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Versions: (draft-korhonen-v6ops-3gpp-eps) 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 RFC 6459

Individual Submission                                   J. Korhonen, Ed.
Internet-Draft                                    Nokia Siemens Networks
Intended status: Informational                               J. Soininen
Expires: April 2, 2012                                    Renesas Mobile
                                                                B. Patil
                                                           T. Savolainen
                                                                G. Bajko
                                                                   Nokia
                                                            K. Iisakkila
                                                          Renesas Mobile
                                                      September 30, 2011


                   IPv6 in 3GPP Evolved Packet System
                      draft-ietf-v6ops-3gpp-eps-08

Abstract

   Use of data services in smart phones and broadband services via HSPA
   and HSPA+, in particular Internet services, has increased rapidly and
   operators that have deployed networks based on 3GPP network
   architectures are facing IPv4 address shortages at the Internet
   registries and are feeling a pressure to migrate to IPv6.  This
   document describes the support for IPv6 in 3GPP network
   architectures.

Status of this Memo

   This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the
   provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.

   Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
   Task Force (IETF).  Note that other groups may also distribute
   working documents as Internet-Drafts.  The list of current Internet-
   Drafts is at http://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/.

   Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
   and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any
   time.  It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
   material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."

   This Internet-Draft will expire on April 2, 2012.

Copyright Notice

   Copyright (c) 2011 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
   document authors.  All rights reserved.




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   This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
   Provisions Relating to IETF Documents
   (http://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of
   publication of this document.  Please review these documents
   carefully, as they describe your rights and restrictions with respect
   to this document.  Code Components extracted from this document must
   include Simplified BSD License text as described in Section 4.e of
   the Trust Legal Provisions and are provided without warranty as
   described in the Simplified BSD License.


Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  4
   2.  3GPP Terminology and Concepts  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  5
     2.1.  Terminology  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  5
     2.2.  The concept of APN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
   3.  IP over 3GPP GPRS  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
     3.1.  Introduction to 3GPP GPRS  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
     3.2.  PDP Context  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
   4.  IP over 3GPP EPS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
     4.1.  Introduction to 3GPP EPS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
     4.2.  PDN Connection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
     4.3.  EPS bearer model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
   5.  Address Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
     5.1.  IPv4 Address Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
     5.2.  IPv6 Address Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
     5.3.  Prefix Delegation  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
     5.4.  IPv6 Neighbor Discovery Considerations . . . . . . . . . . 17
   6.  3GPP Dual-Stack Approach to IPv6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
     6.1.  3GPP Networks Prior to Release-8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
     6.2.  3GPP Release-8 and -9 Networks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
     6.3.  PDN Connection Establishment Process . . . . . . . . . . . 20
     6.4.  Mobility of 3GPP IPv4v6 Type of Bearers  . . . . . . . . . 22
   7.  Dual-Stack Approach to IPv6 Transition in 3GPP Networks  . . . 23
   8.  Deployment issues  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
     8.1.  Overlapping IPv4 Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
     8.2.  IPv6 for transport . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
     8.3.  Operational Aspects of Running Dual-Stack Networks . . . . 25
     8.4.  Operational Aspects of Running a Network with
           IPv6-only Bearers  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
     8.5.  Restricting Outbound IPv6 Roaming  . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
     8.6.  Inter-RAT Handovers and IP Versions  . . . . . . . . . . . 27
     8.7.  Provisioning of IPv6 Subscribers and Various
           Combinations During Initial Network Attachment . . . . . . 28
   9.  IANA Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
   10. Security Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
   11. Summary and Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31



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   12. Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
   13. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
   Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
















































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1.  Introduction

   IPv6 has been specified in the 3rd Generation Partnership Project
   (3GPP) standards since the early architectures developed for R99
   General Packet Radio Service (GPRS).  However, the support for IPv6
   in commercially deployed networks remains low.  There are many
   factors that can be attributed to the lack of IPv6 deployment in 3GPP
   networks.  The most relevant one is essentially the same as the
   reason for IPv6 not being deployed by other networks as well, i.e.
   the lack of business and commercial incentives for deployment. 3GPP
   network architectures have also evolved since 1999 (since R99).  The
   most recent version of the 3GPP architecture, the Evolved Packet
   System (EPS), which is commonly referred to as SAE, LTE or Release-8,
   is a packet centric architecture.  The number of subscribers and
   devices that are using the 3GPP networks for Internet connectivity
   and data services has also increased significantly.  With the
   subscriber growth numbers projected to increase even further and the
   IPv4 addresses depletion problem looming in the near term, 3GPP
   operators and vendors have started the process of identifying the
   scenarios and solutions needed to transition to IPv6.

