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Versions: (draft-rehor-siprec-req) 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 RFC 6341

SIPREC                                                     K. Rehor, Ed.
Internet-Draft                                             Cisco Systems
Intended status: Informational                           L. Portman, Ed.
Expires: November 30, 2011                                  NICE Systems
                                                               A. Hutton
                                                      Siemens Enterprise
                                                          Communications
                                                                 R. Jain
                                                             IPC Systems
                                                            May 29, 2011


   Use Cases and Requirements for SIP-based Media Recording (SIPREC)
                        draft-ietf-siprec-req-11

Abstract

   Session recording is a critical requirement in many business
   communications environments such as call centers and financial
   trading floors.  In some of these environments, all calls must be
   recorded for regulatory and compliance reasons.  In others, calls may
   be recorded for quality control or business analytics.

   Recording is typically performed by sending a copy of the session
   media to the recording devices.  This document specifies requirements
   for extensions to SIP that will manage delivery of RTP media to a
   recording device.  This is being referred to as SIP-based Media
   Recording.

Status of this Memo

   This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the
   provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.

   Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
   Task Force (IETF).  Note that other groups may also distribute
   working documents as Internet-Drafts.  The list of current Internet-
   Drafts is at http://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/.

   Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
   and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any
   time.  It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
   material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."

   This Internet-Draft will expire on November 30, 2011.

Copyright Notice




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   Copyright (c) 2011 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
   document authors.  All rights reserved.

   This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
   Provisions Relating to IETF Documents
   (http://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of
   publication of this document.  Please review these documents
   carefully, as they describe your rights and restrictions with respect
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   include Simplified BSD License text as described in Section 4.e of
   the Trust Legal Provisions and are provided without warranty as
   described in the Simplified BSD License.


Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  3
   2.  Requirements notation  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  4
   3.  Definitions  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  4
   4.  Use Cases  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  6
   5.  Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
   6.  Privacy Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
   7.  Security Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
   8.  IANA Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
   9.  Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
   10. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
   Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
























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1.  Introduction

   Session recording is a critical operational requirement in many
   businesses, especially where voice is used as a medium for commerce
   and customer support.  A prime example where voice is used for trade
   is the financial industry.  The call recording requirements in this
   industry are quite stringent.  The recorded calls are used for
   dispute resolution and compliance.  Other businesses such as customer
   support call centers typically employ call recording for quality
   control or business analytics, with different requirements.

   Depending on the country and its regulatory requirements, financial
   trading floors typically must record all calls.  In contrast, call
   centers typically only record a subset of the calls, and calls must
   not fail regardless of the availability of the recording device.

   Respecting the privacy rights and wishes of users engaged in a call
   is of paramount importance.  In many jurisdictions participants have
   a right to know that the session is being recorded or might be
   recorded, and have a right to opt out, either by terminating the call
   or by demanding that the call not be recorded.  Therefore this
   document contains requirements for being able to notify users that a
   call is being recorded and for users to be able to request that a
   call not be recorded.  Use cases where users participating in a call
   are not informed that the call is or might be recorded are outside
   the scope of this document.  In particular, lawful intercept is
   outside the scope of this document.

   Furthermore, one-size-fits-all model will not fit all markets where
   the scale and cost burdens vary widely having different needs for
   solution capabilities such as media injection, transcoding, and
   security.  If a standardized solution supports all of the
   requirements from every recording market, but doing so would be
   expensive for markets with lesser needs, then proprietary solutions
   for those markets will continue to propagate.  Care must be taken,
   therefore, to make a standards-based solution support optionality and
   flexibility.

   This document specifies requirements for using SIP [RFC3261] between
   a Session Recording Client and a Session Recording Server to control
   the recording of media that has been transmitted in the context of a
   Communication Session.  A Communication Session is the "call" between
   participants.  The Session Recording Client is the source of the
   recorded media.  The Session Recording Server is the sink of recorded
   media.  It should be noted that the requirements for the protocol
   between a Session Recording Server and Session Recording Client have
   very similar requirements (such as codec and transport negotiation,
   encryption key interchange, firewall traversal) as compared to



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   regular SIP media sessions.  The choice of SIP for session recording
   provides reuse of an existing protocol.

