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Transport Layer Security Working Group                  Alan O. Freier
INTERNET-DRAFT                                 Netscape Communications
Expire in six months                                    Philip Karlton
                                               Netscape Communications
                                                        Paul C. Kocher
                                                Independent Consultant
                                                     November 18, 1996










                          The SSL Protocol
                            Version 3.0


                  <draft-ietf-tls-ssl-version3-00.txt>







Status of this memo

   This document is an Internet-Draft.  Internet-Drafts are working
   documents of the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF), its areas,
   and its working groups.  Note that other groups may also distribute
   working documents as Internet- Drafts.

   Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six
   months and may be updated, replaced, or made obsolete by other
   documents at any time.  It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts
   as reference material or to cite them other than as work in
   progress.

   To learn the current status of any Internet-Draft, please check the
   1id-abstracts.txt listing contained in the Internet Drafts Shadow
   Directories on ds.internic.net (US East Coast), nic.nordu.net
   (Europe), ftp.isi.edu (US West Coast), or munnari.oz.au (Pacific
   Rim).

Abstract

   This document specifies Version 3.0 of the Secure Sockets Layer
   (SSL V3.0) protocol, a security protocol that provides
   communications privacy over the Internet.  The protocol allows
   client/server applications to communicate in a way that is designed
   to prevent eavesdropping, tampering, or message forgery.


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Table of Contents
           Status of this memo                                       1
           Abstract                                                  1
           Table of Contents                                         2
   1.      Introduction                                              4
   2.      Goals                                                     4
   3.      Goals of this document                                    5
   4.      Presentation language                                     5
   4.1     Basic block size                                          5
   4.2     Miscellaneous                                             6
   4.3     Vectors                                                   6
   4.4     Numbers                                                   7
   4.5     Enumerateds                                               7
   4.6     Constructed types                                         8
   4.6.1   Variants                                                  8
   4.7     Cryptographic attributes                                  9
   4.8     Constants                                                10
   5.      SSL protocol                                             10
   5.1     Session and connection states                            10
   5.2     Record layer                                             12
   5.2.1   Fragmentation                                            12
   5.2.2   Record compression and decompression                     13
   5.2.3   Record payload protection and the CipherSpec             13
   5.2.3.1 Null or standard stream cipher                           14
   5.2.3.2 CBC block cipher                                         15
   5.3     Change cipher spec protocol                              16
   5.4     Alert protocol                                           16
   5.4.1   Closure alerts                                           17
   5.4.2   Error alerts                                             17
   5.5     Handshake protocol overview                              18
   5.6     Handshake protocol                                       20
   5.6.1   Hello messages                                           21
   5.6.1.1 Hello request                                            21
   5.6.1.2 Client hello                                             21
   5.6.1.3 Server hello                                             24
   5.6.2   Server certificate                                       25
   5.6.3   Server key exchange message                              25
   5.6.4   Certificate request                                      27
   5.6.5   Server hello done                                        27
   5.6.6   Client certificate                                       28
   5.6.7   Client key exchange message                              28
   5.6.7.1 RSA encrypted premaster secret message                   28
   5.6.7.2 FORTEZZA key exchange message                            29
   5.6.7.3 Client Diffie-Hellman public value                       30
   5.6.8   Certificate verify                                       30
   5.6.9   Finished                                                 31
   5.7     Application data protocol                                32
   6.      Cryptographic computations                               32
   6.1     Asymmetric cryptographic computations                    32
   6.1.1   RSA                                                      32
   6.1.2   Diffie-Hellman                                           33
   6.1.3   FORTEZZA                                                 33

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   6.2     Symmetric cryptographic calculations and the CipherSpec  33
   6.2.1   The master secret                                        33
   6.2.2   Converting the master secret into keys and MAC           33
   6.2.2.1 Export key generation example                            35
   A.      Protocol constant values                                 36
   A.1     Reserved port assignments                                36
   A.1.1   Record layer                                             36
   A.2     Change cipher specs message                              37
   A.3     Alert messages                                           37
   A.4     Handshake protocol                                       37
   A.4.1   Hello messages                                           38
   A.4.2   Server authentication and key exchange messages          39
   A.5     Client authentication and key exchange messages          40
   A.5.1   Handshake finalization message                           41
   A.6     The CipherSuite                                          41
   A.7     The CipherSpec                                           42
   B.      Glossary                                                 44
   C.      CipherSuite definitions                                  47
   D.      Implementation Notes                                     49
   D.1     Temporary RSA keys                                       49
   D.2     Random Number Generation and Seeding                     49
   D.3     Certificates and authentication                          50
   D.4     CipherSuites                                             50
   D.5     FORTEZZA                                                 50
   D.5.1   Notes on use of FORTEZZA hardware                        50
   D.5.2   FORTEZZA Ciphersuites                                    51
   D.5.3   FORTEZZA Session resumption                              51
   E.      Version 2.0 Backward Compatibility                       52
   E.1     Version 2 client hello                                   52
   E.2     Avoiding man-in-the-middle version rollback              53
   F.      Security analysis                                        55
   F.1     Handshake protocol                                       55
   F.1.1   Authentication and key exchange                          55
   F.1.1.1 Anonymous key exchange                                   55
   F.1.1.2 RSA key exchange and authentication                      56
   F.1.1.3 Diffie-Hellman key exchange with authentication          57
   F.1.1.4 FORTEZZA                                                 57
   F.1.2   Version rollback attacks                                 57
   F.1.3   Detecting attacks against the handshake protocol         58
   F.1.4   Resuming sessions                                        58
   F.1.5   MD5 and SHA                                              58
   F.2     Protecting application data                              59
   F.3     Final notes                                              59
   G.      Patent Statement                                         60
           References                                               61
           Authors                                                  62







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1. Introduction

   The primary goal of the SSL Protocol is to provide privacy and
   reliability between two communicating applications.  The protocol
   is composed of two layers.  At the lowest level, layered on top of
   some reliable transport protocol (e.g., TCP[TCP]), is the SSL
   Record Protocol.  The SSL Record Protocol is used for encapsulation
   of various higher level protocols.  One such encapsulated protocol,
   the SSL Handshake Protocol, allows the server and client to
   authenticate each other and to negotiate an encryption algorithm
   and cryptographic keys before the application protocol transmits or
   receives its first byte of data.  One advantage of SSL is that it
   is application protocol independent.  A higher level protocol can
   layer on top of the SSL Protocol transparently.  The SSL protocol
   provides connection security that has three basic properties:

   -     The connection is private.  Encryption is used after an
         initial handshake to define a secret key.  Symmetric
         cryptography is used for data encryption (e.g., DES[DES],
         RC4[RC4], etc.)
   -     The peer's identity can be authenticated using asymmetric, or
         public key, cryptography (e.g., RSA[RSA], DSS[DSS], etc.).
   -     The connection is reliable.  Message transport includes a
         message integrity check using a keyed MAC.  Secure hash
         functions (e.g., SHA, MD5, etc.) are used for MAC
         computations.

2. Goals

   The goals of SSL Protocol v3.0, in order of their priority,
   are:
     1. Cryptographic security
                       SSL should be used to establish a secure
                       connection between two parties.
     2. Interoperability
                       Independent programmers should be able to
                       develop applications utilizing SSL 3.0 that
                       will then be able to successfully exchange
                       cryptographic parameters without knowledge of
                       one another's code.

   Note:          It is not the case that all instances of SSL (even
                  in the same application domain) will be able to
                  successfully connect.  For instance, if the server
                  supports a particular hardware token, and the client
                  does not have access to such a token, then the
                  connection will not succeed.

     3. Extensibility  SSL seeks to provide a framework into which new
                       public key and bulk encryption methods can be
                       incorporated as necessary.  This will also
                       accomplish two sub-goals: to prevent the need

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                       to create a new protocol (and risking the
                       introduction of possible new weaknesses) and to
                       avoid the need to implement an entire new
                       security library.
     4. Relative efficiency
                       Cryptographic operations tend to be highly CPU
                       intensive, particularly public key operations.
                       For this reason, the SSL protocol has
                       incorporated an optional session caching scheme
                       to reduce the number of connections that need
                       to be established from scratch.  Additionally,
                       care has been taken to reduce network activity.

3. Goals of this document

   The SSL Protocol Version 3.0 Specification is intended primarily
   for readers who will be implementing the protocol and those doing
   cryptographic analysis of it.  The spec has been written with this
   in mind, and it is intended to reflect the needs of those two
   groups.  For that reason, many of the algorithm-dependent data
   structures and rules are included in the body of the text (as
   opposed to in an Appendix), providing easier access to them.

   This document is not intended to supply any details of service
   definition nor interface definition, although it does cover select
   areas of policy as they are required for the maintenance of solid
   security.

4. Presentation language

   This document deals with the formatting of data in an external
   representation.  The following very basic and somewhat casually
   defined presentation syntax will be used.  The syntax draws from
   several sources in its structure.  Although it resembles the
   programming language "C" in its syntax and XDR [XDR] in both its
   syntax and intent, it would be risky to draw too many parallels.
   The purpose of this presentation language is to document SSL only,
   not to have general application beyond that particular goal.

4.1 Basic block size

   The representation of all data items is explicitly specified.  The
   basic data block size is one byte (i.e. 8 bits).  Multiple byte
   data items are concatenations of bytes, from left to right, from
   top to bottom.  From the bytestream a multi-byte item (a numeric in
   the example) is formed (using C notation) by:

     value = (byte[0] << 8*(n-1)) | (byte[1] << 8*(n-2)) | ...
     | byte[n-1];

   This byte ordering for multi-byte values is the commonplace network
   byte order or big endian format.

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4.2 Miscellaneous

   Comments begin with "/*" and end with "*/".
   Optional components are denoted by enclosing them in "[[ ]]" double
   brackets.
   Single byte entities containing uninterpreted data are of type
   opaque.

4.3 Vectors

   A vector (single dimensioned array) is a stream of homogeneous data
   elements.  The size of the vector may be specified at documentation
   time or left unspecified until runtime.  In either case the length
   declares the number of bytes, not the number of elements, in the
   vector.  The syntax for specifying a new type T' that is a fixed
   length vector of type T is

     T T'[n];

   Here T' occupies n bytes in the data stream, where n is a multiple
   of the size of T.  The length of the vector is not included in the
   encoded stream.

   In the following example, Datum is defined to be three consecutive
   bytes that the protocol does not interpret, while Data is three
   consecutive Datum, consuming a total of nine bytes.

     opaque Datum[3];      /* three uninterpreted bytes */
     Datum Data[9];        /* 3 consecutive 3 byte vectors */

   Variable length vectors are defined by specifying a subrange of
   legal lengths, inclusively, using the notation <floor..ceiling>.
   When encoded, the actual length precedes the vector's contents in
   the byte stream.  The length will be in the form of a number
   consuming as many bytes as required to hold the vector's specified
   maximum (ceiling) length.  A variable length vector with an actual
   length field of zero is referred to as an empty vector.

     T T'<floor..ceiling>;

   In the following example, mandatory is a vector that must contain
   between 300 and 400 bytes of type opaque.  It can never be empty.
   The actual length field consumes two bytes, a uint16, sufficient to
   represent the value 400 (see Section 4.4).  On the other hand,
   longer can represent up to 800 bytes of data, or 400 uint16
   elements, and it may be empty.  Its encoding will include a two
   byte actual length field prepended to the vector.

     opaque mandatory<300..400>;
           /* length field is 2 bytes, cannot be empty */
     uint16 longer<0..800>;
           /* zero to 400 16-bit unsigned integers */

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4.4 Numbers

   The basic numeric data type is an unsigned byte (uint8).  All
   larger numeric data types are formed from fixed length series of
   bytes concatenated as described in Section 4.1 and are also
   unsigned.  The following numeric types are predefined.

     uint8 uint16[2];
     uint8 uint24[3];
     uint8 uint32[4];
     uint8 uint64[8];

4.5 Enumerateds

   An additional sparse data type is available called enum.  A field
   of type enum can only assume the values declared in the definition.
   Each definition is a different type.  Only enumerateds of the same
   type may be assigned or compared.  Every element of an enumerated
   must be assigned a value, as demonstrated in the following example.
   Since the elements of the enumerated are not ordered, they can be
   assigned any unique value, in any order.

     enum { e1(v1), e2(v2), ... , en(vn), [[(n)]] } Te;

   Enumerateds occupy as much space in the byte stream as would its
   maximal defined ordinal value.  The following definition would
   cause one byte to be used to carry fields of type Color.

     enum { red(3), blue(5), white(7) } Color;

   One may optionally specify a value without its associated tag to
   force the width definition without defining a superfluous element.
   In the following example, Taste will consume two bytes in the data
   stream but can only assume the values 1, 2 or 4.

     enum { sweet(1), sour(2), bitter(4), (32000) } Taste;

   The names of the elements of an enumeration are scoped within the
   defined type.  In the first example, a fully qualified reference to
   the second element of the enumeration would be Color.blue.  Such
   qualification is not required if the target of the assignment is
   well specified.

     Color color = Color.blue;     /* overspecified, legal */
     Color color = blue;           /* correct, type implicit */

   For enumerateds that are never converted to external
   representation, the numerical information may be omitted.

     enum { low, medium, high } Amount;



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4.6 Constructed types

   Structure types may be constructed from primitive types for
   convenience.  Each specification declares a new, unique type.  The
   syntax for definition is much like that of C.

   struct {
       T1 f1;
       T2 f2;
       ...
       Tn fn;
   } [[T]];

   The fields within a structure may be qualified using the type's
   name using a syntax much like that available for enumerateds.  For
   example, T.f2 refers to the second field of the previous
   declaration.  Structure definitions may be embedded.