   This document describes the establishment of IP connectivity in 3GPP
   network architectures, specifically in the context of IP bearers for
   3GPP GPRS and for 3GPP EPS.  It provides an overview of how IPv6 is
   supported as per the current set of 3GPP specifications.  Some of the
   issues and concerns with respect to deployment and shortage of
   private IPv4 addresses within a single network domain are also
   discussed.

   The IETF has specified a set of tools and mechanisms that can be
   utilized for transitioning to IPv6.  In addition to operating dual-
   stack networks during the transition from IPv4 to IPv6 phase, the two
   alternative categories for the transition are encapsulation and
   translation.  The IETF continues to specify additional solutions for
   enabling the transition based on the deployment scenarios and
   operator/ISP requirements.  There is no single approach for
   transition to IPv6 that can meet the needs for all deployments and
   models.  The 3GPP scenarios for transition, described in [TR.23975],
   can be addressed using transition mechanisms that are already
   available in the toolbox.  The objective of transition to IPv6 in
   3GPP networks is to ensure that:

   1.  Legacy devices and hosts which have an IPv4-only stack will
       continue to be provided with IP connectivity to the Internet and
       services,

   2.  Devices which are dual-stack can access the Internet either via
       IPv6 or IPv4.  The choice of using IPv6 or IPv4 depends on the



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       capability of:

       A.  the application on the host,

       B.  the support for IPv4 and IPv6 bearers by the network and/or,

       C.  the capability of the server(s) and other end points.

   3GPP networks are capable of providing a host with IPv4 and IPv6
   connectivity today, albeit in many cases with upgrades to network
   elements such as the SGSN and GGSN.


2.  3GPP Terminology and Concepts

2.1.  Terminology

   Access Point Name

      Access Point Name (APN) is a fully qualified domain name and
      resolves to a specific gateway in an operators network.  The APNs
      are piggybacked on the administration of the DNS namespace.

   Dual Address PDN/PDP Type

      The Dual Address PDN/PDP Type (IPv4v6) is used in 3GPP context in
      many cases as a synonym for dual-stack i.e. a connection type
      capable of serving both IPv4 and IPv6 simultaneously.

   Evolved Packet Core

      Evolved Packet Core (EPC) is an evolution of the 3GPP GPRS system
      characterized by higher-data-rate, lower-latency, packet-optimized
      system.  EPC comprises of subcomponents such as Mobility
      Management Entity (MME), Serving Gateway (SGW), Packet Data
      Network Gateway (PDN-GW) and Home Subscriber Server (HSS).

   Evolved Packet System

      Evolved Packet System (EPS) is an evolution of the 3GPP GPRS
      system characterized by higher-data-rate, lower-latency, packet-
      optimized system that supports multiple Radio Access Technologies
      (RAT).  The EPS comprises the Evolved Packet Core (EPC) together
      with the evolved radio access network (E-UTRA and E-UTRAN).







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   Evolved UTRAN

      Evolved UTRAN (E-UTRAN) is communications network, sometimes
      referred to as 4G, and consists of eNodeBs (4G base station) which
      make up the E-UTRAN radio access network.  The E-UTRAN allows
      connectivity between the User Equipment and the core network.

   GPRS tunnelling protocol

      GPRS Tunnelling Protocol (GTP) [TS.29060] [TS.29274] is a
      tunnelling protocol defined by 3GPP.  It is a network based
      mobility protocol and similar to Proxy Mobile IPv6 (PMIPv6)
      [RFC5213].  However, GTP also provides functionality beyond
      mobility such as inband signaling related to Quality of Service
      (QoS) and charging among others.

   GSM EDGE Radio Access Network

      GSM EDGE Radio Access Network (GERAN) is communications network,
      commonly referred to as 2G or 2.5G, and consists of base stations
      and Base Station Controllers (BSC) which make up the GSM EDGE
      radio access network.  The GERAN allows connectivity between the
      User Equipment and the core network.

   Gateway GPRS Support Node

      Gateway GPRS Support Node (GGSN) is a gateway function in GPRS,
      which provides connectivity to Internet or other PDNs.  The host
      attaches to a GGSN identified by an APN assigned to it by an
      operator.  The GGSN also serves as the topological anchor for
      addresses/prefixes assigned to the User Equipment.

   General Packet Radio Service

      General Packet Radio Service (GPRS) is a packet oriented mobile
      data service available to users of the 2G and 3G cellular
      communication systems Global System for Mobile communications
      (GSM), and specified by 3GPP.

   High Speed Packet Access

      The High Speed Packet Access (HSPA) and the Evolved High Speed
      Packet Access (HSPA+) are enhanced versions of the WCDMA and
      UTRAN, thus providing more data throughput and lower latencies.







