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INTERNET-DRAFT                                               Ko Fujimura
                                                                     NTT
                                                         Masayuki Terada
                                                              NTT DoCoMo
                                                  Donald E. Eastlake 3rd
                                                   Motorola Laboratories
Expires July  2005                                          January 2005

                 XML Voucher: Generic Voucher Language
                <draft-ietf-trade-voucher-lang-07.txt>

Status of this Memo

   By submitting this Internet-Draft, I certify that any applicable
   patent or other IPR claims of which I am aware have been disclosed,
   or will be disclosed, and any of which I become aware will be
   disclosed, in accordance with RFC 3668.

   Distribution of this document is unlimited. Comments should be sent
   to the author or the IETF TRADE working group
   <ietf-trade@lists.elistx.com>.

   Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
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Copyright Notice

   Copyright (C) The Internet Society (2005).

Abstract

   This document specifies rules for defining voucher properties in XML
   syntax. A voucher is a logical entity that represents a right to
   claim goods or services. A voucher can be used to transfer a
   wide-range of electronic-values, including coupons, tickets, loyalty
   points, and gift certificates, which are often necessary to process
   in the course of payment and/or delivery transactions.


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Acknowledgements

   The following persons, in alphabetic order, contributed substantially
   to the material herein:

           Ian Grigg
           Renato Iannella
           Yoshiaki Nakajima

Table of Contents

   1. Introduction ...................................................3
   2. Processing Model ...............................................3
   3. Trust Model ....................................................4
   4. Component Structure ............................................5
   5. Syntax Overview and Examples ...................................7
   6. Syntax and Semantics ...........................................8
      6.1 <Voucher> ..................................................8
      6.2 <Title> ....................................................9
      6.3 <Description> ..............................................9
      6.4 <Provider> .................................................9
      6.5 <Issuer> ...................................................9
      6.6 <Holder> ..................................................10
      6.7 <Collector> ...............................................10
      6.8 <Value> ...................................................11
      6.8.1 <Ratio> .................................................12
      6.8.2 <Fixed> .................................................12
      6.9 <Merchandise> .............................................13
      6.10 <ValidPeriod> ............................................14
      6.11 <Conditions> .............................................14
   7. IANA Considerations ...........................................14
   8. VTS Schema Example ............................................17
   9. Security Considerations .......................................17

   Normative References .............................................17
   Informational References .........................................18
   Author's Address .................................................19
   Copyright and Disclaimer..........................................19
   File name and Expiration..........................................19







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1. Introduction

   This document, XML Voucher, specifies rules for defining voucher
   properties in XML syntax. The motivation and background of the
   specification are described in [VTS].

   A voucher is a logical entity that represents a certain right and
   is logically managed by the Voucher Trading System (VTS). A voucher
   is generated by the issuer, traded among users, and finally
   collected by the collector using VTS.

   This document defines the syntax and semantics of Voucher
   Component, which defines voucher meaning and processing rules in
   XML syntax [XML]. A Voucher Component define the properties that
   must be satisfied to allow the voucher to be processed by VTS or
   other trading systems, e.g., wallet or merchant system. VTS
   definitions and models are also defined in [VTS].

   Note: This document uses "voucher" as an "instance of voucher"
   whose meaning is defined by Voucher Component. In other words, a
   Voucher Component is NOT a voucher and multiple vouchers can be
   issued and managed by the VTS using the same Voucher Component.

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in
   this document are to be interpreted as described in [RFC 2119]

2. Processing Model

   There are several ways of implementing VTS and technologies are
   continually changing. For discount coupons or event tickets, for
   example, the smart-card-based offline VTS is often preferred,
   whereas for bonds or securities, the centralized online VTS is
   preferred. It is impractical to define standard protocols for
   issuing, transferring, or redeeming vouchers at this moment.

   To provide implementation flexibility, this document assumes a
   modular wallet architecture that allows multiple VTS to be added as
   plug-ins. In this architecture, instead of specifying a standard
   voucher transfer protocol, two specifications, i.e., Voucher
   Component and VTS-API specifications, are standardized (Figure 1).