4.6.1 Variants

   Defined structures may have variants based on some knowledge that
   is available within the environment.  The selector must be an
   enumerated type that defines the possible variants the structure
   defines.  There must be a case arm for every element of the
   enumeration declared in the select.  The body of the variant
   structure may be given a label for reference.  The mechanism by
   which the variant is selected at runtime is not prescribed by the
   presentation language.

     struct {
         T1 f1;
         T2 f2;
          ....
         Tn fn;
         select (E) {
             case e1: Te1;
             case e2: Te2;
                 ....
             case en: Ten;
         } [[fv]];
     } [[Tv]];

   For example

     enum { apple, orange } VariantTag;
     struct {
         uint16 number;
         opaque string<0..10>; /* variable length */
     } V1;




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     struct {
         uint32 number;
         opaque string[10];    /* fixed length */
     } V2;
     struct {
         select (VariantTag) { /* value of selector is implicit */
             case apple: V1;   /* VariantBody, tag = apple */
             case orange: V2;  /* VariantBody, tag = orange */
         } variant_body;       /* optional label on variant */
     } VariantRecord;

   Variant structures may be qualified (narrowed) by specifying a
   value for the selector prior to the type.  For example, a

     orange VariantRecord

   is a narrowed type of a VariantRecord containing a variant_body of
   type V2.

4.7 Cryptographic attributes

   The four cryptographic operations digital signing, stream cipher
   encryption, block cipher encryption, and public key encryption are
   designated digitally-signed, stream-ciphered, block-ciphered, and
   public-key-encrypted, respectively.  A field's cryptographic
   processing is specified by prepending an appropriate key word
   designation before the field's type specification.  Cryptographic
   keys are implied by the current session state (see Section 5.1).

   In digital signing, one-way hash functions are used as input for a
   signing algorithm.  In RSA signing, a 36-byte structure of two
   hashes (one SHA and one MD5) is signed (encrypted with the private
   key).  In DSS, the 20 bytes of the SHA hash are run directly
   through the Digital Signing Algorithm with no additional hashing.

   In stream cipher encryption, the plaintext is exclusive-ORed with
   an identical amount of output generated from a
   cryptographically-secure keyed pseudorandom number generator.

   In block cipher encryption, every block of plaintext encrypts to a
   block of ciphertext.  Because it is unlikely that the plaintext
   (whatever data is to be sent) will break neatly into the necessary
   block size (usually 64 bits), it is necessary to pad out the end of
   short blocks with some regular pattern, usually all zeroes.

   In public key encryption, one-way functions with secret "trapdoors"
   are used to encrypt the outgoing data.  Data encrypted with the
   public key of a given key pair can only be decrypted with the
   private key, and vice-versa.  In the following example:




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     stream-ciphered struct {
         uint8 field1;
         uint8 field2;
         digitally-signed opaque hash[20];
     } UserType;

   The contents of hash are used as input for the signing algorithm,
   then the entire structure is encrypted with a stream cipher.

4.8 Constants

   Typed constants can be defined for purposes of specification by
   declaring a symbol of the desired type and assigning values to it.
   Under-specified types (opaque, variable length vectors, and
   structures that contain opaque) cannot be assigned values.  No
   fields of a multi-element structure or vector may be elided.

   For example,
     struct {
         uint8 f1;
         uint8 f2;
     } Example1;

     Example1 ex1 = {1, 4};/* assigns f1 = 1, f2 = 4 */

5. SSL protocol

   SSL is a layered protocol.  At each layer, messages may include
   fields for length, description, and content.  SSL takes messages to
   be transmitted, fragments the data into manageable blocks,
   optionally compresses the data, applies a MAC, encrypts, and
   transmits the result.  Received data is decrypted, verified,
   decompressed, and reassembled, then delivered to higher level
   clients.

5.1 Session and connection states

   An SSL session is stateful.  It is the responsibility of the SSL
   Handshake protocol to coordinate the states of the client and
   server, thereby allowing the protocol state machines of each to
   operate consistently, despite the fact that the state is not
   exactly parallel.  Logically the state is represented twice, once
   as the current operating state, and (during the handshake protocol)
   again as the pending state.  Additionally, separate read and write
   states are maintained.  When the client or server receives a change
   cipher spec message, it copies the pending read state into the
   current read state.  When the client or server sends a change
   cipher spec message, it copies the pending write state into the
   current write state.  When the handshake negotiation is complete,
   the client and server exchange change cipher spec messages (see
   Section 5.3), and they then communicate using the newly agreed-upon
   cipher spec.

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   An SSL session may include multiple secure connections; in
   addition, parties may have multiple simultaneous sessions.

   The session state includes the following elements:

     session identifier
                       An arbitrary byte sequence chosen by the server
                       to identify an active or resumable session
                       state.
     peer certificate  X509.v3[X509] certificate of the peer.  This
                       element of the state may be null.
     compression method
                       The algorithm used to compress data prior to
                       encryption.
     cipher spec       Specifies the bulk data encryption algorithm
                       (such as null, DES, etc.) and a MAC algorithm
                       (such as MD5 or SHA).  It also defines
                       cryptographic attributes such as the hash_size.
                       (See Appendix A.7 for formal definition)
     master secret     48-byte secret shared between the client and
                       server.
     is resumable      A flag indicating whether the session can be
                       used to initiate new connections.

   The connection state includes the following elements:

     server and client random
                       Byte sequences that are chosen by the server
                       and client for each connection.
     server write MAC secret
                       The secret used in MAC operations on data
                       written by the server
     client write MAC secret
                       The secret used in MAC operations on data
                       written by the client.
     server write key  The bulk cipher key for data encrypted by the
                       server and decrypted by the client.
     client write key  The bulk cipher key for data encrypted by the
                       client and decrypted by the server.
     initialization vectors
                       When a block cipher in CBC mode is used, an
                       initialization vector (IV) is maintained for
                       each key.  This field is first initialized by
                       the SSL handshake protocol.  Thereafter the
                       final ciphertext block from each record is
                       preserved for use with the following record.
     sequence numbers  Each party maintains separate sequence numbers
                       for transmitted and received messages for each
                       connection.  When a party sends or receives a
                       change cipher spec message, the appropriate
                       sequence number is set to zero.  Sequence


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                       numbers are of type uint64 and may not exceed
                       2^64-1.

5.2 Record layer

   The SSL Record Layer receives uninterpreted data from higher layers
   in non-empty blocks of arbitrary size.

5.2.1 Fragmentation

   The record layer fragments information blocks into SSLPlaintext
   records of 2^14 bytes or less.  Client message boundaries are not
   preserved in the record layer (i.e., multiple client messages of
   the same ContentType may be coalesced into a single SSLPlaintext
   record).

     struct {
         uint8 major, minor;
     } ProtocolVersion;

     enum {
         change_cipher_spec(20), alert(21), handshake(22),
         application_data(23), (255)
     } ContentType;

     struct {
         ContentType type;
         ProtocolVersion version;
         uint16 length;
         opaque fragment[SSLPlaintext.length];
     } SSLPlaintext;

     type              The higher level protocol used to process the
                       enclosed fragment.
     version           The version of protocol being employed.  This
                       document describes SSL Version 3.0 (See
                       Appendix A.1.1).
     length            The length (in bytes) of the following
                       SSLPlaintext.fragment.  The length should not
                       exceed 2^14.
     fragment          The application data.  This data is transparent
                       and treated as an independent block to be dealt
                       with by the higher level protocol specified by
                       the type field.

   Note:          Data of different SSL Record layer content types may
                  be interleaved.  Application data is generally of
                  lower precedence for transmission than other content
                  types.




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5.2.2 Record compression and decompression

   All records are compressed using the compression algorithm defined
   in the current session state.  There is always an active
   compression algorithm, however initially it is defined as
   CompressionMethod.null.  The compression algorithm translates an
   SSLPlaintext structure into an SSLCompressed structure.
   Compression functions erase their state information whenever the
   CipherSpec is replaced.

   Note:          The CipherSpec is part of the session state
                  described in Section 5.1.  References to fields of
                  the CipherSpec are made throughout this document
                  using presentation syntax.  A more complete
                  description of the CipherSpec is shown in Appendix
                  A.7.

   Compression must be lossless and may not increase the content
   length by more than 1024 bytes.  If the decompression function
   encounters an SSLCompressed.fragment that would decompress to a
   length in excess of 2^14 bytes, it should issue a fatal
   decompression_failure alert (Section 5.4.2).

     struct {
         ContentType type;       /* same as SSLPlaintext.type */
         ProtocolVersion version;/* same as SSLPlaintext.version */
         uint16 length;
         opaque fragment[SSLCompressed.length];
     } SSLCompressed;

     length            The length (in bytes) of the following
                       SSLCompressed.fragment.  The length
                       should not exceed 2^14 + 1024.
     fragment          The compressed form of
                       SSLPlaintext.fragment.

   Note:          A CompressionMethod.null operation is an identity
                  operation; no fields are altered.
                  (See Appendix A.4.1)

   Implementation note:
                   Decompression functions are responsible for
                   ensuring that messages cannot cause internal buffer
                   overflows.

5.2.3 Record payload protection and the CipherSpec

   All records are protected using the encryption and MAC algorithms
   defined in the current CipherSpec.  There is always an active
   CipherSpec, however initially it is SSL_NULL_WITH_NULL_NULL, which
   does not provide any security.


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   Once the handshake is complete, the two parties have shared secrets
   which are used to encrypt records and compute keyed message
   authentication codes (MACs) on their contents.  The techniques used
   to perform the encryption and MAC operations are defined by the
   CipherSpec and constrained by CipherSpec.cipher_type.  The
   encryption and MAC functions translate an SSLCompressed structure
   into an SSLCiphertext.  The decryption functions reverse the
   process.  Transmissions also include a sequence number so that
   missing, altered, or extra messages are detectable.

     struct {
         ContentType type;
         ProtocolVersion version;
         uint16 length;
         select (CipherSpec.cipher_type) {
             case stream: GenericStreamCipher;
             case block: GenericBlockCipher;
         } fragment;
     } SSLCiphertext;

     type              The type field is identical to
                       SSLCompressed.type.
     version           The version field is identical to
                       SSLCompressed.version.
     length            The length (in bytes) of the following
                       SSLCiphertext.fragment.  The length may
                       not exceed 2^14 + 2048.
     fragment          The encrypted form of
                       SSLCompressed.fragment, including the
                       MAC.

5.2.3.1 Null or standard stream cipher

   Stream ciphers (including BulkCipherAlgorithm.null - see Appendix
   A.7) convert SSLCompressed.fragment structures to and from stream
   SSLCiphertext.fragment structures.

     stream-ciphered struct {
         opaque content[SSLCompressed.length];
         opaque MAC[CipherSpec.hash_size];
     } GenericStreamCipher;

   The MAC is generated as:

     hash(MAC_write_secret + pad_2 +
          hash(MAC_write_secret + pad_1 + seq_num +
               SSLCompressed.type + SSLCompressed.length +
               SSLCompressed.fragment));

   where "+" denotes concatenation.



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     pad_1             The character 0x36 repeated 48 times for MD5
                       or 40 times for SHA.
     pad_2             The character 0x5c repeated 48 times for MD5
                       or 40 times for SHA.
     seq_num           The sequence number for this message.
     hash              Hashing algorithm derived from the cipher
                       suite.

   Note that the MAC is computed before encryption.  The stream cipher
   encrypts the entire block, including the MAC.  For stream ciphers
   that do not use a synchronization vector (such as RC4), the stream
   cipher state from the end of one record is simply used on the
   subsequent packet.  If the CipherSuite is SSL_NULL_WITH_NULL_NULL,
   encryption consists of the identity operation (i.e., the data is
   not encrypted and the MAC size is zero implying that no MAC is
   used).  SSLCiphertext.length is SSLCompressed.length plus
   CipherSpec.hash_size.

5.2.3.2 CBC block cipher

   For block ciphers (such as RC2 or DES), the encryption and MAC
   functions convert SSLCompressed.fragment structures to and from
   block SSLCiphertext.fragment structures.

     block-ciphered struct {
         opaque content[SSLCompressed.length];
         opaque MAC[CipherSpec.hash_size];
         uint8 padding[GenericBlockCipher.padding_length];
         uint8 padding_length;
     } GenericBlockCipher;

   The MAC is generated as described in Section 5.2.3.1.

     padding           Padding that is added to force the length of
                       the plaintext to be a multiple of the block
                       cipher's block length.
     padding_length    The length of the padding must be less than the
                       cipher's block length and may be zero.  The
                       padding length should be such that the total
                       size of the GenericBlockCipher structure is a
                       multiple of the cipher's block length.

   The encrypted data length (SSLCiphertext.length) is one more than
   the sum of SSLCompressed.length, CipherSpec.hash_size, and
   padding_length.

   Note:          With CBC block chaining the initialization vector
                  (IV) for the first record is provided by the
                  handshake protocol.  The IV for subsequent records
                  is the last ciphertext block from the previous
                  record.


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5.3 Change cipher spec protocol

   The change cipher spec protocol exists to signal transitions in
   ciphering strategies.  The protocol consists of a single message,
   which is encrypted and compressed under the current (not the
   pending) CipherSpec.  The message consists of a single byte of
   value 1.

     struct {
         enum { change_cipher_spec(1), (255) } type;
     } ChangeCipherSpec;

   The change cipher spec message is sent by both the client and
   server to notify the receiving party that subsequent records will
   be protected under the just-negotiated CipherSpec and keys.
   Reception of this message causes the receiver to copy the read
   pending state into the read current state.  The client sends a
   change cipher spec message following handshake key exchange and
   certificate verify messages (if any), and the server sends one
   after successfully processing the key exchange message it received
   from the client.  An unexpected change cipher spec message should
   generate an unexpected_message alert (Section 5.4.2).  When
   resuming a previous session, the change cipher spec message is sent
   after the hello messages.