   The recorded sessions can be any RTP media sessions including voice,
   DTMF (as defined by [RFC4733]), video, and text (as defined by
   [RFC4103]).

   An archived session recording is typically comprised of the
   Communication Session media content and the Communication Session
   Metadata.  The Communication Session Metadata allows recording
   archives to be searched and filtered at a later time and allows a
   session to be played back in a meaningful way, e.g., with correct
   synchronization between the media.  The Communication Session
   Metadata needs to be conveyed from the Session Recording Client to
   the Session Recording Server.

   This document only considers active recording, where the Session
   Recording Client purposefully streams media to a Session Recording
   Server.  Passive recording, where a recording device detects media
   directly from the network, is outside the scope of this document.


2.  Requirements notation

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
   document are to be interpreted as described in [RFC2119] and indicate
   requirement levels for compliant mechanisms.


3.  Definitions

   Session Recording Server (SRS): A Session Recording Server (SRS) is a
   SIP User Agent (UA) that is a specialized media server or collector
   that acts as the sink of the recorded media.  An SRS is typically
   implemented as a multi-port device that is capable of receiving media
   from multiple sources simultaneously.  An SRS is the sink of the
   recorded session metadata.

   Session Recording Client (SRC): A Session Recording Client (SRC) is a
   SIP User Agent (UA) that acts as the source of the recorded media,
   sending it to the SRS.  An SRC is a logical function.  Its
   capabilities may be implemented across one or more physical devices.
   In practice, an SRC could be a personal device (such as a SIP phone),
   a SIP Media Gateway (MG), a Session Border Controller (SBC) or a SIP
   Media Server (MS) integrated with an Application Server (AS).  This
   specification defines the term SRC such that all such SIP entities
   can be generically addressed under one definition.  The SRC provides



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   metadata to the SRS.

   Communication Session (CS): A session created between two or more SIP
   User Agents (UAs) that is the subject of recording.

   Recording Session (RS): The SIP session created between an SRC and
   SRS for the purpose of recording a Communication Session.

   Figure 1 pictorially represents the relationship between a Recording
   Session and Communication Session.



     +-------------+                                      +-----------+
     |             |        Communication Session         |           |
     |     A       |<------------------------------------>|     B     |
     |             |                                      |           |
     +-------------+                                      +-----------+
     ..................................................................
     .                             Session                            .
     .                            Recording                           .
     .                             Client                             .
     ..................................................................
                                      |
                                      | Recording
                                      | Session
                                      |
                                      v
                               +------------+
                               |   Session  |
                               |  Recording |
                               |   Server   |
                               +------------+


                                 Figure 1

   Metadata: Information that describes recorded media and the CS to
   which they relate.

   Pause and Resume during a Communication Session: Pause: The action of
   temporarily discontinuing the transmission and collection of RS media
   Resume: The action of recommencing the transmission and collection of
   RS media

   Most security-related terms in this document are to be understood in
   the sense defined in [RFC4949]; such terms include, but are not
   limited to, "authentication", "confidentiality", "encryption",



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   "identity", and "integrity".


4.  Use Cases

   Use Case 1: Full-time Recording: One Recording Session for each
   Communication Session.

   For example, the diagram below shows the lifecycle of Communication
   Sessions (CS) and the relationship to the Recording Sessions (RS)

   CS  |--- CS 1 ---|      |--- CS 2 ---|     |--- CS 3 ---|

   RS  |--- RS 1 ---|      |--- RS 2 ---|     |--- RS 3 ---|
   t--->

                                 Figure 2

   Record every CS for specific extension/person.

   The need to record all calls is typically due to business process
   purposes (such as transaction confirmation or dispute resolution) or
   to ensure compliance with governmental regulations.  Applications
   include enterprise, contact center, and financial trading floors.

   Also commonly known as Total Recording.

   Use Case 2: Selective Recording: Start a Recording Session when a
   Communication Session to be recorded is established.