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   Home Location Register

      The Home Location Register (HLR) is a pre-Release-5 database (but
      is also used in Release-5 and later networks in real deployments)
      that contains subscriber data and call routing related
      information.  Every subscriber of an operator including
      subscribers' enabled services are provisioned in the HLR.

   Home Subscriber Server

      The Home Subscriber Server (HSS) is a database for a given
      subscriber and got introduced in 3GPP Release-5.  It is the entity
      containing the subscription-related information to support the
      network entities actually handling calls/sessions.

   Mobility Management Entity

      Mobility Management Entity (MME) is a network element that is
      responsible for control plane functionalities, including
      authentication, authorization, bearer management, layer-2
      mobility, etc.  The MME is essentially the control plane part of
      the SGSN in GPRS.  The user plane traffic bypasses the MME.

   Mobile Terminal

      The Mobile Terminal (MT) is the modem and the radio part of the
      Mobile Station (MS).

   Public Land Mobile Network

      The Public Land Mobile Network (PLMN) is a network that is
      operated by a single administration.  A PLMN (and therefore also
      an operator) is identified by the Mobile Country Code (MCC) and
      the Mobile Network Code (MNC).  Each (telecommunications) operator
      providing mobile services has its own PLMN.

   Policy and Charging Control

      The Policy and Charging Control (PCC) framework is used for QoS
      policy and charging control.  It has two main functions: flow
      based charging including online credit control, and policy control
      (e.g. gating control, QoS control and QoS signaling).  It is
      optional to 3GPP EPS but needed if dynamic policy and charging
      control by means of PCC rules based on user and services are
      desired.






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   Packet Data Network

      Packet Data Network (PDN) is a packet based network that either
      belongs to the operator or is an external network such as Internet
      and corporate intranet.  The user eventually accesses services in
      one or more PDNs.  The operator's packet core network are
      separated from packet data networks either by GGSNs or PDN
      Gateways (PDN-GW).

   Packet Data Network Gateway

      Packet Data Network Gateway (PDN-GW) is a gateway function in
      Evolved Packet System (EPS), which provides connectivity to
      Internet or other PDNs.  The host attaches to a PDN-GW identified
      by an APN assigned to it by an operator.  The PDN-GW also serves
      as the topological anchor for addresses/prefixes assigned to the
      User Equipment.

   Packet Data Protocol Context

      A Packet Data Protocol (PDP) Context is the equivalent of a
      virtual connection between the host and a gateway.

   Packet Data Protocol Type

      A Packet Data Protocol Type (PDP Type) identifies the used/allowed
      protocols within the PDP Context.  Examples are IPv4, IPv6 and
      IPv4v6 (dual stack).

   S4 Serving Gateway Support Node

      S4 Serving Gateway Support Node (S4-SGSN) is a Release-8 (and
      onwards) compliant SGSN that connects 2G/3G radio access network
      to EPC via new Release-8 interfaces like S3, S4, and S6d.

   Serving Gateway

      Serving Gateway (SGW) is a gateway function in EPS, which
      terminates the interface towards E-UTRAN.  The SGW is the Mobility
      Anchor point for layer-2 mobility (inter-eNodeB handovers).  For
      each User Equipment connected with the EPS, at any given point of
      time, there is only one SGW.  The SGW is essentially the user
      plane part of the GPRS' SGSN forwarding packets between a PDN-GW.

   Serving Gateway Support Node

      Serving Gateway Support Node (SGSN) is a network element that is
      located between the radio access network (RAN) and the gateway



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      (GGSN).  A per User Equipment point to point (p2p) tunnel between
      the GGSN and SGSN transports the packets between the User
      Equipment and the gateway.

   Terminal Equipment

      The Terminal Equipment (TE) is any device/host connected to the
      Mobile Terminal (MT) offering services to the user.  A TE may
      communicate to a MT, for example, over Point to Point Protocol
      (PPP).

   UE, MS, MN and Mobile

      The terms UE (User Equipment), MS (Mobile Station), MN (Mobile
      Node) and, mobile refer to the devices which are hosts with
      ability to obtain Internet connectivity via a 3GPP network.  A MS
      comprises of a Terminal Equipment (TE) and a Mobile Terminal (MT).
      The terms UE, MS, MN and devices are used interchangeably within
      this document.

   UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access Network

      UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access Network (UTRAN) is communications
      network, commonly referred to as 3G, and consists of NodeBs (3G
      base station) and Radio Network Controllers (RNC) which make up
      the UMTS radio access network.  The UTRAN allows connectivity
      between the User Equipment and the core network.  UTRAN comprises
      of WCDMA, HSPA and HSPA+ radio technologies.