5.4 Alert protocol

   One of the content types supported by the SSL Record layer is the
   alert type.  Alert messages convey the severity of the message and
   a description of the alert.  Alert messages with a level of fatal
   result in the immediate termination of the connection.  In this
   case, other connections corresponding to the session may continue,
   but the session identifier must be invalidated, preventing the
   failed session from being used to establish new connections.  Like
   other messages, alert messages are encrypted and compressed, as
   specified by the current connection state.

     enum { warning(1), fatal(2), (255) } AlertLevel;

     enum {
         close_notify(0),
         unexpected_message(10),
         bad_record_mac(20),
         decompression_failure(30),
         handshake_failure(40),
         no_certificate(41),
         bad_certificate(42),
         unsupported_certificate(43),
         certificate_revoked(44),
         certificate_expired(45),
         certificate_unknown(46),


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         illegal_parameter (47)
         (255)
     } AlertDescription;

     struct {
         AlertLevel level;
         AlertDescription description;
     } Alert;

5.4.1 Closure alerts

   The client and the server must share knowledge that the connection
   is ending in order to avoid a truncation attack.  Either party may
   initiate the exchange of closing messages.

     close_notify      This message notifies the recipient that the
                       sender will not send any more messages on this
                       connection.  The session becomes unresumable if
                       any connection is terminated without proper
                       close_notify messages with level equal to
                       warning.

   Either party may initiate a close by sending a close_notify alert.
   Any data received after a closure alert is ignored.

   Each party is required to send a close_notify alert before closing
   the write side of the connection.  It is required that the other
   party respond with a close_notify alert of its own and close down
   the connection immediately, discarding any pending writes.  It is
   not required for the initiator of the close to wait for the
   responding close_notify alert before closing the read side of the
   connection.

   NB: It is assumed that closing a connection reliably delivers
   pending data before destroying the transport.


5.4.2 Error alerts

   Error handling in the SSL Handshake protocol is very simple.  When
   an error is detected, the detecting party sends a message to the
   other party.  Upon transmission or receipt of an fatal alert
   message, both parties immediately close the connection.  Servers
   and clients are required to forget any session-identifiers, keys,
   and secrets associated with a failed connection.  The following
   error alerts are defined:

     unexpected_message
                       An inappropriate message was received.  This
                       alert is always fatal and should never be
                       observed in communication between proper
                       implementations.

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     bad_record_mac    This alert is returned if a record is received
                       with an incorrect MAC.  This message is always
                       fatal.
     decompression_failure
                       The decompression function received improper
                       input (e.g. data that would expand to excessive
                       length).  This message is always fatal.
     handshake_failure Reception of a handshake_failure alert message
                       indicates that the sender was unable to
                       negotiate an acceptable set of security
                       parameters given the options available.  This
                       is a fatal error.
     no_certificate    A no_certificate alert message may be sent in
                       response to a certification request if no
                       appropriate certificate is available.
     bad_certificate   A certificate was corrupt, contained signatures
                       that did not verify correctly, etc.
     unsupported_certificate
                       A certificate was of an unsupported type.
     certificate_revoked
                       A certificate was revoked by its signer.
     certificate_expired
                       A certificate has expired or is not currently
                       valid.
     certificate_unknown
                       Some other (unspecified) issue arose in
                       processing the certificate, rendering it
                       unacceptable.
     illegal_parameter A field in the handshake was out of range or
                       inconsistent with other fields.  This is always
                       fatal.

5.5 Handshake protocol overview

   The cryptographic parameters of the session state are produced by
   the SSL Handshake Protocol, which operates on top of the SSL Record
   Layer.  When a SSL client and server first start communicating,
   they agree on a protocol version, select cryptographic algorithms,
   optionally authenticate each other, and use public-key encryption
   techniques to generate shared secrets.  These processes are
   performed in the handshake protocol, which can be summarized as
   follows: The client sends a client hello message to which the
   server must respond with a server hello message, or else a fatal
   error will occur and the connection will fail.  The client hello
   and server hello are used to establish security enhancement
   capabilities between client and server.  The client hello and
   server hello establish the following attributes: Protocol Version,
   Session ID, Cipher Suite, and Compression Method.  Additionally,
   two random values are generated and exchanged: ClientHello.random
   and ServerHello.random.



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   Following the hello messages, the server will send its certificate,
   if it is to be authenticated.  Additionally, a server key exchange
   message may be sent, if it is required (e.g. if their server has no
   certificate, or if its certificate is for signing only).  If the
   server is authenticated, it may request a certificate from the
   client, if that is appropriate to the cipher suite selected.  Now
   the server will send the server hello done message, indicating that
   the hello-message phase of the handshake is complete.  The server
   will then wait for a client response.  If the server has sent a
   certificate request Message, the client must send either the
   certificate message or a no_certificate alert.  The client key
   exchange message is now sent, and the content of that message will
   depend on the public key algorithm selected between the client
   hello and the server hello.  If the client has sent a certificate
   with signing ability, a digitally-signed certificate verify message
   is sent to explicitly verify the certificate.

   At this point, a change cipher spec message is sent by the client,
   and the client copies the pending Cipher Spec into the current
   Cipher Spec.  The client then immediately sends the finished
   message under the new algorithms, keys, and secrets.  In response,
   the server will send its own change cipher spec message, transfer
   the pending to the current Cipher Spec, and send its finished
   message under the new Cipher Spec.  At this point, the handshake is
   complete and the client and server may begin to exchange
   application layer data.  (See flow chart below.)

   Client                                                Server

   ClientHello                   -------->
                                                    ServerHello
                                                   Certificate*
                                             ServerKeyExchange*
                                            CertificateRequest*
                                 <--------      ServerHelloDone
   Certificate*
   ClientKeyExchange
   CertificateVerify*
   [ChangeCipherSpec]
   Finished                      -------->
                                             [ChangeCipherSpec]
                                 <--------             Finished
   Application Data              <------->     Application Data

   * Indicates optional or situation-dependent messages that are not
   always sent.

   Note:          To help avoid pipeline stalls, ChangeCipherSpec is
                  an independent SSL Protocol content type, and is not
                  actually an SSL handshake message.



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   When the client and server decide to resume a previous session or
   duplicate an existing session (instead of negotiating new security
   parameters) the message flow is as follows:

   The client sends a ClientHello using the Session ID of the session
   to be resumed.  The server then checks its session cache for a
   match.  If a match is found, and the server is willing to
   re-establish the connection under the specified session state, it
   will send a ServerHello with the same Session ID value.  At this
   point, both client and server must send change cipher spec messages
   and proceed directly to finished messages.  Once the
   re-establishment is complete, the client and server may begin to
   exchange application layer data.  (See flow chart below.) If a
   Session ID match is not found, the server generates a new session
   ID and the SSL client and server perform a full handshake.

   Client                                                Server

   ClientHello                   -------->
                                                    ServerHello
                                           [change cipher spec]
                                 <--------             Finished
   change cipher spec
   Finished                      -------->
   Application Data              <------->     Application Data

   The contents and significance of each message will be presented in
   detail in the following sections.

5.6 Handshake protocol

   The SSL Handshake Protocol is one of the defined higher level
   clients of the SSL Record Protocol.  This protocol is used to
   negotiate the secure attributes of a session.  Handshake messages
   are supplied to the SSL Record Layer, where they are encapsulated
   within one or more SSLPlaintext structures, which are processed and
   transmitted as specified by the current active session state.

     enum {
         hello_request(0), client_hello(1), server_hello(2),
         certificate(11), server_key_exchange (12),
         certificate_request(13), server_hello_done(14),
         certificate_verify(15), client_key_exchange(16),
         finished(20), (255)
     } HandshakeType;

     struct {
         HandshakeType msg_type;    /* handshake type */
         uint24 length;             /* bytes in message */
         select (HandshakeType) {
             case hello_request: HelloRequest;
             case client_hello: ClientHello;

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             case server_hello: ServerHello;
             case certificate: Certificate;
             case server_key_exchange: ServerKeyExchange;
             case certificate_request: CertificateRequest;
             case server_hello_done: ServerHelloDone;
             case certificate_verify: CertificateVerify;
             case client_key_exchange: ClientKeyExchange;
             case finished: Finished;
         } body;
     } Handshake;

   The handshake protocol messages are presented in the order they
   must be sent; sending handshake messages in an unexpected order
   results in a fatal error.

5.6.1 Hello messages

   The hello phase messages are used to exchange security enhancement
   capabilities between the client and server.  When a new session
   begins, the CipherSpec encryption, hash, and compression algorithms
   are initialized to null.  The current CipherSpec is used for
   renegotiation messages.

5.6.1.1 Hello request

   The hello request message may be sent by the server at any time,
   but will be ignored by the client if the handshake protocol is
   already underway.  It is a simple notification that the client
   should begin the negotiation process anew by sending a client hello
   message when convenient.

   Note:          Since handshake messages are intended to have
                  transmission precedence over application data, it is
                  expected that the negotiation begin in no more than
                  one or two times the transmission time of a maximum
                  length application data message.

   After sending a hello request, servers should not repeat the
   request until the subsequent handshake negotiation is complete.  A
   client that receives a hello request while in a handshake
   negotiation state should simply ignore the message.

   The structure of a hello request message is as follows:

     struct { } HelloRequest;

5.6.1.2 Client hello

   When a client first connects to a server it is required to send the
   client hello as its first message.  The client can also send a
   client hello in response to a hello request or on its own
   initiative in order to renegotiate the security parameters in an

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   existing connection.  The client hello message includes a random
   structure, which is used later in the protocol.

   struct {
       uint32 gmt_unix_time;
       opaque random_bytes[28];
   } Random;

     gmt_unix_time     The current time and date in standard UNIX
                       32-bit format according to the sender's
                       internal clock.  Clocks are not required to be
                       set correctly by the basic SSL Protocol; higher
                       level or application protocols may define
                       additional requirements.
     random_bytes      28 bytes generated by a secure random number
                       generator.

   The client hello message includes a variable length session
   identifier.  If not empty, the value identifies a session between
   the same client and server whose security parameters the client
   wishes to reuse.  The session identifier may be from an earlier
   connection, this connection, or another currently active
   connection.  The second option is useful if the client only wishes
   to update the random structures and derived values of a connection,
   while the third option makes it possible to establish several
   simultaneous independent secure connections without repeating the
   full handshake protocol.  The actual contents of the SessionID are
   defined by the server.

     opaque SessionID<0..32>;

   Warning:       Servers must not place confidential information in
                  session identifiers or let the contents of fake
                  session identifiers cause any breach of security.

   The CipherSuite list, passed from the client to the server in the
   client hello message, contains the combinations of cryptographic
   algorithms supported by the client in order of the client's
   preference (first choice first).  Each CipherSuite defines both a
   key exchange algorithm and a CipherSpec.  The server will select a
   cipher suite or, if no acceptable choices are presented, return a
   handshake failure alert and close the connection.

     uint8 CipherSuite[2];  /* Cryptographic suite selector */

   The client hello includes a list of compression algorithms
   supported by the client, ordered according to the client's
   preference.  If the server supports none of those specified by the
   client, the session must fail.

     enum { null(0), (255) } CompressionMethod;


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   Issue:         Which compression methods to support is under
                  investigation.

   The structure of the client hello is as follows.
     struct {
         ProtocolVersion client_version;
         Random random;
         SessionID session_id;
         CipherSuite cipher_suites<2..2^16-1>;
         CompressionMethod compression_methods<1..2^8-1>;
     } ClientHello;

     client_version    The version of the SSL protocol by which the
                       client wishes to communicate during this
                       session.  This should be the most recent
                       (highest valued) version supported by the
                       client.  For this version of the specification,
                       the version will be 3.0 (See Appendix E for
                       details about backward compatibility).
     random            A client-generated random structure.
     session_id        The ID of a session the client wishes to use
                       for this connection.  This field should be
                       empty if no session_id is available or the
                       client wishes to generate new security
                       parameters.
     cipher_suites     This is a list of the cryptographic options
                       supported by the client, sorted with the
                       client's first preference first.  If the
                       session_id field is not empty (implying a
                       session resumption request) this vector must
                       include at least the cipher_suite from that
                       session.  Values are defined in Appendix A.6.
     compression_methods
                       This is a list of the compression methods
                       supported by the client, sorted by client
                       preference.  If the session_id field is not
                       empty (implying a session resumption request)
                       this vector must include at least the
                       compression_method from that session.  All
                       implementations must support
                       CompressionMethod.null.

   After sending the client hello message, the client waits for a
   server hello message.  Any other handshake message returned by the
   server except for a hello request is treated as a fatal error.

   Implementation note:
                  Application data may not be sent before a finished
                  message has been sent.  Transmitted application data
                  is known to be insecure until a valid finished
                  message has been received.  This absolute


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                  restriction is relaxed if there is a current,
                  non-null encryption on this connection.

   Forward compatibility note:
                  In the interests of forward compatibility, it is
                  permitted for a client hello message to include
                  extra data after the compression methods.  This data
                  must be included in the handshake hashes, but must
                  otherwise be ignored.

5.6.1.3 Server hello

   The server processes the client hello message and responds with
   either a handshake_failure alert or server hello message.

     struct {
         ProtocolVersion server_version;
         Random random;
         SessionID session_id;
         CipherSuite cipher_suite;
         CompressionMethod compression_method;
     } ServerHello;

     server_version    This field will contain the lower of that
                       suggested by the client in the client hello and
                       the highest supported by the server.  For this
                       version of the specification, the version will
                       be 3.0 (See Appendix E for details about
                       backward compatibility).
     random            This structure is generated by the server and
                       must be different from (and independent of)
                       ClientHello.random.
     session_id        This is the identity of the session
                       corresponding to this connection.  If the
                       ClientHello.session_id was non-empty, the
                       server will look in its session cache for a
                       match.  If a match is found and the server is
                       willing to establish the new connection using
                       the specified session state, the server will
                       respond with the same value as was supplied by
                       the client.  This indicates a resumed session
                       and dictates that the parties must proceed
                       directly to the finished messages.  Otherwise
                       this field will contain a different value
                       identifying the new session.  The server may
                       return an empty session_id to indicate that the
                       session will not be cached and therefore cannot
                       be resumed.
     cipher_suite      The single cipher suite selected by the server
                       from the list in ClientHello.cipher_suites.
                       For resumed sessions this field is the value
                       from the state of the session being resumed.

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     compression_method
                       The single compression algorithm selected by
                       the server from the list in
                       ClientHello.compression_methods.  For resumed
                       sessions this field is the value from the
                       resumed session state.