   In this example, Communication Sessions 1 and 3 are recorded but CS 2
   is not.

   CS  |--- CS 1 ---|      |--- CS 2 ---|     |--- CS 3 ---|

   RS  |--- RS 1----|                         |--- RS 2 ---|
   t--->

                                 Figure 3

   Use Case 3: Start/Stop a Recording Session during a Communication
   Session.

   The Recording Session starts during a Communication Session, either
   manually via a user-controlled mechanism (e.g. button on user's
   phone) or automatically via an application (e.g. a Contact Center
   customer service application) or business event.  A Recording Session
   either ends during the Communication Session, or when the



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   Communication Session ends.  One or more Recording Sessions may
   record each Communication Session.


   CS  |------------- Communication Session -----------|

   RS           |---- RS 1 ----|  |---- RS 2 -----|
   t--->

                                 Figure 4

   Use Case 4: Persistent Recording: A single Recording Session captures
   one or more Communication Sessions.


             |--- CS 1 ---|      |--- CS 2 ---|     |--- CS 3 ---|

   RS  |---------------------- Recording Session ---------------------|
   t--->

                                 Figure 5

   A Recording Session records continuously without interruption.
   Periods when there is no CS in progress must be reproduced upon
   playback (e.g. by recording silence during such periods or by not
   recording such periods but marking them by means of metadata for
   utilization on playback, etc.).  Applications include financial
   trading desks and emergency (first-responder) service bureaus.  The
   length of a Persistent Recording Session is independent from the
   length of the actual Communication Sessions.  Persistent Recording
   Sessions avoid issues such as media clipping that can occur due to
   delays in Recording Session establishment.

   The connection and attributes of media in the Recording Session are
   not dynamically signaled for each Communication Session before it can
   be recorded; however, codec re-negotiation is possible.















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   In some cases, more than one concurrent Communication Session (on a
   single end-user apparatus, e.g. trading floor turret) is mixed into
   one Recording Session:

                 |-------- CS 1 -------|
                    |-------- CS 2 -------|
               |-------- CS 3 -------|

   RS  |----------- Recording Session --------------|
   t--->

                                 Figure 6

   Use Case 5: Real-time Recording Controls.

   For an active Recording Session, privacy or security reasons may
   demand not capturing a specific portion of a conversation.  An
   example is for PCI (payment card industry) compliance where credit
   card info must be protected.  One solution is to not record a caller
   speaking their credit card information.

   An example of a real-time controls is Pause/Resume.

   Use Case 6: IVR / Voice Portal Recording.

   Self-service Interactive Voice Response applications may need to be
   recorded for application performance tuning or to meet compliance
   requirements.

   Metadata about an IVR session recording must include session
   information and may include application context information (e.g.
   VoiceXML session variables, dialog names, etc.)

   Use Case 7: Enterprise Mobility Recording.

   Many agents and enterprise workers whose calls are to be recorded are
   not located on company premises.

   Examples:

   o Home-based agents or enterprise workers.

   o Mobile phones of knowledge workers when they conduct work related
   (and legally required recording) calls. e.g. insurance agents,
   brokers, physicians.

   Use Case 8: Geographically distributed or centralized recording.




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   Enterprises such as banks, insurance agencies, and retail stores may
   have many locations, possibly up to thousands of small sites.
   Frequently only phones and network infrastructure are installed in
   branches, without local recording services.  In cases where calls
   inside or between branches must be recorded, a centralized recording
   system in data centers together with telephony infrastructure (e.g.
   PBX) may be deployed.

   Use Case 9: Record complex call scenarios.

   The following is an example of a scenario where one call that is
   recorded must be associated with a related call that also must be
   recorded.

   o A Customer is in a conversation with a Customer Service Agent.

   o Agent puts Customer on hold in order to consult with a Supervisor.

   o Agent enters into a conversation with Supervisor.

   o Agent disconnects from Supervisor, then reconnects with Customer.

   o The Supervisor call must be associated with the original customer
   call.

   Use case 10: High availability and continuous recording.

