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Internet Draft    Policy-Based Management MIB    March 8, 2000


                 Policy Based Management MIB
                draft-ietf-snmpconf-pm-00.txt

                        March 8, 2000


                       Steve Waldbusser
                         Jon Saperia
                       Thippanna Hongal





Status of this Memo

This document is an Internet-Draft and is in full conformance
with all provisions of Section 10 of RFC2026.

Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet
Engineering Task Force (IETF), its areas, and its working
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Copyright Notice

   Copyright (C) The Internet Society (2000).  All Rights Reserved.

1.  Abstract

This memo defines a portion of the Management Information Base
(MIB) for use with network management protocols in TCP/IP-
based internets.  In particular, this MIB defines objects that
enable policy-based configuration management of SNMP





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infrastructures.

2.  The SNMP Management Framework

   The SNMP Management Framework presently consists of five
   major components:

    o   An overall architecture, described in RFC 2571 [1].

    o   Mechanisms for describing and naming objects and
        events for the purpose of management. The first
        version of this Structure of Management Information
        (SMI) is called SMIv1 and described in STD 16, RFC
        1155 [2], STD 16, RFC 1212 [3] and RFC 1215 [4]. The
        second version, called SMIv2, is described in STD 58,
        RFC 2578 [5], RFC 2579 [6] and RFC 2580 [7].

    o   Message protocols for transferring management
        information. The first version of the SNMP message
        protocol is called SNMPv1 and described in STD 15, RFC
        1157 [8]. A second version of the SNMP message
        protocol, which is not an Internet standards track
        protocol, is called SNMPv2c and described in RFC 1901
        [9] and RFC 1906 [10]. The third version of the
        message protocol is called SNMPv3 and described in RFC
        1906 [10], RFC 2572 [11] and RFC 2574 [12].

    o   Protocol operations for accessing management
        information. The first set of protocol operations and
        associated PDU formats is described in STD 15, RFC
        1157 [8]. A second set of protocol operations and
        associated PDU formats is described in RFC 1905 [13].

    o   A set of fundamental applications described in RFC
        2573 [14] and the view-based access control mechanism
        described in RFC 2575 [15].

   A more detailed introduction to the current SNMP Management
   Framework can be found in RFC 2570 [18].

   Managed objects are accessed via a virtual information
   store, termed the Management Information Base or MIB.
   Objects in the MIB are defined using the mechanisms defined
   in the SMI.






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   This memo specifies a MIB module that is compliant to the
   SMIv2. A MIB conforming to the SMIv1 can be produced
   through the appropriate translations. The resulting
   translated MIB must be semantically equivalent, except
   where objects or events are omitted because no translation
   is possible (use of Counter64). Some machine readable
   information in SMIv2 will be converted into textual
   descriptions in SMIv1 during the translation process.
   However, this loss of machine readable information is not
   considered to change the semantics of the MIB.








































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3.  Overview

Large IT organizations have developed management strategies to cope
with the extraordinarily large scale inherent in large networks. In
particular, they try to manage the network as a whole by describing
and implementing high-level business policies, rather than managing
device by device, where orders of magnitude more decisions (and
mistakes) may be made.

Following this management practice results in the following benefits:
  - Reduced training needs (fewer details to learn)
  - Reduced documentation costs (fewer details to document)
  - Reduced impact of turnover (less ad-hoc knowledge goes out the door)
  - Greater testability (a greater percentage of fielded
    configurations may be tested in the lab)
  - Higher reliability (combination of factors above)
  - Lower cost of changes (changes can be simpler and operate over a
    wider extent)
  - Lower cost of corporate mergers (less knowledge to transfer; fewer
    policies to integrate)
  - Lower cost of ownership (combination of factors above)

To illustrate the concept of "business policies", some examples are:
  - All routers will run code version 6.2
  - On-site contracters will all have special security restrictions on
    their ports
  - All voice over cable ports in California must provide free local
    calling
  - Apply special forwarding to all ports whose customers have paid
    for premium service.

Each of these policies could represent an action applied to hundreds
of thousands of configuration variables.

In order to automate this practice, customers need software tools that
will implement business policies across their network, as well as
a standard protocol that will ensure that it can be applied to all of
their devices, regardless of the vendor.

This practice is called Policy-Based Network Management. This document
defines standard managed objects for the Simple Network Management
Protocol that are used to distribute policies in a standard form
throughout the network.