   User Plane

      Data traffic and the required bearers for the data traffic.  In
      practice IP is the only data traffic protocol used in user plane.

   Wideband Code Division Multiple Access

      The Wideband Code Division Multiple Access (WCDMA) is the radio
      interface used in UMTS networks.

   eNodeB

      The eNodeB is a base station entity that supports the Long Term
      Evolution (LTE) air interface.








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2.2.  The concept of APN

   The Access Point Name (APN) essentially refers to a gateway in the
   3GPP network.  The 'complete' APN is expressed in a form of a Fully
   Qualified Domain Name (FQDN) and also piggybacked on the
   administration of the DNS namespace, thus effectively allowing the
   discovery of gateways using the DNS.  User Equipment (UE) can choose
   to attach to a specific gateway in the packet core.  The gateway
   provides connectivity to the Packet Data Network (PDN) such as the
   Internet.  An operator may also include gateways which do not provide
   Internet connectivity, rather a connectivity to closed network
   providing a set of operator's own services.  A UE can be attached to
   one or more gateways simultaneously.  The gateway in a 3GPP network
   is the GGSN or PDN-GW.  Figure 1 below illustrates the APN-based
   network connectivity concept.

                                                            .--.
                                                          _(.   `)
                        .--.         +------------+     _(   PDN  `)_
                      _(Core`.       |GW1         |====(  Internet   `)
           +---+     (   NW   )------|APN=internet|   ( `  .        )  )
   [UE]~~~~|RAN|----( `  .  )  )--+  +------------+    `--(_______)---'
    ^      +---+     `--(___.-'   |
    |                             |                       .--.
    |                             |  +----------+       _(.PDN`)
    |                             +--|GW2       |     _(Operator`)_
    |                                |APN=OpServ|====(  Services   `)
   UE is attached                    +----------+   ( `  .        )  )
   to GW1 and GW2                                    `--(_______)---'
   simultaneously

     Figure 1: User Equipment attached to multiple APNs simultaneously


3.  IP over 3GPP GPRS

3.1.  Introduction to 3GPP GPRS

   A simplified 2G/3G GPRS architecture is illustrated in Figure 2.
   This architecture basically covers the GPRS core network since R99 to
   Release-7, and radio access technologies such as GSM (2G), EDGE (2G,
   often referred as 2.5G), WCDMA (3G) and HSPA(+) (3G, often referred
   as 3.5G).  The architecture shares obvious similarities with the
   Evolved Packet System (EPS) as will be seen in Section 4.  Based on
   Gn/Gp interfaces, the GPRS core network functionality is logically
   implemented on two network nodes, the SGSN and the GGSN.





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                 3G
                .--.                                     .--.
         Uu   _(    `.  Iu   +----+      +----+        _(    `.
   [UE]~~|~~~(  UTRAN )--|---|SGSN|--|---|GGSN|--|----(   PDN  )
            ( `  .  )  )     +----+  Gn  +----+  Gi  ( `  .  )  )
             `--(___.-'        / |                    `--(___.-'
                              /  |
                 2G       Gb--   |
                .--.       /     |
              _(    `.    /      --Gp
   [UE]~~|~~~(   PDN  )__/       |
         Um ( `  .  )  )        .--.
             `--(___.-'       _(.   `)
                            _( [GGSN] `)_
                           (    other    `)
                          ( `  . PLMN   )  )
                           `--(_______)---'

         Figure 2: Overview of the 2G/3G GPRS Logical Architecture

   Gn/Gp:  These interfaces provide a network based mobility service for
           a UE and are used between a SGSN and a GGSN.  The Gn
           interface is used when GGSN and SGSN are located inside one
           operator (i.e.  PLMN).  The Gp-interface is used if the GGSN
           and the SGSN are located in different operator domains (i.e.
           'other' PLMN).  GTP protocol is defined for the Gn/Gp
           interfaces (both GTP-C for the control plane and GTP-U for
           the user plane).

   Gb:     Is the Base Station System (BSS) to SGSN interface, which is
           used to carry information concerning packet data transmission
           and layer-2 mobility management.  The Gb-interface is based
           on either on Frame Relay or IP.

   Iu:     Is the Radio Network System (RNS) to SGSN interface, which is
           used to carry information concerning packet data transmission
           and layer-2 mobility management.  The user plane part of the
           Iu-interface (actually the Iu-PS) is based on GTP-U.  The
           control plane part of the Iu-interface is based on Radio
           Access Network Application Protocol (RANAP).

   Gi:     It is the interface between the GGSN and a PDN.  The PDN may
           be an operator external public or private packet data network
           or an intra-operator packet data network.







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   Uu/Um:  Are either 2G or 3G radio interfaces between a UE and a
           respective radio access network.

