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Versions: (RFC 4138) 00 01 02 03 04 RFC 5682

Internet Engineering Task Force                             P. Sarolahti
INTERNET-DRAFT                                     Nokia Research Center
draft-ietf-tcpm-rfc4138bis-00.txt                                M. Kojo
Expires: December 2007                            University of Helsinki
                                                             K. Yamamoto
                                                                 M. Hata
                                                              NTT Docomo

                                                             7 June 2007



        Forward RTO-Recovery (F-RTO): An Algorithm for Detecting
               Spurious Retransmission Timeouts with TCP


Status of this Memo

    By submitting this Internet-Draft, each author represents that any
    applicable patent or other IPR claims of which he or she is aware
    have been or will be disclosed, and any of which he or she becomes
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    This Internet-Draft will expire on December 2007.

Abstract

    Spurious retransmission timeouts cause suboptimal TCP performance
    because they often result in unnecessary retransmission of the last



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    window of data.  This document describes the F-RTO detection
    algorithm for detecting spurious TCP retransmission timeouts.  F-RTO
    is a TCP sender-only algorithm that does not require any TCP options
    to operate.  After retransmitting the first unacknowledged segment
    triggered by a timeout, the F-RTO algorithm of the TCP sender
    monitors the incoming acknowledgments to determine whether the
    timeout was spurious.  It then decides whether to send new segments
    or retransmit unacknowledged segments.  The algorithm effectively
    helps to avoid additional unnecessary retransmissions and thereby
    improves TCP performance in the case of a spurious timeout.









































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                             Table of Contents

    1. Introduction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   3
       1.1. Conventions and Terminology. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   5
    2. F-RTO Algorithm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   5
       2.1. The Algorithm. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   6
       2.2. Discussion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   7
    3. Taking Actions after Detecting Spurious RTO . . . . . . . . .   9
    4. Evaluation of RFC 4138 and Differences to this
    Document . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   9
    5. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  11
    6. Acknowledgements. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  11
    Appendix . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  12
    A. Discussion of Window-Limited Cases. . . . . . . . . . . . . .  12
    B. List of Changes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  13
    References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  13
    Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  13
    Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  14
    AUTHORS' ADDRESSES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  16
    Full Copyright Statement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  17
    Intellectual Property. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  17

1.  Introduction

    The Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) [Pos81] has two methods for
    triggering retransmissions.  First, the TCP sender relies on
    incoming duplicate ACKs, which indicate that the receiver is missing
    some of the data.  After a required number of successive duplicate
    ACKs have arrived at the sender, it retransmits the first
    unacknowledged segment [APS99] and continues with a loss recovery
    algorithm such as NewReno [FHG04] or SACK-based loss recovery
    [BAFW03].  Second, the TCP sender maintains a retransmission timer
    which triggers retransmission of segments, if they have not been
    acknowledged before the retransmission timeout (RTO) expires.  When
    the retransmission timeout occurs, the TCP sender enters the RTO
    recovery where the congestion window is initialized to one segment
    and unacknowledged segments are retransmitted using the slow-start
    algorithm.  The retransmission timer is adjusted dynamically, based
    on the measured round-trip times [PA00].

    It has been pointed out that the retransmission timer can expire
    spuriously and cause unnecessary retransmissions when no segments
    have been lost [LK00, GL02, LM03].  After a spurious retransmission
    timeout, the late acknowledgments of the original segments arrive at
    the sender, usually triggering unnecessary retransmissions of a
    whole window of segments during the RTO recovery.  Furthermore,
    after a spurious retransmission timeout, a conventional TCP sender
    increases the congestion window on each late acknowledgment in slow



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    start.  This injects a large number of data segments into the
    network within one round-trip time, thus violating the packet
    conservation principle [Jac88].

    There are a number of potential reasons for spurious retransmission
    timeouts.  First, some mobile networking technologies involve sudden
    delay spikes on transmission because of actions taken during a hand-
    off.  Second, on a low-bandwidth link the arrival of competing
    traffic (possibly with higher priority), or some other change in
    available bandwidth, can cause a sudden increase of round-trip time.
    This may trigger a spurious retransmission timeout.  A persistently
    reliable link layer can also cause a sudden delay when a data frame
    and several retransmissions of it are lost for some reason.  This
    document does not distinguish between the different causes of such a
    delay spike.  Rather, it discusses the spurious retransmission
    timeouts caused by a delay spike in general.