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4.  Policy-Based Network Management Architecture

Policy-based network management is the practice of applying management
operations globally on all managed objects that share certain
attributes.

Policies always express a notion of:
  if (an object has certain characteristics) then (apply operation to
  that object)

Policies take the following normal form:

  if (policyFilter) then (policyAction)

A policyFilter is an expression which results in a boolean
to determine whether or not an object is a member of a set of
objects upon which an action is to be performed.

A policyAction is an operation performed on a set of objects.

These policies are executed on managed devices, where the objects live
(and thus their characteristics may be easily inspected), and where
operations on those objects will be performed.

A management station is responsible for distributing an organization's
policies to all of the managed devices in the infrastructure. The
pmPolicyTable provides managed objects for sending a policy to a
managed device.

In this architecture, the objects that policies act on are called
elements. An element is a group of related MIB variables such as all
the variables for interface #7. This enables policies to be expressed
more efficiently and concisely. Elements can also model circuits,
CPUs, queues, processes, systems, etc.

The execution model for policies on a managed device is:

  foreach element for which policyFilter returns true
      execute policyAction on that element

For example:

  If (interface is fast ethernet)       then (apply full-duplex mode)
  If (interface is access)              then (apply security filters)
  If (gold service paid for on circuit) then (apply special queueing)





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PolicyFilters have the capability of performing comparison operations
on SNMP variables, logical expressions, and other functions. Many
device characteristics are already defined in MIBs and are
easy to include in policyFilter expressions (ifType == ethernet,
frCircuitCommittedBurst < 128K, etc). However, there are
important characteristics that aren't currently in MIB objects, and
worse, it is not current practice to store this information on managed
devices. Therefore, this document defines MIB objects for this
information. To meet today's needs there are two missing areas:
roles and capacity.

Roles

A role is an abstract characteristic assigned to an element that
expresses a notion, such as a political, financial, legal,
geographical, or architectural attribute, typically not directly
derivable from information stored on the managed system. For example,
"paid for premium service" or "is plugged into a UPS" are examples of
roles, whereas the percent utilization of a link would not be.

The types of information one would put into a role are:

  political - describes the role of a person or group of people, or of
              a service that a group of people use. Examples:
              executive, sales, outside-contracter, customer.
        If (attached user is executive) then (apply higher bandwidth)
        If (attached user is outside-contracter) then (restrict access)

  financial/legal - describes what financial consideration was
                    received. Could also include contractual or legal
                    considerations. Examples:
                    paid, gold, free, trial, demo, lifeline
                    (The lifeline example is supposed to model the
                    RBOC's legal obligation to provide dial tone to
                    elderly/poor).
        If (gold service paid for) then (apply special queueing)

  geographical - describes the location of an element. Examples:
                 California, Headquarters, insecure conduit.
        If (interface leaves the building) then (apply special security)

  architectural - describes the network architects "intent" for an
                  element. For example: backup, trunk.
         If (interface is backup) then (set ifAdminStatus = down)






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  Collectively, these 4 classes of characteristics are called
  roles. Roles are human defined strings that can be referenced by
  a policyFilter. Multiple roles may be assigned to each element.

Capabilities

  Some actions are inappropriate for certain elements or are simply
  unsupported. PolicyFilter's must be able to be defined so that a
  policy can be applied only to elements that have the proper
  capability. The capabilities table provides MIB objects that
  describe the capabilities of the system.

Time

  Managers may wish to define policies that are true for certain
  periods of time. This might mean that a policy is downloaded and is
  dormant for a period of time, becomes active, and then later becomes
  inactive. Sometimes these time periods will be regular (M-F 9-5) and
  sometimes ad-hoc. This MIB provides MIB objects that allow
  policies to be dependent on time.






