   The SGSN is responsible for the delivery of data packets from and to
   the UE within its geographical service area when a direct tunnel
   option is not used.  If the direct tunnel is used, then the user
   plane goes directly between the RNC (in the RNS) and the GGSN.  The
   control plane traffic always goes through the SGSN.  For each UE
   connected with the GPRS, at any given point of time, there is only
   one SGSN.

3.2.  PDP Context

   A PDP (Packet Data Protocol) context is an association between a UE
   represented by one IPv4 address and/or one /64 IPv6 prefix and a PDN
   represented by an APN.  Each PDN can be accessed via a gateway
   (typically a GGSN or PDN-GW).  On the UE a PDP context is equivalent
   to a network interface.  A UE may hence be attached to one or more
   gateways via separate connections, i.e.  PDP contexts. 3GPP GPRS
   supports PDP Types IPv4, IPv6 and since Release-9 also PDP Type
   IPv4v6 (dual-stack).

   Each primary PDP context has its own IPv4 address and/or one /64 IPv6
   prefix assigned to it by the PDN and anchored in the corresponding
   gateway.  The GGSN or PDN-GW is the first hop router for the UE.
   Applications on the UE use the appropriate network interface (PDP
   context) for connectivity to a specific PDN.  Figure 3 represents a
   high level view of what a PDP context implies in 3GPP networks.

   Y
   |                               +---------+       .--.
   |--+ __________________________ | APNx in |     _(    `.
   |  |O______PDPc1_______________)| GGSN /  |----(Internet)
   |  |                            | PDN-GW  |   ( `  .  )  )
   |UE|                            +---------+    `--(___.-'
   |  | _______________________ +---------+          .--.
   |  |O______PDPc2____________)| APNy in |        _(Priv`.
   +--+                         | GGSN /  |-------(Network )
                                | PDN-GW  |      ( `  .  )  )
                                +---------+       `--(___.-'

           Figure 3: PDP contexts between the MS/UE and gateway

   In the above figure there are two PDP contexts at the MS/UE (UE=User
   Equipment in 3GPP parlance).  The 'PDPc1' PDP context that is
   connected to APNx provided Internet connectivity and the 'PDPc2' PDP
   context provides connectivity to a private IP network via APNy (as an
   example this network may include operator specific services such as



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   MMS (Multi media service).  An application on the host such as a web
   browser would use the PDP context that provides Internet connectivity
   for accessing services on the Internet.  An application such as MMS
   would use APNy in the figure above because the service is provided
   through the private network.


4.  IP over 3GPP EPS

4.1.  Introduction to 3GPP EPS

   In its most basic form, the EPS architecture consists of only two
   nodes on the user plane, a base station and a core network Gateway
   (GW).  The basic EPS architecture is illustrated in Figure 4.  The
   functional split of gateways allows for operators to choose optimized
   topological locations of nodes within the network and enables various
   deployment models including the sharing of radio networks between
   different operators.  This also allows independent scaling and growth
   of traffic throughput and control signal processing.

                                                             +--------+
                         S1-MME  +-------+  S11              |   IP   |
                       +----|----|  MME  |---|----+          |Services|
                       |         |       |        |          +--------+
                       |         +-------+        |       S5/     |SGi
    +----+ LTE-Uu +-------+ S1-U               +-------+  S8  +-------+
    |UE  |----|---|eNodeB |---|----------------| SGW   |--|---|PDN-GW |
    |    |========|=======|====================|=======|======|       |
    +----+        +-------+DualStack EPS Bearer+-------+      +-------+

                Figure 4: EPS Architecture for 3GPP Access

   S5/S8:   It provides user plane tunnelling and tunnel management
            between SGW and PDN-GW, using GTP (both GTP-U and GTP-C) or
            PMIPv6 [RFC5213][TS.23402] as the network based mobility
            management protocol.  The S5 interface is used when PDN-GW
            and SGW are located inside one operator (i.e.  PLMN).  The
            S8-interface is used if the PDN-GW and the SGW are located
            in different operator domains (i.e. 'other' PLMN).

   S1-U:    Provides user plane tunnelling and inter eNodeB path
            switching during handover between eNodeB and SGW, using the
            GTP-U protocol (GTP user plane).

   S1-MME:  Reference point for the control plane protocol between
            eNodeB and MME.





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   SGi:     It is the interface between the PDN-GW and the packet data
            network.  Packet data network may be an operator external
            public or private packet data network or an intra operator
            packet data network.