   Specific deployment scenarios present different requirements for
   system availability, error handling, etc. including:

   o An SRS must always be available at call setup time.

   o No loss of media recording, including during failure of an SRS.

   o The Communication Session must be terminated (or suitable
   notification given to parties) in the event of a recording failure.

   Use Case 11: Record multi-channel, multi-media session.

   Some applications require the recording of more than one media
   stream, possibly of different types.  Media are synchronized, either
   at storage or at playback.

   Speech analytics technologies (e.g. word spotting, emotion detection,
   speaker identification) may require speaker-separated recordings for
   optimum performance.

   Multi-modal Contact Centers may include audio, video, IM or other



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   interaction modalities.

   In trading floors environments, in order to minimize storage and
   recording system resources, it may be preferable to mix multiple
   concurrent calls (Communication Sessions) on different handsets/
   speakers on the same turret into single recording session.

   Use Case 12: Real-time media processing.

   It must be possible for an SRS to support real-time media processing,
   such as speech analytics of trading floor interactions.  Real-time
   analytics may be employed for automatic intervention (stopping
   interaction or alerting) if for example, a trader is not following
   regulations.

   Speaker separation is required in order to reliably detect who is
   saying specific phrases.


5.  Requirements

   The following are requirements for SIP-based Media Recording:

   o REQ-001 The mechanism MUST provide a means for using the SIP
   protocol for establishing, maintaining and terminating Recording
   Sessions between a Session Recording Client and a Session Recording
   Server.

   o REQ-002 The mechanism MUST support the ability to record all CSs in
   their entirety.

   o REQ-003 The mechanism MUST support the ability to record selected
   CSs in their entirety, according to policy.

   o REQ-004 The mechanism MUST support the ability to record selected
   parts of selected CSs.

   o REQ-005 The mechanism MUST support the ability to record a CS
   without loss of media of RS (for example, clipping media at the
   beginning of the CS) due to RS recording preparation and also,
   without impacting the quality or timing of the CS (for example,
   delaying the start of the CS while preparation for recording
   session).  See Use Case 4 in Section 4 for more details.

   o REQ-006 The mechanism MUST support the recording of IVR sessions.

   o REQ-007 The mechanism MUST support the recording of RTP media types
   voice, DTMF (as defined by [RFC4733]), video, and text (as defined by



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   [RFC4103]).

   o REQ-008 The mechanism MUST support the ability for an SRC to
   deliver mixed audio streams from multiple Communication Sessions to
   an SRS.

   Note: A mixed audio stream is where several related Communication
   Sessions are carried in a single Recording Session.  A mixed media
   stream is typically produced by a mixer function.  The RS MAY be
   informed about the composition of the mixed streams through session
   metadata.

   o REQ-009: The mechanism MUST support the ability for an SRC to
   deliver mixed audio streams from different parties of a given
   Communication Session to an SRS.

   o REQ-010 The mechanism MUST support the ability to deliver to the
   SRS multiple media streams for a given CS.

   o REQ-011 The mechanism MUST support the ability to pause and resume
   the transmission and collection of RS media.

   o REQ-012 The mechanism MUST include a means for providing the SRS
   with metadata describing CSs that are being recorded, including the
   media being used and the identifiers of parties involved.

   o REQ-013 The mechanism MUST include a means for the SRS to be able
   to correlate RS media with CS participant media.

   o REQ-014 Metadata format must be agnostic of the transport protocol.

   o REQ-015: The mechanism MUST support a means to stop the recording.

   o REQ-016: The mechanism MUST support a means for a recording-aware
   UA involved in a CS to request at session establishment time that the
   CS should be recorded or should not be recorded, the honoring of such
   a request being dependent on policy.

   o REQ-017: The mechanism MUST support a means for a recording-aware
   UA involved in a CS to request during a session that the recording of
   the CS should be started, paused, resumed or stopped, the honoring of
   such a request being dependent on policy.  Such recording-aware UA
   MUST be notified about outcome of such requests.

   o REQ-018 The mechanism MUST NOT prevent the application of tones or
   announcements during recording or at the start of a CS to support
   notification to participants that the call is being recorded or may
   be recorded.



