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Versions: 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 RFC 5536

Usenet Format Working Group                                   C. Lindsey
Internet-Draft                                  University of Manchester
Obsoletes: 1036 (if approved)                               K. Murchison
Expires: March 15, 2005                               Oceana Matrix Ltd.
                                                                 D. Kohn
                                                        Skymoon Ventures
                                                      September 14, 2004


                          News Article Format
                    draft-ietf-usefor-usefor-01.txt

Status of this Memo

   This document is an Internet-Draft and is subject to all provisions
   of section 3 of RFC 3667.  By submitting this Internet-Draft, each
   author represents that any applicable patent or other IPR claims of
   which he or she is aware have been or will be disclosed, and any of
   which he or she become aware will be disclosed, in accordance with
   RFC 3668.

   Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
   Task Force (IETF), its areas, and its working groups.  Note that
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   Internet-Drafts.

   Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
   and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any
   time.  It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
   material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."

   The list of current Internet-Drafts can be accessed at
   http://www.ietf.org/ietf/1id-abstracts.txt.

   The list of Internet-Draft Shadow Directories can be accessed at
   http://www.ietf.org/shadow.html.

   This Internet-Draft will expire on March 15, 2005.

Copyright Notice

   Copyright (C) The Internet Society (2004).

Abstract

   This document specifies the syntax of network news articles in the
   context of the "Internet Message Format" (RFC 2822) and "Multipurpose
   Internet Mail Extensions (MIME)" (RFC 2045).  This document
   supersedes RFC 1036, updating it to reflect current practice and



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   incorporating incremental changes specified in other documents.

Changes since draft-ietf-usefor-usefor-00

   o  Rewrote/reorganized Abstract and Introduction.
   o  Added required SP to ABNF of header definitions.
   o  Reorganized header sections.
   o  Compatibility changes based on comments from Charles.
   o  Added Injection-Date and Injection-Info headers.

Changes since draft-ietf-usefor-article-13

   o  The Mail-Copies-To, Posted-And-Mailed and Complaints-To headers
      have been moved to other documents.
   o  Dropped MIME parameters, as there is no WG consensus (per Chair).

Issues to be addressed

   o  Decide which definitions should go in this document and in
      [USEPRO].
   o  Decide how much (if any) discussion of Injection-Info content
      belongs in this document vs.  [USEPRO].
   o  Do we want to discuss message/partial?
   o  Add appendixes for obsolete headers, changes from RFC 1036 and
      differences from RFC 2822.
   o  Merge more security issues?
   o  Merge acknowledgments?
























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Table of Contents

   1.   Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   4
     1.1  Basic Concepts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   4
     1.2  Scope  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   4
     1.3  Requirements Notation  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   5
     1.4  Syntax Notation  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   5
     1.5  Definitions  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   5
     1.6  Structure of This Document . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   5
   2.   Format . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   7
     2.1  Base . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   7
     2.2  Header Fields  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   7
     2.3  MIME Conformance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   8
     2.4  Additional MIME Support  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   8
   3.   News Headers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   9
     3.1  Mandatory Headers  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   9
       3.1.1  From . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   9
       3.1.2  Subject  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   9
       3.1.3  Date . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   9
       3.1.4  Message-ID . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  10
       3.1.5  Newsgroups . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  11
       3.1.6  Path . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  11
       3.1.7  Injection-Date . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  12
     3.2  Optional Headers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  12
       3.2.1  References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  13
       3.2.2  Followup-To  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  13
       3.2.3  Expires  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  13
       3.2.4  Control  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  13
       3.2.5  Supersedes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  14
       3.2.6  Distribution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  14
       3.2.7  Summary  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  14
       3.2.8  Approved . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  15
       3.2.9  Organization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  15
       3.2.10   Xref . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  15
       3.2.11   Archive  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  15
       3.2.12   User-Agent . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  16
       3.2.13   Injection-Info . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  16
   4.   Internationalization Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . .  18
   5.   Security Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  19
   6.   References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  20
   6.1  Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  20
   6.2  Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  20
        Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  21
   A.   Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  23
        Intellectual Property and Copyright Statements . . . . . . .  24






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1.  Introduction

1.1  Basic Concepts

   "Netnews" is a set of protocols for generating, storing and
   retrieving news "articles" (which resemble email messages) and for
   exchanging them amongst a readership which is potentially widely
   distributed.  It is organized around "newsgroups", with the
   expectation that each reader will be able to see all articles posted
   to each newsgroup in which he participates.  These protocols most
   commonly use a flooding algorithm which propagates copies throughout
   a network of participating servers.  Typically, only one copy is
   stored per server, and each server makes it available on demand to
   readers able to access that server.