   After sender and receiver agree on what vouchers are to be traded
   and which VTS is to be used, the issuing system or wallet system
   requests the corresponding VTS plug-in to permit the issue,
   transfer, or redeem transactions to be performed via the VTS
   API. The VTS then rewrites the ownership of the vouchers using the
   VTS-specific protocol. Finally, a completion event is sent to the
   wallet systems or issuing/collecting systems.

   This document describes the Voucher Component specification. The
   VTS-API specification is defined in [VTS-API].

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   Sender wallet/Issuing system      Receiver wallet/Collecting system
   +---------------------------+       +---------------------------+
   |                           |       |                           |
   |  |                    Voucher Component                    |  |
   |  |            (Specifies VTS Provider and Promise)         |  |
   |  |-------------------------------------------------------->|  |
   |  |                        |       |                        |  |
   |  |         Intention to receive and payment (option)       |  |
   |  |<- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - |  |
   |  |                        |       |                        |  |
   |  |                        |       |                        |  |
   |  | Issue/transfer/  VTS   |       |   VTS      Register    |  |
   |  | redeem request   plug-in       |   plug-in  Listener(*1)|  |
   |  |------------------>|    |       |    |<------------------|  |
   |  | (VTS-API)         |<- - - - - - - ->|         (VTS-API) |  |
   |  |                   | VTS-specific    |                   |  |
   |  |                   | protocol if VTS |                   |  |
   |  |                   | is distributed  |                   |  |
   |  |  Result           |<- - - - - - - ->|       Notify(*2)  |  |
   |  |<------------------|    |       |    |------------------>|  |
   +---------------------------+       +---------------------------+
   (*1) Registration is optional. Note also that the VTS plug-ins are
        usually pre-registered when the wallet or collecting system
        is started.
   (*2) If a listener is registered.

           Figure 1. Wallet architecture with VTS plug-ins

3. Trust Model

   A voucher is trusted if the Issuer and VTS Provider are trusted,
   since the Issuer is responsible for the contents of the voucher and
   the VTS Provider is responsible for preventing ownership from being
   assigned to multiple users.

   The trust level required for Issuer and VTS Provider depends on the
   type (or Promise) of the voucher. To provide the information needed
   for verification, the conditions of Issuer and VTS Provider are
   specified in the Voucher Component, and given as input to the
   verifier, e.g., wallet system or other software. The trust of a
   voucher is thus verified through the Voucher Component. This model
   enables trading partners to verify their trust in the voucher
   regardless of their trust in the partners.

   This document assumes that the Voucher Component is the root of
   trust. If a malicious user could alter the Voucher Component, a
   forged voucher, could be verified as valid.

   When a Voucher Component is delivered from the trusted VTS
   Provider, Issuer or trusted third party, a secure communication
   channel, e.g., [TLS], [IPSEC], or object security, e.g.,[XMLDSIG]
   should be used to prevent from being altered during the delivery.

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   Note: The Voucher Component does not have to be sent from the
   sender of the voucher. Note also that a set of trusted Voucher
   Components can be downloaded before conducting a transaction.

4. Component Structure

   The Voucher Component provides the information needed to identify
   the monetary value or merchandize rendered when the voucher is
   redeemed.  It includes:

   o How much value/items can be claimed in exchange for the voucher

   o Restrictions applied to the voucher
     - Participants (VTS Provider, Issuer, Holder, and Collector)
     - Objects (merchandise) to be claimed
     - Time when valid (validity period)
     - Others

   The Voucher Component also provides common properties useful for
   displaying and manipulating the contents of wallet systems. It
   includes the title and description of each voucher.

   The Voucher Component contains the Title Component, Description
   Component, Provider Component, Issuer Component, Holder Component,
   Collector Component, Value Component, Merchandise Component,
   ValidPeriod Component, and Condition Component as follows:

   Title Component

     Provides the title of the voucher. This is mainly for listing
     the entities stored in a wallet system.

   Description Component

     Provides a short description of the voucher. This is mainly for
     listing the entities stored in a wallet system.

   Provider Component

     Provides restrictions on which VTS Provider (or VTS plug-in) can
     be used for trading the voucher.

   Issuer Component

     Provides restrictions on the Issuer of the voucher.