    This document describes the F-RTO detection algorithm.  It is based
    on the detection mechanism of the "Forward RTO-Recovery" (F-RTO)
    algorithm [SKR03] that is used for detecting spurious retransmission
    timeouts and thus avoids unnecessary retransmissions following the
    retransmission timeout.  When the timeout is not spurious, the F-RTO
    algorithm reverts back to the conventional RTO recovery algorithm,
    and therefore has similar behavior and performance.  In contrast to
    alternative algorithms proposed for detecting unnecessary
    retransmissions (Eifel [LK00], [LM03] and DSACK-based algorithms
    [BA04]), F-RTO does not require any TCP options for its operation,
    and it can be implemented by modifying only the TCP sender.  The
    Eifel algorithm uses TCP timestamps [BBJ92] for detecting a spurious
    timeout upon arrival of the first acknowledgment after the
    retransmission.  The DSACK-based algorithms require that the TCP
    Selective Acknowledgment Option [MMFR96], with the DSACK extension
    [FMMP00], is in use.  With DSACK, the TCP receiver can report if it
    has received a duplicate segment, enabling the sender to detect
    afterwards whether it has retransmitted segments unnecessarily.  The
    F-RTO algorithm only attempts to detect and avoid unnecessary
    retransmissions after an RTO.  Eifel and DSACK can also be used for
    detecting unnecessary retransmissions caused by other events, such
    as packet reordering.

    When an RTO expires, the F-RTO sender retransmits the first
    unacknowledged segment as usual [APS99].  Deviating from the normal
    operation after a timeout, it then tries to transmit new, previously
    unsent data, for the first acknowledgment that arrives after the
    timeout, given that the acknowledgment advances the window.  If the
    second acknowledgment that arrives after the timeout advances the
    window (i.e., acknowledges data that was not retransmitted), the F-
    RTO sender declares the timeout spurious and exits the RTO recovery.



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    However, if either of these two acknowledgments is a duplicate ACK,
    there will not be sufficient evidence of a spurious timeout.
    Therefore, the F-RTO sender retransmits the unacknowledged segments
    in slow start similarly to the traditional algorithm.

    With a SACK-enhanced version of the F-RTO algorithm, spurious
    timeouts may be detected even if duplicate ACKs arrive after an RTO
    retransmission.  In addition, the F-RTO algorithm can also be
    applied to the Stream Control Transmission Protocol (SCTP) [Ste00],
    because SCTP has acknowledgment and packet retransmission concepts
    similar to TCP.  This document specifies and discusses only the
    basic F-RTO algorithm.  The SACK-enhanced version of the F-RTO
    algorithm and how the F-RTO algorithm can be applied to the SCTP
    protocol are discussed in RFC 4138 [SK05].

    This document is organized as follows.  Section 2 describes the
    basic F-RTO algorithm.  Section 3 discusses the possible actions to
    be taken after detecting a spurious RTO and Section 4 discusses the
    security considerations.


1.1.  Conventions and Terminology

    The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
    "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
    document are to be interpreted as described in BCP 14, RFC 2119
    [RFC2119] and indicate requirement levels for protocols.


2.  F-RTO Algorithm

    A timeout is considered spurious if it would have been avoided had
    the sender waited longer for an acknowledgment to arrive [LM03].  F-
    RTO affects the TCP sender behavior only after a retransmission
    timeout.  Otherwise, the TCP behavior remains the same.  When the
    RTO expires, the F-RTO algorithm monitors incoming acknowledgments
    and if the TCP sender gets an acknowledgment for a segment that was
    not retransmitted due to timeout, the F-RTO algorithm declares a
    timeout spurious.  The actions taken in response to a spurious
    timeout are not specified in this document, but we discuss some
    alternatives in Section 3.  This section introduces the algorithm
    and then discusses the different steps of the algorithm in more
    detail.

    Following the practice used with the Eifel Detection algorithm
    [LM03], we use the "SpuriousRecovery" variable to indicate whether
    the retransmission is declared spurious by the sender.  This
    variable can be used as an input for a corresponding response



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    algorithm.  With F-RTO, the value of SpuriousRecovery can be either
    SPUR_TO (indicating a spurious retransmission timeout) or FALSE
    (indicating that the timeout is not declared spurious), and the TCP
    sender should follow the conventional RTO recovery algorithm.