1.2  Scope

   This document specifies the syntax of network news articles in the
   context of the "Internet Message Format" [RFC2822] and "Multipurpose
   Internet Mail Extensions (MIME)" [RFC2045].  This document supersedes
   [RFC1036], updating it to reflect current practice and incorporating
   incremental changes specified in other documents such as
   [Son-of-1036].

   This is the first in a set of documents that obsolete [RFC1036].
   This document focuses on the syntax and semantics of network news
   articles.  [USEPRO] is also a standards-track document, and describes
   the protocol issues of network news articles, independent of
   transmission protocols such as NNTP [RFC0977].  An informational
   document, [USEAGE], describes implementation recommendations to
   improve interoperability and usability.

   This specification is intended as a definition of what article
   content format is to be passed between systems.  Though some news
   systems locally store articles in this format (which eliminates the
   need for translation between formats) and others use formats that
   differ from the one specified in this standard, local storage is
   outside of the scope of this standard.

   Note: This standard is not intended to dictate the internal formats
   used by sites, the specific news system features that they are
   expected to support, or any of the characteristics of user interface
   programs that create or read articles.  In addition, this standard
   does not specify an encoding of the characters for either transport
   or storage; that is, it does not specify the number of bits used or
   how those bits are specifically transferred over the wire or stored
   on disk.




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1.3  Requirements Notation

   This document occasionally uses terms that appear in capital letters.
   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
   document are to be interpreted as described in [RFC2119].

1.4  Syntax Notation

   Headers defined in this specification use the Augmented Backus-Naur
   Form (ABNF) notation (including the Core Rules) specified in
   [RFC2234] and many constructs defined in [RFC2822].  Section 3.1.4
   updates the [RFC2822] definition of <msg-id>.

1.5  Definitions

   An "article" is the unit of news, synonymous with an [RFC2822]
   "message".

   A "message identifier" Section 3.1.4 is a unique identifier for an
   article, usually supplied by the "posting agent" which posted it or,
   failing that, by the "injecting agent".  It distinguishes the article
   from every other article ever posted anywhere.  Articles with the
   same message identifier are treated as if they are the same article
   regardless of any differences in the body or headers.

   A "newsgroup" is a single news forum, a logical bulletin board,
   having a name and nominally intended for articles on a specific
   topic.  An article is "posted to" a single newsgroup or several
   newsgroups.  When an article is posted to more than one newsgroup, it
   is said to be "crossposted"; note that this differs from posting the
   same text as part of each of several articles, one per newsgroup.

   A newsgroup may be "moderated", in which case submissions are not
   posted directly, but mailed to a "moderator" for consideration and
   possible posting.  Moderators are typically human but may be
   implemented partially or entirely in software.

   A "control message" is an article which is marked as containing
   control information; a relaying or serving agent receiving such an
   article may (subject to the policies observed at that site) take
   actions beyond just filing and passing on the article.

1.6  Structure of This Document

   This document uses a cite by reference methodology, rather than
   repeating the contents of other standards, which could otherwise
   result in subtle differences and interoperability challenges.



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   Although this document is as a result rather short, it requires
   complete understanding and implementation of the normative references
   to be compliant.

   Section 2 defines the format of news articles.  Section 3 details the
   headers necessary to make an article suitable for the netnews
   environment.












































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2.  Format

2.1  Base

   News articles MUST conform to the syntax specified in Section 3 of
   [RFC2822].  News agents MAY also accept the obsolete syntax specified
   in Section 4 of [RFC2822], but they MUST NOT generate such syntax.