   Holder Component

     Provides restrictions on the Holder of the voucher.

   Collector Component

     Provides restrictions on the Collector of the voucher.

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   Value Component

     Provides the value of each voucher. There are two types of
     values, i.e., fixed and ratio values. For a fixed value, the
     currency and the figure is specified. For a ratio value, the
     discount ratio of the corresponding merchandize is specified.

     The Value Component also indicates the number of vouchers to be
     redeemed for claiming the merchandise or monetary value specified
     in Merchandise Component or Value Component. If "n"(>0) is
     specified, the merchandize or monetary value can be claimed in
     exchange for "n sheets of" vouchers.  If "0" is specified, it
     can be used repeatedly.

   Merchandise Component

     Provides restrictions on the object to be claimed.
     Domain-specific meaning of the voucher, e.g., reference number of
     the merchandize or seat number for an event ticket, is specified
     to identify the merchandize rendered when the voucher is
     redeemed.

   ValidPeriod Component

     Provides restrictions on the validity period of the voucher,
     i.e., start date and end date.

   Condition Component

     Provides any other applicable restrictions. This is intended to
     cover contracts between the issuer and holder of the
     voucher in natural language form.

   Using the above Components, semantics for diverse types of vouchers
   can be defined as shown in Table 1.

   +----------------+--------------------------------+---------------+
   |                |             Value              |  Restrictions |
   |                +-----+---------------+----------+---------------+
   |   Examples     |Ratio|    Fixed      |Number    |  Merchandise  |
   |                |     +------+--------+Needed for|               |
   |                |     |Amount|Currency|redemption|               |
   +----------------+-----+------+--------+----------+---------------+
   |Gift certificate|     |   25 |  USD   |        1 |(Not specified)|
   |Loyalty point   |     |    1 |  AUD   |       10 |(Not specified)|
   |Member card     |  20%|      |        |        0 |(Not specified)|
   |Coupon          |  30%|      |        |        1 |Beef 500g      |
   |Event ticket    | 100%|      |        |        1 |Hall A, S ,K23 |
   |Exchange ticket | 100%|      |        |        1 |ISBN:0071355014|
   +----------------+-----+------+--------+----------+---------------+
          Table 1. Examples of vouchers and their properties


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5. Syntax Overview and Examples

   This section provides an overview and examples of Voucher
   Component.  The formal syntax and semantics are found in Sections 6
   and 7.

   Voucher Components are represented by the <Voucher> element which
   has the following structure (where "?" denotes zero or one
   occurrence):

   <Voucher>
     (Title)
     (Description)?
     (Provider)
     (Issuer)?
     (Holder)?
     (Collector)?
     (Value)
     (Merchandise)?
     (ValidPeriod)?
     (Conditions)?
   </Voucher>

   An example of a Voucher Component is described below. This is an
   example of a five dollar discount coupon for specific merchandize,
   a book with ISBN number 0071355014. The coupon is valid from April
   1st in 2001 to March 31st in 2002. To claim this offer, one voucher
   must be spent.

   <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
   <Voucher xmlns="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:vts-lang"
            xmlns:vts="http://www.example.com/vts">
     <Title>IOTP Book Coupon</Title>
     <Description>$5 off IOTP Book</Description>
     <Provider name="Voucher Exchanger 2002">
       <vts:Version>VE2.31</vts:Version>
     </Provider>
     <Issuer name="Alice Book Center, Ltd.">
       <vts:KeyInfo>
         1DA8DFCF95521014BBB7171B95545E8D61AE803F
       </vts:KeyInfo>
     </Issuer>
     <Collector name="Alice Book Center, Ltd."/>
     <Value type="discount" spend="1">
       <Fixed amount="5" currency="USD"/>
     </Value>
     <Merchandise>
       <bk:Book xmlns:bk="http://www.example.com/bk"
                bk:isbn="0071355014"/>
     </Merchandise>
     <ValidPeriod start="2002-04-01" end="2003-03-31"/>


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     <Conditions>
       The value of this coupon is subject to tax.
     </Conditions>
   </Voucher>

6. Syntax and Semantics

   The general structure of an XML Voucher Component is described in
   Section 4 above.  This section details the Voucher Component
   features.  Features described in this section MUST be implemented
   unless otherwise indicated.  The syntax is defined via
   [XML-Schema-1] [XML-Schema-2]. For clarity, unqualified elements in
   schema definitions are in the XML schema namespace:

       xmlns="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema"

   References to XML Voucher schema defined herein use the prefix
   "gvl" and are in the namespace:

       xmlns:gvl="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:vts-lang"

   This namespace URI for elements defined by this document is a URN
   [URN], using the namespace identifier 'ietf' defined by [URN-NS-IETF]
   and extended by [XML-Registry].

