Id: 12345600@example.com
   CSeq: 1 ACK
   Content-Length: 0



   F6 INVITE example.com -> office

   INVITE sip:office@192.0.2.3.com SIP/2.0
   Via: SIP/2.0/TCP proxy.example.com:5060;branch=2
   Via: SIP/2.0/TCP 192.0.2.3:5060
   From: Alice <sip:alice@example.com>
   To: Bob <sip:bob@example.com>
   Supported: histinfo
   Call-Id: 12345600@example.com
   Record-Route: <sip:proxy.example.com;lr>
   History-Info: <sip:bob@example.com>;index=1
   History-Info: <sip:bob@192.0.2.4?Reason=SIP%3Bcause%3D302>;\
                 index=1.1;rc=1
   History-Info: <sip:office@example.com>;index=1.2;mp=1
   History-Info: <sip:office@192.0.2.5>;index=1.2.1
   CSeq: 1 INVITE
   Contact: Alice <sip:alice@192.0.2.3>
   Content-Type: application/sdp
   Content-Length: <appropriate value>
   <!-- SDP Not Shown -->



















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   F7 180 Ringing office -> example.com

   SIP/2.0 180 Ringing
   Via: SIP/2.0/TCP proxy.example.com:5060;branch=2
   Via: SIP/2.0/TCP 192.0.2.3:5060
   From: Alice <sip:alice@example.com>
   To: Bob <sip:bob@example.com>;tag=5
   Supported: histinfo
   Call-ID: 12345600@example.com
   Record-Route: <sip:proxy.example.com;lr>
   History-Info: <sip:bob@example.com>;index=1
   History-Info: <sip:bob@192.0.2.4?Reason=SIP%3Bcause%3D302>;\
                 index=1.1;rc=1
   History-Info: <sip:office@example.com>;index=1.2;mp=1
   History-Info: <sip:office@192.0.2.5>;index=1.2.1
   CSeq: 1 INVITE
   Content-Length: 0



   F8 180 Ringing example.com -> alice

   SIP/2.0 180 Ringing
   Via: SIP/2.0/TCP example.com:5060
   From: Alice <sip:alice@example.com>
   To: Bob <sip:bob@example.com>
   Supported: histinfo
   Call-Id: 12345600@example.com
   History-Info: <sip:bob@example.com>;index=1
   History-Info: <sip:bob@192.0.2.4?Reason=SIP%3Bcause%3D302>;\
                 index=1.1;rc=1
   History-Info: <sip:office@example.com>;index=1.2;mp=1
   History-Info: <sip:office@192.0.2.5>;index=1.2.1
   CSeq: 1 INVITE
   Content-Length: 0
















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   F9 INVITE example.com -> home

   INVITE sip:home@192.0.2.6 SIP/2.0
   Via: SIP/2.0/TCP proxy.example.com:5060;branch=3
   Via: SIP/2.0/TCP 192.0.2.3:5060
   From: Alice <sip:alice@example.com>
   To: Bob <sip:bob@example.com>
   Supported: histinfo
   Call-Id: 12345600@example.com
   Record-Route: <sip:proxy.example.com;lr>
   History-Info: <sip:bob@example.com>;index=1
   History-Info: <sip:bob@192.0.2.4?Reason=SIP%3Bcause%3D302>;\
                 index=1.1;rc=1
   History-Info: <sip:office@example.com>;index=1.2;mp=1
   History-Info: <sip:office@192.0.2.5?Reason=SIP%3Bcause%3D408>;\
                 index=1.2.1>;index=1.2.1
   History-Info: <sip:home@example.com>;index=1.3;mp=1
   History-Info: <sip:home@192.0.2.6>;index=1.3.1
   CSeq: 1 INVITE
   Contact: Alice <sip:alice@192.0.2.3>
   Content-Type: application/sdp
   Content-Length: <appropriate value>
   <!-- SDP Not Shown -->



   F10 100 Trying home -> example.com

   SIP/2.0 100 Trying
   Via: SIP/2.0/TCP proxy.example.com:5060;branch=3
   Via: SIP/2.0/TCP 192.0.2.3:5060
   From: Alice <sip:alice@example.com>
   To: Bob <sip:bob@example.com>
   Call-Id: 12345600@example.com
   CSeq: 1 INVITE
   Content-Length: 0