4.2.  PDN Connection

   A PDN connection is an association between a UE represented by one
   IPv4 address and/or one /64 IPv6 prefix, and a PDN represented by an
   APN.  The PDN connection is the EPC equivalent of the GPRS PDP
   context.  Each PDN can be accessed via a gateway (a PDN-GW).  PDN is
   responsible for the IP address/prefix allocation to the UE.  On the
   UE a PDN connection is equivalent to a network interface.  A UE may
   hence be attached to one or more gateways via separate connections,
   i.e.  PDN connections. 3GPP EPS supports PDN Types IPv4, IPv6 and
   IPv4v6 (dual-stack) since the beginning of EPS i.e.  Release-8.

   Each PDN connection has its own IP address/prefix assigned to it by
   the PDN and anchored in the corresponding gateway.  In case of GTP-
   based S5/S8 interface, the PDN-GW is the first hop router for the UE
   and in case of PMIPv6-based S5/S8 the SGW is the first hop router.
   Applications on the UE use the appropriate network interface (PDN
   connection) for connectivity.

4.3.  EPS bearer model

   The logical concept of a bearer has been defined to be an aggregate
   of one or more IP flows related to one or more services.  An EPS
   bearer exists between the UE and the PDN-GW and is used to provide
   the same level of packet forwarding treatment to the aggregated IP
   flows constituting the bearer.  Services with IP flows requiring a
   different packet forwarding treatment would therefore require more
   than one EPS bearer.  The UE performs the binding of the uplink IP
   flows to the bearer while the PDN-GW performs this function for the
   downlink packets.

   In order to provide low latency for always on connectivity, a default
   bearer will be provided at the time of startup and an IPv4 address
   and/or IPv6 prefix gets assigned to the UE (this is different from
   GPRS, where UEs are not automatically assigned with an IP address or
   prefix).  This default bearer will be allowed to carry all traffic
   which is not associated with a dedicated bearer.  Dedicated bearers
   are used to carry traffic for IP flows that have been identified to
   require a specific packet forwarding treatment.  They may be
   established at the time of startup; for example, in the case of
   services that require always-on connectivity and better QoS than that
   provided by the default bearer.  The default bearer and the dedicated
   bearer(s) associated to it share the same IP address(es)/prefix.



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   An EPS bearer is referred to as a GBR bearer if dedicated network
   resources related to a Guaranteed Bit Rate (GBR) value that is
   associated with the EPS bearer are permanently allocated (e.g. by an
   admission control function in the eNodeB) at bearer establishment/
   modification.  Otherwise, an EPS bearer is referred to as a non-GBR
   bearer.  The default bearer is always non-GBR, with the resources for
   the IP flows not guaranteed at eNodeB, and with no admission control.
   However, the dedicated bearer can be either GBR or non-GBR.  A GBR
   bearer has a Guaranteed Bit Rate (GBR) and Maximum Bit Rate (MBR)
   while more than one non-GBR bearer belonging to the same UE shares an
   Aggregate Maximum Bit Rate (AMBR).  Non-GBR bearers can suffer packet
   loss under congestion while GBR bearers are immune to such losses.


5.  Address Management

5.1.  IPv4 Address Configuration

   UE's IPv4 address configuration is always performed during PDP
   context/EPS bearer setup procedures (on layer-2).  DHCPv4-based
   [RFC2131] address configuration is supported by the 3GPP
   specifications, but is not used in wide scale.  The UE must always
   support address configuration as part of the bearer setup signaling,
   since DHCPv4 is optional for both UEs and networks.

   The 3GPP standards also specify a 'deferred IPv4 address allocation'
   on a PMIPv6-based dual-stack IPv4v6 PDN connection at the time of
   connection establishment as described in Section 4.7.1 of [TS.23402].
   This has the advantage of a single PDN Connection for IPv6 and IPv4
   along with deferring IPv4 address allocation until an application
   needs it.  The deferred address allocation is based on the use of
   DHCPv4 as well as appropriate UE side implementation dependant
   triggers to invoke the protocol.

5.2.  IPv6 Address Configuration

   IPv6 Stateless Address Autoconfiguration (SLAAC) as specified in
   [RFC4861][RFC4862] is the only supported address configuration
   mechanism.  Stateful DHCPv6-based address configuration [RFC3315] is
   not supported by 3GPP specifications.  On the other hand, Stateless
   DHCPv6-service to obtain other configuration information is supported
   [RFC3736].  This implies that the M-bit is always zero and the O-bit
   may be set to one in the Router Advertisement (RA) sent to the UE.