   This namespace is also used for unqualified elements in voucher
   examples.

6.1 <Voucher>

   The <Voucher> element contains <Title>, <Provider>, and <Value>
   elements and optionally contains <Description>, <Issuer>, <Holder>,
   <Collector>, <ValidPeriod>, and <Condition> elements. These
   sub-elements are defined in the following sections.

   The <Voucher> element is defined by the following schema:

    <element name="Voucher" type="gvl:VoucherType"/>
    <complexType name="VoucherType">
     <sequence>
      <element ref="gvl:Title"/>
      <element ref="gvl:Description" minOccurs="0"/>
      <element ref="gvl:Provider"/>
      <element ref="gvl:Issuer" minOccurs="0"/>
      <element ref="gvl:Holder" minOccurs="0"/>
      <element ref="gvl:Collector" minOccurs="0"/>
      <element ref="gvl:Value"/>
      <element ref="gvl:Merchandise" minOccurs="0"/>
      <element ref="gvl:ValidPeriod" minOccurs="0"/>
      <element ref="gvl:Conditions"  minOccurs="0"/>
     </sequence>
    </complexType>

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6.2 <Title>

   The <Title> element contains a simpletext title of the voucher.
   This is mainly for listing the entities stored in a wallet system.

   The <Title> element has no attribute.

   The <Title> element is defined by the following schema:

    <element name="Title" type="string"/>

6.3 <Description>

   The <Description> element contains a simpletext description of the
   voucher.  This is mainly for listing the entities stored in a
   wallet system.

   The <Description> element has no attribute.

   The <Description> element is defined by the following schema:

    <element name="Description" type="string"/>

6.4 <Provider>

   The <Provider> element may contain any elements that is used to
   specify or restrict the VTS Provider of the voucher.  The
   sub-elements contained in this element depend on the implementation
   of the VTS.

   An implementation of a wallet system may use this information to
   identify and/or authenticate the VTS Provider when the VTS plug-in is
   registered (See Section 7 of [VTS-API]). These
   implementation-specific elements of the VTS can be extended using
   [XML-ns]. An example of such schema definition is described in
   Section 8.

   The <Provider> element has a string-type "name" attribute that is
   used to specify the name of the VTS Provider.

   The <Provider> element is defined by the following schema:

    <element name="Provider" type="gvl:RoleType"/>
    <complexType name="RoleType" mixed="true">
     <sequence>
      <any namespace="##any" minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded"/>
     </sequence>
     <attribute name="name" type="string"/>
    </complexType>

6.5 <Issuer>


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   The <Issuer> element may contain any element that is used to specify
   or restrict the Issuer of the voucher.

   The Issuer of the voucher is generally managed by the VTS [VTS-API].
   There is no need to specify the Issuer of the voucher using this
   element if there are no restrictions on the Issuer.
   An implementation of a VTS may use this element to describe the
   authentication data and/or qualification information of the
   Issuer. This implementation-specific information can be extended as
   sub-elements using [XML-ns]. An example of such schema definition is
   described in Section 8.

   The <Issuer> element has a string-type "name" attribute that is used
   to specify the name of the Issuer.

   The <Issuer> element is defined by the following schema:

   <element name="Issuer" type="gvl:RoleType"/>
   The <RoleType> element type is defined in Section 6.4.

   If the <Issuer> element is omitted, it MUST be interpreted that there
   are no restrictions on the Issuer.

6.6 <Holder>

   The <Holder> element may contain any elements that is used to specify
   or restrict the Holder of the voucher.