5.6.2 Server certificate

   If the server is to be authenticated (which is generally the case),
   the server sends its certificate immediately following the server
   hello message.  The certificate type must be appropriate for the
   selected cipher suite's key exchange algorithm, and is generally an
   X.509.v3 certificate (or a modified X.509 certificate in the case
   of FORTEZZA(tm) [FOR]).  The same message type will be used for the
   client's response to a certificate request message.

     opaque ASN.1Cert<1..2^24-1>;
     struct {
         ASN.1Cert certificate_list<1..2^24-1>;
     } Certificate;

     certificate_list  This is a sequence (chain) of X.509.v3
                       certificates, ordered with the sender's
                       certificate first followed by any certificate
                       authority certificates proceeding sequentially
                       upward.

   Note:          PKCS #7 [PKCS7] is not used as the format for the
                  certificate vector because PKCS #6 [PKCS6] extended
                  certificates are not used.  Also PKCS #7 defines a
                  SET rather than a SEQUENCE, making the task of
                  parsing the list more difficult.

5.6.3 Server key exchange message

   The server key exchange message is sent by the server if it has no
   certificate, has a certificate only used for signing (e.g., DSS
   [DSS] certificates, signing-only RSA [RSA] certificates), or
   FORTEZZA KEA key exchange is used.  This message is not used if the
   server certificate contains Diffie-Hellman [DH1] parameters.

   Note:          According to current US export law, RSA moduli
                  larger than 512 bits may not be used for key
                  exchange in software exported from the US.  With
                  this message, larger RSA keys may be used as
                  signature-only certificates to sign temporary
                  shorter RSA keys for key exchange.

     enum { rsa, diffie_hellman, fortezza_kea }
            KeyExchangeAlgorithm;


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     struct {
         opaque rsa_modulus<1..2^16-1>;
         opaque rsa_exponent<1..2^16-1>;
     } ServerRSAParams;

     rsa_modulus       The modulus of the server's temporary RSA key.
     rsa_exponent      The public exponent of the server's temporary
                       RSA key.

     struct {
         opaque dh_p<1..2^16-1>;
         opaque dh_g<1..2^16-1>;
         opaque dh_Ys<1..2^16-1>;
     } ServerDHParams;     /* Ephemeral DH parameters */

     dh_p              The prime modulus used for the Diffie-Hellman
                       operation.
     dh_g              The generator used for the Diffie-Hellman
                       operation.
     dh_Ys             The server's Diffie-Hellman public value
                       (gX mod p).

     struct {
         opaque r_s [128];
     } ServerFortezzaParams;

     r_s               Server random number for FORTEZZA KEA (Key
                       Exchange Algorithm).

     struct {
         select (KeyExchangeAlgorithm) {
             case diffie_hellman:
                 ServerDHParams params;
                 Signature signed_params;
             case rsa:
                 ServerRSAParams params;
                 Signature signed_params;
             case fortezza_kea:
                 ServerFortezzaParams params;
         };
     } ServerKeyExchange;

     params            The server's key exchange parameters.
     signed_params     A hash of the corresponding params value, with
                       the signature appropriate to that hash applied.
     md5_hash          MD5(ClientHello.random + ServerHello.random +
                           ServerParams);
     sha_hash          SHA(ClientHello.random + ServerHello.random +
                           ServerParams);

     enum { anonymous, rsa, dsa } SignatureAlgorithm;


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     digitally-signed struct {
         select(SignatureAlgorithm) {
             case anonymous: struct { };
             case rsa:
                 opaque md5_hash[16];
                 opaque sha_hash[20];
             case dsa:
                 opaque sha_hash[20];
         };
     } Signature;


5.6.4 Certificate request

   A non-anonymous server can optionally request a certificate from
   the client, if appropriate for the selected cipher suite.

     enum {
         rsa_sign(1), dss_sign(2), rsa_fixed_dh(3), dss_fixed_dh(4),
         rsa_ephemeral_dh(5), dss_ephemeral_dh(6), fortezza_kea(20),
         (255)
     } ClientCertificateType;

     opaque DistinguishedName<1..2^16-1>;

     struct {
         ClientCertificateType certificate_types<1..2^8-1>;
         DistinguishedName certificate_authorities<3..2^16-1>;
     } CertificateRequest;

     certificate_types This field is a list of the types of
                       certificates requested, sorted in order of the
                       server's preference.
     certificate_authorities
                       A list of the distinguished names of acceptable
                       certificate authorities.

   Note:          DistinguishedName is derived from [X509].

   Note:          It is a fatal handshake_failure alert for an
                  anonymous server to request client identification.

5.6.5 Server hello done

   The server hello done message is sent by the server to indicate the
   end of the server hello and associated messages.  After sending
   this message the server will wait for a client response.

     struct { } ServerHelloDone;




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   Upon receipt of the server hello done message the client should
   verify that the server provided a valid certificate if required and
   check that the server hello parameters are acceptable.

5.6.6 Client certificate

   This is the first message the client can send after receiving a
   server hello done message.  This message is only sent if the server
   requests a certificate.  If no suitable certificate is available,
   the client should send a no_certificate alert instead.  This alert
   is only a warning, however the server may respond with a fatal
   handshake failure alert if client authentication is required.
   Client certificates are sent using the Certificate defined in
   Section 5.6.2.

   Note:          Client Diffie-Hellman certificates must match the
                  server specified Diffie-Hellman parameters.

5.6.7 Client key exchange message

   The choice of messages depends on which public key algorithm(s) has
   (have) been selected.  See Section 5.6.3 for the
   KeyExchangeAlgorithm definition.

     struct {
         select (KeyExchangeAlgorithm) {
             case rsa: EncryptedPreMasterSecret;
             case diffie_hellman: ClientDiffieHellmanPublic;
             case fortezza_kea: FortezzaKeys;
         } exchange_keys;
     } ClientKeyExchange;

   The information to select the appropriate record structure is in
   the pending session state (see Section 5.1).

5.6.7.1 RSA encrypted premaster secret message

   If RSA is being used for key agreement and authentication, the
   client generates a 48-byte pre-master secret, encrypts it under the
   public key from the server's certificate or temporary RSA key from
   a server key exchange message, and sends the result in an encrypted
   premaster secret message.

     struct {
         ProtocolVersion client_version;
         opaque random[46];
     } PreMasterSecret;

     client_version    The latest (newest) version supported by the
                       client.  This is used to detect version
                       roll-back attacks.
     random            46 securely-generated random bytes.

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     struct {
         public-key-encrypted PreMasterSecret pre_master_secret;
     } EncryptedPreMasterSecret;

     pre_master_secret This random value is generated by the client
                       and is used to generate the master secret, as
                       specified in Section 6.1.

5.6.7.2 FORTEZZA key exchange message

   Under FORTEZZA, the client derives a Token Encryption Key (TEK)
   using the FORTEZZA Key Exchange Algorithm (KEA).  The client's KEA
   calculation uses the public key in the server's certificate along
   with private parameters in the client's token.  The client sends
   public parameters needed for the server to generate the TEK, using
   its own private parameters.  The client generates session keys,
   wraps them using the TEK, and sends the results to the server.  The
   client generates IV's for the session keys and TEK and sends them
   also.  The client generates a random 48-byte premaster secret,
   encrypts it using the TEK, and sends the result:

     struct {
         opaque y_c<0..128>;
         opaque r_c[128];
         opaque y_signature[40];
         opaque wrapped_client_write_key[12];
         opaque wrapped_server_write_key[12];
         opaque client_write_iv[24];
         opaque server_write_iv[24];
         opaque master_secret_iv[24];
         block-ciphered opaque encrypted_pre_master_secret[48];
     } FortezzaKeys;

     y_signature       y_signature is the signature of the KEA public
                       key, signed with the client's DSS private key.
     y_c               The client's Yc value (public key) for the KEA
                       calculation.  If the client has sent a
                       certificate, and its KEA public key is
                       suitable, this value must be empty since the
                       certificate already contains this value.  If
                       the client sent a certificate without a
                       suitable public key, y_c is used and
                       y_signature is the KEA public key signed with
                       the client's DSS private key.  For this value
                       to be used, it must be between 64 and 128
                       bytes.
     r_c               The client's Rc value for the KEA calculation.
     wrapped_client_write_key
                       This is the client's write key, wrapped by the
                       TEK.



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     wrapped_server_write_key
                       This is the server's write key, wrapped by the
                       TEK.
     client_write_iv   The IV for the client write key.
     server_write_iv   The IV for the server write key.
     master_secret_iv  This is the IV for the TEK used to encrypt the
                       pre-master secret.
     pre_master_secret A random value, generated by the client and
                       used to generate the master secret, as
                       specified in Section 6.1.  In the the above
                       structure, it is encrypted using the TEK.

5.6.7.3 Client Diffie-Hellman public value

   This structure conveys the client's Diffie-Hellman public value
   (Yc) if it was not already included in the client's certificate.
   The encoding used for Yc is determined by the enumerated
   PublicValueEncoding.

     enum { implicit, explicit } PublicValueEncoding;

     implicit          If the client certificate already contains the
                       public value, then it is implicit and Yc does
                       not need to be sent again.
     explicit          Yc needs to be sent.

     struct {
         select (PublicValueEncoding) {
             case implicit: struct { };
             case explicit: opaque dh_Yc<1..2^16-1>;
         } dh_public;
     } ClientDiffieHellmanPublic;

     dh_Yc             The client's Diffie-Hellman public value (Yc).

5.6.8 Certificate verify

   This message is used to provide explicit verification of a client
   certificate.  This message is only sent following any client
   certificate that has signing capability (i.e. all certificates
   except those containing fixed Diffie-Hellman parameters).

       struct {
            Signature signature;
       } CertificateVerify;

     CertificateVerify.signature.md5_hash
                MD5(master_secret + pad_2 +
                    MD5(handshake_messages + master_secret + pad_1));
     Certificate.signature.sha_hash
                SHA(master_secret + pad_2 +
                    SHA(handshake_messages + master_secret + pad_1));

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     pad_1      This is identical to the pad_1 defined in
                section 5.2.3.1.
     pad_2      This is identical to the pad_2 defined in
                section 5.2.3.1.

   Here handshake_messages refers to all handshake messages starting
   at client hello up to but not including this message.

5.6.9 Finished

   A finished message is always sent immediately after a change cipher
   specs message to verify that the key exchange and authentication
   processes were successful.  The finished message is the first
   protected with the just-negotiated algorithms, keys, and secrets.
   No acknowledgment of the finished message is required; parties may
   begin sending encrypted data immediately after sending the finished
   message.  Recipients of finished messages must verify that the
   contents are correct.

     enum { client(0x434C4E54), server(0x53525652) } Sender;

     struct {
         opaque md5_hash[16];
         opaque sha_hash[20];
     } Finished;

     md5_hash       MD5(master_secret + pad2 +
                        MD5(handshake_messages + Sender +
                            master_secret + pad1));
     sha_hash        SHA(master_secret + pad2 +
                         SHA(handshake_messages + Sender +
                             master_secret + pad1));

     handshake_messages    All of the data from all handshake messages
                           up to but not including this message.  This
                           is only data visible at the handshake layer
                           and does not include record layer headers.

   It is a fatal error if a finished message is not preceeded by a
   change cipher spec message at the appropriate point in the
   handshake.

   The hash contained in finished messages sent by the server
   incorporate Sender.server; those sent by the client incorporate
   Sender.client.  The value handshake_messages includes all handshake
   messages starting at client hello up to, but not including, this
   finished message.  This may be different from handshake_messages in
   Section 5.6.8 because it would include the certificate verify
   message (if sent).




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   Note:          Change cipher spec messages are not handshake
                  messages and are not included in the hash
                  computations.

5.7 Application data protocol

   Application data messages are carried by the Record Layer and are
   fragmented, compressed and encrypted based on the current
   connection state.  The messages are treated as transparent data to
   the record layer.

6. Cryptographic computations

   The key exchange, authentication, encryption, and MAC algorithms
   are determined by the cipher_suite selected by the server and
   revealed in the server hello message.

6.1 Asymmetric cryptographic computations

   The asymmetric algorithms are used in the handshake protocol to
   authenticate parties and to generate shared keys and secrets.

   For Diffie-Hellman, RSA, and FORTEZZA, the same algorithm is used
   to convert the pre_master_secret into the master_secret.  The
   pre_master_secret should be deleted from memory once the
   master_secret has been computed.

     master_secret =
       MD5(pre_master_secret + SHA('A' + pre_master_secret +
           ClientHello.random + ServerHello.random)) +
       MD5(pre_master_secret + SHA('BB' + pre_master_secret +
           ClientHello.random + ServerHello.random)) +
       MD5(pre_master_secret + SHA('CCC' + pre_master_secret +
           ClientHello.random + ServerHello.random));

6.1.1 RSA

   When RSA is used for server authentication and key exchange, a
   48-byte pre_master_secret is generated by the client, encrypted
   under the server's public key, and sent to the server.  The server
   uses its private key to decrypt the pre_master_secret.  Both
   parties then convert the pre_master_secret into the master_secret,
   as specified above.

   RSA digital signatures are performed using PKCS #1 [PKCS1] block
   type 1.  RSA public key encryption is performed using PKCS #1 block
   type 2.






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6.1.2 Diffie-Hellman

   A conventional Diffie-Hellman computation is performed.  The
   negotiated key (Z) is used as the pre_master_secret, and is
   converted into the master_secret, as specified above.

   Note:          Diffie-Hellman parameters are specified by the
                  server, and may be either ephemeral or contained
                  within the server's certificate.

6.1.3 FORTEZZA

   A random 48-byte pre_master_secret is sent encrypted under the TEK
   and its IV.  The server decrypts the pre_master_secret and converts
   it into a master_secret, as specified above.  Bulk cipher keys and
   IVs for encryption are generated by the client's token and
   exchanged in the key exchange message; the master_secret is only
   used for MAC computations.

