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Versions: (draft-petrie-sipping-config-framework) 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 RFC 6080

SIPPING                                                        D. Petrie
Internet-Draft                                                SIPez LLC.
Intended status: Standards Track                   S. Channabasappa, Ed.
Expires: November 2, 2007                                      CableLabs
                                                                May 2007


A Framework for Session Initiation Protocol User Agent Profile Delivery
                 draft-ietf-sipping-config-framework-12

Status of this Memo

   By submitting this Internet-Draft, each author represents that any
   applicable patent or other IPR claims of which he or she is aware
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   Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
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   This Internet-Draft will expire on November 2, 2007.

Copyright Notice

   Copyright (C) The IETF Trust (2007).

Abstract

   This document specifies a framework to enable configuration of
   Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) User Agents in SIP deployments.
   The framework provides a means to deliver profile data that User
   Agents need to be functional, automatically and with minimal
   (preferably none) User and Administrative intervention.  The
   framework describes how SIP User Agents can discover sources, request
   profiles and receive notifications related to profile modifications.



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   As part of this framework, a new SIP event package is defined for
   notification of profile changes.  The framework provides minimal data
   retrieval options to ensure interoperability.  The framework does not
   include specification of the profile data within its scope.


Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  5
   2.  Terminology  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  5
   3.  Executive Summary  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  6
   4.  Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  7
     4.1.   Reference Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  7
     4.2.   Data Model and Profile Types  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
     4.3.   Profile Delivery Stages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
   5.  Use Cases  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
     5.1.   Simple Deployment Scenario  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
     5.2.   Devices supporting multiple users from different
            Service Providers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
   6.  Profile Delivery Framework . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
     6.1.   Profile Delivery Stages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
       6.1.1.  Profile Enrollment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
       6.1.2.  Content Retrieval  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
       6.1.3.  Change Notification  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
       6.1.4.  Enrollment Data and Caching  . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
       6.1.5.  User Profile Type  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
     6.2.   Securing Profile Delivery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
       6.2.1.  General Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
       6.2.2.  Implementation Requirements  . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
       6.2.3.  Identities and Credentials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
       6.2.4.  Securing Profile Enrollment  . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
       6.2.5.  Securing Content Retrieval . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
       6.2.6.  Securing Change Notification . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
     6.3.   Additional Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
       6.3.1.  Profile Enrollment Request Attempt . . . . . . . . . . 29
       6.3.2.  Device Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
       6.3.3.  Profile Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
       6.3.4.  Profile Data Frameworks  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
       6.3.5.  Additional Profile Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
       6.3.6.  Deployment considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
   7.  Event Package Definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
     7.1.   Event Package Name  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
     7.2.   Event Package Parameters  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
     7.3.   SUBSCRIBE Bodies  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
     7.4.   Subscription Duration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
     7.5.   NOTIFY Bodies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
     7.6.   Notifier Processing of SUBSCRIBE Requests . . . . . . . . 40
     7.7.   Notifier Generation of NOTIFY Requests  . . . . . . . . . 41



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     7.8.   Subscriber Processing of NOTIFY Requests  . . . . . . . . 41
     7.9.   Handling of Forked Requests . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
     7.10.  Rate of Notifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
     7.11.  State Agents  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
   8.  Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
     8.1.   Example 1: Device requesting profile  . . . . . . . . . . 42
     8.2.   Example 2: Device obtaining change notification . . . . . 45
   9.  IANA Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
     9.1.   SIP Event Package . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
     9.2.   Registry of SIP configuration profile types . . . . . . . 49
   10. Security Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
     10.1.  Local-network profile . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
     10.2.  Device profile  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
     10.3.  User profile  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
   11. Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
   12. Change History . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
     12.1.  Changes from
            draft-ietf-sipping-config-framework-11.txt  . . . . . . . 56
     12.2.  Changes from
            draft-ietf-sipping-config-framework-10.txt  . . . . . . . 56
     12.3.  Changes from
            draft-ietf-sipping-config-framework-09.txt  . . . . . . . 56
     12.4.  Changes from
            draft-ietf-sipping-config-framework-08.txt  . . . . . . . 57
     12.5.  Changes from
            draft-ietf-sipping-config-framework-07.txt  . . . . . . . 57
     12.6.  Changes from
            draft-ietf-sipping-config-framework-06.txt  . . . . . . . 58
     12.7.  Changes from
            draft-ietf-sipping-config-framework-05.txt  . . . . . . . 58
     12.8.  Changes from
            draft-ietf-sipping-config-framework-04.txt  . . . . . . . 59
     12.9.  Changes from
            draft-ietf-sipping-config-framework-03.txt  . . . . . . . 59
     12.10. Changes from
            draft-ietf-sipping-config-framework-02.txt  . . . . . . . 59
     12.11. Changes from
            draft-ietf-sipping-config-framework-01.txt  . . . . . . . 59
     12.12. Changes from
            draft-ietf-sipping-config-framework-00.txt  . . . . . . . 60
     12.13. Changes from
            draft-petrie-sipping-config-framework-00.txt  . . . . . . 60
     12.14. Changes from draft-petrie-sip-config-framework-01.txt . . 60
     12.15. Changes from draft-petrie-sip-config-framework-00.txt . . 61
   13. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
     13.1.  Normative References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
     13.2.  Informative References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62
   Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63



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   Intellectual Property and Copyright Statements . . . . . . . . . . 64


















































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1.  Introduction

   SIP User Agents require configuration data to function properly.
   Examples include local network, device and user specific information.
   Ideally, this configuration process should be automatic and require
   minimal or no user intervention.

   Many deployments of SIP User Agents require dynamic configuration and
   cannot rely on pre-configuration.  This framework provides a standard
   means of providing dynamic configuration which simplifies deployments
   containing SIP User Agents from multiple vendors.  This framework
   also addresses change notifications when profiles change.  However,
   the framework does not define the content or format of the actual
   profile data, leaving that to future standardization activities.

   This document is organized as follows.  Section 3 provides a brief
   executive summary of the framework operation.  Section 4 provides a
   high-level overview of the abstract components, profiles, and profile
   delivery stages.  Section 5 provides some motivating use cases.
   Section 6 provides details of the framework operation and
   requirements.  Section 7 provides a concise event package definition.
   Section 8 follows with illustrative examples of the framework in use.


2.  Terminology

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
   document are to be interpreted as described in RFC 2119 [RFC2119].

   This document also reuses the SIP terminology defined in [RFC3261]
   and [RFC3265], and specifies the usage of the following terms.

   Device:  software or hardware entity containing one or more SIP user
      agents.  It may also contain entities such as a DHCP client.


   Device Provider:  the entity responsible for managing a given device.


   Local Network Provider:  the entity that controls the local network
      to which a given device is connected.









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   SIP Service Provider:  the entity providing SIP services to users.
      This can refer to private enterprises or public entities.


   Profile:  configuration data set specific to an entity (e.g., user,
      device, local network or other).


   Profile Type:  a particular category of Profile data (e.g., User,
      Device, Local Network or other).


   Profile Delivery Server (PDS):  the source of a Profile, it is the
      logical collection of the Profile Notification Component (PNC) and
      the Profile Content Component(PCC).


   Profile Notification Component (PNC):  the logical component of a
      Profile Delivery Server that is responsible for enrolling devices
      and providing profile notifications.


   Profile Content Component (PCC):  the logical component of a Profile
      Delivery Server that is responsible for storing, providing access
      to, and accepting profile content.




3.  Executive Summary

   The SIP UA Profile Delivery Framework uses a combination of SIP event
   messages (SUBSCRIBE and NOTIFY; [RFC3265]) and traditional file
   retrieval protocols, such as HTTP [RFC2616], to discover, monitor,
   and retrieve configuration profiles.  The framework defines three
   types of profiles (local-network, device, and user) in order to
   separate aspects of the configuration which may be independently
   managed by different administrative domains.  The initial SUBSCRIBE
   for each profile allows the UA to describe itself (both its
   implementation and its identity), while requesting access to a
   profile by type, without prior knowledge of the profile name or
   location.  Discovery mechanisms are specified to help the UA form the
   SUBSCRIBE request URI.  The SIP UAS handling these subscriptions is
   the Profile Delivery Server (PDS).  When the PDS accepts a
   subscription, it sends a NOTIFY to the device.  The initial NOTIFY
   from the PDS for each profile may contain profile data or a reference
   to the location of the profile, to be retrieved using HTTP or similar
   file transfer mechanisms.  By maintaining a subscription to each



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   profile, the UA will receive additional NOTIFY messages if the
   profile is later changed.  These may contain a new profile, a
   reference to a new profile, or a description of profile changes,
   depending on the Content-Type [RFC3261] in use by the subscription.
   The framework describes the mechanisms for obtaining three different
   profile types, but does not describe the data model they utilize (the
   data model is out of scope for this specification).


4.  Overview

   This section provides an overview of the configuration framework.  It
   introduces the reference model and explains the Profile Delivery
   Stages and the Profile Types.  It is meant to serve as a reference
   section for the document, rather than providing a specific logical
   flow of material, as it may be necessary to revisit these sections
   for a complete understanding of this document.  The detailed
   framework for the profile delivery, presented in Section 6, is based
   on the concepts introduced in this section.

4.1.  Reference Model

   The design of the framework was the result of a careful analysis to
   identify the configuration needs of a wide range of SIP deployments.
   As such, the reference model provides for a great deal of
   flexibility, while breaking down the interactions to their basic
   forms which can be reused in many different scenarios.

   The reference model for the framework defines the interactions
   between the Profile Delivery Server(PDS) and the device.  The device
   needs the profile data to effectively function in the network.  The
   PDS is responsible for responding to device requests and providing
   the profile data.  The reference model is illustrated in Figure 1.


                                          +-------------------------+
    +--------+                            | Profile Delivery Server |
    | Device |<==========================>|  +---+          +---+   |
    +--------+                            |  |PNC|          |PCC|   |
                                          |  +---+          +---+   |
                                          +-------------------------+

                                PNC = Profile Notification Component
                                PCC = Profile Content Component



                    Figure 1: Framework Reference Model



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   The PDS is subdivided into two logical components:
   o  Profile Notification Component (PNC), responsible for enrolling
      devices for profiles and providing profile change notifications;
   o  Profile Content Component (PCC), responsible for storing,
      providing access to, and accepting modifications related to
      profile content.

   The preceding framework reference model can be applied in a variety
   of deployments scenarios.  Two deployment scenarios representing
   different ends of the complexity spectrum are presented.

   In the simplest scenario, a device connects through a network that is
   controlled by a single provider who provides the local-network,
   manages the devices, and offers services to the users.  The provider
   propagates profile data to the device that contains all the necessary
   information to obtain services in the network (including information
   related to the local-network and the users).  This is illustrated in
   Figure 2.



            --------------
          / Local-network, \
         | Device & Service |
          \    Provider    /
           ----------------
                  |
                  |
               --------
              | Device |
               --------
                  |
                  |
                ----
               |User|
                ----



                    Figure 2: Simple System Level Model

   In more complex deployments, devices connect via a local network that
   is not controlled by the SIP Service Provider, such as devices that
   connect via available public WiFi hotspots.  In such cases, local
   network providers may wish to provide local network information such
   as bandwidth constraints to the devices.

   Devices may also be controlled by device providers that are



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   independent of the SIP service provider who provides user services,
   such as kiosks that allow users to access services anywhere.  In such
   cases the profile data may have to be obtained from different profile
   sources: local network provider, device provider and SIP service
   provider.  This is indicated in Figure 3 .



         --------
       /   SIP    \
      |   Service  |                -> Provides 'user' profile
      |  Provider  |                   data (e.g., services
       \          /                    configuration)
         --------      --------
             |       /          \
             |      |   Device   |  -> Provides 'device' profile
             |      |  Provider  |     data (e.g., device specifics)
             |       \          /
             |         ---------
             |        /
             |       /    -------
             |      /   /  Local  \
             |     /   |  Network  |
             |    |    |  Provider | -> Provides 'local-network' profile
             |    |     \         /     data (e.g., bandwidth)
             |    |       -------
             |    |        /
             |    |       /
             |    |      |
        ===================
       (   Local Network   )
        ===================
                |
                |
             --------
            | Device |              -> Needs the 'local-network'
             --------                  and 'device' profile
             /     \
            /       \
          ------   ------
         |User A| |User B|          -> Users need 'user' profiles
          ------   ------



                   Figure 3: General System Level Model





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   As illustrated, the simplest deployments present a single profile
   source whereas others may present multiple profile sources.  To
   address a vast majority of deployments, this framework specifies
   three distinct profiles, each of which can be obtained from a
   different provider, and set of a profile delivery stages that are
   common to any profile type.