   The Holder of the voucher is generally managed by the VTS [VTS-API].
   There is no need to specify the Holder of the voucher using this
   element if there are no restrictions on the Holder.
   An implementation of a VTS may use this element to describe the
   authentication data and/or qualification information of the
   Holder. This implementation-specific information can be extended as
   sub-elements using [XML-ns].

   The <Holder> element has a string-type "name" attribute that is used
   to specify the name of the Holder.

   The <Holder> element is defined by the following schema:

   <element name="Holder" type="gvl:RoleType"/>
   The <RoleType> element type is defined in Section 6.4.

   If the <Holder> element is omitted, it MUST be interpreted that there
   are no restrictions on the Holder.

6.7 <Collector>

   The <Collector> element may contain any elements that is used to
   specify or restrict the Collector of the voucher.

   There is no need to specify the Collector of the voucher using this

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   element if there are no restrictions on the Collector.
   An implementation of a VTS may use this element to describe the
   authentication data and/or qualification information of the
   Collector. This implementation-specific information can be extended
   as sub-elements using [XML-ns].

   The <Collector> element has a string-type "name" attribute that is
   used to specify the name of the Collector.

   The <Collector> element is defined by the following schema:

   <element name="Collector" type="gvl:RoleType"/>
   The <RoleType> element type is defined in Section 6.4.

   If the <Collector> element is omitted, it MUST be interpreted that
   there are no restrictions on the Collector.

6.8 <Value>

   The <Value> element optionally contains a <Fixed> or a <Ratio>
   element but not both. These sub-elements are defined in the
   following sections.

   The <Value> element has a "type" attribute that is used to specify
   the value process type. This attribute is provided to calculate the
   amount paid when the vouchers are redeemed at Merchant site, etc.

   The following identifiers are defined for the "type" attribute.

   Exchange: Items specified in the <Merchandise> element can be
     claimed in exchange for the voucher. If this type is selected,
     neither <Ratio> nor <Fixed> element MUST be specified. Note that
     this value process type has the same meaning as:
     <Value type="discount"><Ratio percentage="100"/></Value>

   Discount: Items specified in the <Merchandise> element can be
     purchased at the discount price calculated by the <Ratio> or
     <Fixed> element.

   Monetary: Items specified in the <Merchandise> element can be
     purchased using the value of the voucher. (Note: if the
     <Merchandise> element is not specified, the voucher can be used
     for any purchase.) If this type is selected, the <Fixed> element
     MUST be specified.

   The <Value> element also has a "spend" attribute that is used to
   specify the number of vouchers to be redeemed for claiming the
   goods, services, or monetary value specified. For example, if "n"
   (>0) is specified, goods etc. can be claimed in exchange for "n
   sheets of" vouchers. (Note: Multiple vouchers for the same Voucher
   Component must exist in this case.)  If "0" is specified, it can be
   used repeatedly.

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   If the "spend" attribute is omitted or the whole element is omitted,
   it MUST be interpreted that "1" is specified for the "spend"
   attribute.

   The <Value> element is defined by the following schema:

    <element name="Value" type="gvl:ValueType"/>
    <complexType name="ValueType">
     <sequence minOccurs="0">
      <choice>
       <element name="Ratio" type="gvl:RatioValueType"/>
       <element name="Fixed" type="gvl:FixedValueType"/>
      </choice>
     </sequence>
     <attribute name="type" type="gvl:ValueProcessType"
                use="required"/>
     <attribute name="spend" type="nonNegativeInteger"
                default="1"/>
    </complexType>

   The <ValueProcessType> element type is defined by the following
   schema:

    <simpleType name="ValueProcessType">
     <restriction base="string">
      <enumeration value="exchange"/>
      <enumeration value="discount"/>
      <enumeration value="monetary"/>
     </restriction>
    </simpleType>

6.8.1 <Ratio>

   The <Ratio> element does not contain any contents.

   The <Ratio> element has a "percentage" attribute that is used to
   specify the discount ratio of the price of the corresponding
   merchandize in percentage.

   The <RatioValueType> element type is defined by the schema:

    <complexType name="RatioValueType">
     <attribute name="percentage" use="required">
      <simpleType>
       <restriction base="float">
        <maxInclusive value="100"/>
       </restriction>
      </simpleType>
     </attribute>
    </complexType>

6.8.2 <Fixed>

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   The <Fixed> element does not contain any contents.