   3GPP network allocates each default bearer a unique /64 prefix, and
   uses layer-2 signaling to suggest user equipment an Interface
   Identifier that is guaranteed not to conflict with gateway's
   Interface Identifier.  The UE must configure its link-local address



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   using this Interface Identifier.  The UE is allowed to use any
   Interface Identifier it wishes for the other addresses it configures.
   There is no restriction, for example, of using Privacy Extension for
   SLAAC [RFC4941] or other similar types of mechanisms.  However, there
   are network drivers that fail to pass the Interface Identifier to the
   stack and instead synthesize their own Interface Identifier (usually
   a MAC address equivalent).  If the UE skips the Duplicate Address
   Detection (DAD) and also has other issues with the Neighbor Discovery
   Protocol (see Section 5.4), then there is a small theoretical chance
   that the UE configures exactly the same link-local address as the
   GGSN/PDN-GW.  The address collision may then cause issues in the IP
   connectivity, for instance, the UE not being able to forward any
   packets to uplink.

   In the 3GPP link model the /64 prefix assigned to the UE cannot be
   used for on-link determination (because the L-bit in the Prefix
   Information Option (PIO) in the RA must always be set to zero).  If
   the advertised prefix is used for SLAAC then the A-bit in the PIO
   must be set to one.  The details of the 3GPP link-model and address
   configuration is described in Section 11.2.1.3.2a of [TS.29061].
   More specifically, the GGSN/PDN-GW guarantees that the /64 prefix is
   unique for the UE.  Therefore, there is no need to perform any
   Duplicate Address Detection (DAD) on addresses the UE creates (i.e.,
   the 'DupAddrDetectTransmits' variable in the UE could be zero).  The
   GGSN/PDN-GW is not allowed to generate any globally unique IPv6
   addresses for itself using the /64 prefix assigned to the UE in the
   RA.

   The current 3GPP architecture limits number of prefixes in each
   bearer to a single /64 prefix.  If the UE finds more than one prefix
   in the RA, it only considers the first one and silently discards the
   others [TS.29061].  Therefore, multi-homing within a single bearer is
   not possible.  Renumbering without closing layer-2 connection is also
   not possible.  The lifetime of /64 prefix is bound to lifetime of
   layer-2 connection even if the advertised prefix lifetime is longer
   than the layer-2 connection lifetime.

5.3.  Prefix Delegation

   IPv6 prefix delegation is a part of Release-10 and is not covered by
   any earlier release.  However, the /64 prefix allocated for each
   default bearer (and to the user equipment) may be shared to local
   area network by user equipment implementing Neighbor Discovery proxy
   (ND proxy) [RFC4389] functionality.

   Release-10 prefix delegation uses the DHCPv6-based prefix delegation
   [RFC3633].  The model defined for Release-10 requires aggregatable
   prefixes, which means the /64 prefix allocated for the default bearer



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   (and to the user equipment) must be part of the shorter delegated
   prefix.  DHCPv6 prefix delegation has an explicit limitation
   described in Section 12.1 of [RFC3633] that a prefix delegated to a
   requesting router cannot be used by the delegating router (i.e., the
   PDN-GW in this case).  This implies the shorter 'delegated prefix'
   cannot be given to the requesting router (i.e. the user equipment) as
   such but has to be delivered by the delegating router (i.e. the
   PDN-GW) in such a way the /64 prefix allocated to the default bearer
   is not part of the 'delegated prefix'.  An option to exclude a prefix
   from delegation [I-D.ietf-dhc-pd-exclude] prevents this problem.

5.4.  IPv6 Neighbor Discovery Considerations

   3GPP link between the UE and the next hop router (e.g.  GGSN)
   resemble a point to point (p2p) link, which has no link-layer
   addresses [RFC3316] and this has not changed from 2G/3G GPRS to EPS.
   The UE IP stack has to take this into consideration.  When the 3GPP
   PDP Context appears as a PPP interface/link to the UE, the IP stack
   is usually prepared to handle Neighbor Discovery protocol and the
   related Neighbor Cache state machine transitions in an appropriate
   way, even though Neighbor Discovery protocol messages contain no link
   layer address information.  However, some operating systems discard
   Router Advertisements on their PPP interface/link as a default
   setting.  This causes the SLAAC to fail when the 3GPP PDP Context
   gets established, thus stalling all IPv6 traffic.

   Currently several operating systems and their network drivers can
   make the 3GPP PDP Context to appear as an IEEE802 interface/link to
   the IP stack.  This has few known issues, especially when the IP
   stack is made to believe the underlying link has link-layer
   addresses.  First, the Neighbor Advertisement sent by a GGSN as a
   response to an address resolution triggered Neighbor Solicitation may
   not contain a Target Link-Layer address option (as suggested in
   [RFC4861] Section 4.4).  Then it is possible that the address
   resolution never completes when the UE tries to resolve the link-
   layer address of the GGSN, thus stalling all IPv6 traffic.