2.2  Header Fields

   All headers fields in a news article are compliant with [RFC2822],
   however this specification is more restrictive in what can be
   generated and accepted by news agents.  The syntax allowed for news
   articles is a strict subset of the "Internet Message Format", making
   all messages compliant with this specification inherently compliant
   with [RFC2822].  Note however that the converse is not guaranteed to
   be true.

   General rules which apply to all headers (even those documented in
   [RFC2822] and [RFC2045]) are listed below and those that apply to
   specific headers are described in the relevent sections of this
   document.

   User agents MUST generate headers so that at least one space
   immediately follows the ':' separating the header name and the header
   contents.  As a result, an <unstructured> header as defined in
   Section 3.2.6 of [RFC2822] MUST NOT be empty (it will always contain
   at least a single space).  News agents MAY accept headers which do
   not contain the required space.

   Compliant software MUST support headers of at least 998 octets.  This
   is the only limit on the length of a header line prescribed by this
   standard.  However, specific rules to the contrary may apply in
   particular cases (for example, according to [RFC2047] header lines
   containing encoded-words are limited to 76 octets).

      NOTE: There is NO restriction on the number of lines into which a
      header may be split, and hence there is NO restriction on the
      total length of a header (in particular it may, by suitable
      folding, be made to exceed the 998 octets restriction pertaining
      to a single header line).

   The character set for headers is US-ASCII.  Where the use of
   non-ASCII characters is required, they MUST be encoded using the MIME
   mechanisms defined in [RFC2045] and [RFC2231].






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2.3  MIME Conformance

   User agents MUST meet the definition of MIME-conformance in
   [RFC2049].  This level of MIME Conformance provides support for
   internationalization and multimedia in message bodies [RFC2045], and
   support for internationalization of headers [RFC2047].  Note that
   [Errata] currently exist for [RFC2046] and [RFC2231].

2.4  Additional MIME Support

   User agents conformant with this document MAY support reassembly of
   message/partial MIME messages, as specified in Section 5.2.2 of
   [RFC2046] and MAY support generation of message/partial articles for
   excessively large articles.

   User agents SHOULD accept and MAY generate MIME extension header
   fields, including but not limited to Content-Disposition [RFC2183]
   and Content-Language [RFC3282].

































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3.  News Headers

   The following news headers (also known as header fields) extend the
   fields defined in section 3.6 of [RFC2822] as follows:

   fields          =/ *( newsgroups /
                         path /
                         injection-date /
                         followup-to /
                         expires /
                         control /
                         supersedes /
                         distribution /
                         summary /
                         approved /
                         organization /
                         xref /
                         archive /
                         user-agent /
                         injection-info )

   Each of these headers may occur at most once in a news article.

3.1  Mandatory Headers

   Each news article conformant with this specification MUST have
   exactly one of each of the following headers: From, Subject, Date,
   Message-ID, Newsgroups, Path, and Injection-Date.

3.1.1  From

   The From header is the same as that specified in Section 3.6.2 of
   [RFC2822] with the added restrictions detailed in Section 2.2.

3.1.2  Subject

   The Subject header is the same as that specified in Section 3.6.5 of
   [RFC2822] with the added restrictions detailed in Section 2.2.
   Further discussion of the content of the Subject header is discussed
   in [USEPRO] and [USEAGE].

3.1.3  Date

   The Date header is the same as that specified in Sections 3.3 and
   3.6.1 of [RFC2822] with the added restrictions detailed in Section
   2.2.  However, the use of "GMT" and "UT" as time zones, which are
   part of <obs-zone>, is widespread in news articles today.  Therefore,
   agents MUST accept, but MUST NOT generate, <date-time> constructs



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   which include <obs-zone>.  As stated in Section 2.1, support for
   <obs-zone> would otherwise have been SHOULD accept, MUST NOT
   generate.  Note that these requirements apply wherever <date-time> is
   used, including Injection-Date and Expires in Section 3.1.7 and
   Section 3.2.3 respectively.