   The <Fixed> element has "currency" and "amount" attributes
   and optionally a "decimalPower" attribute as follows:

   Currency: Provides the unit of the monetary value in the three
     letter ISO currency code [ISO4217].  For example, for US dollars
     it is "USD".

   Amount: Provides the amount of the monetary value per voucher.

   DecimalPower: Provides the number of decimal digits from the
     decimal point applied to the base for the "amount" attribute
     above. If the "decimalPower" attribute is omitted, it MUST be
     interpreted that "0" is specified for the "decimalPower"
     attribute.

   For example, with a dollar currency denominated in cents, "1" is
   specifed for the "amount" attribute, and "-2" is specified for the
   "decimalPower" attribute. Alternately, "0.01" is specified for
   the "amount" attribute and the "decimalPower" attribute is omitted.

   The <FixedValueType> type is defined by the following definition:

    <complexType name="FixedValueType">
     <attribute name="currency" type="string" use="required"/>
     <attribute name="amount" type="float" use="required"/>
     <attribute name="decimalPower" type="short" default="0"/>
    </complexType>

6.9 <Merchandise>

   The <Merchandise> element may contain any elements used to specify or
   restrict the goods or services rendered when the voucher is redeemed.
   The sub-elements contained in this element are depending on the
   application of the voucher and are left to the other domain-specific
   specifications. Domain-specific elements can be extended as
   sub-elements using [XML-ns].

   This element is intended to be interpreted by a collecting system.
   An implementation of a wallet system does not have to use this
   element. Any restrictions applied should also be described in the
   <Description> element or the <Conditions> elements in natural
   language form to enable users to check the restrictions.

   The <Merchandise> element does not have any attribute.

   The <Merchandise> element is defined by the following schema:

    <element name="Merchandise" type="gvl:MerchandiseType"/>
    <complexType name="MerchandiseType" mixed="true">
     <sequence>
      <any namespace="##any" minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded"/>

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     </sequence>
    </complexType>

6.10 <ValidPeriod>

   The <VaridPeriod> element does not contain any contents.

   The <ValidPeriod> element has dateTime-type "start" and "end"
   attributes that are used to place limits on the validity of the
   voucher.

   The <ValidPeriod> element is defined by the following schema:

    <element name="ValidPeriod" type="gvl:ValidPeriodType"/>
    <complexType name="ValidPeriodType">
      <attribute name="start" type="dateTime"/>
      <attribute name="end" type="dateTime"/>
    </complexType>

   If the "start" attribute is omitted, it MUST be interpreted that
   the voucher is valid on any date up to the date (inclusive)
   specified by the end attribute. If the "end" attribute is omitted,
   it MUST be interpreted that the voucher is valid from the start
   attribute with no expiry. If neither attribute is specified or the
   whole element is omitted, it MUST be interpreted that the voucher
   is valid at any time.

6.11 <Conditions>

   The <Conditions> element contains any other restrictions or
   conditions applied. This is intended to cover contracts between the
   issuer and holder of the voucher in natural language form.

   An implementation of a wallet system SHOULD provide a means of
   displaying the text in this element.

   The <Conditions> element has no attribute.

   The <Conditions> element is defined by the following schema:

    <element name="Conditions" type="string"/>

7. IANA Considerations

   This document uses URNs to describe XML namespaces and XML schemas
   conforming to a registry mechanism described in [XML-Registry].
   Two URI assignments are requested.

   Registration request for the vts-lang namespace:

   URI: urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:vts-lang

   Registrant Contact: See the "Author's Address" section of this

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   document.

   XML: None.  Namespace URIs do not represent an XML specification.

   Registration request for the vts-lang XML schema:

   URI: urn:ietf:params:xml:schema:vts-lang

   Registrant Contact: See the "Author's Address" section of this
   document.