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   F11 486 Busy Here home -> example.com

   SIP/2.0  486 Busy Here
   Via: SIP/2.0/TCP proxy.example.com:5060;branch=3
   Via: SIP/2.0/TCP 192.0.2.3:5060
   From: Alice <sip:alice@example.com>
   To: Bob <sip:bob@example.com>
   Call-Id: 12345600@example.com
   Record-Route: <sip:proxy.example.com;lr>
   History-Info: <sip:bob@example.com>;index=1
   History-Info: <sip:bob@192.0.2.4?Reason=SIP%3Bcause%3D302>;\
                 index=1.1;rc=1
   History-Info: <sip:office@example.com>;index=1.2;mp=1
   History-Info: <sip:office@192.0.2.5?Reason=SIP%3Bcause%3D408>;\
                 index=1.2.1>;index=1.2.1
   History-Info: <sip:home@example.com>;index=1.3;mp=1
   History-Info: <sip:home@192.0.2.6>;index=1.3.1
   CSeq: 1 INVITE
   Content-Length: 0



   F12 486 Busy Here example.com -> alice

   SIP/2.0  486 Busy Here
   Via: SIP/2.0/TCP 192.0.2.3:5060
   From: Alice <sip:alice@example.com>
   To: Bob <sip:bob@example.com>
   Call-Id: 12345600@example.com
   History-Info: <sip:bob@example.com>;index=1
   History-Info: <sip:bob@192.0.2.4?Reason=SIP%3Bcause%3D302>;\
                 index=1.1;rc=1
   History-Info: <sip:office@example.com>;index=1.2;mp=1
   History-Info: <sip:office@192.0.2.5?Reason=SIP%3Bcause%3D408>;\
                 index=1.2.1>;index=1.2.1
   History-Info: <sip:home@example.com>;index=1.3;mp=1
   History-Info: <sip:home@192.0.2.6>;index=1.3.1
   CSeq: 1 INVITE
   Content-Length: 0












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   F13 ACK example.com -> home

   ACK sip:home@example.com SIP/2.0
   Via: SIP/2.0/TCP proxy.example.com:5060
   From: Alice <sip:alice@example.com>
   To: Bob <sip:bob@example.com>
   Call-Id: 12345600@example.com
   CSeq: 1 ACK
   Content-Length: 0



   F14 ACK alice -> example.com

   ACK sip:bob@example.com SIP/2.0
   Via: SIP/2.0/TCP 192.0.2.3:5060
   From: Alice <sip:alice@example.com>
   To: Bob <sip:bob@example.com>
   Call-Id: 12345600@example.com
   Route: <sip:proxy.example.com;lr>
   CSeq: 1 ACK
   Content-Length: 0


B.2.  History-Info with Privacy Header Field

   This example provides a basic call scenario without forking.  Alice
   has indicated that she wants Privacy associated with the History-Info
   header field entries.  In addition, sip:biloxi.example.com adds
   Privacy header fields indicating that the History-info header field
   information is anonymized outside the biloxi.example.com domain.
   Note, that if the atlanta.example.com proxy had added privacy header
   fields to all its hi-entries, then all the hi-entries in the response
   would be anonymous.

















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  Alice   atlanta.example.com  biloxi.example.com   Bob
  |                |                |                |
  |   INVITE sip:bob@biloxi.example.com;p=x          |
  |--------------->|                |                |
  | Supported: histinfo             |                |
  | Privacy: History                |                |
  | History-Info: <sip:bob@biloxi.example.com;p=x>;index=1
  |                |                |                |
  |                |   INVITE sip:bob@biloxi.example.com;p=x
  |                |--------------->|                |
  | History-Info: <sip:anonymous@anonymous.invalid>;index=1
  | History-Info: <sip:bob@biloxi.example.com;p=x>;index=1.1
  |                |                |                |
  |                |                | INVITE sip:bob@192.0.2.3
  |                |                |--------------->|
  | History-Info: <sip:anonymous@anonymous.invalid>;index=1
  | History-Info: <sip:bob@biloxi.example.com;p=x>;index=1.1
  | History-Info: <sip:bob@192.0.2.3?Privacy=history>;index=1.1.1;rc=1.1
  |                |                |                |
  |                |                |     200        |
  |                |                |<---------------|
  | History-Info: <sip:anonymous@anonymous.invalid>;index=1
  | History-Info: <sip:bob@biloxi.example.com;p=x>;index=1.1
  | History-Info: <sip:bob@192.0.2.3?Privacy=history>;index=1.1.1;rc=1.1
  |                |                |                |
  |                |     200        |                |
  |                |<---------------|                |
  | History-Info: <sip:anonymous@anonymous.invalid>;index=1
  | History-Info: <sip:bob@biloxi.example.com;p=x>;index=1.1
  | History-Info: <sip:anonymous@anonymous.invalid>;index=1.1.1;rc=1.1
  |                |                |                |
  |     200        |                |                |
  |<---------------|                |                |
  | History-Info: <sip:anonymous@anonymous.invalid>;index=1
  | History-Info: <sip:bob@biloxi.example.com;p=x>;index=1.1
  | History-Info: <sip:anonymous@anonymous.invalid>;index=1.1.1;rc=1.1
  |                |                |                |
  |     ACK        |                |                |
  |--------------->|    ACK         |                |
  |                |--------------->|     ACK        |
  |                |                |--------------->|