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5.  Definitions

pmPolicyEntry OBJECT-TYPE
    SYNTAX      PmPolicyEntry
    MAX-ACCESS  not-accessible
    STATUS      current
    DESCRIPTION
        "An entry in the policy table. A policy is a pairing of a
        policyFilter and a policyAction which is used to apply the
        action to a selected set of objects."
    INDEX { pmPolicyIndex }
    ::= { pmPolicyTable 1 }

PmPolicyEntry ::= SEQUENCE {
    pmPolicyIndex          Integer32,
    pmPolicyFilter         OCTET STRING,
    pmPolicyAction         TBD,
    pmPolicyDescription    SnmpAdminString,
    pmPolicyMatches        Gauge32,
    pmPolicyStatus         RowStatus
}

-- roleTable

PmRoleESEntry OBJECT-TYPE
    SYNTAX      PmRoleESEntry
    MAX-ACCESS  not-accessible
    STATUS      current
    DESCRIPTION
         "A role string entry associates a role string with an
         individual element."
    INDEX       { pmRoleESElement, pmRoleESString }
    ::= { pmRoleESTable 1 }

PmRoleESEntry ::= SEQUENCE {
    pmRoleESElement        OBJECT IDENTIFIER,
    pmRoleESString         SnmpAdminString,
    pmRoleESStatus         RowStatus
}

pmRoleSEEntry OBJECT-TYPE
    SYNTAX      PmRoleSEEntry
    MAX-ACCESS  not-accessible
    STATUS      current
    DESCRIPTION





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         "A role string entry associates a role string with an
         individual element."
    INDEX       { pmRoleSEString, pmRoleSEElement }
    ::= { roleSETable 1 }

PmRoleSEEntry ::= SEQUENCE {
    pmRoleSEString         SnmpAdminString,
    pmRoleSEElement        OBJECT IDENTIFIER
}

pmCapabilitiesEntry OBJECT-TYPE
    SYNTAX       PmCapabilitiesEntry
    MAX-ACCESS   not-accessible
    STATUS       current
    DESCRIPTION
        "The capabilities table describes the inherent capabilities of
        the system."
    INDEX        { pmCapabilitiesIndex }

PmCapabilitiesEntry ::= SEQUENCE {
    pmCapabilitiesIndex          Integer32,
    pmCapabilitiesType           OBJECT IDENTIFIER,
    pmCapabilitiesSubType        OBJECT IDENTIFIER
}


END























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6.  Security Considerations

There are a number of management objects defined in this MIB
that have a MAX-ACCESS clause of read-write and/or read-
create.  Such objects may be considered sensitive or
vulnerable in some network environments.  The support for SET
operations in a non-secure environment without proper
protection can have a negative effect on network operations.

SNMPv1 by itself is not a secure environment.  Even if the
network itself is secure (for example by using IPSec), even
then, there is no control as to who on the secure network is
allowed to access and GET/SET (read/change/create/delete) the
objects in this MIB.

It is recommended that the implementors consider the security
features as provided by the SNMPv3 framework.  Specifically,
the use of the User-based Security Model RFC 2574 [12] and the
View-based Access Control Model RFC 2575 [15] is recommended.

It is then a customer/user responsibility to ensure that the
SNMP entity giving access to an instance of this MIB, is
properly configured to give access to the objects only to
those principals (users) that have legitimate rights to indeed
GET or SET (change/create/delete) them.

























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7.  References

[1]  Harrington, D., Presuhn, R., and B. Wijnen, "An
     Architecture for Describing SNMP Management Frameworks",
     RFC 2571, April 1999.

[2]  Rose, M., and K. McCloghrie, "Structure and
     Identification of Management Information for TCP/IP-based
     Internets", STD 16, RFC 1155, May 1990.

[3]  Rose, M., and K. McCloghrie, "Concise MIB Definitions",
     STD 16, RFC 1212, March 1991.

[4]  Rose, M., "A Convention for Defining Traps for use with
     the SNMP", RFC 1215, March 1991.

[5]  McCloghrie, K., Perkins, D., Schoenwaelder, J., Case, J.,
     Rose, M., and S. Waldbusser, "Structure of Management
     Information Version 2 (SMIv2)", STD 58, RFC 2578, April
     1999.

[6]  McCloghrie, K., Perkins, D., Schoenwaelder, J., Case, J.,
     Rose, M., and S. Waldbusser, "Textual Conventions for
     SMIv2", STD 58, RFC 2579, April 1999.

[7]  McCloghrie, K., Perkins, D., Schoenwaelder, J., Case, J.,
     Rose, M., and S. Waldbusser, "Conformance Statements for
     SMIv2", STD 58, RFC 2580, April 1999.

[8]  Case, J., Fedor, M., Schoffstall, M., and J. Davin,
     "Simple Network Management Protocol", STD 15, RFC 1157,
     May 1990.