2.1.  The Algorithm

    A TCP sender implementing the basic F-RTO algorithm MUST take the
    following steps after the retransmission timer expires.  If the
    sender implements some loss recovery algorithm other than Reno or
    NewReno [FHG04], the F-RTO algorithm SHOULD NOT be entered when
    earlier fast recovery is underway.

    1) When RTO expires, retransmit the first unacknowledged segment and
       set SpuriousRecovery to FALSE.  Also, store the highest sequence
       number transmitted so far in variable "recover".

    2) When the first acknowledgment after the RTO retransmission
       arrives at the sender, the sender chooses one of the following
       actions, depending on whether the ACK advances the window or
       whether it is a duplicate ACK.

       a) If the acknowledgment is a duplicate ACK OR it acknowledges a
          sequence number equal to the value of "recover" OR it does not
          acknowledge all of the data that was retransmitted in step 1,
          revert to the conventional RTO recovery and continue by
          retransmitting unacknowledged data in slow start.  Do not
          enter step 3 of this algorithm.  The SpuriousRecovery variable
          remains as FALSE.

       b) Else, if the acknowledgment advances the window AND it is
          below the value of "recover", transmit up to two new
          (previously unsent) segments and enter step 3 of this
          algorithm.  If the TCP sender does not have enough unsent
          data, it can send only one segment.  In addition, the TCP
          sender MAY override the Nagle algorithm [Nag84] and
          immediately send a segment if needed.  Note that sending two
          segments in this step is allowed by TCP congestion control
          requirements [APS99]: An F-RTO TCP sender simply chooses
          different segments to transmit.

          If the TCP sender does not have any new data to send, or the
          advertised window prohibits new transmissions, the recommended
          action is to skip step 3 of this algorithm and continue with
          slow start retransmissions, following the conventional RTO
          recovery algorithm.  However, alternative ways of handling the



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          window-limited cases that could result in better performance
          are discussed in Appendix A.

    3) When the second acknowledgment after the RTO retransmission
       arrives at the sender, the TCP sender either declares the timeout
       spurious, or starts retransmitting the unacknowledged segments.

       a) If the acknowledgment is a duplicate ACK, set the congestion
          window to no more than 3 * MSS, and continue with the slow
          start algorithm retransmitting unacknowledged segments.  The
          congestion window can be set to 3 * MSS, because two round-
          trip times have elapsed since the RTO, and a conventional TCP
          sender would have increased cwnd to 3 during the same time.
          Leave SpuriousRecovery set to FALSE.

       b) If the acknowledgment advances the window (i.e., if it
          acknowledges data that was not retransmitted after the
          timeout), declare the timeout spurious, set SpuriousRecovery
          to SPUR_TO, and set the value of the "recover" variable to
          SND.UNA (the oldest unacknowledged sequence number [Pos81]).


2.2.  Discussion

    The F-RTO sender takes cautious actions when it receives duplicate
    acknowledgments after a retransmission timeout.  Because duplicate
    ACKs may indicate that segments have been lost, reliably detecting a
    spurious timeout is difficult due to the lack of additional
    information.  Therefore, it is prudent to follow the conventional
    TCP recovery in those cases.

    If the first acknowledgment after the RTO retransmission covers the
    "recover" point at algorithm step (2a), there is not enough evidence
    that a non-retransmitted segment has arrived at the receiver after
    the timeout.  This is a common case when a fast retransmission is
    lost and has been retransmitted again after an RTO, while the rest
    of the unacknowledged segments were successfully delivered to the
    TCP receiver before the retransmission timeout.  Therefore, the
    timeout cannot be declared spurious in this case.

    If the first acknowledgment after the RTO retransmission does not
    acknowledge all of the data that was retransmitted in step 1, the
    TCP sender reverts to the conventional RTO recovery.  Otherwise, a
    malicious receiver acknowledging partial segments could cause the
    sender to declare the timeout spurious in a case where data was
    lost.

    The TCP sender is allowed to send two new segments in algorithm



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    branch (2b) because the conventional TCP sender would transmit two
    segments when the first new ACK arrives after the RTO
    retransmission.  If sending new data is not possible in algorithm
    branch (2b), or if the receiver window limits the transmission, the
    TCP sender has to send something in order to prevent the TCP
    transfer from stalling.  If no segments were sent, the pipe between
    sender and receiver might run out of segments, and no further
    acknowledgments would arrive.  Therefore, in the window-limited
    case, the recommendation is to revert to the conventional RTO
    recovery with slow start retransmissions.  Appendix A discusses some
    alternative solutions for window-limited situations.