   The understanding is that deployments in general will support the
   defined profile types.  However, the framework allows for flexibility
   in specialized cases.  PDSs and devices will implement all the three
   profile types.  Unless configured otherwise, a device will try to
   obtain all the three profile types.  A retrieval order is specified
   for the profile.  Additional profiles may also be specified outside
   the scope of this document, but are expected to follow the same
   profile delivery stages.


4.2.  Data Model and Profile Types

   This framework specifies the following three profiles.  Additional
   extended profiles may also be defined.

   Local Network Profile:  contains configuration data related to the
      local network to which a device is directly connected.  It is
      expected to be provided by the Local Network Provider.


   Device Profile:  Contains configuration data related to a specific
      device, provided by the Device Provider.


   User Profile:  contains configuration data related to a specific
      User, as required to reflect that user's preferences and the
      particular services subscribed to.  It is expected to be provided
      by the SIP Service Provider.



4.3.  Profile Delivery Stages

   The framework specified in this document requires a device to
   explicitly request profiles.  It also requires one or more PDSs which
   provide the profile data.  The processes that lead a device to obtain
   profile data, and any subsequent changes, can be explained in three
   stages, termed the Profile Delivery Stages.






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   Profile Enrollment:  the process by which a device requests, and if
      successful, enrolls with a PDS capable of providing a profile.  A
      successful enrollment is indicated by a notification containing
      the profile information (contents or content indirection
      information).  Depending on the request, this could also result in
      a subscription to notification of profile changes.


   Profile Content Retrieval:  the process by which a device retrieves
      profile contents, if the profile enrollment resulted in content
      indirection information.


   Profile Change Notification:  the process by which a device is
      notified of any changes to an enrolled profile.  This may provide
      the device with modified profile data or content indirection
      information.




5.  Use Cases

   This section provides a small, non-comprehensive set of
   representative use cases to further illustrate how this Framework can
   be utilized in SIP deployments.  The first use case is simplistic in
   nature, where as the second is relatively complex.  The use cases
   illustrate the effectiveness of the framework in either scenario.

   For Security Considerations please refer to Section 6 and Section 10.

5.1.  Simple Deployment Scenario

   Description: Consider a deployment scenario (e.g., a small private
   enterprise) where a single entity enables the local network, manages
   deployed devices and provides SIP services.  The devices only attach
   to the local network, and are pre-configured with a single user.

   The following assumptions apply:
   o    The device profile data contains all the information necessary
        for the device to participate in the local network and obtain
        services.
   o    The device is pre-configured to only request the device profile.
   o    The enrollment notification contains the profile data (profile
        content retrieval is not required).
   o    There are no proxies in the network.

   Figure 4 illustrates this use case and highlights the communications



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   relevant to the framework specified in this document.




                                         +----------------------+
    +--------+                           | Local Network, Device|
    | Device |                           |& SIP Service Provider|
    |        |                           |                      |
    +--------+                           |  DHCP        PDS     |
                                         +----------------------+
         |                                   |          |
    (A)  |<============== DHCP =============>|          |
         |                                              |
         |                                              |
         |                                              |
    (B)  |<=========== Profile Enrollment  ============>|
         |                                              | Profile data
         |                                              | is modified
         |                                              |
    (C)  |<============ Profile Change  ================|
         |               Notification                   |
         |                                              |
         |                                              |





                           Figure 4: Use Case 1


   The following is an explanation of the interactions in Figure 4.
   (A)  Upon initialization, the device obtains IP configuration
        parameters using DHCP.
   (B)  The device performs Profile Enrollment for the device profile;
        the device profile data is contained in the enrollment
        notification.
   (C)  Due to a modification of the device profile, a Profile Change
        Notification is sent across to the device, along with the
        modified profile.

5.2.  Devices supporting multiple users from different Service Providers

   Description: Consider a single device (e.g., Kiosk at an airport)
   that allows for multiple users to obtain services from a list of pre-
   configured SIP Service Providers.




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   The following assumptions apply:
   o    Provider A is the Device and Local Network Provider for the
        device, and the SIP Service Provider for user A; Provider B is
        the SIP Service Provider for user B.
   o    Profile enrollment always results in content indirection
        information requiring profile content retrieval.
   o    Communication between the device and the PDSs is facilitated by
        SIP proxies.

   Figure 4 illustrates the use case and highlights the communications
   relevant to the framework specified in this document.








































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     User User
       A   B        +----------------------+  +----------------------+
    +--------+      |       Provider       |  |       Provider       |
    | Device |      |           A          |  |          B           |
    |        |      |                      |  |                      |
    +--------+      | DHCP    PROXY   PDS  |  |  PROXY        PDS    |
                    +----------------------+  +----------------------+
         |              |        |      |          |           |
     (A) |<====DHCP====>|        |      |          |           |
         |                       |      |          |           |
         |                       |      |          |           |
         |  Profile Enrollment   |      |          |           |
     (B) |<local-network profile>|<====>|          |           |
         |
         |   <<Profile content retrieval>>
         |
         |
         |  Profile Enrollment   |      |          |           |
     (C) |<== device profile ==> |<====>|          |           |
         |
         |   <<Profile content retrieval>>
         |
                      .
                      .
                      .
             [[User A obtains services]]



         |   Profile Enrollment  |      |          |           |
     (D) |<= user profile (A) => |<====>|          |           |
         |                       |      |          |           |
         |
         |   <<Profile content retrieval>>
                              .
                      .
                      .
                      .
             [[User B obtains services]]

         |
         |            Profile Enrollment           |           |
     (E) |<=========== user profile (B) ==========>|<=========>|
         |                                         |           |
         |   <<Profile content retrieval>>
         |





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                           Figure 5: Use Case 2

   The following is an explanation of the interactions in Figure 5.
   (A)  Upon initialization, the device obtains IP configuration
        parameters using DHCP.  This also provides the local domain
        information to help with local-network profile enrollment.
   (B)  The device requests profile enrollment for the local network
        profile.  It receives an enrollment notification containing
        content indirection information from Provider A's PDS.  The
        device retrieves the profile (this contains useful information
        such as firewall port restrictions and available bandwidth).
   (C)  The device then requests profile enrollment for the device
        profile.  It receives an enrollment notification resulting in
        device profile content retrieval.  The device initializes the
        User interface for services.
   (D)  User A with a pre-existing service relationship with Provider A
        attempts communication via the user Interface.  The device uses
        the user supplied information (including any credential
        information) and requests profile enrollment for user A's
        profile.  Successful enrollment and profile content retrieval
        results in services for user A.
   (E)  At a different point in time, user B with a service relationship
        with Provider B attempts communication via the user Interface.
        It enrolls and retreives user B's profile and this results in
        services for user B.


6.  Profile Delivery Framework

   This section presents the profile delivery framework, the subject of
   this document.  The section starts by explaining the framework via
   the profile delivery stages.  It then explains how the framework
   secures the profile data propagation.  It ends with considerations
   such as back-off and retry mechanisms and profile data.

6.1.  Profile Delivery Stages

   There are three profile delivery stages: profile enrollment, content
   retrieval and change notification.

   The first step is profile enrollment and serves two purposes.  It
   allows a device to enroll with a PDS.  It also allows the PDS to
   receive the request, authenticate if necessary, authorize and enroll
   the device.

   If the device enrolls successfully, the PDS transmits a notification
   to the device.  This notification contains either the requested
   profile data, or content indirection information indicating the PCC



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   that can provide the profile data.  Usage of content indirection is
   optional.  When employed, the retrieval of the profile data is
   described by the stage termed content retrieval.

   Based on the enrollment request, the PDS may enroll the device for a
   period in time during which the device is notified of any profile
   changes.  This stage is termed change notification.

   The stages apply to any profile specified by this framework.  Devices
   and PDSs MUST comply with the requirements as specified in this
   section.  The details and the requirements are specified below.

6.1.1.  Profile Enrollment

   Profile enrollment is the process by means of which a device
   requests, and receives, profile data.  Each profile type specified in
   this document requires an independent enrollment request.  However, a
   particular PDS can support enrollment for one or more profile types.

   Profile enrollment consists of the following operations, in the
   specified order.

   Enrollment request transmission

      Profile enrollment is initiated when the device transmits an
      enrollment request using a SIP SUBSCRIBE request [RFC3265] for the
      event package specified in Section 7.2.  The profile being
      requested is indicated using the 'profile-type' parameter.  The
      device MUST transmit the SIP SUBSCRIBE message in accordance with
      RFC 3263 [RFC3263].

      The device needs certain data to create an enrollment request.
      This includes the profile provider's domain name, identities and
      credentials.  Such data can be "configured" during device
      manufacturing, by the user prior to network connectivity, or via
      profile data retrieval.  It can also be "discovered" using the
      procedures specified by this framework.  The "discovered" data can
      be retained across device resets (but not across factory resets)
      and such data is refered to as "cached".  Thus, data can be
      cached, configured or discovered.  The following rules apply.

      *  If the device is configured with a specific domain name (for
         the local network provider or device provider), it MUST NOT
         attempt re-discovery of the domain name.
      *  The device MUST only use data associated with the provider's
         domain in an enrollment request.  As an example, when the
         device is requesting a local-network profile in the domain
         'example.net', it cannot present a user AoR associated with the



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         local domain 'example.com'.
      *  The device SHOULD adhere to the following order of data usage:
         cached, configured, and discovered.  An exception is when the
         device is explicitly configured to use a different order.

      Upon failure to obtain the profile using any methods specified in
      this framework, the device MAY provide a user interface to allow
      for user intervention.  This can result in temporary, one-time
      data to bootstrap the device.  Such temporary data is not
      considered to be "configured" and is not expected to be cached
      across resets.  The configuration obtained using such data MAY
      provide the configuration data required for the device to continue
      functioning normally.

      Devices attempting enrollment MUST comply with the SIP-specific
      event notification specified in [RFC3265], the event package
      requirements specified in Section 7.2, and the security
      requirements specified in Section 6.2.


   Enrollment request admittance

      A PDS or a SIP infrastructure element (such as a SIP proxy) will
      receive a transmitted enrollment request.  If a SIP infrastructure
      element receives the request, it will relay it to the
      authoritative proxy for the domain indicated in the Request-URI.
      The authoritative proxy is required to examine the request (e.g.,
      event package) and transmit it to a PDS capable of addressing the
      profile enrollment request.


      A PDS receiving the enrollment request SHOULD respond to the
      request, or proxy it to a PDS that can respond.  An exception is
      when the a policy prevents a response (e.g., recognition of a DoS
      attack, an invalid device, etc.).  The PDS then verifies the
      identity presented in the request and performs any necessary
      authentication.  Once authentication is successful, the PDS MAY
      admit or reject the enrollment request, based on applicable
      authorization policies.  A PDS admitting the enrollment request
      indicates it via a 2xx-class response, as specified in [RFC3265].

      Refer to Section 7.6 and Section 6.2 for more information on
      subscription request handling and security requirements,
      respectively.







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   Enrollment request acceptance

      A PDS that admits the enrollment request verifies applicable
      policies, identifies the requested profile data and prepares a SIP
      notification to the device.  Such a notification can either
      contain the profile data or contain content indirection
      information that results in the device performing profile content
      retrieval.  The PDS then transmits the prepared SIP notification.
      When the device successfully receives and accepts the SIP
      notification, profile enrollment is complete.


      When it receives the SIP notification indicating enrollment
      acceptance, the device MUST make the new profile effective within
      the specified timeframe, as described in Section 7.2.

      Once profile enrollment is successful, the PDS MUST consider the
      device enrolled for the specific profile, for the duration of the
      subscription.



6.1.2.  Content Retrieval

   A successful profile enrollment leads to an initial SIP notification,
   and may result in subsequent change notifications.  Each of these
   notifications can either contain profile data, or content indirection
   information.  If it contains content indirection information, the
   device is required to retrieve the profile data using the specified
   content retrieval protocols.  This process is termed profile content
   retrieval.  For information regarding the content of the notification
   body please refer to Section 7.5.

   Devices and PDSs implementing this framework MUST implement two
   content retrieval protocols: HTTP and HTTPS as specified in [RFC2616]
   and [RFC2818], respectively.  Future enhancements or usage of this
   framework may specify additional or alternative content retrieval
   protocols.  For security requirements and considerations please refer
   to Section 6.2.

6.1.3.  Change Notification

   Profile data can change over time.  Changes can be initiated by
   various entities (e.g., via the device, back-office components and
   end-user web interfaces) and for various reasons (e.g., change in
   user preferences and modifications to services).  When a profile is
   changed the PDS MUST inform all the devices currently enrolled for
   the specific profile.  This process of informing a device of any



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   changes to the profile that it is currently enrolled for is termed
   change notification.