6.2 Symmetric cryptographic calculations and the CipherSpec

   The technique used to encrypt and verify the integrity of SSL
   records is specified by the currently active CipherSpec.  A typical
   example would be to encrypt data using DES and generate
   authentication codes using MD5.  The encryption and MAC algorithms
   are set to SSL_NULL_WITH_NULL_NULL at the beginning of the SSL
   Handshake Protocol, indicating that no message authentication or
   encryption is performed.  The handshake protocol is used to
   negotiate a more secure CipherSpec and to generate cryptographic
   keys.

6.2.1 The master secret

   Before secure encryption or integrity verification can be performed
   on records, the client and server need to generate shared secret
   information known only to themselves.  This value is a 48-byte
   quantity called the master secret.  The master secret is used to
   generate keys and secrets for encryption and MAC computations.
   Some algorithms, such as FORTEZZA, may have their own procedure for
   generating encryption keys (the master secret is used only for MAC
   computations in FORTEZZA).

6.2.2 Converting the master secret into keys and MAC secrets

   The master secret is hashed into a sequence of secure bytes, which
   are assigned to the MAC secrets, keys, and non-export IVs required
   by the current CipherSpec (see Appendix A.7).  CipherSpecs require
   a client write MAC secret, a server write MAC secret, a client
   write key, a server write key, a client write IV, and a server
   write IV, which are generated from the master secret in that order.
   Unused values, such as FORTEZZA keys communicated in the


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   KeyExchange message, are empty.  The following inputs are available
   to the key definition process:

       opaque MasterSecret[48]
       ClientHello.random
       ServerHello.random

   When generating keys and MAC secrets, the master secret is used as
   an entropy source, and the random values provide unencrypted salt
   material and IVs for exportable ciphers.

   To generate the key material, compute

     key_block =
       MD5(master_secret + SHA(`A' + master_secret +
                               ServerHello.random +
                               ClientHello.random)) +
       MD5(master_secret + SHA(`BB' + master_secret +
                               ServerHello.random +
                               ClientHello.random)) +
       MD5(master_secret + SHA(`CCC' + master_secret +
                               ServerHello.random +
                               ClientHello.random)) + [...];

   until enough output has been generated.  Then the key_block is
   partitioned as follows.

     client_write_MAC_secret[CipherSpec.hash_size]
     server_write_MAC_secret[CipherSpec.hash_size]
     client_write_key[CipherSpec.key_material]
     server_write_key[CipherSpec.key_material]
     client_write_IV[CipherSpec.IV_size] /* non-export ciphers */
     server_write_IV[CipherSpec.IV_size] /* non-export ciphers */

   Any extra key_block material is discarded.

   Exportable encryption algorithms (for which
   CipherSpec.is_exportable is true) require additional processing as
   follows to derive their final write keys:

     final_client_write_key = MD5(client_write_key +
                                  ClientHello.random +
                                  ServerHello.random);
     final_server_write_key = MD5(server_write_key +
                                  ServerHello.random +
                                  ClientHello.random);

   Exportable encryption algorithms derive their IVs from the random
   messages:

     client_write_IV = MD5(ClientHello.random + ServerHello.random);
     server_write_IV = MD5(ServerHello.random + ClientHello.random);

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   MD5 outputs are trimmed to the appropriate size by discarding the
   least-significant bytes.

6.2.2.1 Export key generation example

   SSL_RSA_EXPORT_WITH_RC2_CBC_40_MD5 requires five random bytes for
   each of the two encryption keys and 16 bytes for each of the MAC
   keys, for a total of 42 bytes of key material.  MD5 produces 16
   bytes of output per call, so three calls to MD5 are required.  The
   MD5 outputs are concatenated into a 48-byte key_block with the
   first MD5 call providing bytes zero through 15, the second
   providing bytes 16 through 31, etc.  The key_block is partitioned,
   and the write keys are salted because this is an exportable
   encryption algorithm.

     client_write_MAC_secret = key_block[0..15]
     server_write_MAC_secret = key_block[16..31]
     client_write_key      = key_block[32..36]
     server_write_key      = key_block[37..41]
     final_client_write_key = MD5(client_write_key +
                                  ClientHello.random +
                                  ServerHello.random)[0..15];
     final_server_write_key = MD5(server_write_key +
                                  ServerHello.random +
                                  ClientHello.random)[0..15];
     client_write_IV = MD5(ClientHello.random +
                           ServerHello.random)[0..7];
     server_write_IV = MD5(ServerHello.random +
                           ClientHello.random)[0..7];
























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                            Appendix A

A. Protocol constant values

   This section describes protocol types and constants.

A.1 Reserved port assignments

   At the present time SSL is implemented using TCP/IP as the base
   networking technology.  The IANA reserved the following Internet
   Protocol [IP] port numbers for use in conjunction with SSL.

     443  Reserved for use by Hypertext Transfer Protocol with
          SSL (https).
     465  Reserved (pending) for use by Simple Mail Transfer Protocol
          with SSL (ssmtp).
     563  Reserved (pending) for use by Network News Transfer
          Protocol (snntp).

A.1.1 Record layer

     struct {
         uint8 major, minor;
     } ProtocolVersion;

     ProtocolVersion version = { 3,0 };

     enum {
         change_cipher_spec(20), alert(21), handshake(22),
         application_data(23), (255)
     } ContentType;

     struct {
         ContentType type;
         ProtocolVersion version;
         uint16 length;
         opaque fragment[SSLPlaintext.length];
     } SSLPlaintext;

     struct {
         ContentType type;
         ProtocolVersion version;
         uint16 length;
         opaque fragment[SSLCompressed.length];
     } SSLCompressed;

     struct {
         ContentType type;
         ProtocolVersion version;
         uint16 length;
         select (CipherSpec.cipher_type) {
             case stream: GenericStreamCipher;

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             case block:  GenericBlockCipher;
         } fragment;
     } SSLCiphertext;

     stream-ciphered struct {
         opaque content[SSLCompressed.length];
         opaque MAC[CipherSpec.hash_size];
     } GenericStreamCipher;

     block-ciphered struct {
         opaque content[SSLCompressed.length];
         opaque MAC[CipherSpec.hash_size];
         uint8 padding[GenericBlockCipher.padding_length];
         uint8 padding_length;
     } GenericBlockCipher;

A.2 Change cipher specs message

     struct {
         enum { change_cipher_spec(1), (255) } type;
     } ChangeCipherSpec;

A.3 Alert messages

     enum { warning(1), fatal(2), (255) } AlertLevel;

     enum {
         close_notify(0),
         unexpected_message(10),
         bad_record_mac(20),
         decompression_failure(30),
         handshake_failure(40),
         no_certificate(41),
         bad_certificate(42),
         unsupported_certificate(43),
         certificate_revoked(44),
         certificate_expired(45),
         certificate_unknown(46),
         illegal_parameter (47),
         (255)
     } AlertDescription;

     struct {
         AlertLevel level;
         AlertDescription description;
     } Alert;

A.4 Handshake protocol

   enum {
       hello_request(0), client_hello(1), server_hello(2),
       certificate(11), server_key_exchange (12),

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       certificate_request(13), server_done(14),
       certificate_verify(15), client_key_exchange(16),
       finished(20), (255)
   } HandshakeType;

     struct {
         HandshakeType msg_type;
         uint24 length;
         select (HandshakeType) {
             case hello_request: HelloRequest;
             case client_hello: ClientHello;
             case server_hello: ServerHello;
             case certificate: Certificate;
             case server_key_exchange: ServerKeyExchange;
             case certificate_request: CertificateRequest;
             case server_done: ServerHelloDone;
             case certificate_verify: CertificateVerify;
             case client_key_exchange: ClientKeyExchange;
             case finished: Finished;
         } body;
     } Handshake;

A.4.1 Hello messages

     struct { } HelloRequest;

     struct {
         uint32 gmt_unix_time;
         opaque random_bytes[28];
     } Random;

     opaque SessionID<0..32>;

     uint8 CipherSuite[2];

     enum { null(0), (255) } CompressionMethod;

     struct {
         ProtocolVersion client_version;
         Random random;
         SessionID session_id;
         CipherSuite cipher_suites<0..2^16-1>;
         CompressionMethod compression_methods<0..2^8-1>;
     } ClientHello;

     struct {
         ProtocolVersion server_version;
         Random random;
         SessionID session_id;
         CipherSuite cipher_suite;
         CompressionMethod compression_method;
     } ServerHello;

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A.4.2 Server authentication and key exchange messages

     opaque ASN.1Cert<2^24-1>;

     struct {
         ASN.1Cert certificate_list<1..2^24-1>;
     } Certificate;

     enum { rsa, diffie_hellman, fortezza_kea } KeyExchangeAlgorithm;

     struct {
         opaque RSA_modulus<1..2^16-1>;
         opaque RSA_exponent<1..2^16-1>;
     } ServerRSAParams;

     struct {
         opaque DH_p<1..2^16-1>;
         opaque DH_g<1..2^16-1>;
         opaque DH_Ys<1..2^16-1>;
     } ServerDHParams;

     struct {
         opaque r_s [128]
     } ServerFortezzaParams

     struct {
         select (KeyExchangeAlgorithm) {
             case diffie_hellman:
                 ServerDHParams params;
                 Signature signed_params;
             case rsa:
                 ServerRSAParams params;
                 Signature signed_params;
             case fortezza_kea:
                 ServerFortezzaParams params;
         };
     } ServerKeyExchange;

     enum { anonymous, rsa, dsa } SignatureAlgorithm;

     digitally-signed struct {
         select(SignatureAlgorithm) {
             case anonymous: struct { };
             case rsa:
                 opaque md5_hash[16];
                 opaque sha_hash[20];
             case dsa:
                 opaque sha_hash[20];
         };
     } Signature;



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     enum {
         RSA_sign(1), DSS_sign(2), RSA_fixed_DH(3),
         DSS_fixed_DH(4), RSA_ephemeral_DH(5), DSS_ephemeral_DH(6),
         FORTEZZA_MISSI(20), (255)
     } CertificateType;

     opaque DistinguishedName<1..2^16-1>;

     struct {
         CertificateType certificate_types<1..2^8-1>;
         DistinguishedName certificate_authorities<3..2^16-1>;
     } CertificateRequest;

     struct { } ServerHelloDone;

A.5 Client authentication and key exchange messages

     struct {
         select (KeyExchangeAlgorithm) {
             case rsa: EncryptedPreMasterSecret;
             case diffie_hellman: DiffieHellmanClientPublicValue;
             case fortezza_kea: FortezzaKeys;
         } exchange_keys;
     } ClientKeyExchange;

     struct {
         ProtocolVersion client_version;
         opaque random[46];
     } PreMasterSecret;

     struct {
         public-key-encrypted PreMasterSecret pre_master_secret;
     } EncryptedPreMasterSecret;

     struct {
         opaque y_c<0..128>;
         opaque r_c[128];
         opaque y_signature[40];
         opaque wrapped_client_write_key[12];
         opaque wrapped_server_write_key[12];
         opaque client_write_iv[24];
         opaque server_write_iv[24];
         opaque master_secret_iv[24];
         opaque encrypted_preMasterSecret[48];
     } FortezzaKeys;

     enum { implicit, explicit } PublicValueEncoding;

     struct {
         select (PublicValueEncoding) {
             case implicit: struct {};
             case explicit: opaque DH_Yc<1..2^16-1>;

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         } dh_public;
     } ClientDiffieHellmanPublic;

     struct {
         Signature signature;
     } CertificateVerify;

A.5.1 Handshake finalization message

     struct {
         opaque md5_hash[16];
         opaque sha_hash[20];
     } Finished;

A.6 The CipherSuite

   The following values define the CipherSuite codes used in the
   client hello and server hello messages.

   A CipherSuite defines a cipher specifications supported in SSL
   Version 3.0.

     CipherSuite SSL_NULL_WITH_NULL_NULL                = { 0x00,0x00 };

   The following CipherSuite definitions require that the server
   provide an RSA certificate that can be used for key exchange.  The
   server may request either an RSA or a DSS signature-capable
   certificate in the certificate request message.

     CipherSuite SSL_RSA_WITH_NULL_MD5                  = { 0x00,0x01 };
     CipherSuite SSL_RSA_WITH_NULL_SHA                  = { 0x00,0x02 };
     CipherSuite SSL_RSA_EXPORT_WITH_RC4_40_MD5         = { 0x00,0x03 };
     CipherSuite SSL_RSA_WITH_RC4_128_MD5               = { 0x00,0x04 };
     CipherSuite SSL_RSA_WITH_RC4_128_SHA               = { 0x00,0x05 };
     CipherSuite SSL_RSA_EXPORT_WITH_RC2_CBC_40_MD5     = { 0x00,0x06 };
     CipherSuite SSL_RSA_WITH_IDEA_CBC_SHA              = { 0x00,0x07 };
     CipherSuite SSL_RSA_EXPORT_WITH_DES40_CBC_SHA      = { 0x00,0x08 };
     CipherSuite SSL_RSA_WITH_DES_CBC_SHA               = { 0x00,0x09 };
     CipherSuite SSL_RSA_WITH_3DES_EDE_CBC_SHA          = { 0x00,0x0A };

   The following CipherSuite definitions are used for
   server-authenticated (and optionally client-authenticated)
   Diffie-Hellman.  DH denotes cipher suites in which the server's
   certificate contains the Diffie-Hellman parameters signed by the
   certificate authority (CA).  DHE denotes ephemeral Diffie-Hellman,
   where the Diffie-Hellman parameters are signed by a DSS or RSA
   certificate, which has been signed by the CA.  The signing
   algorithm used is specified after the DH or DHE parameter.  In all
   cases, the client must have the same type of certificate, and must
   use the Diffie-Hellman parameters chosen by the server.