    If the retransmission timeout is declared spurious, the TCP sender
    sets the value of the "recover" variable to SND.UNA in order to
    allow fast retransmit [FHG04].  The "recover" variable was proposed
    for avoiding unnecessary, multiple fast retransmits when RTO expires
    during fast recovery with NewReno TCP.  Because the sender
    retransmits only the segment that triggered the timeout, the problem
    of unnecessary multiple fast retransmits [FHG04] cannot occur.
    Therefore, if three duplicate ACKs arrive at the sender after the
    timeout, they probably indicate a packet loss, and thus fast
    retransmit should be used to allow efficient recovery.  If there are
    not enough duplicate ACKs arriving at the sender after a packet
    loss, the retransmission timer expires again and the sender enters
    step 1 of this algorithm.

    When the timeout is declared spurious, the TCP sender cannot detect
    whether the unnecessary RTO retransmission was lost.  In principle,
    the loss of the RTO retransmission should be taken as a congestion
    signal.  Thus, there is a small possibility that the F-RTO sender
    will violate the congestion control rules, if it chooses to fully
    revert congestion control parameters after detecting a spurious
    timeout.  The Eifel detection algorithm has a similar property,
    while the DSACK option can be used to detect whether the
    retransmitted segment was successfully delivered to the receiver.

    The F-RTO algorithm has a side-effect on the TCP round-trip time
    measurement.  Because the TCP sender can avoid most of the
    unnecessary retransmissions after detecting a spurious timeout, the
    sender is able to take round-trip time samples on the delayed
    segments.  If the regular RTO recovery was used without TCP
    timestamps, this would not be possible due to the retransmission
    ambiguity.  As a result, the RTO is likely to have more accurate and
    larger values with F-RTO than with the regular TCP after a spurious
    timeout that was triggered due to delayed segments.  We believe this
    is an advantage in the networks that are prone to delay spikes.

    There are some situations where the F-RTO algorithm may not avoid



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    unnecessary retransmissions after a spurious timeout.  If packet
    reordering or packet duplication occurs on the segment that
    triggered the spurious timeout, the F-RTO algorithm may not detect
    the spurious timeout due to incoming duplicate ACKs.  Additionally,
    if a spurious timeout occurs during fast recovery, the F-RTO
    algorithm often cannot detect the spurious timeout because the
    segments that were transmitted before the fast recovery trigger
    duplicate ACKs.  However, we consider these cases rare, and note
    that in cases where F-RTO fails to detect the spurious timeout, it
    retransmits the unacknowledged segments in slow start, and thus
    performs similarly to the regular RTO recovery.



3.  Taking Actions after Detecting Spurious RTO

    Upon retransmission timeout, a conventional TCP sender assumes that
    outstanding segments are lost and starts retransmitting the
    unacknowledged segments.  When the retransmission timeout is
    detected to be spurious, the TCP sender should not continue
    retransmitting based on the timeout.  For example, if the sender was
    in congestion avoidance phase transmitting new, previously unsent
    segments, it should continue transmitting previously unsent
    segments.

    There are currently two alternatives specified for a spurious
    timeout response algorithm, the Eifel Response Algorithm [LG04], and
    an algorithm for adapting the retransmission timeout after a
    spurious RTO [BBA06]. If no specific response algorithm is
    implemented, the TCP should respond to spurious timeout
    conservatively, applying the TCP congestion control specification
    [APS99]. Different response algorithms for spurious retransmission
    timeouts have been analyzed in some research papers [GL03, Sar03]
    and IETF documents [SL03].



4.  Evaluation of RFC 4138 and Differences to this Document

    F-RTO was first specified in an Experimental RFC 4138 that has been
    implemented in a number of operating systems since it was published.
    Gained experience has been documented in a separate document
    [KYHS07], and can be summarized as follows.

    If the TCP sender employs F-RTO, it is able to detect spurious RTOs
    and avoid the unnecessary retransmission of the whole window of
    data. Because F-RTO avoids the unnecessary retransmissions after a
    spurious RTO, it is able to adhere to the packet conservation



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    principle, unlike a regular TCP that enters the slow-start recovery
    unnecessarily an inappropriately restarts the ACK clock while there
    are segments outstanding in the network. When a spurious RTO has
    been detected, a sender can select an appropriate congestion control
    response instead of setting the congestion window to one segment.
    Because F-RTO avoids unnecessary retransmissions, it is able to take
    the RTT of the delayed segments into account when calculating the
    RTO estimate, which may help in avoiding further spurious
    retransmission timeouts.