   The PDS provides change notification using a SIP notification (SIP
   NOTIFY message as specified in [RFC3265]).  The SIP notification may
   provide the changes, a revised profile or content indirection which
   contains a pointer to the revised data.  When a device successfully
   receives a profile change notification for an enrolled profile, it
   MUST act upon the changes prior to the expiration of the 'Expires'
   parameter.

   For NOTIFY content please refer to Section 7.5.


6.1.4.  Enrollment Data and Caching

   To enroll, the device needs to request enrollment.  This is done via
   a SIP SUBSCRIBE message.  The requirements for the contents of the
   SIP SUBSCRIBE are described in this section.  The data required can
   be configured, cached or discovered - depending on the profile type.
   If the data is not configured, the device MUST use relevant cached
   data or proceed with data discovery.  This section describes the
   requirements for creating a SIP SUBSCRIBE for enrollment, the caching
   requirements and how data can be discovered.

6.1.4.1.  Local-Network Profile

   To request the local-network profile a device needs the local network
   domain name, a device identifier and optionally a user AoR with
   associated credentials (if one is configured).  Since the device can
   be potentially initialized in a different local-network each time, it
   SHOULD NOT cache the local network domain or SIP subscription URIs
   across resets.  An exception to this is when the device can confirm
   that it is reinitialized in the same network (using means outside the
   scope of this document).  Thus, in most cases, the device needs to
   discover the local network domain name.  The device discovers this by
   establishing IP connectivity in the local network.  Once established,
   the device MUST use the local network domain obtained using static
   configuration.  If it is not configured, it MUST employ dynamic
   discovery using DHCPv4 ([RFC2132], Domain Name option) or DHCPv6
   ([RFC4704]).  Once the local network domain is obtained, the device
   creates the SIP SUBSCRIBE for enrollment as described below.
   o  The device MUST NOT populate the user part of the Request URI.
      The device MUST set the host and port of the Request URI to the
      concatenation of "_sipuaconfig" and the local network domain/port.
   o  If the device has been configured with a user AoR for the local
      network domain (verified as explained in Section 6.2) it MUST use
      it to populate the "From" field, unless explicity configured not



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      to (due to privacy concerns, for example).  If not, the device
      MUST set the "From" field to a value of
      "anonymous@anonymous.invalid".
   o  The device MUST include the +sip.instance parameter within the
      'Contact' header, as specified in [I-D.ietf-sip-outbound].  The
      device MUST ensure that the value of this parameter is the same as
      that included in the device profile enrollment request.

   For example, if the device requested and received the local domain
   name via DHCP to be: airport.example.net, then the local-network
   Profile SUBSCRIBE Request URI would look like:

   sip:_sipuaconfig.airport.example.net

   The local-network profile SUBSCRIBE Request URI does not have a user
   part so that the URI is distinct between the "local" and "device"
   URIs when the domain is the same for the two.  This provides a means
   of routing to the appropriate PDS in domains where there are distinct
   servers.

   The From field is populated with the user AoR, if available.  This
   allows the local network provider to propagate user-specific profile
   data, if available.  The "+sip.instance" parameter is set to the
   device identifier or specifically, the SIP UA instance.  Even though
   every device may get the same (or similar) local-network Profile, the
   uniqueness of the "+sip.instance" parameter provides an important
   capability.  Having unique From fields allows the management of the
   local network to track devices present in the network and
   consequently also manage resources such as bandwidth allocation.


6.1.4.2.  Device Profile Type

   The device profile is intended for obtaining information from the
   device provider managing the device.  To request the device profile,
   the device needs a unique device identifier, the device provider's
   domain name and optionally a device AoR (if configured).  The device
   AoR is an AoR associated with the device for obtaining device
   profiles.  This is considered to be a special 'user AoR' for the
   device profile, and can be the same as a user AoR associated with the
   device.

   Once a provider is associated with a device, the device provider will
   not change frequently (an example of a change is the re-use of the
   same device while changing device providers).  Thus, the device
   SHOULD cache the Subscription URI for the device profile upon
   successful enrollment, and use it upon reset.  Exceptions include
   cases where the device identifier has changed (e.g., new network card



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   with a new MAC address), device provider information has changed
   (e.g., user initiated change) or the device cannot obtain its profile
   using the Subscription URI.

   If it is not configured, then the device MUST use a cached, or
   discovered domain name.  If the device does not have a configured or
   cached Subscription URI, then it can use the device AoR.  If that is
   unavailable, it can use the configured device provider's domain to
   form the subscription URI.

   The following options are provided for device provider's domain
   discovery (used only when it is not configured with one).  The device
   MUST use the results of each successful discovery process for one
   enrollment attempt, in the order specified below.

   o  Option 1: Devices that support DHCP MUST attempt to obtain the
      host and port of the outbound proxy during the DHCP process, using
      the DHCP option for SIP servers defined in [RFC3361] or [RFC3319]
      (for IPv4 and IPv6 respectively).  The values are then used to
      populate the Request URI.
   o  Option 2: Devices that support DHCP MUST attempt to obtain the
      local IP network domain during the DHCP process (refer to
      [RFC2132] and [RFC4704] ) and use this as the host portion of the
      Request URI.
   o  Option 3: Devices MUST use the local network domain name
      (configured or discovered to retrieve the local-network profile),
      prefixing it with the label "_sipuaconfig".  This is then used as
      the host portion of the Request URI.

   If the device has to create a new Subscription URI (i.e., from a
   configured domain name, or if the cached URI is unusable) the
   following requirements apply.

   o  The device MUST set the Request URI to the device AoR, if known.
      If it is unavailable or the enrollment fails, the device MUST use
      the device identifier (specified later in this section) along with
      the device provider's domain name and port (configured or
      discoverd) to form the Request URI.
   o  If the device has been configured with a device AoR, then it MUST
      use it to populate the "From" field.  If not, the device MUST set
      the "From" field to a value of anonymous@<device provider's
      domain>.
   o  The device MUST include the +sip.instance parameter within the
      'Contact' header, as specified in [I-D.ietf-sip-outbound].  The
      device MUST use the same value as the one presented while
      requesting the local-network profile.

   When the device needs to present its device identifier it MUST use



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   the UUID-based URN representation for the user portion of the
   Request-URI, as specified in [RFC4122].  The following requirements
   apply:
   o  When the device has a non-alterable MAC address it SHOULD use
      version 1 UUID representation with the timestamp and clock
      sequence bits set to a value of '0'.  This will allow for easy
      recognition, and uniqueness of MAC address based UUIDs.  An
      exception is the case where the device supports independent device
      configuration for more than one SIP UA.  An example would be
      multiple SIP UAs on the same platform.
   o  If the device cannot use a non-alterable MAC Address, it MUST use
      the same approach as defining a user agent Instance ID in
      [I-D.ietf-sip-outbound].
   o  When the URN is used as the user part of the Request URI, it MUST
      be URL escaped
         The colon (":") is not a legal character (without being
         escaped) in the user part of an addr-spec ([RFC4122]).

         For example, the instance ID:
         urn:uuid:f81d4fae-7ced-11d0-a765-00a0c91e6bf6@example.com

         would be escaped to look as follows in a URI:

         sip:urn%3auuid%3af81d4fae-7ced-11d0-a765-00a0c91e6bf6@
         example.com

         The ABNF for the UUID representation is provided in [RFC4122]

6.1.5.  User Profile Type

   The user profile allows a SIP Service Provider to provide user-
   specific configuration.  This is based on a user AoR that is known by
   the PDS and statically or dynamically configured on the device (e.g.,
   user entered or propagated as part of the device or other profile).
   Similar to device profiles, the content and propagation of user
   profiles may differ, based on deployment scenarios (e.g., users
   belonging to the same domain may - or may not - be provided the same
   profile).  This framework does not specify any discovery mechanisms
   for this profile type.  Unless configured, the device cannot, and
   MUST NOT, request the user profile.

6.2.  Securing Profile Delivery

   This section further explains the profile delivery stages.
   Specifically, it presents the requirements necessary to secure
   profile delivery.

   It is to be noted that future enhancements to the framework may



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   specify additional or alternative behavior.  Any such enhancements
   should be cryptographically equivalent to, or increase, the
   requirements presented in this document.

   For security threats and considerations addressed by this section
   please refer to Section 10.

6.2.1.  General Requirements

   Profile data retrieval starts with profile enrollment.  The device
   forms a SIP subscription as specified in Section 6.1.4 and transmits
   it to the SIP entity resulting from the procedures specified in
   [RFC3263].  The entity to which it transmits the profile enrollment
   is termed the 'next-hop SIP entity'.  It can be a SIP proxy or a PDS.

   This framework utilizes TLS ([RFC4346]) and 'Server Identity'
   verification as specified in [RFC2818], Section 3.1.  The 'Server
   Identity' in this case is always the domain of the next-hop SIP
   entity.  The verifier is the device.  A TLS session that results from
   a successful verification of the next-hop SIP entity is termed a
   'Server identity verified TLS session' or 'next-hop entity verified
   TLS session'.

6.2.2.  Implementation Requirements

   The following are the general implementation requirements.

   - A device MUST implement TLS ([RFC4346]) with support for Server
   Identity verification as specified in [RFC2818]

   - PDSs SHOULD contain X.509 certificates that can allow for PDS
   authentication using the procedures specified in [RFC2818].
   Exceptions are PDSs that do not propagate sensitive profile data
   (e.g., a local-network PDS that does not support sensitive profile
   data).

   - PDSs that are configured with X.509 certificates (as described
   above) MUST implement TLS [RFC4346] and support 'Server Identity'
   verification as specified by [RFC2818].

   - PDSs that are configured with X.509 certificates (as described
   above) SHOULD implement SIP Identity as specified in [RFC4474].  When
   the SIP Identify header is included, the PDS MUST set the host
   portion of the AoR in the 'From' header to the local network domain.

   It is to be noted that the requirement to implement TLS does not
   imply its usage in all cases.  Please refer to the rest of this
   section for usage requirements.



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6.2.3.  Identities and Credentials

   To enroll for a profile, the device needs to provide an identity.
   This can be a user AoR (local-network and user profiles), a device
   AoR (device profile), the device identity (device profile), or a
   framework-specified identity (local-network profile).

   To be able to present an identity, such as a user AoR, the device
   needs to be configured.  This can be accomplished in one of many
   ways:

   Pre-configuration

      A distributor of the device may pre-configure the device with
      identities and associated credentials.  Identities refers to a
      device AoR (for use with the device profile) or a user AoR.


   Out-of-band methods

      A device or SIP service provider may provide the end-user with
      hardware- or software-based devices that contain the identities
      and associated credentials.  Examples include SIM cards and USB
      drives.


   End-user interface

      The end-user may be provided with user AoRs and credentials.  The
      end-user can then configure the device (using a user interface),
      or present when required (e.g., IM login screen).


   Using this framework

      When a device is initialized, even if it has no pre-configured
      information, it can request the local-network and device profiles.
      In such a case the device profile can provide three kinds of
      information:
      *  Profile data that allows the end-user to communicate with the
         device or SIP service provider.  The provider can then use any
         applicable method (e.g., web portal) to provide the user AoR.
      *  Profile data that redirects the device to an entity, such as
         the PCC, that can provide identity data.  As an example,
         consider a device that has a X.509 certificate that can be
         authenticated by the PCC.  In such a case, the PCC can use
         HTTPS to provide the user AoR.




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      *  Profile data containing user identity to be used.  This can be
         used in cases where the device is initialized for the first
         time, or after a factory reset, in the device provider's
         network.



   If a device presents a user AoR in the enrollment request, the PDS
   can challenge it.  To respond to such authentication challenges, the
   device needs to have associated credentials.  Thus, any of the
   configuration methods indicated above need to provide the user
   credentials along with any AoRs.

   Additionally, AoRs are typically known by PDSs that serve the domain
   indicated by the AoR.  Thus, devices can only present the configured
   AoRs in the respective domains.  An exception is the use of federated
   identities.  This allows a device to use a user's AoR in multiple
   domains.

   The configured user or device AoR and associated credentials can be
   used in applicable domains for any of the profile types specified by
   this framework.  In the absence of the device or user AoR, the device
   is not expected to contain any other credentials.  Future
   enhancements can specify additional identities and credentials.


6.2.4.  Securing Profile Enrollment

   A device requests profile data by transmitting an enrollment request
   using cached, configured or discovered data.  The enrollment request
   is received by a PDS that verifies the profile type and the identity
   presented, such as a user AoR.  If the device presents a configured
   user identity, it is more likely to be known by the network and
   associated with credentials.  If not (e.g., discovered or device
   identities) it may not be known by the PDS (and hence, may not be
   associated with credentials).

   If the user identity presented in the enrollment request is known by
   the PDS, it MUST challenge the request; an exception is the case
   where the data being provided is not particular to the presented user
   identity.  If the device successfully responds to the challenge, it
   is provided the initial notification which contains the profile data
   within, or via content indirection.