               Figure 2: Example with Privacy Header Fields








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B.3.  Privacy for a Specific History-Info Entry

   This example provides a basic call scenario similar to Appendix B.2,
   however, due to local policy at sip:biloxi.example.com, only the
   final hi-entry in the History-Info, which is Bob's local URI,
   contains a privacy header field with a priv-value of "history", thus
   providing Alice with some information about the history of the
   request, but anonymizing Bob's local URI.











































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  Alice   atlanta.example.com  biloxi.example.com   Bob
  |                |                |                |
  |   INVITE sip:bob@biloxi.example.com;p=x          |
  |--------------->|                |                |
  | Supported: histinfo             |                |
  |                |                |                |
  |                |   INVITE sip:bob@biloxi.example.com;p=x
  |                |--------------->|                |
  | History-Info: <sip:bob@biloxi.example.com;p=x>;index=1
  | History-Info: <sip:bob@biloxi.example.com;p=x>;index=1.1
  |                |                |                |
  |                |                |   INVITE sip:bob@192.0.2.3
  |                |                |--------------->|
  | History-Info: <sip:bob@biloxi.example.com;p=x>;index=1
  | History-Info: <sip:bob@biloxi.example.com;p=x>;index=1.1
  | History-Info: <sip:bob@192.0.2.3>;index=1.1.1;rc=1.1
  |                |                |                |
  |                |                |     200        |
  |                |                |<---------------|
  | History-Info: <sip:bob@biloxi.example.com;p=x>;index=1
  | History-Info: <sip:bob@biloxi.example.com;p=x>;index=1.1
  | History-Info: <sip:bob@192.0.2.3?Privacy=history>;index=1.1.1;rc=1.1
  |                |                |                |
  |                |     200        |                |
  |                |<---------------|                |
  | History-Info: <sip:bob@biloxi.example.com;p=x>;index=1
  | History-Info: <sip:bob@biloxi.example.com;p=x>;index=1.1
  | History-Info: <sip:anonymous@anonymous.invalid>;index=1.1.1;rc=1.1
  |                |                |                |
  |     200        |                |                |
  |<---------------|                |                |
  | History-Info: <sip:bob@biloxi.example.com;p=x>;index=1
  | History-Info: <sip:bob@biloxi.example.com;p=x>;index=1.1
  | History-Info: <sip:anonymous@anynymous.invalid>;index=1.1.1;rc=1.1
  |                |                |                |
  |     ACK        |                |                |
  |--------------->|    ACK         |                |
  |                |--------------->|     ACK        |
  |                |                |--------------->|


       Figure 3: Example with Privacy Header Field for Specific URI









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Authors' Addresses

   Mary Barnes
   Polycom
   TX
   US

   Email: mary.ietf.barnes@gmail.com


   Francois Audet
   Skype


   Email: francois.audet@skype.net


   Shida Schubert
   NTT


   Email: shida@agnada.com


   Hans Erik van Elburg
   Detecon International Gmbh
   Oberkasseler str. 2
   Bonn,
   Germany

   Email: ietf.hanserik@gmail.com


   Christer Holmberg
   Ericsson
   Hirsalantie 11, Jorvas
   Finland

   Email: christer.holmberg@ericsson.com












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