3.1.4  Message-ID

   The Message-ID header contains a single unique message identifier.
   This document updates the <msg-id> construct from Section 3.6.4 of
   [RFC2822] so as to ensure that Internet Message Format Message-IDs
   are usable in widely deployed news software.  The ABNF should be used
   as below, but the requirements and descriptive text from Section
   3.6.4 of [RFC2822] still apply.

   message-id      =  "Message-ID:" SP msg-id CRLF

   msg-id          =  [FWS] msg-id-core [FWS]

   msg-id-core     =  "<" id-left "@" id-right ">"
                      ; maximum length is 250 octets

   id-left         =  dot-atom-text / no-fold-quote / obs-id-left

   id-right        =  dot-atom-text / no-fold-literal / obs-id-right

   no-fold-quote   =  DQUOTE *( qtext / no-space-qp ) DQUOTE

   no-fold-literal =  "[" *( htext / no-space-qp ) "]"

   no-space-qp     =  ( "\" ptext ) / obs-qp

   ptext           =  %d33-61 /  ; Printable characters excluding ">"
                      %d63-126 /
                      obs-text

   htext           =  HEXDIG /  ; hexadecimal digits, case-insensitive
                      "." /     ; IPv4 separator
                      ":"       ; IPv6 separator

   The msg-id-core MUST NOT be more than 250 octets in length.

      NOTE: The length restriction ensures that systems which accept
      message identifiers as a parameter when retrieving an article
      (e.g.  NNTP [RFC0977]) can rely on a bounded length.  Observe that
      msg-id-core includes the < and >.

   Observe that in contrast to the corresponding header in [RFC2822],



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   the syntax does not allow comments within the Message-ID header; this
   is to simplify processing by relaying and serving agents and to
   ensure interoperability with existing implementations.

   Also note that this updated ABNF applies wherever <msg-id> is used,
   including the References header discussed in Section 3.2.1.

3.1.5  Newsgroups

   The Newsgroups header specifies the newsgroup(s) to which the article
   is posted.

   newsgroups      =  "Newsgroups:" SP newsgroup-list CRLF

   newsgroup-list  =  [FWS] newsgroup-name
                      *( "," [FWS] newsgroup-name ) [FWS]

   newsgroup-name  =  component *( "." component ) ; 66 character max

   component       =  plain-component

   plain-component =  component-start *29component-rest

   component-start =  ALPHA / DIGIT

   component-rest  =  ALPHA / DIGIT / "+" / "-" / "_"

   A newsgroup name consists of one or more components separated by
   periods, with no more than 66 characters total.  Each component
   consists of less than 30 or less letters and digits.  These limits
   are discussed further in Section 7.2 of [USEAGE].

3.1.6  Path

   The Path header indicates the route taken by an article since its
   entry into the Netnews system, so that unnecessary redundant
   transmission can be avoided.

   path            =  "Path:" SP path-list CRLF

   path-list       =  [FWS] path-identity
                      *( path-delimiter [FWS] path-identity ) [FWS]

   path-identity   =  ( ALPHA / DIGIT )
                      *( ALPHA / DIGIT / "-" / "." / ":" / "_" )

   path-delimiter  =  "!"




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3.1.7  Injection-Date

   The Injection-Date header contains the date and time that the article
   was injected into the network.  Its purpose is to prevent the
   reinjection into the news stream of "stale" articles which have
   already expired by the time they arrive at some relaying or serving
   agent.

   This header is mandatory for new clients, but all agents SHOULD use
   the Date header for this purpose if Injection-Date is not present.

   injection-date  =  "Injection-Date:" SP date-time CRLF


   See the remarks under Section 3.1.3  regarding the syntax of
   date-time and the requirements and recommendations to which it is
   subject.

      NOTE: The date-time in this header would normally be expected to
      be later than the date-time in the Date header, but differences
      between the clocks on the various agents and other special
      circumstances might vitiate that; no provision is made for any
      such discrepancy to be corrected - better that the injecting agent
      should just insert the correct time as it sees it.

   This header is intended to replace the currently-used but
   undocumented "NNTP-Posting-Date" header, whose use is now deprecated.