   To ensure that the PDS providing the data belongs to the domain
   associated with the identity, the device SHOULD authenticate the
   source of the notifications.  Since the device only directly
   communicates with the next-hop SIP entity (which may or may not be



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   the PDS) it SHOULD establish a 'next-hop SIP entity authenticated TLS
   session prior to transmitting the enrollment request.  The next-hop
   SIP entity SHOULD have a secure communications channel with the PDS.
   If not, the PDS SHOULD provide the notifications and include the SIP
   Identity header.  If the PDS wants to ensure privacy in such
   situations, it MAY provide only content indirection information in
   the notifications.  Content indirection which results in a secure
   communications channel, such as HTTPS, will ensure data integrity and
   protection.

   Profile-specific requirements follow.


6.2.4.1.  Local-network profile

   Device Requirements

      - If the device has a configured user AoR associated with the
      local network domain then the device SHOULD establish a Server
      Identity verified TLS session with the next-hop SIP entity.
      Exceptions are cases where the device is configured not to do so
      (e.g., via previously obtained, authenticated profile data).

      - If the device does not have a configured user AoR it MAY still
      establish a next-hop entity verified TLS session.

      - If an attempted next-hop SIP entity verified TLS session
      succeeds:
      *  the device MUST transmit the enrollment request with the user
         AoR (if configured);
      *  the device MUST respond to an authentication challenge.

      - If the TLS session fails to verify the next-hop SIP entity
      (i.e., the domain name could not be verified) the device MUST NOT
      continue with the current enrollment request.  However, the device
      MUST retry by trying to establish server identity verified TLS
      sessions with other next-hop entities (obtained via [RFC3263].  If
      the list of next-hop entities has been exhausted then:
      *  if the device has a user interface, and unless explicity
         configured not to, the device SHOULD prompt the user if it can
         continue without TLS;
      *  unless indicated otherwise via configuration or the user, the
         device MUST retry enrollment without TLS and without the user
         AoR.

      - If an attempted next-hop SIP entity verified TLS session fails
      (i.e., the PDS does not support TLS) the device MUST transmit the
      enrollment request, without the user AoR.



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      - In the absence of a Server Identity authenticated TLS session
      with the next-hop SIP entity:
      *  the device MUST NOT respond to any authentication challenges;
      *  the device MUST ignore notifications containing sensitive
         profile data.


   PDS Requirements

      - If an enrollment request contains a user AoR that will result in
      user-specific profile data, then the PDS MUST successfully
      authenticate the user before providing user-specific profile data
         - If user authentication fails the PDS MAY refuse enrollment,
         or provide profile data without the user-specific information.
         - It is to be noted that if a PDS attempts authentication
         without an existing next-hop authenticated TLS session, it will
         fail.

      - A PDS that does not support TLS MUST use content indirection to
      a PCC that supports authentication and integrity protection for
      conveying sensitive profile data.

      - If the enrollment request did not occur over a next-hop
      authenticated TLS session, a PDS that supports SIP Identity MUST
      include the SIP Identity header in the initial and subsequent
      change notifications

6.2.4.2.  Device profile

   Device Requirements

      A device presents either a device identity or a configured device
      AoR to obtain the device profile.  If configured with a device
      AoR, it can either be a SIPS URI or a SIP URI.  If it is not pre-
      configured then the device uses the device identifier in
      association with methods specified [RFC3263].

      If the device is using the methods specified in [RFC3263] it MUST
      prefer SIPS over SIP.

      If it obtains a SIPS URI for the next-hop SIP entity, the device
      MUST attempt to establish next-hop authenticated TLS session (as
      specified in [RFC3261]).

      If the device is configured with a device AoR and it successfully
      establishes a next-hop authenticated TLS session then it MUST
      respond to an authentication challenge.




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      In any case, if the TLS establishment fails (e.g., the PDS does
      not implement TLS) or it is unsuccessful (e.g., the connecting SIP
      entity is not the expected domain) the device MUST consider this
      an enrollment failure and try an alternate next-hop SIP entity (or
      declare an enrollment failure if all the attempts have been
      exhausted).

      In the absence of a next-hop SIP entity authenticated TLS session:


         - the device MUST NOT respond to any authentication challenges;


         - the device MUST ignore notifications containing sensitive
         profile data.


   PDS Requirements

      PDS requirements are the same as that of the local-network
      profile, with one addition.  A PDS MUST NOT accept enrollment
      requests with a SIPS URI in the absence of a secure communications
      channel (such as a TLS session from the device or a trusted
      proxy).

6.2.4.3.  User profile

   A device requesting a user profile will use a user AoR that is either
   a SIP URI or a SIPS URI.  In either case, the requirements for the
   device and the PDS are the same as when the device requests a device
   profile.

   In addition, PDSs MUST NOT accept user profile enrollment requests
   for unknown users.

6.2.5.  Securing Content Retrieval

   Initial or change notifications following a successful enrollment can
   either provide a device with the requested profile data, or use
   content indirection and redirect it to a PCC that can provide the
   profile data.  This document specifies HTTP and HTTPS as content
   retrieval protocols.

   If the profile is provided via content indirection and contains
   sensitive profile data then the PDS MUST use a HTTPS URI for content
   indirection.  PCCs and devices MUST NOT use HTTP for sensitive
   profile data.  A device MUST authenticate the PCC as specified in
   [RFC2818], Section 3.1.



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6.2.6.  Securing Change Notification

   A successful profile enrollment results in an initial notification.
   If the device requested enrollment via a SIP subscription with a non-
   zero 'Expires' parameter, it can also result in change notifications
   for the duration of the subscription.

   If the device established next-hop authentication TLS then any such
   notifications SHOULD be sent over the same TLS session.  If the TLS
   session exists, the device MUST ignore any notifications sent outside
   the TLS session.  If no such TLS session exists, the PDS MUST NOT
   include any sensitive profile data.  If no such TLS session exists,
   the PDS MUST NOT accept any sensitive profile data and ignore such
   notifications.

   A PDS that does not support TLS MUST use content indirection to a PCC
   that supports authentication and integrity protection for conveying
   sensitive profile data.

6.3.  Additional Considerations

   This section provides additional considerations such as further
   details on enrollment with related backoff and retry methods,
   guidelines on profile data and additional profile types.

6.3.1.  Profile Enrollment Request Attempt

   A state diagram representing a device requesting any specific profile
   defined by this framework is shown in Figure 6.






















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                                +------------+
                                | Initialize |
                                +-----+------+
                                      |
                                      |
                                      V
                               +-------------+
                               |   Prepare   |
                    +--------->|  Enrollment |<------------------+
                    |          |   Request   |                   |
                    |          +------+------+                   |
             +------+------+          |                          |
             |   Failure   | Enroll. Req. prepared               |
         +-->|  Handling & |      /Send Req                      |
         |   |   Delay     |          |                          |
         |   +-------------+          V                          |
         |       ^    ^        +-------------+                   |
         |       |    |        |    Await    |                   |
         |       |    +--------+  Enrollment |                   |
         |       |    Timeout, |  acceptance |                   |
         |       |   non-2xx/- +------+------+                   |
         |       |                    |                          |
         |   Timeout            200 OK/-                    Enrollment
         |  /Terminate                |                       Timeout/-
         |   Enrollment               V                          |
         |       |            +--------------+                   |
         |       |            |  Enrollment  |                   |
         |       +------------+   accepted   |                   |
    Retries Exceeded          |(await NOTIFY)|                   |
   /Retry Enrollment          +---+------+---+                   |
         |                        |      |                       |
         |                        |      |                       |
         |   NOTIFY w. Content Ind|      |  NOTIFY w. Profile    |
         |     /Retrieve Profile  |      |  /Accept Profile      |
         |           +------------+      +------------+          |
         |           |                                |          |
         |           V                                V          |
         |     +------------+                   +------------+   |
         +-----+ Retrieving |    Retrieved      | Enrollment +---+
            ,->|   Profile  +--/Apply Profile-->| Successful |
           /   |            |                   |(monitoring)|<--.
      Timeout  +--+---------+                   +--+----+----+    :
      /Retry      ;      ^                         |    :         ;
           `------'      |   NOTIFY w. Cont.Ind    |    `-------'
                         +---/Retrieve Profile-----+   NOTIFY w. Profile
                                                          /Apply Profile





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                      Figure 6: Device State Diagram

   As a reminder:
   o  The timeout for SIP messages is specified by [RFC3261]
   o  The timeout for profile retrieval using content indirection will
      be as specified by profile retrieval protocols employed

   In addition, since profile enrollment is a process unique to this
   framework, the device MUST follow the enrollment attempt along with
   exponential backoff and retry mechanisms as indicated in Figure 7.









































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    Function for Profile Enrollment ()

       Iteration i=0

       Loop: Attempt

            Loop: For each SIP Subscription URI

                 Loop: For each next-hop SIP entity obtained via RFC3263

                    - Prepare & transmit Enrollment Request

                    - Await Enrollment Acceptance and initial NOTIFY

                    + If the profile enrollment is successful
                      = Abort this function()

                    + If profile enrollment fails due to an explicit
                      failure or a timeout as specified in RFC3261
                      = Continue with this function()

                 End Loop: Next-hop SIP entity contact

            End Loop: SIP Subscription URI formation

            (Note: If you are here, profile enrollment did not succeed)

            + Is any valid cached profile data available?
              = If yes, use it and continue with this function()

            + If the enrollment request is for a non-mandatory profile
            = then spawn the next profile and continue with this
              function()

            - Delay for 2^i*(64*T1); -- this is exponential backoff

            - increment i;

            - If i>8, reset i=0;

      End loop: Attempt

  End Function()


            Figure 7: Profile Enrollment Attempt (pseudo-code)

   The pseudo-code above (Figure 7) allows for cached profiles to be



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   used.  However, any cached Local Network profile MUST NOT be used
   unless the device can ensure that it is in the same local network
   which provided the cached data.  This framework does not provide any
   procedures for local network recognition.  Any cached device and user
   profiles MUST only be used in domains that they are associated with.
   For example, a cached device profile is used only when the associated
   domain matches the current device provider's domain.  If a PDS wants
   to invalidate a profile it may do so by transmitting a NOTIFY with an
   'empty profile' (not to be confused with an empty NOTIFY).  A device
   receiving such a NOTIFY MUST discard the applicable profile (i.e., it
   cannot even store it in the cache).  Additionally, if a factory reset
   is available and performed on a device, it MUST reset the device to
   its initial state prior to any configuration.  Specifically, the
   device MUST set the device back to the state when it was originally
   distributed.

   The order of profile enrollment is important.  For the profiles
   specified in this framework, the device must enrol in the order:
   local-network, device and user.  The pseudo-code presented earlier
   (Figure 7) differentiates between 'mandatory' and 'non-mandatory'
   profiles.  This distinction is left to profile data definitions.

   It is to be noted that this framework does not allow the devices to
   inform the PDSs of profile retrieval errors such as invalid data.
   Follow-on standardization activities are expected to address this
   feature.

6.3.2.  Device Types

   The examples in this framework tend to associate devices with
   entities that are accessible to end-users.  However, this is not
   necessarily the only type of device that can utilize the specified
   Framework.  Devices can be entities such as SIP Phones or soft
   clients, with or without user interfaces (that allow for device
   Configuration), entities in the network that do not directly
   communicate with any users (e.g., gateways, media servers, etc) or
   network infrastructure elements e.g., SIP servers).

6.3.3.  Profile Data

   This framework does not specify the contents for any profile type.
   Follow-on standardization activities are expected to address profile
   contents.  However, the framework provides the following requirements
   and recommendations for profile data definitions:

   o  The device profile type MUST specify parameters to configure the
      identities and credentials.  These parameters may be optional or
      mandatory and will be used for dynamically configuring devices



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      that initialize in a network without any pre-configuration.
   o  Each profile MUST clearly identify if it may contain any sensitive
      data.  Such profiles MUST also identify the data elements that are
      considered sensitive, i.e., data that cannot be compromised.  As
      an example, a device profile definition may identify itself as
      containing sensitive data and indicate data such as device
      credentials to be sensitive.
   o  When the device receives multiple profiles, the contents of each
      profile type SHOULD only contain data relevant to the entity it
      represents.  As an example, consider a device that obtains all the
      defined profiles.  Information pertaining to the local network is
      contained in the 'local-network' profile and not the 'user'
      profile.  This does not preclude relevant data about a different
      entity from being included in a profile type, e.g., the 'device'
      profile type may contain information about the users allowed to
      access services via the device.  A profile may also contain
      starting information to obtain subsequent Profiles.
   o  Data overlap SHOULD be avoided across profile types, unless
      necessary.  If data overlap is present, prioritization of the data
      is left to data definitions.  As an example, the device profile
      may contain the list of codecs to be used by the device and the
      user Profile (for a user on the device) may contain the codecs
      preferred by the user.  Thus, the same data (usable codecs) is
      present in two profiles.  However, the data definitions may
      indicate that to function effectively, any codec chosen for
      communication needs to be present in both the profiles.