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   o REQ-019 The mechanism MUST provide a means of indicating to
   recording-aware UAs whether recording is taking place, for
   appropriate rendering at the user interface.

   o REQ-020 The mechanism MUST provide a way for metadata to be
   conveyed to the SRS incrementally during the CS.

   o REQ-021 The mechanism MUST NOT prevent high availability
   deployments.

   o REQ-022 The mechanism MUST provide means for facilitating
   synchronization of the recorded media streams and metadata.

   o REQ-023 The mechanism MUST provide means for facilitating
   synchronization among the recorded media streams.

   o REQ-024 The mechanism MUST provide means to relate recording and
   recording controls such as start/stop/pause/resume to the wall clock
   time.

   o REQ-025 The mechanism MUST provide means for an SRS to authenticate
   the SRC on RS initiation.

   o REQ-026 The mechanism MUST provide means for an SRC to authenticate
   the SRS on RS initiation.

   o REQ-027 The mechanism MUST include a means for ensuring that the
   integrity of the metadata sent from SRC to SRS is an accurate
   representation of the original CS metadata.

   o REQ-028 The mechanism MUST include a means for ensuring that the
   integrity of the media sent from SRC to SRS is an accurate
   representation of the original CS media.

   o REQ-029 The mechanism MUST include a means for ensuring the
   confidentiality of the Metadata sent from SRC to SRS.

   o REQ-030 The mechanism MUST provide a means to support RS
   confidentiality.

   o REQ-031 The mechanism MUST support the ability to deliver to the
   SRS multiple media streams of the same media type (e.g. audio,
   video).  For example in the case of delivering unmixed audio for each
   participant in the CS.







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6.  Privacy Considerations

   Respecting the privacy rights and wishes of users engaged in a call
   is of paramount importance.  In many jurisdictions participants have
   a right to know that the session is being recorded or might be
   recorded, and have a right to opt out, either by terminating the call
   or by demanding that the call not be recorded.  Therefore this
   document contains requirements for being able to notify users that a
   call is being recorded and for users to be able to request that a
   call not be recorded.  Use cases where users participating in a call
   are not informed that the call is or might be recorded are outside
   the scope of this document.  In particular, lawful intercept is
   outside the scope of this document.

   Requirements for participant notification of recording vary widely by
   jurisdiction.  In a given deployment, not all users will be
   authorized to stop the recording of a CS (although any user can
   terminate its participation in a CS).  Typically users within the
   domain that is carrying out the recording will be subject to policies
   of that domain concerning whether CSs are recorded.  For example, in
   a call centre, agents will be subject to policies of the call centre
   and may or may not have the right to prevent the recording of a CS or
   part of a CS.  Users calling into the call centre, on the other hand,
   will typically have to ask the agent not to record the CS.  If the
   agent is unable to prevent recording, or if the caller does not trust
   the agent, the only option generally is to terminate the CS.

   Privacy considerations also extend to what happens to a recording
   once it has been created.  Typical issues are who can access the
   recording (e.g., receive a copy of the recording, view the metadata,
   play back the media, etc.), for what purpose the recording can be
   used (e.g., for training purposes, for quality control purposes,
   etc.) and for how long the recording is to be retained before
   deletion.  These are typically policies of the domain that makes the
   recording, rather than policies of individual users involved in a
   recorded CS, whether those users be in the same domain or in a
   different domain.  Taking the call centre example again, agents might
   be made aware of call centre policy regarding retention and use of
   recordings as part of their employment contract, and callers from
   outside the call centre might be given some information about policy
   when notified that a CS will be recorded (e.g., through an
   announcement that says that calls may be recorded for quality
   purposes).

   This document does not specify any requirements for a user engaged in
   a CS to be able to dictate policy for what happens to a recording, or
   for such information to be conveyed from an SRC to an SRS.  It is
   assumed that the SRS has access to policy applicable to its



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   environment and can ensure that recordings are stored and used in
   accordance with that policy.