[9]  Case, J., McCloghrie, K., Rose, M., and S. Waldbusser,
     "Introduction to Community-based SNMPv2", RFC 1901,
     January 1996.

[10] Case, J., McCloghrie, K., Rose, M., and S. Waldbusser,
     "Transport Mappings for Version 2 of the Simple Network
     Management Protocol (SNMPv2)", RFC 1906, January 1996.

[11] Case, J., Harrington D., Presuhn R., and B. Wijnen,
     "Message Processing and Dispatching for the Simple
     Network Management Protocol (SNMP)", RFC 2572, April
     1999.





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[12] Blumenthal, U., and B. Wijnen, "User-based Security Model
     (USM) for version 3 of the Simple Network Management
     Protocol (SNMPv3)", RFC 2574, April 1999.

[13] Case, J., McCloghrie, K., Rose, M., and S. Waldbusser,
     "Protocol Operations for Version 2 of the Simple Network
     Management Protocol (SNMPv2)", RFC 1905, January 1996.

[14] Levi, D., Meyer, P., and B. Stewart, "SNMPv3
     Applications", RFC 2573, April 1999.

[15] Wijnen, B., Presuhn, R., and K. McCloghrie, "View-based
     Access Control Model (VACM) for the Simple Network
     Management Protocol (SNMP)", RFC 2575, April 1999.

[16] McCloghrie, K. and M. Rose, Editors, "Management
     Information Base for Network Management of TCP/IP-based
     internets: MIB-II", STD 17, RFC 1213, Hughes LAN Systems,
     Performance Systems International, March 1991.

[17] McCloghrie, K. and F. Kastenholz, "The Interfaces Group
     MIB using SMIv2", RFC 2233, Cisco Systems, FTP Software,
     November 1997.

[18] Case, J., Mundy, R., Partain, D., and B. Stewart,
     "Introduction to Version 3 of the Internet-standard
     Network Management Framework", RFC 2570, April 1999.

8.  Intellectual Property

The IETF takes no position regarding the validity or scope of
any intellectual property or other rights that might be
claimed to  pertain to the implementation or use of the
technology described in this document or the extent to which
any license under such rights might or might not be available;
neither does it represent that it has made any effort to
identify any such rights.  Information on the IETF's
procedures with respect to rights in standards-track and
standards-related documentation can be found in BCP-11.
Copies of claims of rights made available for publication and
any assurances of licenses to be made available, or the result
of an attempt made to obtain a general license or permission
for the use of such proprietary rights by implementors or
users of this specification can be obtained from the IETF
Secretariat.





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The IETF invites any interested party to bring to its
attention any copyrights, patents or patent applications, or
other proprietary rights which may cover technology that may
be required to practice this standard.  Please address the
information to the IETF Executive Director.


9.  Full Copyright Statement

Copyright (C) The Internet Society (2000). All Rights Reserved.

This document and translations of it may be copied and
furnished to others, and derivative works that comment on or
otherwise explain it or assist in its implementation may be
prepared, copied, published and distributed, in whole or in
part, without restriction of any kind, provided that the above
copyright notice and this paragraph are included on all such
copies and derivative works.  However, this document itself
may not be modified in any way, such as by removing the
copyright notice or references to the Internet Society or
other Internet organizations, except as needed for the
purpose of developing Internet standards in which case the
procedures for copyrights defined in the Internet Standards
process must be followed, or as required to translate it into
languages other than English.

The limited permissions granted above are perpetual and will
not be revoked by the Internet Society or its successors or
assigns.

This document and the information contained herein is provided
on an "AS IS" basis and THE INTERNET SOCIETY AND THE INTERNET
ENGINEERING TASK FORCE DISCLAIMS ALL WARRANTIES, EXPRESS OR
IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO ANY WARRANTY THAT THE
USE OF THE INFORMATION HEREIN WILL NOT INFRINGE ANY RIGHTS OR
ANY IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR A
PARTICULAR PURPOSE.













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Table of Contents


1 Abstract ..............................................    1
2 The SNMP Management Framework .........................    2
3 Overview ..............................................    4
4 Policy-Based Network Management Architecture ..........    5
5 Definitions ...........................................    8
6 Security Considerations ...............................   10
7 References ............................................   11
8 Intellectual Property .................................   12
9 Full Copyright Statement ..............................   13






































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