    Experimental results with the basic F-RTO have been reported in an
    emulated network using a Linux implementation [SKR03]. Also
    different congestion control responses along with the SACK-enhanced
    version of F-RTO were tested in a similar environment [Sar03]. There
    are publications analyzing F-RTO performance over commercial W-CDMA
    networks, and in an emulated HSDPA network [Yam05, Hok05].  Also
    Microsoft reported positive experiences with their implementation of
    F-RTO in the IETF-68 meeting.

    It is known that some spurious RTOs may remain undetected by F-RTO
    if duplicate acknowledgements arrive at the sender immediately after
    the spurious RTO, for example due to packet reordering or packet
    loss. There are rare corner cases where F-RTO could "hide" a packet
    loss and therefore lead to inappropriate behavior with non-
    conservative congestion control response: first, if a massive packet
    reordering occurred so that the acknowledgement of RTO
    retransmission arrived at the sender before the acknowledgments of
    original transmissions, the sender might not detect the loss of the
    segment that triggered the RTO. Second, a malicious receiver could
    lead F-RTO to make a wrong conclusion after an RTO by acknowledging
    segments it has not received. Such receiver would, however, risk
    breaking the consistency of the TCP state between the sender and
    receiver, causing the connection to become unusable, which cannot be
    of any benefit to the receiver. Therefore we believe it is not
    likely that receivers would start employing such tricks in a
    significant scale. Finally, loss of the unnecessary RTO
    retransmission cannot be detected without using some explicit
    acknowledgement scheme such as DSACK. This is common to the other
    mechanisms for detecting spurious RTO, as well as to regular TCP
    that does not use DSACK. We note that if the congestion control
    response to spurious RTO is conservative enough, the above corner
    cases do not cause problems due to increased congestion.

    RFC 4138 includes the SACK-based variant of F-RTO and discussion on
    applying F-RTO to SCTP. These sections have been left out from this
    document because the authors are not aware of extensive experiments
    made with SACK-enhanced F-RTO or SCTP, and therefore think the
    community does not yet have sufficient experience with these



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    variants.




5.  Security Considerations

    The main security threat regarding F-RTO is the possibility that a
    receiver could mislead the sender into setting too large a
    congestion window after an RTO.  There are two possible ways a
    malicious receiver could trigger a wrong output from the F-RTO
    algorithm.  First, the receiver can acknowledge data that it has not
    received.  Second, it can delay acknowledgment of a segment it has
    received earlier, and acknowledge the segment after the TCP sender
    has been deluded to enter algorithm step 3.

    If the receiver acknowledges a segment it has not really received,
    the sender can be led to declare spurious timeout in the F-RTO
    algorithm, step 3.  However, because the sender will have an
    incorrect state, it cannot retransmit the segment that has never
    reached the receiver.  Therefore, this attack is unlikely to be
    useful for the receiver to maliciously gain a larger congestion
    window.

    A common case for a retransmission timeout is that a fast
    retransmission of a segment is lost.  If all other segments have
    been received, the RTO retransmission causes the whole window to be
    acknowledged at once.  This case is recognized in F-RTO algorithm
    branch (2a).  However, if the receiver only acknowledges one segment
    after receiving the RTO retransmission, and then the rest of the
    segments, it could cause the timeout to be declared spurious when it
    is not.  Therefore, it is suggested that, when an RTO expires during
    fast recovery phase, the sender would not fully revert the
    congestion window even if the timeout was declared spurious.
    Instead, the sender would reduce the congestion window to 1.

    If there is more than one segment missing at the time of a
    retransmission timeout, the receiver does not benefit from
    misleading the sender to declare a spurious timeout because the
    sender would have to go through another recovery period to
    retransmit the missing segments, usually after an RTO has elapsed.



6.  Acknowledgements

    We are thankful to Reiner Ludwig, Andrei Gurtov, Josh Blanton, Mark
    Allman, Sally Floyd, Yogesh Swami, Mika Liljeberg, Ivan Arias



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    Rodriguez, Sourabh Ladha, Martin Duke, Motoharu Miyake, Ted Faber,
    Samu Kontinen, and Kostas Pentikousis who gave valuable feedback
    during the preparation of RFC 4138, the precursor of this document.