3.2  Optional Headers

   None of the headers appearing in this section is required to appear
   in every article but some of them are required in certain types of
   article, such as followups.  Further discussion of these requirements
   is discussed in [USEPRO] and [USEAGE].

   The headers Reply-To, Sender, Comments, and Keywords are often used
   in news articles and have the identical meaning as that specified in
   [RFC2822] with the added restrictions detailed in Section 2.2.

   The MIME headers Content-Type and Content-Transfer-Encoding are often
   used in news articles and have the identical meaning as that
   specified in [RFC2045] with the added restrictions detailed in
   Section 2.2.

   All other commonly used news headers are described below.






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3.2.1  References

   The References header is the same as that specified in Section 3.6.4
   of [RFC2822] with the added restrictions detailed in Section 2.2 and
   those listed below:

   o  The updated <msg-id> construct defined in Section 3.1.4 MUST be
      used.
   o  Message IDs MUST be separated with CFWS.
   o  Comments in CFWS between Message IDs can cause interoperability
      problems, so comments SHOULD NOT be generated, but MUST be
      accepted.

3.2.2  Followup-To

   The Followup-To header specifies to which newsgroup(s) followups
   should be posted.

   followup-to     =  "Followup-To:" SP ( newsgroup-list / poster-text )
                      CRLF

   poster-text     =  [FWS] %d112.111.115.116.101.114 [FWS]
                      ; "poster" in lower-case

   The syntax is the same as that of the Newsgroups header (Section
   3.1.5, with the exception that the magic word "poster" (which is
   always lowercase) means that followups should be mailed to the
   article's reply address rather than posted.  In order to improve
   interoperability with deployed clients, followup agents MAY choose to
   recognize case-insensitive forms such as "Poster".

3.2.3  Expires

   The Expires header specifies a date and time when the article is
   deemed to be no longer useful and could usefully be removed
   ("expired").

   expires         =  "Expires:" SP date-time CRLF

   See the remarks under Section 3.1.3  regarding the syntax of
   date-time and the requirements and recommendations to which it is
   subject.

3.2.4  Control

   The Control header marks the article as a control message, and
   specifies the desired actions (additional to the usual ones of
   storing and/or relaying the article).



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   control         =  "Control:" SP [CFWS] control-message [CFWS] CRLF

   control-message = <empty>

   The control-message indicates what action should be taken.  The exact
   syntax for control-message is specified in the companion document,
   [USEPRO].

3.2.5  Supersedes

   The Supersedes header contains a message identifier specifying an
   article to be superseded upon the arrival of this one.  The specified
   article MUST be treated as though a "cancel" [USEPRO] control message
   had arrived for the article (but observe that a site MAY choose not
   to honor a "cancel" message, especially if its authenticity is in
   doubt).

   supersedes      =  "Supersedes:" SP [CFWS] msg-id-core [CFWS] CRLF

   NOTE: There is no "c" in Supersedes.

3.2.6  Distribution

   The Distribution header specifies geographic or organizational limits
   on an article's propagation.

   distribution    =  "Distribution:" SP dist-list CRLF

   list-list       =  [FWS] dist-name *( "," [FWS] dist-name ) [FWS]

   dist-name       =  ALPHA / DIGIT
                      *( ALPHA / DIGIT / "+" / "-" / "_" )

   "All" MUST NOT be used as a distribution-name.  Distribution-names
   SHOULD contain at least three characters, except when they are
   two-letter country names as in [ISO.3166.1988].  Distribution-names
   are case-insensitive (i.e.  "US", "Us", "uS", and "us" all specify
   the same distribution).

3.2.7  Summary

   The Summary header is a short phrase summarizing the article's
   content.

   summary         =  "Summary:" SP unstructured CRLF






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3.2.8  Approved

   The Approved header indicates the mailing addresses (and possibly the
   full names) of the moderators approving the article for posting.

   approved        =  "Approved:" SP mailbox-list CRLF


3.2.9  Organization

   The Organization header is a short phrase identifying the poster's
   organization.

   organization    =  "Organization:" SP unstructured CRLF

   There is no "s" in Organization.