   XML:
      BEGIN
      <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>

      <schema
        targetNamespace="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:vts-lang"
        xmlns:gvl="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:vts-lang"
        xmlns="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema"
        elementFormDefault="qualified">

      <element name="Voucher" type="gvl:VoucherType"/>
      <complexType name="VoucherType">
       <sequence>
        <element ref="gvl:Title"/>
        <element ref="gvl:Description" minOccurs="0"/>
        <element ref="gvl:Provider"/>
        <element ref="gvl:Issuer" minOccurs="0"/>
        <element ref="gvl:Holder" minOccurs="0"/>
        <element ref="gvl:Collector" minOccurs="0"/>
        <element ref="gvl:Value"/>
        <element ref="gvl:Merchandise" minOccurs="0"/>
        <element ref="gvl:ValidPeriod" minOccurs="0"/>
        <element ref="gvl:Conditions"  minOccurs="0"/>
       </sequence>
      </complexType>

      <element name="Title" type="string"/>

      <element name="Description" type="string"/>

      <element name="Provider" type="gvl:RoleType"/>
      <element name="Issuer"   type="gvl:RoleType"/>
      <element name="Holder"   type="gvl:RoleType"/>
      <element name="Collector"   type="gvl:RoleType"/>
      <complexType name="RoleType" mixed="true">
       <sequence>
        <any namespace="##any" minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded"/>
       </sequence>
       <attribute name="name" type="string"/>
      </complexType>

      <element name="Value" type="gvl:ValueType"/>

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      <complexType name="ValueType">
       <sequence minOccurs="0">
        <choice>
         <element name="Ratio" type="gvl:RatioValueType"/>
         <element name="Fixed" type="gvl:FixedValueType"/>
        </choice>
       </sequence>
       <attribute name="type" type="gvl:ValueProcessType"
                  use="required"/>
       <attribute name="spend" type="nonNegativeInteger"
                  default="1"/>
      </complexType>

      <simpleType name="ValueProcessType">
       <restriction base="string">
        <enumeration value="exchange"/>
        <enumeration value="discount"/>
        <enumeration value="monetary"/>
       </restriction>
      </simpleType>

      <complexType name="RatioValueType">
       <attribute name="percentage" use="required">
        <simpleType>
         <restriction base="float">
          <maxInclusive value="100"/>
         </restriction>
        </simpleType>
       </attribute>
      </complexType>

      <complexType name="FixedValueType">
       <attribute name="currency" type="string" use="required"/>
       <attribute name="amount" type="float" use="required"/>
       <attribute name="decimalPower" type="short" default="0"/>
      </complexType>

      <element name="Merchandise" type="gvl:MerchandiseType"/>
      <complexType name="MerchandiseType" mixed="true">
       <sequence>
        <any namespace="##any" minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded"/>
       </sequence>
      </complexType>

      <element name="ValidPeriod" type="gvl:ValidPeriodType"/>
      <complexType name="ValidPeriodType">
        <attribute name="start" type="dateTime"/>
        <attribute name="end" type="dateTime"/>
      </complexType>

      <element name="Conditions" type="string"/>
     </schema>
     END

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8. VTS Schema Example

   An example of the schema definition for a VTS implementation is
   described below:

   <?xml version="1.0"?>

   <schema
    targetNamespace="http://www.example.com/vts"
    xmlns:vts="http://www.example.com/vts"
    xmlns="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema"
    elementFormDefault="qualified">

    <element name="Version" type="string"/>
    <element name="KeyInfo" type="hexBinary"/>
   </schema>

   Using this schema definition, the <vts:Version> can be used for
   specifying the VTS version number and the <vts:KeyInfo> element can
   be used for specifying the Issuer in the Voucher Component as shown
   in Section 5.

9. Security Considerations

   The VTS must provide a means of preventing forgery, alteration,
   duplicate-redemption, reproduction of a voucher, and non-repudiation
   of transactions as described in Section 3.2 of [VTS]. This will
   commonly require the presence of a unique serial number or the like
   in each Voucher instance, usually outside the Voucher Component.
   These security requirements, however, mainly follow the VTS plug-ins
   and their protocols. This document assumes that the VTS plug-ins are
   trusted and installed by some means, e.g., manually checked like
   other download applications.