Appendix


A.  Discussion of Window-Limited Cases

    When the advertised window limits the transmission of two new
    previously unsent segments, or there are no new data to send, it is
    recommended in F-RTO algorithm step (2b) that the TCP sender
    continue with the conventional RTO recovery algorithm.  The
    disadvantage is that the sender may continue unnecessary
    retransmissions due to possible spurious timeout.  This section
    briefly discusses the options that can potentially improve
    performance when transmitting previously unsent data is not
    possible.

    - The TCP sender could reserve an unused space of a size of one or
      two segments in the advertised window to ensure the use of
      algorithms such as F-RTO or Limited Transmit [ABF01] in window-
      limited situations.  On the other hand, while doing this, the TCP
      sender should ensure that the window of outstanding segments is
      large enough for proper utilization of the available pipe.

    - Use additional information if available, e.g., TCP timestamps with
      the Eifel Detection algorithm, for detecting a spurious timeout.
      However, Eifel detection may yield different results from F-RTO
      when ACK losses and an RTO occur within the same round-trip time
      [SKR03].

    - Retransmit data from the tail of the retransmission queue and
      continue with step 3 of the F-RTO algorithm.  It is possible that
      the retransmission will be made unnecessarily.  Thus, this option
      is not encouraged, except for hosts that are known to operate in
      an environment that is prone to spurious timeouts.  On the other
      hand, with this method it is possible to limit unnecessary
      retransmissions due to spurious timeout to one retransmission.

    - Send a zero-sized segment below SND.UNA, similar to TCP Keep-Alive
      probe, and continue with step 3 of the F-RTO algorithm.  Because
      the receiver replies with a duplicate ACK, the sender is able to
      detect whether the timeout was spurious from the incoming
      acknowledgment.  This method does not send data unnecessarily, but
      it delays the recovery by one round-trip time in cases where the



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      timeout was not spurious.  Therefore, this method is not
      encouraged.

    - In receiver-limited cases, send one octet of new data, regardless
      of the advertised window limit, and continue with step 3 of the F-
      RTO algorithm.  It is possible that the receiver will have free
      buffer space to receive the data by the time the segment has
      propagated through the network, in which case no harm is done.  If
      the receiver is not capable of receiving the segment, it rejects
      the segment and sends a duplicate ACK.



B.  List of Changes

    Changes from RFC 4138:

    * Removed description of the SACK-enhanced algorithm

    * Removed SCTP considerations

    * Removed earlier Appendix sections, except Appendix C from RFC
    4138, which is now Appendix A

    * Clarified text about the possible response algorithms

    * Added section that summarizes the evaluation of RFC 4138



References


Normative References

    [APS99]   Allman, M., Paxson, V., and W. Stevens, "TCP Congestion
              Control",  RFC 2581, April 1999.

    [BAFW03]  Blanton, E., Allman, M., Fall, K., and L. Wang, "A
              Conservative Selective Acknowledgment (SACK)-based Loss
              Recovery Algorithm for TCP", RFC 3517, April 2003.

    [RFC2119] Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
              Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997.

    [FHG04]   Floyd, S., Henderson, T., and A. Gurtov, "The NewReno
              Modification to TCP's Fast Recovery Algorithm", RFC 3782,
              April 2004.



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    [MMFR96]  Mathis, M., Mahdavi, J., Floyd, S., and A. Romanow, "TCP
              Selective Acknowledgement Options", RFC 2018,
              October 1996.

    [PA00]    Paxson, V. and M. Allman, "Computing TCP's Retransmission
              Timer", RFC 2988, November 2000.

    [Pos81]   Postel, J., "Transmission Control Protocol", STD 7, RFC
              793, September 1981.


Informative References

    [ABF01]   Allman, M., Balakrishnan, H., and S. Floyd, "Enhancing
              TCP's Loss Recovery Using Limited Transmit", RFC 3042,
              January 2001.

    [BA04]    Blanton, E. and M. Allman, "Using TCP Duplicate Selective
              Acknowledgement (DSACKs) and Stream Control Transmission
              Protocol (SCTP) Duplicate Transmission Sequence Numbers
              (TSNs) to Detect Spurious Retransmissions", RFC 3708,
              February 2004.

    [BBA06]   J. Blanton, E. Blanton, and M. Allman. Using Spurious
              Retransmissions to Adapt the Retransmission Timeout,
              Internet-Draft "draft-allman-rto-backoff-04.txt", December
              2006. Work in progress.