3.2.10  Xref

   The Xref header indicates where an article was filed by the last
   serving agent to process it.

   xref            =  "Xref:" SP [CFWS] server-name
                      1*( CFWS location ) [CFWS] CRLF

   server-name     =  path-identity

   location        =  newsgroup-name ":" article-locator

   article-locator =  1*( %x21-27 / %x29-3A / %x3C-7E )
                      ; US-ASCII printable characters
                      ; except '(' and ';'

   The server-name is included so that software can determine which
   serving agent generated the header.  The locations specify what
   newsgroups the article was filed under (which may differ from those
   in the Newsgroups-header) and where it was filed under them.  The
   exact form of an article-locator is implementation-specific.

   NOTE: The traditional form of an article-locator (as used by NNTP) is
   a decimal number, with articles in each newsgroup numbered
   consecutively starting from 1.

3.2.11  Archive

   The Archive header provides an indication of the poster's intent
   regarding preservation of the article in publicly accessible
   long-term or permanent storage.



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   archive         =  "Archive:" SP [CFWS] ("no" / "yes")
                      *( [CFWS] ";" archive-param ) CRLF

   archive-param   =  <a parameter with attribute "filename"
                       and any value>


3.2.12  User-Agent

   The User-Agent header contains information about the user agent
   (typically a newsreader) generating the article for statistical
   purposes and tracing of standards violations to specific software
   needing correction.  Although not one of the mandatory headers,
   posting agents SHOULD normally include it.  It is also intended that
   this header be suitable for use in Email.

   user-agent      =  "User-Agent:" SP 1*product CRLF

   product         =  [CFWS] token [CFWS] [ "/" product-version ]

   product-version =  [CFWS] token [CFWS]


3.2.13  Injection-Info

   The Injection-Info header provides information as to how an article
   entered the Netnews system and to assist in tracing its true origin.
























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   injection-info  =  "Injection-Info:" SP [CFWS] path-identity [CFWS]
                      *( ";" injection-info-parameter )

   injection-info-parameter
                   =  posting-host-parameter /
                      posting-account-parameter /
                      posting-sender-parameter /
                      posting-logging-parameter

   posting-host-parameter
                   =  <a parameter with attribute "posting-host"
                       and value some host-value>

   host-value      =  dot-atom / [ dot-atom ":" ]
                      ( IPv4address / IPv6address ) ;  see [RFC 2373]

   posting-account-parameter
                   =  <a parameter with attribute "posting-account"
                       and any value>

   posting-sender-parameter
                   =  <a parameter with attribute "sender"
                       and value some sender-value>

   sender-value    =  mailbox / "verified"

   posting-logging-parameter
                   =  <a parameter with attribute "logging-data"
                       and any value>


   Although comments and folding of white space are permitted throughout
   the Injection-Info header, it is RECOMMENDED that folding is not used
   within any parameter (but only before or after the ";" separating
   those parameters), and that comments are only used following the last
   parameter.  It is also RECOMMENDED that such parameters as are
   present are included in the order in which they have been defined in
   the syntax above.

   This header is intended to replace various currently-used but
   undocumented headers such as "NNTP-Posting-Host" and "X-Trace".
   These headers are now deprecated.









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4.  Internationalization Considerations

   Internationalization of news article headers and bodies is provided
   using MIME mechanisms discussed in Section 2.3.  Note that the
   generation of internationalized newsgroup names for use in headers is
   not addressed in this document.













































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5.  Security Considerations

   The news article format specified in this document does not provide
   any security services, such as confidentiality, authentication of
   sender, or non-repudiation.  Instead, such services need to be
   layered above, using such protocols as S/MIME [RFC2633] or PGP/MIME
   [RFC3156], or below, using secure versions of news transport
   protocols.  Additionally, several currently non-standardized
   protocols [PGPVERIFY] will hopefully be standardized in the near
   future.

   Message-IDs (Section 3.1.4) in news are required to be unique;
   articles are refused (in server-to-server transfer) if the ID has
   already been seen.  So if you can predict the ID of a message, you
   can preempt it by posting a message (possibly to a quite different
   group) with the same ID, stopping your target message from
   propagating.  Agents that generate message-ids for news articles
   SHOULD ensure that they are unpredictable.