6.3.4.  Profile Data Frameworks

   The framework specified in this document does not address profile
   data representation, storage or retrieval protocols.  It assumes that
   the PDS has a PCC based on existing or other Profile Data Frameworks.

   While this framework does not impose specific constraints on any such
   framework, it does allow for the propagation of profile content to
   the PDS (specifically the PCC) from a network element or the device.
   Thus, Profile Data or Retrieval frameworks used in conjunction with
   this framework MAY consider techniques for propagating incremental,
   atomic changes to the PDS.  One means for propagating changes to a
   PDS is defined in XCAP ([RFC4825]).


6.3.5.  Additional Profile Types

   This document specifies three profile types: local-network, device
   and user.  However, there may be use cases for additional profile
   types. e.g., profile types for application specific profile data or
   to provide enterprise-specific policies.  Definition of such



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   additional profile types is not prohibited, but considered out of
   scope for this document.  Such profile definitions MUST specify the
   order of retrieval with respect to all the other profiles such as the
   local-network, device and user profile types defined in this
   document.

6.3.6.  Deployment considerations

   The framework defined in this document was designed to address
   various deployment considerations, some of which are highlighted
   below.

   Provider relationships:
   o  The local network provider and the SIP service provider can often
      be different entities, with no administrative or business
      relationship with each other.
   o  There may be multiple SIP service providers involved, one for each
      service that a user subscribes to (telephony service, instant
      messaging, etc.); this Framework does not specify explicit
      behavior in such a scenario, but it does not prohibit its usage
      either.
   o  Each user accessing services via the same device may subscribe to
      different sets of services, from different Service Providers.

   User-device relationship:
   o  The relationship between devices and users can be many-to-many
      (e.g., a particular device may allow for many users to obtain
      subscription services through it, and individual users may have
      access to multiple devices).
   o  Each user may have different preferences for use of services, and
      presentation of those services in the device user interface.
   o  Each user may have different personal information applicable to
      use of the device, either as related to particular services, or
      independent of them.


7.  Event Package Definition

   The framework specified in this document proposes and specifies a new
   SIP Event Package as allowed by [RFC3265].  The purpose is to allow
   for devices to subscribe to specific profile types with PDSs and for
   the PDSs to notify the devices with the profile data or content
   indirection information.

   The requirements specified in [RFC3265] apply to this package.  The
   following sub-sections specify the Event Package description and the
   associated requirements.  The framework requirements are defined in
   Section 6.



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7.1.  Event Package Name

   The name of this package is "ua-profile".  This value appears in the
   Event header field present in SUBSCRIBE and NOTIFY requests for this
   package as defined in [RFC3265].

7.2.  Event Package Parameters

   This package defines the following new parameters for the event
   header:
      "profile-type", "vendor", "model", "version", and "effective-by"

   The following rules apply:
   o  All the new parameters, with the exception of the "effective-by"
      parameter MUST only be used in SUBSCRIBE requests and ignored if
      they appear in NOTIFY requests.
   o  The "effective-by" parameter is for use in NOTIFY requests only
      and MUST be ignored if it appears in SUBSCRIBE requests.

   The semantics of these new parameters are specified in the following
   sub-sections.


7.2.1.  profile-type

   The "profile-type" parameter is used to indicate the token name of
   the profile type the user agent wishes to obtain data or URIs for and
   to be notified of subsequent changes.  This document defines three
   logical types of profiles and their token names.  They are as
   follows:

   local-network:  Specifying "local-network" type profile indicates the
      desire for profile data (URI when content indirection is used)
      specific to the local network.

   device:  Specifying "device" type profile(s) indicates the desire for
      the profile data (URI when content indirection is used) and change
      notification of the contents of the profile that is specific to
      the device or user agent.

   user:  Specifying "user" type profile indicates the desire for the
      profile data (URI when content indirection is used) and change
      notification of the profile content for the user.


   The "profile-type" is identified is identified in the Event header
   parameter: profile-type.  A separate SUBSCRIBE dialog is used for
   each profile type.  The profile type associated with the dialog can



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   then be used to infer which profile type changed and is contained in
   the NOTIFY or content indirection URI.  The Accept header of the
   SUBSCRIBE request MUST include the MIME types for all profile content
   types for which the subscribing user agent wishes to retrieve
   profiles or receive change notifications.

   In the following syntax definition using ABNF, EQUAL and token are
   defined in [RFC3261].  It is to be noted that additional profile
   types may be defined in subsequent documents.


   Profile-type   = "profile-type" EQUAL profile-value
   profile-value  =  profile-types / token
   profile-types  = "device" / "user" / "local-network"

   The "device", "user" or "local-network" token in the profile-type
   parameter may represent a class or set of profile properties.
   Follow-on standards defining specific profile contents may find it
   desirable to define additional tokens for the profile-type parameter.
   Also additional content types may be defined along with the profile
   formats that can be used in the Accept header of the SUBSCRIBE to
   filter or indicate what data sets of the profile are desired.


7.2.2.  vendor, model and version

   The "vendor", "model" and "version" parameter values are tokens
   specified by the implementer of the user agent.  These parameters
   MUST be provided in the SUBSCRIBE request for all profile types.  The
   implementer SHOULD use their DNS domain name (e.g., example.com) as
   the value of the "vendor" parameter so that it is known to be unique.
   These parameters are useful to the PDS to affect the profiles
   provided.  In some scenarios it is desirable to provide different
   profiles based upon these parameters. e.g., feature property X in a
   profile may work differently on two versions of the same user agent.
   This gives the PDS the ability to compensate for or take advantage of
   the differences.  In the following ABNF defining the syntax, EQUAL
   and quoted-string are defined in [RFC3261].


   Vendor       =  "vendor" EQUAL quoted-string
   Model        =  "model" EQUAL quoted-string
   Version      =  "version" EQUAL quoted-string








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7.2.3.  effective-by parameter

   The "effective-by" parameter in the Event header of the NOTIFY
   request specifies the maximum number of seconds before the user agent
   must attempt to make the new profile effective.  The "effective-by"
   parameter MAY be provided in the NOTIFY request for any of the
   profile types.  A value of 0 (zero) indicates that the subscribing
   user agent must attempt to make the profiles effective immediately
   (despite possible service interruptions).  This gives the PDS the
   power to control when the profile is effective.  This may be
   important to resolve an emergency problem or disable a user agent
   immediately.  The "effective-by" parameter is ignored in all messages
   other than the NOTIFY request.  In the following ABNF, EQUAL and
   DIGIT are defined in [RFC3261].

   Effective-By =  "effective-by" EQUAL 1*DIGIT

7.2.4.  Summary of event parameters

   The following are example Event headers which may occur in SUBSCRIBE
   requests.  These examples are not intended to be complete SUBSCRIBE
   requests.

   Event: ua-profile;profile-type=device;
          vendor="vendor.example.com";model="Z100";version="1.2.3"

   Event: ua-profile;profile-type=user;
          vendor="premier.example.com";model="trs8000";version="5.5"

   The following are example Event headers which may occur in NOTIFY
   requests.  These example headers are not intended to be complete
   SUBSCRIBE requests.

   Event: ua-profile;effective-by=0

   Event: ua-profile;effective-by=3600

   The following table shows the use of Event header parameters in
   SUBSCRIBE requests for the three profile types:












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   profile-type || device | user | local-network
   =============================================
   vendor       ||   m    |  m   |        m
   model        ||   m    |  m   |        m
   version      ||   m    |  m   |        m
   effective-by ||        |      |

   m - mandatory
   s - SHOULD be provided
   o - optional

   Non-specified means that the parameter has no meaning and should be
   ignored.

   The following table shows the use of Event header parameters in
   NOTIFY requests for the three profile types:

   profile-type || device | user | local-network
   =============================================
   vendor       ||        |      |
   model        ||        |      |
   version      ||        |      |
   effective-by ||   o    |  o   |        o

7.3.  SUBSCRIBE Bodies

   This package defines no use of the SUBSCRIBE request body.  If
   present, it MUST be ignored.

   Future enhancements to the framework may specify a use for the
   SUBSCRIBE request body (e.g., mechanisms using etags to minimize
   Profile Notifications to devices with current profile versions).

7.4.  Subscription Duration

   The duration of a subscription is specific to SIP deployments and no
   specific recommendation is made by this Event Package.  If absent, a
   value of 86400 seconds (24 hours; 1 day) is RECOMMENDED since the
   presence (or absence) of a device subscription is not time critical
   to the regular functioning of the PDS.

   It is to be noted that a one-time fetch of a profile can be
   accomplished by setting the 'Expires' parameter to a value of Zero,
   as specified in [RFC3265].







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7.5.  NOTIFY Bodies

   The framework specifying the Event Package allows for the NOTIFY body
   to contain the profile data or a pointer to the profile data using
   content indirection.  The framework does not define any profile data
   and delegates specification of utilized MIME types Profile Data
   Frameworks.  For profile data delivered via content indirection, the
   following apply:

   o  The Content-ID MIME header, as described in [RFC4483] MUST be used
      for each Profile document URI.
   o  At a minimum, the "http:" and "https:" URI schemes MUST be
      supported; other URI schemas MAY be supported based on the Profile
      Data Frameworks (examples include FTP [RFC0959], HTTP [RFC2616],
      HTTPS [RFC2818], LDAP [RFC4510] and XCAP [RFC4825] ).

   The NOTIFY body SHOULD include a MIME type specified in the 'Accept'
   header of the SUBSCRIBE.  Further, if the Accept header of the
   SUBSCRIBE included the MIME type message/external-body (indicating
   support for content indirection) then the PDS MAY use content
   indirection in the NOTIFY body for providing the profiles.


7.6.  Notifier Processing of SUBSCRIBE Requests

   A successful SUBSCRIBE request results in a NOTIFY with either
   profile contents or a pointer to it (via Content Indirection).  If
   the NOTIFY is expected to contain profile contents or the Notifier is
   unsure, the SUBSCRIBE SHOULD be either authenticated or transmitted
   over an integrity protected SIP communication channels.  Exceptions
   to authenticating such SUBSCRIBEs include cases where the identity of
   the Subscriber is unknown and the Notifier is configured to accept
   such requests.

   The Notifier MAY also authenticate SUBSCRIBE messages even if the
   NOTIFY is expected to only contain a pointer to profile data.
   Securing data sent via Content Indirection is covered in Section 10.

   If the profile type indicated in the "profile-type" Event header
   parameter is unavailable or the Notifier is configured not to provide
   it, the Notifier SHOULD return a 404 response to the SUBSCRIBE
   request.  If the specific user or device is unknown, the Notifier MAY
   either accept or reject the subscription.








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7.7.  Notifier Generation of NOTIFY Requests

   As specified in [RFC3265], the Notifier MUST always send a NOTIFY
   request upon accepting a subscription.  If the device or user is
   unknown and the Notifier chooses to accept the subscription, the
   Notifier MAY either respond with profile data (e.g., default profile
   data) or provide no profile information (i.e. no body or content
   indirection).

   If the URI in the SUBSCRIBE request is a known identity and the
   requested profile information is available (i.e. as specified in the
   profile-type parameter of the Event header), the Notifier SHOULD send
   a NOTIFY with profile data.  Profile data MAY be sent as profile
   contents or via Content Indirection (if the content indirection MIME
   type was included in the Accept header).  To allow for Content
   Indirection, the Subscriber MUST support the "http:" or "https:" URI
   schemas.  If the Subscriber wishes to support alternative URI schemas
   it MUST be indicated in the "schemes" Contact header field parameter
   as defined in [RFC4483].  The Notifier MUST NOT use any schema that
   was not indicated in the "schemas" Contact header field.

   The Notifier MAY specify when the new profiles must be made effective
   by the Subscriber by specifying a maximum time in seconds (zero or
   more) in the "effective-by" event header parameter.

   If the SUBSCRIBE was received over an integrity protected SIP
   communications channel, the Notifier SHOULD send the NOTIFY over the
   same channel.

7.8.  Subscriber Processing of NOTIFY Requests

   A Subscriber to this event package MUST adhere to the NOTIFY request
   processing behavior specified in [RFC3265].  If the Notifier
   indicated an effective time (using the "effective-by" Event Header
   parameter), it SHOULD attempt to make the profiles effective within
   the specified time.  Exceptions include deployments that prohibit
   such behavior in certain cases (e.g., emergency sessions are in
   progress).  When profile data cannot be applied within the
   recommended timeframe and this affects device behavior, any actions
   to be taken SHOULD be defined by the profile data definitions.  By
   default, the Subscriber is RECOMMENDED to make the profiles effective
   as soon as possible.