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     CipherSuite SSL_DH_DSS_EXPORT_WITH_DES40_CBC_SHA   = { 0x00,0x0B };
     CipherSuite SSL_DH_DSS_WITH_DES_CBC_SHA            = { 0x00,0x0C };
     CipherSuite SSL_DH_DSS_WITH_3DES_EDE_CBC_SHA       = { 0x00,0x0D };
     CipherSuite SSL_DH_RSA_EXPORT_WITH_DES40_CBC_SHA   = { 0x00,0x0E };
     CipherSuite SSL_DH_RSA_WITH_DES_CBC_SHA            = { 0x00,0x0F };
     CipherSuite SSL_DH_RSA_WITH_3DES_EDE_CBC_SHA       = { 0x00,0x10 };
     CipherSuite SSL_DHE_DSS_EXPORT_WITH_DES40_CBC_SHA  = { 0x00,0x11 };
     CipherSuite SSL_DHE_DSS_WITH_DES_CBC_SHA           = { 0x00,0x12 };
     CipherSuite SSL_DHE_DSS_WITH_3DES_EDE_CBC_SHA      = { 0x00,0x13 };
     CipherSuite SSL_DHE_RSA_EXPORT_WITH_DES40_CBC_SHA  = { 0x00,0x14 };
     CipherSuite SSL_DHE_RSA_WITH_DES_CBC_SHA           = { 0x00,0x15 };
     CipherSuite SSL_DHE_RSA_WITH_3DES_EDE_CBC_SHA      = { 0x00,0x16 };

   The following cipher suites are used for completely anonymous
   Diffie-Hellman communications in which neither party is
   authenticated.  Note that this mode is vulnerable to
   man-in-the-middle attacks and is therefore strongly discouraged.

     CipherSuite SSL_DH_anon_EXPORT_WITH_RC4_40_MD5     = { 0x00,0x17 };
     CipherSuite SSL_DH_anon_WITH_RC4_128_MD5           = { 0x00,0x18 };
     CipherSuite SSL_DH_anon_EXPORT_WITH_DES40_CBC_SHA  = { 0x00,0x19 };
     CipherSuite SSL_DH_anon_WITH_DES_CBC_SHA           = { 0x00,0x1A };
     CipherSuite SSL_DH_anon_WITH_3DES_EDE_CBC_SHA      = { 0x00,0x1B };

   The final cipher suites are for the FORTEZZA token.

     CipherSuite SSL_FORTEZZA_KEA_WITH_NULL_SHA         = { 0X00,0X1C };
     CipherSuite SSL_FORTEZZA_KEA_WITH_FORTEZZA_CBC_SHA = { 0x00,0x1D };
     CipherSuite SSL_FORTEZZA_KEA_WITH_RC4_128_SHA      = { 0x00,0x1E };

   Note:          All cipher suites whose first byte is 0xFF are
                  considered private and can be used for defining
                  local/experimental algorithms.  Interoperability of
                  such types is a local matter.

   Note:          Additional cipher suites will be considered for
                  implementation only with submission of notarized
                  letters from two independent entities.  Netscape
                  Communications Corp. will act as an interim
                  registration office, until a public standards body
                  assumes control of SSL.

A.7 The CipherSpec

   A cipher suite identifies a CipherSpec.  These structures are part
   of the SSL session state.  The CipherSpec includes:

     enum { stream, block } CipherType;

     enum { true, false } IsExportable;



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     enum { null, rc4, rc2, des, 3des, des40, fortezza }
         BulkCipherAlgorithm;

     enum { null, md5, sha } MACAlgorithm;

     struct {
         BulkCipherAlgorithm bulk_cipher_algorithm;
         MACAlgorithm mac_algorithm;
         CipherType cipher_type;
         IsExportable is_exportable
         uint8 hash_size;
         uint8 key_material;
         uint8 IV_size;
     } CipherSpec;







































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                            Appendix B

B. Glossary
     application protocol An application protocol is a protocol that
                          normally layers directly on top of the
                          transport layer (e.g., TCP/IP).  Examples
                          include HTTP, TELNET, FTP, and SMTP.
     asymmetric cipher    See public key cryptography.
     authentication       Authentication is the ability of one entity
                          to determine the identity of another entity.
     block cipher         A block cipher is an algorithm that operates
                          on plaintext in groups of bits, called
                          blocks.  64 bits is a typical block size.
     bulk cipher          A symmetric encryption algorithm used to
                          encrypt large quantities of data.
     cipher block chaining
                          Mode (CBC) CBC is a mode in which every
                          plaintext block encrypted with the block
                          cipher is first exclusive-ORed with the
                          previous ciphertext block (or, in the case
                          of the first block, with the initialization
                          vector).
     certificate          As part of the X.509 protocol (a.k.a. ISO
                          Authentication framework), certificates are
                          assigned by a trusted Certificate Authority
                          and provide verification of a party's
                          identity and may also supply its public key.
     client               The application entity that initiates a
                          connection to a server.
     client write key     The key used to encrypt data written by the
                          client.
     client write MAC secret
                          The secret data used to authenticate data
                          written by the client.
     connection           A connection is a transport (in the OSI
                          layering model definition) that provides a
                          suitable type of service.  For SSL, such
                          connections are peer to peer relationships.
                          The connections are transient.  Every
                          connection is associated with one session.
     Data Encryption Standard
                          (DES) DES is a very widely used symmetric
                          encryption algorithm.  DES is a block
                          cipher.
     Digital Signature Standard
                          (DSS) A standard for digital signing,
                          including the Digital Signing Algorithm,
                          approved by the National Institute of
                          Standards and Technology, defined in NIST
                          FIPS PUB 186, "Digital Signature Standard,"
                          published May, 1994 by the U.S. Dept.  of
                          Commerce.

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     digital signatures   Digital signatures utilize public key
                          cryptography and one-way hash functions to
                          produce a signature of the data that can be
                          authenticated, and is difficult to forge or
                          repudiate.
     FORTEZZA             A PCMCIA card that provides both encryption
                          and digital signing.
     handshake            An initial negotiation between client and
                          server that establishes the parameters of
                          their transactions.
     Initialization Vector
                          (IV) When a block cipher is used in CBC
                          mode, the initialization vector is
                          exclusive-ORed with the first plaintext
                          block prior to encryption.
     IDEA                 A 64-bit block cipher designed by Xuejia Lai
                          and James Massey.
     Message Authentication Code
                          (MAC) A Message Authentication Code is a
                          one-way hash computed from a message and
                          some secret data.  Its purpose is to detect
                          if the message has been altered.
     master secret        Secure secret data used for generating
                          encryption keys, MAC secrets, and IVs.
     MD5                  MD5 [7] is a secure hashing function that
                          converts an arbitrarily long data stream
                          into a digest of fixed size.
     public key cryptography
                          A class of cryptographic techniques
                          employing two-key ciphers.  Messages
                          encrypted with the public key can only be
                          decrypted with the associated private key.
                          Conversely, messages signed with the private
                          key can be verified with the public key.
     one-way hash function
                          A one-way transformation that converts an
                          arbitrary amount of data into a fixed-length
                          hash.  It is computation- ally hard to
                          reverse the transformation or to find
                          collisions.  MD5 and SHA are examples of
                          one-way hash functions.
     RC2, RC4             Proprietary bulk ciphers from RSA Data
                          Security, Inc.  (There is no good reference
                          to these as they are unpublished works;
                          however, see [RSADSI]).  RC2 is block cipher
                          and RC4 is a stream cipher.
     RSA                  A very widely used public-key algorithm that
                          can be used for either encryption or digital
                          signing.
     salt                 Non-secret random data used to make export
                          encryption keys resist precomputation
                          attacks.

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     server               The server is the application entity that
                          responds to requests for connections from
                          clients.  The server is passive, waiting for
                          requests from clients.
     session              A SSL session is an association between a
                          client and a server.  Sessions are created
                          by the handshake protocol.  Sessions define
                          a set of cryptographic security parameters,
                          which can be shared among multiple
                          connections.  Sessions are used to avoid the
                          expensive negotiation of new security
                          parameters for each connection.
     session identifier   A session identifier is a value generated by
                          a server that identifies a particular
                          session.
     server write key     The key used to encrypt data written by the
                          server.
     server write MAC secret
                          The secret data used to authenticate data
                          written by the server.
     SHA                  The Secure Hash Algorithm is defined in FIPS
                          PUB 180-1.  It produces a 20-byte output
                          [SHA].
     stream cipher        An encryption algorithm that converts a key
                          into a cryptographically-strong keystream,
                          which is then exclusive-ORed with the
                          plaintext.
     symmetric cipher     See bulk cipher.

























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                            Appendix C

C. CipherSuite definitions

CipherSuite                  Is         Key            Cipher       Hash
                             Exportable Exchange

SSL_NULL_WITH_NULL_NULL               * NULL           NULL         NULL
SSL_RSA_WITH_NULL_MD5                 * RSA            NULL         MD5
SSL_RSA_WITH_NULL_SHA                 * RSA            NULL         SHA
SSL_RSA_EXPORT_WITH_RC4_40_MD5        * RSA_EXPORT     RC4_40       MD5
SSL_RSA_WITH_RC4_128_MD5                RSA            RC4_128      MD5
SSL_RSA_WITH_RC4_128_SHA                RSA            RC4_128      SHA
SSL_RSA_EXPORT_WITH_RC2_CBC_40_MD5    * RSA_EXPORT     RC2_CBC_40   MD5
SSL_RSA_WITH_IDEA_CBC_SHA               RSA            IDEA_CBC     SHA
SSL_RSA_EXPORT_WITH_DES40_CBC_SHA     * RSA_EXPORT     DES40_CBC    SHA
SSL_RSA_WITH_DES_CBC_SHA                RSA            DES_CBC      SHA
SSL_RSA_WITH_3DES_EDE_CBC_SHA           RSA            3DES_EDE_CBC SHA
SSL_DH_DSS_EXPORT_WITH_DES40_CBC_SHA  * DH_DSS_EXPORT  DES40_CBC    SHA
SSL_DH_DSS_WITH_DES_CBC_SHA             DH_DSS         DES_CBC      SHA
SSL_DH_DSS_WITH_3DES_EDE_CBC_SHA        DH_DSS         3DES_EDE_CBC SHA
SSL_DH_RSA_EXPORT_WITH_DES40_CBC_SHA  * DH_RSA_EXPORT  DES40_CBC    SHA
SSL_DH_RSA_WITH_DES_CBC_SHA             DH_RSA         DES_CBC      SHA
SSL_DH_RSA_WITH_3DES_EDE_CBC_SHA        DH_RSA         3DES_EDE_CBC SHA
SSL_DHE_DSS_EXPORT_WITH_DES40_CBC_SHA * DHE_DSS_EXPORT DES40_CBC    SHA
SSL_DHE_DSS_WITH_DES_CBC_SHA            DHE_DSS        DES_CBC      SHA
SSL_DHE_DSS_WITH_3DES_EDE_CBC_SHA       DHE_DSS        3DES_EDE_CBC SHA
SSL_DHE_RSA_EXPORT_WITH_DES40_CBC_SHA * DHE_RSA_EXPORT DES40_CBC    SHA
SSL_DHE_RSA_WITH_DES_CBC_SHA            DHE_RSA        DES_CBC      SHA
SSL_DHE_RSA_WITH_3DES_EDE_CBC_SHA       DHE_RSA        3DES_EDE_CBC SHA
SSL_DH_anon_EXPORT_WITH_RC4_40_MD5    * DH_anon_EXPORT RC4_40       MD5
SSL_DH_anon_WITH_RC4_128_MD5            DH_anon        RC4_128      MD5
SSL_DH_anon_EXPORT_WITH_DES40_CBC_SHA   DH_anon        DES40_CBC    SHA
SSL_DH_anon_WITH_DES_CBC_SHA            DH_anon        DES_CBC      SHA
SSL_DH_anon_WITH_3DES_EDE_CBC_SHA       DH_anon        3DES_EDE_CBC SHA
SSL_FORTEZZA_KEA_WITH_NULL_SHA          FORTEZZA_KEA   NULL         SHA
SSL_FORTEZZA_KEA_WITH_FORTEZZA_CBC_SHA  FORTEZZA_KEA   FORTEZZA_CBC SHA
SSL_FORTEZZA_KEA_WITH_RC4_128_SHA       FORTEZZA_KEA   RC4_128      SHA

   * Indicates IsExportable is True

   Key             Description                        Key size limit
   Exchange
   Algorithm
   DHE_DSS         Ephemeral DH with DSS signatures   None
   DHE_DSS_EXPORT  Ephemeral DH with DSS signatures   DH = 512 bits
   DHE_RSA         Ephemeral DH with RSA signatures   None
   DHE_RSA_EXPORT  Ephemeral DH with RSA signatures   DH = 512 bits,
                                                      RSA = none
   DH_anon         Anonymous DH, no signatures        None
   DH_anon_EXPORT  Anonymous DH, no signatures        DH = 512 bits
   DH_DSS          DH with DSS-based certificates     None

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   DH_DSS_EXPORT   DH with DSS-based certificates     DH = 512 bits
   DH_RSA          DH with RSA-based certificates     None
   DH_RSA_EXPORT   DH with RSA-based certificates     DH = 512 bits,
                                                      RSA = none
   FORTEZZA_KEA    FORTEZZA KEA. Details unpublished  N/A
   NULL            No key exchange                    N/A
   RSA             RSA key exchange                   None
   RSA_EXPORT      RSA key exchange                   RSA = 512 bits

     Key size limit    The key size limit gives the size of the
                       largest public key that can be legally
                       used for encryption in cipher suites that
                       are exportable.

   Cipher      Cipher IsExpo  Key      Exp.    Effect  IV      Block
               Type   rtable  Material Key Mat ive Key Size    Size
                                       erial   Bits

   NULL          Stream *      0       0       0       0       N/A
   FORTEZZA_CBC  Block         NA(**)  12(**)  96(**)  20(**)  8
   IDEA_CBC      Block         16      16      128     8       8
   RC2_CBC_40    Block  *      5       16      40      8       8
   RC4_40        Stream *      5       16      40      0       N/A
   RC4_128       Stream        16      16      128     0       N/A
   DES40_CBC     Block  *      5       8       40      8       8
   DES_CBC       Block         8       8       56      8       8
   3DES_EDE_CBC  Block         24      24      168     8       8

   * Indicates IsExportable is true.
   ** FORTEZZA uses its own key and IV generation algorithms.