   The filename parameter of the Archive-header (Section 3.2.11) can be
   used to attempt to store archived articles in inappropriate
   locations.  Archiving sites should be suspicious of absolute filename
   parameters, as opposed to those relative to some location of the
   archiver's choosing.



























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6.  References

6.1  Normative References

   [Errata]   "RFC Editor Errata".

   [RFC2045]  Freed, N. and N. Borenstein, "Multipurpose Internet Mail
              Extensions (MIME) Part One: Format of Internet Message
              Bodies", RFC 2045, November 1996.

   [RFC2046]  Freed, N. and N. Borenstein, "Multipurpose Internet Mail
              Extensions (MIME) Part Two: Media Types", RFC 2046,
              November 1996.

   [RFC2047]  Moore, K., "MIME (Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions)
              Part Three: Message Header Extensions for Non-ASCII Text",
              RFC 2047, November 1996.

   [RFC2049]  Freed, N. and N. Borenstein, "Multipurpose Internet Mail
              Extensions (MIME) Part Five: Conformance Criteria and
              Examples", RFC 2049, November 1996.

   [RFC2119]  Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
              Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997.

   [RFC2183]  Troost, R., Dorner, S. and K. Moore, "Communicating
              Presentation Information in Internet Messages: The
              Content-Disposition Header Field", RFC 2183, August 1997.

   [RFC2231]  Freed, N. and K. Moore, "MIME Parameter Value and Encoded
              Word Extensions: Character Sets, Languages, and
              Continuations", RFC 2231, November 1997.

   [RFC2234]  Crocker, D. and P. Overell, "Augmented BNF for Syntax
              Specifications: ABNF", RFC 2234, November 1997.

   [RFC2822]  Resnick, P., "Internet Message Format", RFC 2822, April
              2001.

   [RFC3282]  Alvestrand, H., "Content Language Headers", RFC 3282, May
              2002.

6.2  Informative References

   [ISO.3166.1988]
              International Organization for Standardization, "Codes for
              the representation of names of countries, 3rd edition",
              ISO Standard 3166, August 1988.



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   [PGPVERIFY]
              Lawrence, D., "PGPverify", June 1999.

   [RFC0977]  Kantor, B. and P. Lapsley, "Network News Transfer
              Protocol", RFC 977, February 1986.

   [RFC1036]  Horton, M. and R. Adams, "Standard for interchange of
              USENET messages", RFC 1036, December 1987.

   [RFC2633]  Ramsdell, B., "S/MIME Version 3 Message Specification",
              RFC 2633, June 1999.

   [RFC3156]  Elkins, M., Del Torto, D., Levien, R. and T. Roessler,
              "MIME Security with OpenPGP", RFC 3156, August 2001.

   [Son-of-1036]
              Spencer, H., "News Article Format and Transmission", June
              1994.

   [USEAGE]   Lindsey, C., "Usenet Best Practice",
              draft-ietf-usefor-useage-*.txt.

   [USEPRO]   Lindsey, C., "News Article Architecture and Protocols",
              draft-ietf-usefor-usepro-*.txt.


Authors' Addresses

   Charles H. Lindsey
   University of Manchester
   5 Clerewood Avenue
   Heald Green
   Cheadle
   Chesire  SK8 3JU
   GB

   Phone: +44 161 436 6131
   EMail: chl@clw.cs.man.ac.uk


   Kenneth Murchison
   Oceana Matrix Ltd.
   21 Princeton Place
   Orchard Park, NY  14127
   US

   Phone: +1 716 662 8973
   EMail: ken@oceana.com



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   Dan Kohn
   Skymoon Ventures
   3045 Park Boulevard
   Palo Alto, CA  94306
   US

   Phone: +1 650 327 2600
   EMail: dan@dankohn.com











































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Appendix A.  Acknowledgements

   Comments and/or text were provided by Mark Crispin, Claus Faerber,
   Ned Freed, Andrew Gierth, Tony Hansen, Paul Hoffman, Simon Josefsson,
   Bruce Lilly, Pete Resnick, and Henry Spencer.














































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Acknowledgment

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