   The Voucher Component, however, defines restrictions on VTS Provider
   (or VTS plug-in), and, if this information is altered, incorrect VTS
   plug-ins not accepted by the issuer could be used, allowing a forged
   voucher to be verified as if it were valid. To prevent this
   situation, the Voucher Component should be stored and acquired
   securely, e.g., downloaded from a trusted party using a secure
   communication channel, such as [TLS], or [IPSEC], or secured by the
   digital signature of a trusted party [XMLDSIG].

Normative References

   [ISO4217] "Codes for the representation of currencies and funds",
   ISO 4217, 1995.

   [RFC2119] S. Bradner, "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
   Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997.

   [URN] R. Moats, "URN Syntax", RFC2141, May 1997.

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   [URN-NS-IETF] R. Moats, "A URN Namespace for IETF Documents",
   RFC2648, August 1999.

   [XML] "Extensible Mark Up Language (XML) 1.0 (Second Edition)", A
   W3C Recommendation, <http://www.w3.org/TR/REC-xml>, October 2000.

   [XML-ns] "Namespaces in XML", A W3C Recommendation,
   <http://www.w3.org/TR/REC-xml-names>, January 1999.

   [XML-Registry] M. Mealling, "The IETF XML Registry", RFC3688
   January 2004.

   [XML-Schema-1] H. Thompson, D. Beech, M. Maloney, and
   N. Mendelsohn, "XML Schema Part 1: Structures W3C Recommendation.",
   <http://www.w3.org/TR/xmlschema-1/>, May 2001.

   [XML-Schema-2] P. Biron and A Malhotra, "XML Schema Part 2:
   Datatypes W3C Recommendation.",
   <http://www.w3.org/TR/xmlschema-2/>, May 2001.

Informational References

   [VTS] K. Fujimura, D Eastlake, "Requirements and Design for Voucher
   Trading System (VTS)", RFC3506, March 2003.

   [IPSEC] R. Thayer, N. Doraswamy, and R. Glenn, "IP Security Document
   Roadmap", RFC2411, November 1998

   [TLS] T. Dierks, C. Allen, "The TLS Protocol Version 1.0", RFC2246,
   January 1999.

   [VTS-API] M. Terada and K. Fujimura, "Voucher Trading System
   Application Programming Interface (VTS-API)",
   draft-ietf-trade-voucher-vtsapi-07.txt, January 2005.

   [XMLDSIG] D. Eastlake, J. Reagle, and D. Solo, "XML-Signature
   Syntax and Processing", RFC3275, March 2002.









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Author's Address

   Ko Fujimura
   NTT Corporation
   1-1 Hikari-no-oka, Yokosuka-shi, Kanagawa, 239-0847 JAPAN
   Phone: +81-(0)46-859-3053
   Fax:   +81-(0)46-855-1730
   Email: fujimura.ko@lab.ntt.co.jp

   Masayuki Terada
   NTT DoCoMo, Inc.
   3-5 Hikari-no-oka, Yokosuka-shi, Kanagawa, 239-8536 JAPAN
   Phone: +81-(0)46-840-3809
   Fax:   +81-(0)46-840-3705
   Email: te@rex.yrp.nttdocomo.co.jp

   Donald E. Eastlake 3rd
   Motorola Laboratories
   155 Beaver Street
   Milford, MA 01757 USA
   Phone:  1-508-786-7554 (work)
           1-508-634-2066 (home)
   EMail:  Donald.Eastlake@motorola.com

Copyright and Disclaimer

   Copyright (C) The Internet Society 2005.  This document is subject to
   the rights, licenses and restrictions contained in BCP 78 and except
   as set forth therein, the authors retain all their rights.

   This document and the information contained herein are provided on an
   "AS IS" basis and THE CONTRIBUTOR, THE ORGANIZATION HE/SHE REPRESENTS
   OR IS SPONSORED BY (IF ANY), THE INTERNET SOCIETY AND THE INTERNET
   ENGINEERING TASK FORCE DISCLAIM ALL WARRANTIES, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED,
   INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO ANY WARRANTY THAT THE USE OF THE
   INFORMATION HEREIN WILL NOT INFRINGE ANY RIGHTS OR ANY IMPLIED
   WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.

File name and Expiration

   This file is draft-ietf-trade-voucher-lang-07.txt.

   It expires July 2005.





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