     Key Material      The number of bytes from the key_block that are
                       used for generating the write keys.
     Expanded Key Material
                       The number of bytes actually fed into the
                       encryption algorithm.
     Effective Key Bits
                       How much entropy material is in the key
                       material being fed into the encryption
                       routines.

   Hash       Hash Size  Padding
   function              Size
   NULL       0          0
   MD5        16         48
   SHA        20         40







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                            Appendix D

D. Implementation Notes

   The SSL protocol cannot prevent many common security mistakes.
   This section provides several recommendations to assist
   implementers.


D.1 Temporary RSA keys

   US Export restrictions limit RSA keys used for encryption to 512
   bits, but do not place any limit on lengths of RSA keys used for
   signing operations.  Certificates often need to be larger than 512
   bits, since 512-bit RSA keys are not secure enough for high-value
   transactions or for applications requiring long-term security.
   Some certificates are also designated signing-only, in which case
   they cannot be used for key exchange.

   When the public key in the certificate cannot be used for
   encryption, the server signs a temporary RSA key, which is then
   exchanged.  In exportable applications, the temporary RSA key
   should be the maximum allowable length (i.e., 512 bits).  Because
   512-bit RSA keys are relatively insecure, they should be changed
   often.  For typical electronic commerce applications, it is
   suggested that keys be changed daily or every 500 transactions, and
   more often if possible.  Note that while it is acceptable to use
   the same temporary key for multiple transactions, it must be signed
   each time it is used.

   RSA key generation is a time-consuming process.  In many cases, a
   low-priority process can be assigned the task of key generation.
   Whenever a new key is completed, the existing temporary key can be
   replaced with the new one.

D.2 Random Number Generation and Seeding

   SSL requires a cryptographically-secure pseudorandom number
   generator (PRNG).  Care must be taken in designing and seeding
   PRNGs.  PRNGs based on secure hash operations, most notably MD5
   and/or SHA, are acceptable, but cannot provide more security than
   the size of the random number generator state.  (For example,
   MD5-based PRNGs usually provide 128 bits of state.)

   To estimate the amount of seed material being produced, add the
   number of bits of unpredictable information in each seed byte.  For
   example, keystroke timing values taken from a PC- compatible's 18.2
   Hz timer provide 1 or 2 secure bits each, even though the total
   size of the counter value is 16 bits or more.  To seed a 128-bit
   PRNG, one would thus require approximately 100 such timer values.



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   Note:          The seeding functions in RSAREF and versions of
                  BSAFE prior to 3.0 are order-independent.  For
                  example, if 1000 seed bits are supplied, one at a
                  time, in 1000 separate calls to the seed function,
                  the PRNG will end up in a state which depends only
                  on the number of 0 or 1 seed bits in the seed data
                  (i.e., there are 1001 possible final states).
                  Applications using BSAFE or RSAREF must take extra
                  care to ensure proper seeding.

D.3 Certificates and authentication

   Implementations are responsible for verifying the integrity of
   certificates and should generally support certificate revocation
   messages.  Certificates should always be verified to ensure proper
   signing by a trusted Certificate Authority (CA).  The selection and
   addition of trusted CAs should be done very carefully.  Users
   should be able to view information about the certificate and root
   CA.

D.4 CipherSuites

   SSL supports a range of key sizes and security levels, including
   some which provide no or minimal security.  A proper implementation
   will probably not support many cipher suites.  For example, 40-bit
   encryption is easily broken, so implementations requiring strong
   security should not allow 40-bit keys.  Similarly, anonymous
   Diffie-Hellman is strongly discouraged because it cannot prevent
   man-in-the- middle attacks.  Applications should also enforce
   minimum and maximum key sizes.  For example, certificate chains
   containing 512-bit RSA keys or signatures are not appropriate for
   high-security applications.

D.5 FORTEZZA

   This section describes implementation details for ciphersuites that
   make use of the FORTEZZA hardware encryption system.

D.5.1 Notes on use of FORTEZZA hardware

   A complete explanation of all issues regarding the use of FORTEZZA
   hardware is outside the scope of this document.  However, there are
   a few special requirements of SSL that deserve mention.

   Because SSL is a full duplex protocol, two crypto states must be
   maintained, one for reading and one for writing.  There are also a
   number of circumstances which can result in the crypto state in the
   FORTEZZA card being lost.  For these reasons, it's recommended that
   the current crypto state be saved after processing a record, and
   loaded before processing the next.



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   After the client generates the TEK, it also generates two MEKs,
   for one for reading and one for writing.  After generating each of
   these keys, the client must generate a corresponding IV and then
   save the crypto state.  The client also uses the TEK to generate an
   IV and encrypt the premaster secret.  All three IVs are sent to the
   server, along with the wrapped keys and the encrypted premaster
   secret in the client key exchange message.  At this point, the TEK
   is no longer needed, and may be discarded.

   On the server side, the server uses the master IV and the TEK to
   decrypt the premaster secret.  It also loads the wrapped MEKs into
   the card.  The server loads both IVs to verify that the IVs match
   the keys.  However, since the card is unable to encrypt after
   loading an IV, the server must generate a new IV for the server
   write key.  This IV is discarded.

   When encrypting the first encrypted record (and only that record),
   the server adds 8 bytes of random data to the beginning of the
   fragment.  These 8 bytes are discarded by the client after
   decryption.  The purpose of this is to synchronize the state on the
   client and server resulting from the different IVs.

D.5.2 FORTEZZA Ciphersuites

   5) FORTEZZA_NULL_WITH_NULL_SHA:
     Uses the full FORTEZZA key exchange, including sending server and
     client write keys and iv's.

D.5.3 FORTEZZA Session resumption

   There are two possibilities for FORTEZZA session restart:
   1) Never restart a FORTEZZA session.
   2) Restart a session with the previously negotiated keys and iv's.

   Never restarting a FORTEZZA session:

   Clients who never restart FORTEZZA sessions should never send
   Session ID's which were previously used in a FORTEZZA session as
   part of the ClientHello.  Servers who never restart FORTEZZA
   sessions should never send a previous session id on the
   ServerHello if the negotiated session is FORTEZZA.

   Restart a session:

   You cannot restart FORTEZZA on a session which has never done a
   complete FORTEZZA key exchange (That is you cannot restart FORTEZZA
   if the session was an RSA/RC4 session renegotiated for FORTEZZA).
   If you wish to restart a FORTEZZA session, you must save the MEKs
   and IVs from the initial key exchange for this session and reuse
   them for any new connections on that session.  This is not
   recommended, but it is possible.


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                             Appendix E

E. Version 2.0 Backward Compatibility

   Version 3.0 clients that support Version 2.0 servers must send
   Version 2.0 client hello messages [SSL-2].  Version 3.0 servers
   should accept either client hello format.  The only deviations from
   the Version 2.0 specification are the ability to specify a version
   with a value of three and the support for more ciphering types in
   the CipherSpec.

   Warning:       The ability to send Version 2.0 client hello
                  messages will be phased out with all due haste.
                  Implementers should make every effort to move
                  forward as quickly as possible.  Version 3.0
                  provides better mechanisms for transitioning to
                  newer versions.

   The following cipher specifications are carryovers from SSL Version
   2.0.  These are assumed to use RSA for key exchange and
   authentication.

     V2CipherSpec SSL_RC4_128_WITH_MD5          = { 0x01,0x00,0x80 };
     V2CipherSpec SSL_RC4_128_EXPORT40_WITH_MD5 = { 0x02,0x00,0x80 };
     V2CipherSpec SSL_RC2_CBC_128_CBC_WITH_MD5  = { 0x03,0x00,0x80 };
     V2CipherSpec SSL_RC2_CBC_128_CBC_EXPORT40_WITH_MD5
                                                = { 0x04,0x00,0x80 };
     V2CipherSpec SSL_IDEA_128_CBC_WITH_MD5     = { 0x05,0x00,0x80 };
     V2CipherSpec SSL_DES_64_CBC_WITH_MD5       = { 0x06,0x00,0x40 };
     V2CipherSpec SSL_DES_192_EDE3_CBC_WITH_MD5 = { 0x07,0x00,0xC0 };

   Cipher specifications introduced in Version 3.0 can be included in
   Version 2.0 client hello messages using the syntax below.  Any
   V2CipherSpec element with its first byte equal to zero will be
   ignored by Version 2.0 servers.  Clients sending any of the above
   V2CipherSpecs should also include the Version 3.0 equivalent (see
   Appendix A.6):

     V2CipherSpec (see Version 3.0 name) = { 0x00, CipherSuite };

E.1 Version 2 client hello

   The Version 2.0 client hello message is presented below using this
   document's presentation model.  The true definition is still
   assumed to be the SSL Version 2.0 specification.

     uint8 V2CipherSpec[3];

     struct {
         unit8 msg_type;
         Version version;
         uint16 cipher_spec_length;

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         uint16 session_id_length;
         uint16 challenge_length;
         V2CipherSpec cipher_specs[V2ClientHello.cipher_spec_length];
         opaque session_id[V2ClientHello.session_id_length];
         Random challenge;
     } V2ClientHello;

     msg_type          This field, in conjunction with the version
                       field, identifies a version 2 client hello
                       message.  The value should equal one (1).
     version           The highest version of the protocol supported
                       by the client (equals ProtocolVersion.version,
                       see Appendix A.1.1).
     cipher_spec_length
                       This field is the total length of the field
                       cipher_specs.  It cannot be zero and must be a
                       multiple of the V2CipherSpec length (3).
     session_id_length This field must have a value of either zero or
                       16.  If zero, the client is creating a new
                       session.  If 16, the session_id field will
                       contain the 16 bytes of session identification.
     challenge_length  The length in bytes of the client's challenge
                       to the server to authenticate itself.  This
                       value must be 32.
     cipher_specs      This is a list of all CipherSpecs the client is
                       willing and able to use.  There must be at
                       least one CipherSpec acceptable to the server.
     session_id        If this field's length is not zero, it will
                       contain the identification for a session that
                       the client wishes to resume.
     challenge         The client's challenge to the server for the
                       server to identify itself is a (nearly)
                       arbitrary length random.  The Version 3.0
                       server will right justify the challenge data to
                       become the ClientHello.random data (padded with
                       leading zeroes, if necessary), as specified in
                       this Version 3.0 protocol.  If the length of
                       the challenge is greater than 32 bytes, then
                       only the last 32 bytes are used.  It is
                       legitimate (but not necessary) for a V3 server
                       to reject a V2 ClientHello that has fewer than
                       16 bytes of challenge data.

   Note:          Requests to resume an SSL 3.0 session should use an
                  SSL 3.0 client hello.

E.2 Avoiding man-in-the-middle version rollback

   When SSL Version 3.0 clients fall back to Version 2.0 compatibility
   mode, they use special PKCS #1 block formatting.  This is done so
   that Version 3.0 servers will reject Version 2.0 sessions with
   Version 3.0-capable clients.

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   When Version 3.0 clients are in Version 2.0 compatibility mode,
   they set the right-hand (least-significant) 8 random bytes of the
   PKCS padding (not including the terminal null of the padding) for
   the RSA encryption of the ENCRYPTED-KEY- DATA field of the
   CLIENT-MASTER-KEY to 0x03 (the other padding bytes are random).
   After decrypting the ENCRYPTED- KEY-DATA field, servers that
   support SSL 3.0 should issue an error if these eight padding bytes
   are 0x03.  Version 2.0 servers receiving blocks padded in this
   manner will proceed normally.











































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                            Appendix F

F. Security analysis

   The SSL protocol is designed to establish a secure connection
   between a client and a server communicating over an insecure
   channel.  This document makes several traditional assumptions,
   including that attackers have substantial computational resources
   and cannot obtain secret information from sources outside the
   protocol.  Attackers are assumed to have the ability to capture,
   modify, delete, replay, and otherwise tamper with messages sent
   over the communication channel.  This appendix outlines how SSL has
   been designed to resist a variety of attacks.

F.1 Handshake protocol

   The handshake protocol is responsible for selecting a CipherSpec
   and generating a MasterSecret, which together comprise the primary
   cryptographic parameters associated with a secure session.  The
   handshake protocol can also optionally authenticate parties who
   have certificates signed by a trusted certificate authority.

F.1.1 Authentication and key exchange

   SSL supports three authentication modes: authentication of both
   parties, server authentication with an unauthenticated client, and
   total anonymity.  Whenever the server is authenticated, the channel
   should be secure against man-in- the-middle attacks, but completely
   anonymous sessions are inherently vulnerable to such attacks.
   Anonymous servers cannot authenticate clients, since the client
   signature in the certificate verify message may require a server
   certificate to bind the signature to a particular server.  If the
   server is authenticated, its certificate message must provide a
   valid certificate chain leading to an acceptable certificate
   authority.  Similarly, authenticated clients must supply an
   acceptable certificate to the server.  Each party is responsible
   for verifying that the other's certificate is valid and has not
   expired or been revoked.

   The general goal of the key exchange process is to create a
   pre_master_secret known to the communicating parties and not to
   attackers.  The pre_master_secret will be used to generate the
   master_secret (see Section 6.1).  The master_secret is required to
   generate the finished messages, encryption keys, and MAC secrets
   (see Sections 5.6.9 and 6.2.2).  By sending a correct finished
   message, parties thus prove that they know the correct
   pre_master_secret.

F.1.1.1 Anonymous key exchange

   Completely anonymous sessions can be established using RSA,
   Diffie-Hellman, or FORTEZZA for key exchange.  With anonymous RSA,

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   the client encrypts a pre_master_secret with the server's
   uncertified public key extracted from the server key exchange
   message.  The result is sent in a client key exchange message.
   Since eavesdroppers do not know the server's private key, it will
   be infeasible for them to decode the pre_master_secret.

   With Diffie-Hellman or FORTEZZA, the server's public parameters are
   contained in the server key exchange message and the client's are
   sent in the client key exchange message.  Eavesdroppers who do not
   know the private values should not be able to find the
   Diffie-Hellman result (i.e.  the pre_master_secret) or the FORTEZZA
   token encryption key (TEK).