    [BBJ92]   Jacobson, V., Braden, R., and D. Borman, "TCP Extensions
              for High Performance", RFC 1323, May 1992.

    [FMMP00]  Floyd, S., Mahdavi, J., Mathis, M., and M. Podolsky, "An
              Extension to the Selective Acknowledgement (SACK) Option
              for TCP", RFC 2883, July 2000.

    [GL02]    A. Gurtov and R. Ludwig.  Evaluating the Eifel Algorithm
              for TCP in a GPRS Network.  In Proc. of European Wireless,
              Florence, Italy, February 2002.

    [GL03]    A. Gurtov and R. Ludwig, Responding to Spurious Timeouts
              in TCP.  In Proceedings of IEEE INFOCOM 03, San Francisco,
              CA, USA, March 2003.

    [Jac88]   V. Jacobson. Congestion Avoidance and Control.  In
              Proceedings of ACM SIGCOMM 88.

    [Hok05]   A. Hokamura, et al. "Performance Evaluation of F-RTO and
              Eifel Response Algorithms over W-CDMA packet network".



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              Wireless Personal Multimedia Communications (WPMC'05),
              Sept. 2005.

    [KYHS07]  M. Kojo, K. Yamamoto, M. Hata, and P. Sarolahti.
              Evaluation of RFC 4138.
              Internet-draft "draft-kojo-tcpm-frto-eval-00.txt",
              June 2007. Work in progress.

    [LG04]    Ludwig, R. and A. Gurtov, "The Eifel Response Algorithm
              for TCP", RFC 4015, February 2005.

    [LK00]    R. Ludwig and R.H. Katz.  The Eifel Algorithm: Making TCP
              Robust Against Spurious Retransmissions.  ACM SIGCOMM
              Computer Communication Review, 30(1), January 2000.

    [LM03]    Ludwig, R. and M. Meyer, "The Eifel Detection Algorithm
              for TCP", RFC 3522, April 2003.

    [Nag84]   Nagle, J., "Congestion Control in IP/TCP Internetworks",
              RFC 896, January 1984.

    [SK05]    P. Sarolahti and M. Kojo, "Forward RTO-Recovery (F-RTO):
              An Algorithm for Detecting Spurious Retransmission
              Timeouts with TCP and the Stream Control Transmission
              Protocol (SCTP), RFC 4138, August 2005.

    [SKR03]   P. Sarolahti, M. Kojo, and K. Raatikainen. F-RTO: An
              Enhanced Recovery Algorithm for TCP Retransmission
              Timeouts.  ACM SIGCOMM Computer Communication Review,
              33(2), April 2003.

    [Sar03]   P. Sarolahti.  Congestion Control on Spurious TCP
              Retransmission Timeouts.  In Proceedings of IEEE Globecom
              2003, San Francisco, CA, USA. December 2003.

    [SL03]    Y. Swami and K. Le, "DCLOR: De-correlated Loss Recovery
              using SACK Option for Spurious Timeouts", Expired
              Internet-Draft, September 2003.

    [Ste00]   R. Stewart, et. al. Stream Control Transmission Protocol,
              RFC 2960, October 2000.

    [Yam05]   K. Yamamoto, et al. "Effects of F-RTO and Eifel Response
              Algorithms for W-CDMA and HSDPA networks". Wireless
              PersonalMultimedia Communications (WPMC'05),
              Sept. 2005.





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AUTHORS' ADDRESSES


    Pasi Sarolahti
    Nokia Research Center
    P.O. Box 407
    FI-00045 NOKIA GROUP
    Finland
    Phone: +358 50 4876607
    Email: pasi.sarolahti@nokia.com

    Markku Kojo
    University of Helsinki
    P.O. Box 68
    FI-00014 UNIVERSITY OF HELSINKI
    Finland
    Email: kojo@cs.helsinki.fi

    Kazunori Yamamoto
    NTT Docomo, Inc.
    3-5 Hikarinooka, Yokosuka, Kanagawa, 239-8536, Japan
    Phone: +81-46-840-3812
    Email: yamamotokaz@nttdocomo.co.jp

    Max Hata
    NTT Docomo, Inc.
    3-5 Hikarinooka, Yokosuka, Kanagawa, 239-8536, Japan
    Phone: +81-46-840-3812
    Email: hatama@s1.nttdocomo.co.jp






















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