   The Subscriber MUST always support "http:" or "https:" and be
   prepared to accept NOTIFY messages with those URI schemas.The
   subscriber MUST also be prepared to receive a NOTIFY request with no
   body.  The subscriber MUST NOT reject the NOTIFY request with no
   body.  The subscription dialog MUST NOT be terminated by a NOTIFY



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   with no body.


7.9.  Handling of Forked Requests

   This Event package allows the creation of only one dialog as a result
   of an initial SUBSCRIBE request as described in section 4.4.9 of
   [RFC3265].  It does not support the creation of multiple
   subscriptions using forked SUBSCRIBE requests.

7.10.  Rate of Notifications

   The rate of notifications for the profiles in this framework is
   deployment specific, but expected to be infrequent.  Hence, the Event
   Package specification does not specify a throttling or minimum period
   between NOTIFY requests

7.11.  State Agents

   State agents are not applicable to this Event Package.


8.  Examples

   This section provides examples along with sample SIP message bodies
   relevant to this framework.  Both the examples are derived from a
   snapshot of Section 5.1, specifically the request for the device
   profile.  The examples are purely informative and in case of
   conflicts with the framework or protocols used for illustration, the
   latter should be deemed normative.


8.1.  Example 1: Device requesting profile

   This example illustrates the detailed message flows between the
   device and the SIP Service Provider's network for requesting and
   retrieving the profile (the flow uses the device profile as an
   example).

   The following are assumed for this example:

   o  Device is assumed to have established local network connectivity;
      NAT and Firewall considerations are assumed to have been addressed
      by the SIP Service Provider.
   o  Examples are snapshots only and do not illustrate all the
      interactions between the device and the Service Provider's network
      (and none between the entities in the SIP Service Provider's
      network).



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   o  All SIP communication with the SIP Service Provider happens via a
      SIP Proxy.
   o  HTTP over TLS is assumed to be the Profile Data method used (any
      suitable alternative can be used as well).

   The flow diagram and an explanation of the messages follow.




                                      +----------------------+
    +--------+                        | SIP Service Provider |
    | Device |                        |                      |
    |(SIP UA)|                        |  SIP     PDS   HTTP  |
    +--------+                        | PROXY         Server |
                                      |                      |
                                      +----------------------+
         |                                |       |      |
         |                                |       |      |
         |          SUBSCRIBE             |       |      |
   (SReq)|--------device profile--------->|       |      |
         |                                |------>|      |
         |                                |200 OK |      |
         |            200 OK              |<------|      |
   (SRes)|<-------------------------------|       |      |
         |                                |       |      |
         |                                | NOTIFY|      |
         |    NOTIFY (Content Indirection)|<------|      |
   (NTFY)|<-------------------------------|       |      |
         |            200 OK              |       |      |
   (NRes)|------------------------------->|200 OK |      |
         |                                |------>|      |
         |                                               |
         |                                               |
         |                                               |
         |<<<<<<<<<<<<<  TLS establishment  >>>>>>>>>>>>>|
         |                                               |
         |                HTTP Request                   |
   (XReq)|---------------------------------------------->|
         |                                               |
         |                HTTP Response                  |
   (XRes)|<----------------------------------------------|
         |                                               |








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   (SReq)

      the device transmits a request for the 'device' profile using the
      SIP SUBSCRIBE utilizing the Event Package specified in this
      framework.

      *    Note: Some of the header fields (e.g., SUBSCRIBE, Event, via)
           are continued on a separate line due to format constraints of
           this document.


   SUBSCRIBE sip:urn%3auuid%3a00000000-0000-1000-0000-00FF8D82EDCB
             @example.com  SIP/2.0
   Event: ua-profile;profile-type=device;vendor="vendor.example.net";
          model="Z100";version="1.2.3";
   From: sip:urn%3auuid%3a00000000-0000-1000-0000-00FF8D82EDCB
          @example.com;tag=1234
   To: sip:urn%3auuid%3a00000000-0000-1000-0000-00FF8D82EDCB@example.com
   Call-ID: 3573853342923422@192.0.2.44
   CSeq: 2131 SUBSCRIBE
   Contact: sip:urn%3auuid%3a00000000-0000-1000-0000-00FF8D82EDCB
            @example.com
      ;+sip.instance="<urn:uuid:00000000-0000-0000-0000-123456789AB0>"
   Via: SIP/2.0/TCP 192.0.2.41;
     branch=z9hG4bK6d6d35b6e2a203104d97211a3d18f57a
   Accept: message/external-body, application/x-z100-device-profile
   Content-Length: 0




   (SRes)

      the SUBSCRIBE request is received by a SIP Proxy in the Service
      Provider's network which transmits it to the PDS.  The PDS accepts
      the response and responds with a 200 OK
      *    Note: The device and the SIP proxy may have established a
           secure communications channel (e.g., TLS).

   (NTFY)

      subsequently, the PDS transmits a SIP NOTIFY message indicating
      the profile location
      *  Note: Some of the fields (e.g., content-type) are continued on
         a separate line due to format constraints of this document.






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 NOTIFY sip:urn%3auuid%3a00000000-0000-1000-0000-00FF8D82EDCB
        @192.0.2.44 SIP/2.0
 Event: ua-profile;effective-by=3600
 From: sip:urn%3auuid%3a00000000-0000-1000-0000-00FF8D82EDCB@example.com
       ;tag=abca
 To: sip:urn%3auuid%3a00000000-0000-1000-0000-00FF8D82EDCB@example.com
     ;tag=1231
 Call-ID: 3573853342923422@192.0.2.44
 CSeq: 322 NOTIFY
 Via: SIP/2.0/UDP 192.0.2.3;
   branch=z9hG4bK1e3effada91dc37fd5a0c95cbf6767d0
 MIME-Version: 1.0
 Content-Type: message/external-body; access-type="URL";
               expiration="Mon, 01 Jan 2010 09:00:00 UTC";
               URL="http://example.com/z100-000000000000.html";
               size=9999;
               hash=10AB568E91245681AC1B

 Content-Type: application/x-z100-device-profile
 Content-ID: <39EHF78SA@example.com>
 .
 .
 .




   (NRes)

      Device accepts the NOTIFY message and responds with a 200 OK

   (XReq)

      once the necessary secure communications channel is established,
      the device sends an HTTP request to the HTTP server indicated in
      the NOTIFY

   (XRes)

      the HTTP server responds to the request via a HTTP response
      containing the profile contents


8.2.  Example 2: Device obtaining change notification

   The following example illustrates the case where a user (X) is
   simultaneously accessing services via two different devices (e.g.,
   Multimedia entities on a PC and PDA) and has access to a user



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   Interface (UI) that allows for changes to the user profile.

   The following are assumed for this example:
   o  The devices (A & B) obtain the necessary profiles from the same
      SIP Service Provider.
   o  The SIP Service Provider also provides a user Interface (UI) that
      allows the user to change preferences that impact the user
      profile.

   The flow diagram and an explanation of the messages follow.
   o  Note: The example only shows retrieval of user X's profile, but it
      may request and retrieve other profiles (e.g., local-network,
      Device).




               -----           -----
              |User |_________| UI* | * = User Interface
              |  X  |         |     |
               -----           -----
             /       \
            /         \
           /           \              +----------------------+
    +--------+      +--------+        | SIP Service Provider |
    | Device |      | Device |        |                      |
    |    A   |      |    B   |        |  SIP     PDS   HTTP  |
    +--------+      +--------+        | PROXY         Server |
                                      +----------------------+
         |                                |       |      |
         |                                |       |      |
   (A-EX)|<=Enrolls for User X's profile=>|<=====>|      |
         |                                |       |      |
         |                                               |
   (A-RX)|<===Retrieves User X's profile================>|
         |                                               |
         |               |                |       |      |
         |               |  Enrolls for   |       |      |
         |         (B-EX)|<== User X's ==>|<=====>|      |
         |               |    profile     |       |      |
         |               |                |       |      |
         |               |                               |
         |         (B-RX)|<= Retrieves User X's profile=>|
         |                                               |
         |                       |                       |
         |                 (HPut)|---------------------->|
         |                       |                       |
         |                 (HRes)|<----------------------|



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         |                                               |
         |                                |       |      |
         |                                | NOTIFY|      |
         |            NOTIFY              |<------|      |
   (A-NT)|<-------------------------------|       |      |
         |            200 OK              |       |      |
   (A-RS)|------------------------------->|200 OK |      |
         |                                |------>|      |
         |                                               |
         |               |                | NOTIFY|      |
         |               |    NOTIFY      |<------|      |
         |         (B-NT)|<---------------|       |      |
         |               |    200 OK      |       |      |
         |         (B-RS)|--------------->|200 OK |      |
         |               |                |------>|      |
         |                                               |
         |                                               |
   (A-RX)|<===Retrieves User X's profile================>|
         |                                               |
         |               |                               |
         |               |                               |
         |         (B-RX)|<= Retrieves User X's profile=>|
         |               |                               |





   (A-EX)  Device A discovers, enrolls and obtains notification related
      to user X's profile.
   (A-RX)  Device A retrieves user X's profile.
   (B-EX)  Device B discovers, enrolls and obtains notification related
      to user X's profile.
   (B-RX)  Device B retrieves user X's profile.
   (HPut)  Changes affected by the user via the user Interface (UI) are
      uploaded to the HTTP Server.
      *  Note: The UI itself can act as a device and subscribe to user
         X's profile.  This is not the case in the example shown.
   (HRes)  Changes are accepted by the HTTP server.
   (A-NT)  PDS transmits a NOTIFY message to device A indicating the
      changed profile.  A sample message is shown below:
         Note: Some of the fields (e.g., Via) are continued on a
         separate line due to format constraints of this document.








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   NOTIFY sip:userX@192.0.2.44 SIP/2.0
   Event: ua-profile;effective-by=3600
   From: sip:userX@sip.example.net;tag=abcd
   To: sip:userX@sip.example.net.net;tag=1234
   Call-ID: 3573853342923422@192.0.2.44
   CSeq: 322 NOTIFY
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP 192.0.2.3;
     branch=z9hG4bK1e3effada91dc37fd5a0c95cbf6767d1
   MIME-Version: 1.0
   Content-Type: message/external-body; access-type="URL";
                 expiration="Mon, 01 Jan 2010 09:00:00 UTC";
                 URL="http://www.example.com/user-x-profile.html";
                 size=9999;
                 hash=123456789AAABBBCCCDD
   .
   .
   .




   (A-RS)  Device A accepts the NOTIFY and sends a 200 OK
   (B-NT)  PDS transmits a NOTIFY message to device B indicating the
      changed profile.  A sample message is shown below:
         Note: Some of the fields (e.g., Via) are continued on a
         separate line due to format constraints of this document.


   NOTIFY sip:userX@192.0.2.43 SIP/2.0
   Event: ua-profile;effective-by=3600
   From: sip:userX@sip.example.net;tag=abce
   To: sip:userX@sip.example.net.net;tag=1235
   Call-ID: 3573853342923422@192.0.2.43
   CSeq: 322 NOTIFY
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP 192.0.2.3;
     branch=z9hG4bK1e3effada91dc37fd5a0c95cbf6767d2
   MIME-Version: 1.0
   Content-Type: message/external-body; access-type="URL";
                 expiration="Mon, 01 Jan 2010 09:00:00 UTC";
                 URL="http://www.example.com/user-x-profile.html";
                 size=9999;
                 hash=123456789AAABBBCCCDD
   .
   .
   .






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   (B-RS)  Device B accepts the NOTIFY and sends a 200 OK
   (A-RX)  Device A retrieves the updated profile pertaining to user X
   (B-RX)  Device B retrieves the updated profile pertaining to user X


9.  IANA Considerations

   There are two IANA considerations associated with this document, SIP
   Event Package and SIP configuration profile types.  These are
   outlined in the following sub-sections.

9.1.  SIP Event Package

   This specification registers a new event package as defined in
   [RFC3265].  The following information required for this registration:

      Package Name: ua-profile
      Package or Template-Package: This is a package
      Published Document: RFC XXXX (Note to RFC Editor: Please fill in
      XXXX with the RFC number of this specification)
      Persons to Contact: Daniel Petrie dan.ietf AT SIPez DOT com,
      sumanth@cablelabs.com
      New event header parameters: profile-type, vendor, model, version,
      effective-by (the profile-type parameter has predefined values.
      The new event header parameters do not)
   The following table illustrates the additions to the IANA SIP Header
   Field Parameters and Parameter Values: (Note to RFC Editor: Please
   fill in XXXX with the RFC number of this specification)

                                                  Predefined
   Header Field                  Parameter Name     Values     Reference
   ----------------------------  ---------------   ---------   ---------
   Event                         profile-type      Yes         [RFCXXXX]
   Event                         vendor            No          [RFCXXXX]
   Event                         model             No          [RFCXXXX]
   Event                         version           No          [RFCXXXX]
   Event                         effective-by      No          [RFCXXXX]

9.2.  Registry of SIP configuration profile types

   This document requests IANA to register new SIP configuration profile
   types at http://www.iana.org/assignments/sip-parameters under "SIP
   Configuration Profile Types".