   Warning:       Completely anonymous connections only provide
                  protection against passive eavesdropping.  Unless an
                  independent tamper-proof channel is used to verify
                  that the finished messages were not replaced by an
                  attacker, server authentication is required in
                  environments where active man-in-the-middle attacks
                  are a concern.

F.1.1.2 RSA key exchange and authentication

   With RSA, key exchange and server authentication are combined.  The
   public key may be either contained in the server's certificate or
   may be a temporary RSA key sent in a server key exchange message.
   When temporary RSA keys are used, they are signed by the server's
   RSA or DSS certificate.  The signature includes the current
   ClientHello.random, so old signatures and temporary keys cannot be
   replayed.  Servers may use a single temporary RSA key for multiple
   negotiation sessions.

   Note:          The temporary RSA key option is useful if servers
                  need large certificates but must comply with
                  government-imposed size limits on keys used for key
                  exchange.

   After verifying the server's certificate, the client encrypts a
   pre_master_secret with the server's public key.  By successfully
   decoding the pre_master_secret and producing a correct finished
   message, the server demonstrates that it knows the private key
   corresponding to the server certificate.

   When RSA is used for key exchange, clients are authenticated using
   the certificate verify message (see Section 5.6.8).  The client
   signs a value derived from the master_secret and all preceding
   handshake messages.  These handshake messages include the server
   certificate, which binds the signature to the server, and
   ServerHello.random, which binds the signature to the current
   handshake process.



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F.1.1.3 Diffie-Hellman key exchange with authentication

   When Diffie-Hellman key exchange is used, the server can either
   supply a certificate containing fixed Diffie-Hellman parameters or
   can use the server key exchange message to send a set of temporary
   Diffie-Hellman parameters signed with a DSS or RSA certificate.
   Temporary parameters are hashed with the hello.random values before
   signing to ensure that attackers do not replay old parameters.  In
   either case, the client can verify the certificate or signature to
   ensure that the parameters belong to the server.

   If the client has a certificate containing fixed Diffie- Hellman
   parameters, its certificate contains the information required to
   complete the key exchange.  Note that in this case the client and
   server will generate the same Diffie- Hellman result (i.e.,
   pre_master_secret) every time they communicate.  To prevent the
   pre_master_secret from staying in memory any longer than necessary,
   it should be converted into the master_secret as soon as possible.
   Client Diffie- Hellman parameters must be compatible with those
   supplied by the server for the key exchange to work.

   If the client has a standard DSS or RSA certificate or is
   unauthenticated, it sends a set of temporary parameters to the
   server in the client key exchange message, then optionally uses a
   certificate verify message to authenticate itself.

F.1.1.4 FORTEZZA

   FORTEZZA's design is classified, but at the protocol level it is
   similar to Diffie-Hellman with fixed public values contained in
   certificates.  The result of the key exchange process is the token
   encryption key (TEK), which is used to wrap data encryption keys,
   client write key, server write key, and master secret encryption
   key.  The data encryption keys are not derived from the
   pre_master_secret because unwrapped keys are not accessible outside
   the token.  The encrypted pre_master_secret is sent to the server
   in a client key exchange message.

F.1.2 Version rollback attacks

   Because SSL Version 3.0 includes substantial improvements over SSL
   Version 2.0, attackers may try to make Version 3.0- capable clients
   and servers fall back to Version 2.0.  This attack is occurring if
   (and only if) two Version 3.0-capable parties use an SSL 2.0
   handshake.

   Although the solution using non-random PKCS #1 block type 2 message
   padding is inelegant, it provides a reasonably secure way for
   Version 3.0 servers to detect the attack.  This solution is not
   secure against attackers who can brute force the key and substitute
   a new ENCRYPTED-KEY-DATA message containing the same key (but with
   normal padding) before the application specified wait threshold has

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   expired.  Parties concerned about attacks of this scale should not
   be using 40-bit encryption keys anyway.  Altering the padding of
   the least-significant 8 bytes of the PKCS padding does not impact
   security, since this is essentially equivalent to increasing the
   input block size by 8 bytes.

F.1.3 Detecting attacks against the handshake protocol

   An attacker might try to influence the handshake exchange to make
   the parties select different encryption algorithms than they would
   normally choose.  Because many implementations will support 40-bit
   exportable encryption and some may even support null encryption or
   MAC algorithms, this attack is of particular concern.

   For this attack, an attacker must actively change one or more
   handshake messages.  If this occurs, the client and server will
   compute different values for the handshake message hashes.  As a
   result, the parties will not accept each others' finished messages.
   Without the master_secret, the attacker cannot repair the finished
   messages, so the attack will be discovered.

F.1.4 Resuming sessions

   When a connection is established by resuming a session, new
   ClientHello.random and ServerHello.random values are hashed with
   the session's master_secret.  Provided that the master_secret has
   not been compromised and that the secure hash operations used to
   produce the encryption keys and MAC secrets are secure, the
   connection should be secure and effectively independent from
   previous connections.  Attackers cannot use known encryption keys
   or MAC secrets to compromise the master_secret without breaking the
   secure hash operations (which use both SHA and MD5).

   Sessions cannot be resumed unless both the client and server agree.
   If either party suspects that the session may have been
   compromised, or that certificates may have expired or been revoked,
   it should force a full handshake.  An upper limit of 24 hours is
   suggested for session ID lifetimes, since an attacker who obtains a
   master_secret may be able to impersonate the compromised party
   until the corresponding session ID is retired.  Applications that
   may be run in relatively insecure environments should not write
   session IDs to stable storage.

F.1.5 MD5 and SHA

   SSL uses hash functions very conservatively.  Where possible, both
   MD5 and SHA are used in tandem to ensure that non- catastrophic
   flaws in one algorithm will not break the overall protocol.





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F.2 Protecting application data

   The master_secret is hashed with the ClientHello.random and
   ServerHello.random to produce unique data encryption keys and MAC
   secrets for each connection.  FORTEZZA encryption keys are
   generated by the token, and are not derived from the master_secret.

   Outgoing data is protected with a MAC before transmission.  To
   prevent message replay or modification attacks, the MAC is computed
   from the MAC secret, the sequence number, the message length, the
   message contents, and two fixed character strings.  The message
   type field is necessary to ensure that messages intended for one
   SSL Record Layer client are not redirected to another.  The
   sequence number ensures that attempts to delete or reorder messages
   will be detected.  Since sequence numbers are 64-bits long, they
   should never overflow.  Messages from one party cannot be inserted
   into the other's output, since they use independent MAC secrets.
   Similarly, the server-write and client-write keys are independent
   so stream cipher keys are used only once.

   If an attacker does break an encryption key, all messages encrypted
   with it can be read.  Similarly, compromise of a MAC key can make
   message modification attacks possible.  Because MACs are also
   encrypted, message-alteration attacks generally require breaking
   the encryption algorithm as well as the MAC.

   Note:          MAC secrets may be larger than encryption keys, so
                  messages can remain tamper resistant even if
                  encryption keys are broken.

F.3 Final notes

   For SSL to be able to provide a secure connection, both the client
   and server systems, keys, and applications must be secure.  In
   addition, the implementation must be free of security errors.

   The system is only as strong as the weakest key exchange and
   authentication algorithm supported, and only trustworthy
   cryptographic functions should be used.  Short public keys, 40-bit
   bulk encryption keys, and anonymous servers should be used with
   great caution.  Implementations and users must be careful when
   deciding which certificates and certificate authorities are
   acceptable; a dishonest certificate authority can do tremendous
   damage.









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                            Appendix G

G. Patent Statement

   This version of the SSL protocol relies on the use of patented
   public key encryption technology for authentication and encryption.
   The Internet Standards Process as defined in RFC 1310 requires a
   written statement from the Patent holder that a license will be
   made available to applicants under reasonable terms and conditions
   prior to approving a specification as a Proposed, Draft or Internet
   Standard.  The Massachusetts Institute of Technology has granted
   RSA Data Security, Inc., exclusive sub-licensing rights to the
   following patent issued in the United States:

        Cryptographic Communications System and Method ("RSA"),
   No. 4,405,829

   The Board of Trustees of the Leland Stanford Junior University have
   granted Caro-Kann Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary
   corporation, exclusive sub-licensing rights to the following
   patents issued in the United States, and all of their corresponding
   foreign patents:

         Cryptographic Apparatus and Method ("Diffie-Hellman"),
   No. 4,200,770

        Public Key Cryptographic Apparatus and Method ("Hellman-
   Merkle"), No. 4,218,582

   The Internet Society, Internet Architecture Board, Internet
   Engineering Steering Group and the Corporation for National
   Research Initiatives take no position on the validity or scope of
   the patents and patent applications, nor on the appropriateness of
   the terms of the assurance.  The Internet Society and other groups
   mentioned above have not made any determination as to any other
   intellectual property rights which may apply to the practice of
   this standard.  Any further consideration of these matters is the
   user's own responsibility.















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References

   [DH1] W. Diffie and M. E. Hellman, "New Directions in
   Cryptography," IEEE Transactions on Information Theory, V.
   IT-22, n. 6, Jun 1977, pp. 74-84.

   [3DES] W. Tuchman, "Hellman Presents No Shortcut Solutions
   To DES," IEEE Spectrum, v. 16, n. 7, July 1979, pp40-41.

   [DES] ANSI X3.106, "American National Standard for
   Information Systems-Data Link Encryption," American National
   Standards Institute, 1983.

   [DSS] NIST FIPS PUB 186, "Digital Signature Standard,"
   National Institute of Standards and Technology, U.S.
   Department of Commerce, 18 May 1994.

   [FOR] NSA X22, Document # PD4002103-1.01, "FORTEZZA:
   Application Implementers Guide," April 6, 1995.

   [FTP] J. Postel and J. Reynolds, RFC 959: File Transfer
   Protocol, October 1985.

   [HTTP] T. Berners-Lee, R. Fielding, H. Frystyk, Hypertext
   Transfer Protocol -- HTTP/1.0, October, 1995.

   [IDEA] X. Lai, "On the Design and Security of Block
   Ciphers," ETH Series in Information Processing, v. 1,
   Konstanz: Hartung-Gorre Verlag, 1992.

   [KRAW] H. Krawczyk, IETF Draft: Keyed-MD5 for Message
   Authentication, November 1995.

   [MD2] R. Rivest. RFC 1319: The MD2 Message Digest Algorithm.
   April 1992.

   [MD5] R. Rivest. RFC 1321: The MD5 Message Digest Algorithm.
   April 1992.

   [PKCS1] RSA Laboratories, "PKCS #1: RSA Encryption
   Standard," version 1.5, November 1993.

   [PKCS6] RSA Laboratories, "PKCS #6: RSA Extended Certificate
   Syntax Standard," version 1.5, November 1993.

   [PKCS7] RSA Laboratories, "PKCS #7: RSA Cryptographic
   Message Syntax Standard," version 1.5, November 1993.

   [RSA] R. Rivest, A. Shamir, and L. M. Adleman, "A Method for
   Obtaining Digital Signatures and Public-Key Cryptosystems,"
   Communications of the ACM, v. 21, n. 2, Feb 1978, pp. 120-
   126.

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   [RSADSI] Contact RSA Data Security, Inc., Tel: 415-595-8782
   [SCH] B. Schneier. Applied Cryptography: Protocols,
   Algorithms, and Source Code in C, Published by John Wiley &
   Sons, Inc. 1994.

   [SHA] NIST FIPS PUB 180-1, "Secure Hash Standard," National
   Institute of Standards and Technology, U.S. Department of
   Commerce, DRAFT, 31 May 1994.
   [TCP] ISI for DARPA, RFC 793: Transport Control Protocol,
   September 1981.

   [TEL] J. Postel and J. Reynolds, RFC 854/5, May, 1993.
   [X509] CCITT. Recommendation X.509: "The Directory -
   Authentication Framework". 1988.

   [XDR] R. Srinivansan, Sun Microsystems, RFC-1832: XDR:
   External Data Representation Standard, August 1995.




































Freier, Karlton, Kocher                                        [Page 62]

INTERNET-DRAFT                  SSL 3.0                November 18, 1996

   Authors

   Alan O. Freier                Paul C. Kocher
   Netscape Communications       Independent Consultant
   freier@netscape.com           pck@netcom.com

   Philip L. Karlton
   Netscape Communications
   karlton@netscape.com

   Other contributors

   Martin Abadi                  Robert Relyea
   Digital Equipment Corporation Netscape Communications
   ma@pa.dec.com                 relyea@netscape.com

   Taher Elgamal                 Jim Roskind
   Netscape Communications       Netscape Communications
   elgamal@netscape.com          jar@netscape.com

   Anil Gangolli                 Micheal J. Sabin, Ph. D.
   Netscape Communications       Consulting Engineer
   gangolli@netscape.com         msabin@netcom.com

   Kipp E.B. Hickman             Tom Weinstein
   Netscape Communications       Netscape Communications
   kipp@netscape.com             tomw@netscape.com

   Early reviewers

   Robert Baldwin                Clyde Monma
   RSA Data Security, Inc.       Bellcore
   baldwin@rsa.com               clyde@bellcore.com

   George Cox                    Eric Murray
   Intel Corporation             ericm@lne.com
   cox@ibeam.jf.intel.com

   Cheri Dowell                  Avi Rubin
   Sun Microsystems              Bellcore
   cheri@eng.sun.com             rubin@bellcore.com

   Stuart Haber                  Don Stephenson
   Bellcore                      Sun Microsystems
   stuart@bellcore.com           don.stephenson@eng.sun.com

   Burt Kaliski                  Joe Tardo
   RSA Data Security, Inc.       General Magic
   burt@rsa.com                  tardo@genmagic.com




Freier, Karlton, Kocher                                        [Page 63]

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   Send all written communication about this document to:
   Netscape Communications
   501 East Middlefield Rd.
   Mountain View, CA 94043
   Attn: Alan Freier
















































Freier, Karlton, Kocher                                        [Page 63]


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