7.  Security Considerations

   Session recording has substantial security implications, for the SIP
   UA's being recorded, the SRC, and the SRS.

   For the SIP UA's involved in the Communication Session, the
   requirements in this draft enable the UA to identify that a
   Communication Session is being recorded and for the UA to request
   that a given Communication Session is not subject to recording.

   Since humans don't typically look at or know about protocol signaling
   such as SIP, and indeed the SIP session might have originated through
   a PSTN Gateway without any ability to pass on in-signaling
   indications of recording, users can be notified of recording in the
   media itself through voice announcements, a visual indicator on the
   endpoint, or other means.

   With regards to security implications of the protocol(s), clearly
   there is a need for authentication, authorization, eavesdropping, and
   protection for the solution.  The SRC needs to know the SRS it is
   communicating with is legitimate, and vice-versa, even if they are in
   different domains.  Both the signaling and media for the Recording
   Session need the ability to be authenticated and protected from
   eavesdropping.  Requirements are detailed in the requirements
   section.

   Communication Sessions and Recording Sessions can require different
   security levels both for signaling and media, depending on deployment
   configurations.  For some environments, for example, SRS and SRC will
   be collocated in a secure network region and therefore the RS will
   not require the same protection level as a CS that extends over a
   public network, for example.  For other environments, the SRS can be
   located in a public cloud, for example, and the RS will require a
   higher protection level than the CS.  For these reasons, there is not
   a direct relationship between the security level of Communication
   Sessions and the security level of Recording Sessions.

   A malicious or corrupt SRC can tamper with media and metadata
   relating to a CS before sending to an SRS.  Also CS media and
   signaling can be tampered with in the network prior to reaching an
   SRC, unless proper means are provided to ensure integrity protection
   during transmission on the CS.  Means for ensuring the correctness of
   media and metadata emitted by an SRC are outside the scope of this
   work.  Other organizational and technical controls will need to be



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   used to prevent tampering.


8.  IANA Considerations

   This document has no IANA actions.


9.  Acknowledgements

   Thanks to Dan Wing, Alan Johnson, Vijay Gurbani, Cullen Jennings,
   Hadriel Kaplan, Henry Lum, Dave Smith, Martin Palmer, Alissa Cooper,
   Deepanshu Gautam, Paul Kyzivat, Parthasarathi R, Ram Mohan R, and
   Charles Eckel for their significant contributions and assistance with
   this document and Working Group, and to all the members of the
   DISPATCH WG and SIPREC WG mailing lists for providing valuable input
   to this work.


10.  Normative References

   [RFC2119]  Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
              Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997.

   [RFC3261]  Rosenberg, J., Schulzrinne, H., Camarillo, G., Johnston,
              A., Peterson, J., Sparks, R., Handley, M., and E.
              Schooler, "SIP: Session Initiation Protocol", RFC 3261,
              June 2002.

   [RFC4103]  Hellstrom, G. and P. Jones, "RTP Payload for Text
              Conversation", RFC 4103, June 2005.

   [RFC4733]  Schulzrinne, H. and T. Taylor, "RTP Payload for DTMF
              Digits, Telephony Tones, and Telephony Signals", RFC 4733,
              December 2006.

   [RFC4949]  Shirey, R., "Internet Security Glossary, Version 2",
              RFC 4949, August 2007.













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Authors' Addresses

   Ken Rehor (editor)
   Cisco Systems
   170 West Tasman Dr.
   Mail Stop SJC30/2/
   San Jose, CA  95134
   USA

   Email: krehor@cisco.com


   Leon Portman (editor)
   NICE Systems
   8 Hapnina
   Ra'anana  43017
   Israel

   Email: leon.portman@nice.com


   Andrew Hutton
   Siemens Enterprise Communications

   Email: andrew.hutton@siemens-enterprise.com
   URI:   http://www.siemens-enterprise.com


   Rajnish Jain
   IPC Systems
   777 Commerce Drive
   Fairfield, CT  06825
   USA

   Email: rajnish.jain@ipc.com
















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