   SIP configuration profile types allocations fall under the category
   "Specification Required", as explained in "Guidelines for Writing an
   IANA Considerations Section in RFCs" ([RFC2434]).




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   Registrations with the IANA MUST include a the profile type, and a
   published document which describes its purpose and usage.

   As this document specifies three SIP configuration profile types, the
   initial IANA registration will contain the information shown in the
   table below.  It also demonstrates the type of information maintained
   by the IANA.

         Profile Type                          Reference
         --------------                         ---------
         local-network                          [RFCXXXX]
         device                                 [RFCXXXX]
         user                                   [RFCXXXX]


         CONTACT:
         -------
         sumanth@cablelabs.com
         Daniel Petrie dan.ietf AT SIPez DOT com

   Note to RFC editor: Please replace RFCXXXX with the RFC number
   assigned to this document.


10.  Security Considerations

   The framework specified in this document enables profile data
   delivery to devices.  It specifies profile delivery stages, an event
   package and several profile types.

   There are three stages: Enrollment, Content Retrieval, and Change
   Notification.



















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       +------+                 +-----+
       |      |                 |     |
       |Device|                 | PNC |
       |      |                 |     |
       +------+                 +-----+
           |                       |
           |  Profile Enrollment   |
           |---------------------->|
           |                       |
           |  Initial Notification |
           |<----------------------|
           |                       |


       +------+                 +-----+
       |      |                 |     |
       |Device|                 | PNC |
       |      |                 |     |
       +------+                 +-----+
           |                       |
           |  Profile Enrollment   |
           |---------------------->|
           |                       |
           |  Change Notification  |
           |<----------------------|
           |                       |


       +------+                 +-----+
       |      |                 |     |
       |Device|                 | PCC |
       |      |                 |     |
       +------+                 +-----+
           |                       |
           |    Profile Request    |  (When content
           |---------------------->|   indirection
           |                       |   is used)
           |    Profile Response   |
           |<----------------------|
           |                       |


         PNC = Profile Notification Component
         PCC = Profile Content Component







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                    Figure 23: Profile Delivery Stages

   Enrollment allows a device to request a profile.  To transmit the
   request the device relies on cached, configured or discovered data.
   Such data includes provider domain names, identities, and
   credentials.  The device uses [RFC3263] to discover the next-hop SIP
   entity which can be a SIP proxy or the PDS.  It then transmits the
   request, after establishing a TLS session if required.  If obtained
   via a SIP proxy, the Request-URI is used to route it to a PDS (via an
   authoritative SIP proxy, if required).

   When a PDS receives the enrollment request, it can either challenge
   the presented identity (if any) or admit the enrollment.
   Authorization then decides if the enrollment is accepted.  If
   accepted, the PDS sends an initial notification that contains either:
   profile data or content indirection information.  The profile data
   can contain information specific to an entity (such as the device or
   a user) and may contain sensitive information (such as credentials).
   Compromise of such data can lead to threats such as impersonation
   attacks (establishing rogue sessions), theft of service (if services
   are obtainable), and zombie attacks.  Even if the profile data is
   provided using content indirection, PCC information within the
   notification can lead to threats such as denial of service attacks
   (rogue devices bombard the PCC with requests for a specific profile)
   and attempts to modify erroneous data onto the PCC (since the
   location and format may be known).  It is also important for the
   device to ensure the authenticity of the PNC since impersonation of
   the SIP service provider can lead to Denial of Service, Man-in-the-
   Middle attacks, etc.

   Profile content retrieval allows a device to retrieve profile data
   from a PCC.  This communication is accomplished using one of many
   profile delivery protocols or frameworks, such as HTTP or HTTPS as
   specified in this document.  However, since the profile data returned
   is subject to the same considerations as that sent via profile
   notification, the same threats exist.

   Profile-specific considerations follow.


10.1.  Local-network profile

   A local network may or may not (e.g., home router) support local-
   network profiles as specified in this framework.  Even if supported,
   the PDS may only be configured with a generic local-network profile
   that is provided to every device capable of accessing the network.
   Such a PDS may not implement any authentication requirements or TLS.




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   Alternatively, certain deployments may require the entities - device
   and the PDS - to mutually authenticate prior to profile enrollment.
   Such networks may pre-configure user identities to the devices and
   allow user-specific local-network profiles.  In such networks the PDS
   will contain X.509 certificates and support TLS, and the devices are
   pre-configured with user identities, credentials and implement TLS.

   This framework supports both use cases and variations in-between.
   However, devices obtaining local-network profiles from an
   unauthenticated PDS are cautioned against potential MiM or PDS
   impersonation attacks.  This framework requires that a device reject
   sensitive data, such as credentials, from unauthenticated local-
   network sources (exceptions are noted).  It also prohibits devices
   from responding to authentication challenges from unauthenticated
   PDSs.  Responding to unauthenticated challenges allows for dictionary
   attacks that can reveal weak passwords.

   If deployments prefer devices to obtain profiles only from pre-
   configured domains (e.g., partner networks), they MAY require such
   devices to establish TLS prior to obtaining the local-network
   profile.

   The use of SIP Identity is useful in cases when TLS is not used but
   the device still obtains a profile (e.g., the local-network profile).
   In such cases the device provider, or the user, can use the SIP
   Identity header to verify the source of the local-network profile.
   However, the presence of the header does not guarantee the validity
   of the data.  It verifies the source and confirms data integrity, but
   the data obtained from an undesired source may still be invalid
   (e.g., it can be invalid or contain malicious content).


10.2.  Device profile

   Device profiles deal with device-specific configuration.  They may be
   provided to unknown devices that are attempting to obtaining profiles
   for purposes of trials and self-subscription to SIP services (not to
   be confused with [RFC3265]), emergency services
   ([I-D.ietf-ecrit-phonebcp]), or to devices that are known by the PDS.
   Devices that are not aware of any device providers (i.e., no cached
   or configured information) will have to discover a PDS in the network
   they connect to.  In such a case the discovered information may lead
   them to a PDS that provides enough profile data to enable device
   operation.  This configuration can also provide a user AoR that can
   be used in the local-network and credentials (temporary or long-term)
   that will be used for future communication with the network.  This
   may enable the device to communicate with a device provider who
   allows for self-subscription (e.g., web interface, interactive voice



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   response or customer service representative).  It may also allow the
   device a choice of device providers and allow the end-user to choose
   one.  It is to be noted that such devices are at the mercy of the
   network they connect to initially.  If they are initialized in a
   rogue network, or get hijacked by a rogue PDS, the end-user may be
   left without desired device operation, or worse unwanted operation.
   To mitigate such factors the device provider may communicate
   temporary credentials (PINs that can be entered via an interface) or
   permanent credentials (e.g., a USB device) to the end-user for
   connectivity.  If such methods are used the large-entropy credentials
   MUST be used, or quickly replaced with such, to minimize the impact
   of dictionary attacks.  Future enhancements to this framework may
   specify device capabilities that allow for mutual authentication
   without pre-configuration (e.g., X.509 certificates using PKI).

   Once a device is associated with a device provider (either
   dynamically or via pre-configuration using a user interface or prior
   to distribution), the device profile is vital to device operation.
   This is because the device profile can contain important operational
   information such as users that are to be allowed access (white-list
   or black-list), user credentials (if required) and other sensitive
   information.  Thus, it is also necessary to ensure that the device
   profile is not obtained via an unauthenticated source or tampered
   during transit.  Thus the framework requires that devices supporting
   any sensitive device profiles establish next-hop authenticated TLS
   connections prior to device enrollment.  However, given the
   importance of the device profile it also allows for profile requests
   in cases where the PDS does not implement TLS.  It also allows the
   PDSs to perform authentication without requiring TLS.  However, this
   leaves the communication open to MiM attacks and SHOULD be avoided.
   Additionally any credential used SHOULD be of sufficiently large-
   entropy to prevent dictionary attacks.  Devices SHOULD use the
   'cnonce' parameter ([RFC2617]) to thwart "offline" dictionary
   attacks.


10.3.  User profile

   Devices can only request user profiles for users that are known by a
   SIP service provider.  Thus, PDSs are prohibited from accepting user
   profile enrollment requests for users that are unknown in the
   network.  If the user AoR is a SIPS URI then the device is required
   to establish a next-hop authenticated TLS session.  This framework
   RECOMMENDS this for profiles with sensitive data.  If it is a SIP
   URI, then the device is still recommended to attempt TLS
   establishment to ensure protection against rogue PDSs.  A PDS is
   always recommended to authenticate the user AoR prior to profile
   enrollment.  The considerations are the same as that for a device



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   profile with pre-configured user AoR.


11.  Acknowledgements

   The author appreciates all those who contributed and commented on the
   many iterations of this document.  Detailed comments were provided by
   the following individuals: Jonathan Rosenberg from Cisco, Henning
   Schulzrinne from Columbia University, Cullen Jennings from Cisco,
   Rohan Mahy from Plantronics, Rich Schaaf from Pingtel, Volker Hilt
   from Bell Labs, Adam Roach of Estacado Systems, Hisham Khartabil from
   Telio, Henry Sinnreich from MCI, Martin Dolly from AT&T Labs, John
   Elwell from Siemens, Elliot Eichen and Robert Liao from Verizon, Dale
   Worley from Pingtel, Francois Audet from Nortel, Roni Even from
   Polycom, Jason Fischl from Counterpath, Josh Littlefield from Cisco,
   Nhut Nguyen from Samsung.

   The final revisions of this document were a product of design team
   discussions.  The editor wishes to extend special appreciation to the
   following design team members for their numerous reviews and specific
   contributions to various sections: Josh Littlefield from Cisco
   (Executive Summary, Overview, Section 6), Peter Blatherwick from
   Mitel (Section 6), Cullen Jennings (Security), Sam Ganesan (Section
   6) and Mary Barnes (layout, Section 6).

   The following design team members are thanked for numerous reviews
   and general contributions: Martin Dolly from AT&T Labs, Jason Fischl
   from Counterpath, Alvin Jiang of Engin and Francois Audet from
   Nortel.

   The following SIPPING WG members are thanked for numerours reviews,
   comments and recommendations: John Elwell from Siemens, Donald Lukacs
   from Telcordia, and Eugene Nechamkin from Broadcom.

   Additionally, sincere appreciation is extended to the chairs (Mary
   Barnes from Nortel and Gonzalo Camarillo from Ericsson) and the Area
   Directors (Cullen Jennings from Cisco and Jon Peterson from Neustar)
   for facilitating discussions, reviews and contributions.  The editor
   would also like to extend a special thanks to the comments and
   recommendations provided by the SIPPING WG, specifically Keith Drage
   from Lucent (restructuring proposal).


12.  Change History

   [[RFC Editor: Please remove this entire section upon publication as
   an RFC.]]




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12.1.  Changes from draft-ietf-sipping-config-framework-11.txt

   The following are the major changes that have been incorporated into
   this I-D.
   o  Incorporated the decisions taken at the last IETF: added an
      executive summary section; removed 'device-id' and replaced with
      'sip.instance'
   o  Removed the HTTPS bootstrapping section (this could be a different
      I-D)
   o  Added IANA registry for the 'profile-type' parameter (comment from
      Adam Roach)
   o  Incorporated comments from Cullen Jennings, John Elwell, and
      design team reviews
   o  Revised section 6 to make it flow better
   o  Removed 'Profile Change Modification' from the document
   o  Revised the security section.

12.2.  Changes from draft-ietf-sipping-config-framework-10.txt

   The following are the changes that have been incorporated into this
   I-D, resulting from the design team discussions based on Working
   Group feedback.
   o  Modified the "From" header of the local network profile to reflect
      the user's AoR, if any; delegated the device identifier to a new
      event header termed "device-id"; removed use for 'network-user'
      within the local-network profile; if there are objections to this,
      please educate us!
   o  Added text to indicate DHCPv4 or DHCPv6 to accomodate IPv4 and
      IPv6 environments
   o  Replaced generic 'Service Provider' with terms to better represent
      scenarios
   o  Analyzed the current SHOULD v/s MUST requirements for the Profile
      Framework and made modifications
   o  Referenced RFC4122 instead of OUTBOUND
   o  Simplified the introductory sections to better illustrate
      potential deployment possibilities; indicated the minimum profile
      supported to be 'device'
   o  Revamped the security considerations sections

12.3.  Changes from draft-ietf-sipping-config-framework-09.txt

   Following the ad-hoc SIPPING WG discussions at IETF#67 and as per the
   email from Gonzalo Camarillo dated 12/07/2006, Sumanth was appointed
   as the new editor.  This sub-section highlights the changes made by
   the editor (as per expert recommendations from the SIPPING WG folks
   interested in this effort) and the author.





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   Changes incorporated by the editor:
   o  Document was restructured based on a) Keith's recommendations in
      the email dated 11/09/2006 and responses (Peter, Sumanth, Josh) b)
      subsequent discussions by the ad-hoc group consisting of the
      editor, the author, expert contributors (Peter Blatherwick, Josh
      Littlefield, Alvin Jiang, Jason Fischl, Martin Dolly, Cullen
      Jennings) and the co-chairs .  Further changes follow.
   o  Use cases were made high-level with detailed examples added later
      on
   o  Several sections were modified as part of the restructuring (e.g.,
      Overview, Introduction, Framework Requirements, Security Sections)
   o  General editorial updates were made


   Changes incorporated by the author:

   o  Incorporated numerous edits and corrections from CableLabs review.
   o  Used better ascii art picture of overview from Josh Littlefield
   o  Fixed the normative text for network-user so that it is now
      consistant: MAY provide for device profile, MUST provide for
      local-network profile.

12.4.  Changes from draft-ietf-sipping-config-framework-08.txt

      The Request URI for profile-type=localnet now SHOULD not have a
      user part to make routing easier.  The From field SHOULD now
      contain the device id so that device tracking can still be done.
      Described the concept of profile-type as a filter and added
      normative text requiring 404 for profile types not provided.
      Moved "application" profile type to
      draft-ietf-sipping-xcap-config-01.  The "application" value for
      the profile-type parameter will also be used as a requirement that
      XCAP be supported.
      Fixed text on certificate validation.
      Added new HTTP header: Event to IANA section and clean up the IANA
      section.
      Added diagram for Service Provider use case schenario.
      Added clarification for HTTP Event header.
      Added clarification of subscriber handling of NOTIFY with no body.

12.5.  Changes from draft-ietf-sipping-config-framework-07.txt

      Made XCAP informative reference.  Removed "document" and "auid"
      event header parameters, and Usage of XCAP section to be put in
      separate supplementary draft.
      Fixed ABNF for device-id to be addr-spec only (not name-addr) and
      to be quoted as well.




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      Synchronized with XCAP path terminology.  Removed XCAP path
      definition as it is already defined in XCAP.
      User agent instance ID is now defined in output (not GRUU).
      Clarified the rational for the device-id parameter.
      Added text to suggest URIs for To and From fields.
      Clarified use of device-id parameter.
      Allow the use of the auid and document parameters per request by
      the OMA.

12.6.  Changes from draft-ietf-sipping-config-framework-06.txt

      Restructured the introduction and overview section to be more
      consistent with other Internet-Drafts.
      Added additional clarification for the Digest Authentication and
      Certificate based authentication cases in the security section.
      Added two use case scenarios with cross referencing to better
      illustrate how the framework works.  Added better cross
      referencing in the overview section to help readers find where
      concepts and functionality is defined in the document.
      Clarified the section on the use of XCAP.  Changed the Event
      parameter "App-Id" to "auid".  Made "auid" mutually exclusive to
      "document". "auid" is now only used with XCAP.
      Local network subscription URI changed to <device-id>@
      <local-network> (was anonymous@<local-network>).  Having a
      different Request URI for each device allows the network
      management to track user agents and potentially manage bandwidth,
      port allocation, etc.
      Changed event package name from sip-profile to ua-profile per
      discussion on the list and last IETF meeting.
      Changed "local" profile type token to "local-network" per
      discussion on the list and last IETF meeting.
      Simplified "Vendor", "Model", "Version" event header parameters to
      allow only quoted string values (previously allowed token as
      well).
      Clarified use of the term cache.
      Added references for ABNF constructs.
      Numerous editorial changes.  Thanks Dale!

12.7.  Changes from draft-ietf-sipping-config-framework-05.txt

      Made HTTP and HTTPS profile transport schemes mandatory in the
      profile delivery server.  The subscribing device must implement
      HTTP or HTTPS as the profile transport scheme.
      Rewrote the security considerations section.
      Divided references into Normative and Informative.
      Minor edits throughout.





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12.8.  Changes from draft-ietf-sipping-config-framework-04.txt

      Clarified usage of instance-id
      Specify which event header parameters are mandatory or optional
      and in which messages.
      Included complete list of event header parameters in parameter
      overview and IANA sections.
      Removed TFTP reference as protocol for profile transport.
      Added examples for discovery.
      Added ABNF for all event header parameters.
      Changed profile-name parameter back to profile-type.  This was
      changed to profile-name in 02 when the parameter could contain
      either a token or a path.  Now that the path is contained in the
      separate parameter: "document", profile-type make more sense as
      the parameter name.
      Fixed some statements that should have and should not have been
      normative.
      Added the ability for the user agent to request that the default
      user associated with the device be set/changed using the
      "device-id" parameter.
      A bunch of editorial nits and fixes.

12.9.  Changes from draft-ietf-sipping-config-framework-03.txt

   Incorporated changes to better support the requirements for the use
   of this event package with XCAP and SIMPLE so that we can have one
   package (i.e. simple-xcap-diff now defines a content type not a
   package).  Added an additional profile type: "application".  Added
   document and app-id Event header parameters in support of the
   application profile.  Define a loose high level data model or
   relationship between the four profile types.  Tried to edit and fix
   the confusing and ambiguous sections related to URI formation and
   discovery for the different profile types.  Better describe the
   importance of uniqueness for the instance id which is used in the
   user part of the device URI.

12.10.  Changes from draft-ietf-sipping-config-framework-02.txt

   Added the concept of the local network as a source of profile data.
   There are now three separate logical sources for profile data: user,
   device and local network.  Each of these requires a separate
   subscription to obtain.

12.11.  Changes from draft-ietf-sipping-config-framework-01.txt

   Changed the name of the profile-type event parameter to profile-name.
   Also allow the profile-name parameter to be either a token or an
   explicit URI.



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   Allow content indirection to be optional.  Clarified the use of the
   Accept header to indicate how the profile is to be delivered.

   Added some content to the Iana section.

12.12.  Changes from draft-ietf-sipping-config-framework-00.txt

   This version of the document was entirely restructured and re-written
   from the previous version as it had been micro edited too much.

   All of the aspects of defining the event package are now organized in
   one section and is believed to be complete and up to date with
   [RFC3265].

   The URI used to subscribe to the event package is now either the user
   or device address or record.

   The user agent information (vendor, model, MAC and serial number) are
   now provided as event header parameters.

   Added a mechanism to force profile changes to be make effective by
   the user agent in a specified maximum period of time.

   Changed the name of the event package from sip-config to ua-profile

   Three high level security approaches are now specified.

12.13.  Changes from draft-petrie-sipping-config-framework-00.txt

   Changed name to reflect SIPPING work group item

   Synchronized with changes to SIP DHCP [RFC3361], SIP [RFC3261] and
   [RFC3263], SIP Events [RFC3265] and content indirection [RFC4483]

   Moved the device identity parameters from the From field parameters
   to user-agent header parameters.

   Many thanks to Rich Schaaf of Pingtel, Cullen Jennings of Cisco and
   Adam Roach of Estacado Systems for the great comments and input.

12.14.  Changes from draft-petrie-sip-config-framework-01.txt

   Changed the name as this belongs in the SIPPING work group.

   Minor edits






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12.15.  Changes from draft-petrie-sip-config-framework-00.txt

   Split the enrollment into a single SUBSCRIBE dialog for each profile.
   The 00 draft sent a single SUBSCRIBE listing all of the desired.
   These have been split so that each enrollment can be routed
   differently.  As there is a concept of device specific and user
   specific profiles, these may also be managed on separate servers.
   For instance in a nomadic situation the device might get its profile
   data from a local server which knows the LAN specific profile data.
   At the same time the user specific profiles might come from the
   user's home environment profile delivery server.

   Removed the Config-Expires header as it is largely superfluous with
   the SUBSCRIBE Expires header.

   Eliminated some of the complexity in the discovery mechanism.

   Suggest caching information discovered about a profile delivery
   server to avoid an avalanche problem when a whole building full of
   devices powers up.

   Added the user-profile From header field parameter so that the device
   can request a user specific profile for a user that is different from
   the device's default user.


13.  References

13.1.  Normative References

   [RFC2119]  Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
              Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997.

   [RFC2434]  Narten, T. and H. Alvestrand, "Guidelines for Writing an
              IANA Considerations Section in RFCs", BCP 26, RFC 2434,
              October 1998.

   [RFC2616]  Fielding, R., Gettys, J., Mogul, J., Frystyk, H.,
              Masinter, L., Leach, P., and T. Berners-Lee, "Hypertext
              Transfer Protocol -- HTTP/1.1", RFC 2616, June 1999.

   [RFC2617]  Franks, J., Hallam-Baker, P., Hostetler, J., Lawrence, S.,
              Leach, P., Luotonen, A., and L. Stewart, "HTTP
              Authentication: Basic and Digest Access Authentication",
              RFC 2617, June 1999.

   [RFC2818]  Rescorla, E., "HTTP Over TLS", RFC 2818, May 2000.




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   [RFC3261]  Rosenberg, J., Schulzrinne, H., Camarillo, G., Johnston,
              A., Peterson, J., Sparks, R., Handley, M., and E.
              Schooler, "SIP: Session Initiation Protocol", RFC 3261,
              June 2002.

   [RFC3263]  Rosenberg, J. and H. Schulzrinne, "Session Initiation
              Protocol (SIP): Locating SIP Servers", RFC 3263,
              June 2002.

   [RFC3265]  Roach, A., "Session Initiation Protocol (SIP)-Specific
              Event Notification", RFC 3265, June 2002.

   [RFC3319]  Schulzrinne, H. and B. Volz, "Dynamic Host Configuration
              Protocol (DHCPv6) Options for Session Initiation Protocol
              (SIP) Servers", RFC 3319, July 2003.

   [RFC3361]  Schulzrinne, H., "Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol
              (DHCP-for-IPv4) Option for Session Initiation Protocol
              (SIP) Servers", RFC 3361, August 2002.

   [RFC4122]  Leach, P., Mealling, M., and R. Salz, "A Universally
              Unique IDentifier (UUID) URN Namespace", RFC 4122,
              July 2005.

   [RFC4346]  Dierks, T. and E. Rescorla, "The Transport Layer Security
              (TLS) Protocol Version 1.1", RFC 4346, April 2006.

   [RFC4474]  Peterson, J. and C. Jennings, "Enhancements for
              Authenticated Identity Management in the Session
              Initiation Protocol (SIP)", RFC 4474, August 2006.

   [RFC4483]  Burger, E., "A Mechanism for Content Indirection in
              Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) Messages", RFC 4483,
              May 2006.

   [RFC4704]  Volz, B., "The Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol for
              IPv6 (DHCPv6) Client Fully Qualified Domain Name (FQDN)
              Option", RFC 4704, October 2006.

13.2.  Informative References

   [I-D.ietf-ecrit-phonebcp]
              Rosen, B. and J. Polk, "Best Current Practice for
              Communications Services in support of Emergency  Calling",
              draft-ietf-ecrit-phonebcp-01 (work in progress),
              March 2007.

   [I-D.ietf-sip-outbound]



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              Jennings, C. and R. Mahy, "Managing Client Initiated
              Connections in the Session Initiation Protocol  (SIP)",
              draft-ietf-sip-outbound-08 (work in progress), March 2007.

   [RFC0959]  Postel, J. and J. Reynolds, "File Transfer Protocol",
              STD 9, RFC 959, October 1985.

   [RFC2132]  Alexander, S. and R. Droms, "DHCP Options and BOOTP Vendor
              Extensions", RFC 2132, March 1997.

   [RFC4510]  Zeilenga, K., "Lightweight Directory Access Protocol
              (LDAP): Technical Specification Road Map", RFC 4510,
              June 2006.

   [RFC4825]  Rosenberg, J., "The Extensible Markup Language (XML)
              Configuration Access Protocol (XCAP)", RFC 4825, May 2007.


Authors' Addresses

   Daniel Petrie
   SIPez LLC.
   34 Robbins Rd
   Arlington, MA  02476
   USA

   Email: dan.ietf AT SIPez DOT com
   URI:   http://www.SIPez.com/


   Sumanth Channabasappa (Editor)
   CableLabs
   858 Coal Creek Circle
   Louisville, Co  80027
   USA

   Email: sumanth@cablelabs.com
   URI:   http://www.cablelabs.com/













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