   Second, the GGSN may simply discard all address resolution triggered
   Neighbor Solicitation messages (as sometimes misinterpreted from
   [RFC3316] Section 2.4.1 that responding to address resolution and
   next-hop determination are not needed).  As a result the address
   resolution never completes when the UE tries to resolve the link-
   layer address of the GGSN, thus stalling all IPv6 traffic.  There is
   little that can be done about this in the GGSN, assuming the Neighbor
   Discovery implementation already does the right thing.  But the UE
   stacks must be able to handle address resolution in the manner that
   they have chosen to represent the interface.  In other words, if they
   emulate IEEE802 type interfaces, they also need to process Neighbor



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   Discovery messages correctly.


6.  3GPP Dual-Stack Approach to IPv6

6.1.  3GPP Networks Prior to Release-8

   3GPP standards prior to Release-8 provide IPv6 access for cellular
   devices with PDP contexts of type IPv6 [TS.23060].  For dual-stack
   access, a PDP context of type IPv6 is established in parallel to the
   PDP context of type IPv4, as shown in Figure 5 and Figure 6.  For
   IPv4-only service, connections are created over the PDP context of
   type IPv4 and for IPv6-only service connections are created over the
   PDP context of type IPv6.  The two PDP contexts of different type may
   use the same APN (and the gateway), however, this aspect is not
   explicitly defined in standards.  Therefore, cellular device and
   gateway implementations from different vendors may have varying
   support for this functionality.

   Y                                        .--.
   |                                      _(IPv4`.
   |---+              +---+    +---+     (  PDN   )
   | D |~~~~~~~//-----|   |====|   |====( `  .  )  )
   | S | IPv4 context | S |    | G |     `--(___.-'
   |   |              | G |    | G |        .--.
   | U |              | S |    | S |      _(IPv6`.
   | E | IPv6 context | N |    | N |     (  PDN   )
   |///|~~~~~~~//-----|   |====|(s)|====( `  .  )  )
   +---+              +---+    +---+     `--(___.-'

     Figure 5: A dual-stack User Equipment connecting to both IPv4 and
     IPv6 Internet using parallel IPv4-only and IPv6-only PDP contexts


   Y
   |
   |---+              +---+    +---+
   | D |~~~~~~~//-----|   |====|   |        .--.
   | S | IPv4 context | S |    | G |      _( DS `.
   |   |              | G |    | G |     (  PDN   )
   | U |              | S |    | S |====( `  .  )  )
   | E | IPv6 context | N |    | N |     `--(___.-'
   |///|~~~~~~~//-----|   |====|   |
   +---+              +---+    +---+

      Figure 6: A dual-stack User Equipment connecting to dual-stack
       Internet using parallel IPv4-only and IPv6-only PDP contexts




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   The approach of having parallel IPv4 and IPv6 type of PDP contexts
   open is not optimal, because two PDP contexts require double the
   signaling and consume more network resources than a single PDP
   context.  In the figure above the IPv4 and IPv6 PDP contexts are
   attached to the same GGSN.  While this is possible, the dual-stack
   (DS) MS may be attached to different GGSNs in the scenario where one
   GGSN supports IPv4 PDN connectivity while another GGSN provides IPv6
   PDN connectivity.

6.2.  3GPP Release-8 and -9 Networks

   Since 3GPP Release-8, the powerful concept of a dual-stack type of
   PDN connection and EPS bearer have been introduced [TS.23401].  This
   enables parallel use of both IPv4 and IPv6 on a single bearer
   (IPv4v6), as illustrated in Figure 7, and makes dual stack simpler
   than in earlier 3GPP releases.  As of Release-9, GPRS network nodes
   also support dual-stack type (IPv4v6) PDP contexts.

   Y
   |
   |---+              +---+    +---+
   | D |              |   |    | P |        .--.
   | S |              |   |    | D |      _( DS `.
   |   | IPv4v6 (DS)  | S |    | N |     (  PDN   )
   | U |~~~~~~~//-----| G |====| - |====( `  .  )  )
   | E | bearer       | W |    | G |     `--(___.-'
   |///|              |   |    | W |
   +---+              +---+    +---+

      Figure 7: A dual-stack User Equipment connecting to dual-stack
            Internet using a single IPv4v6 type PDN connection

   The following is a description of the various PDP contexts/PDN bearer
   types that are specified by 3GPP:

   1.  For 2G/3G access to GPRS core (SGSN/GGSN) pre-Release-9 there are
       two IP PDP Types, IPv4 and IPv6.  Two PDP contexts are needed to
       get dual stack connectivity.

   2.  For 2G/3G access to GPRS core (SGSN/GGSN) from Release-9 there
       are three IP PDP Types, IPv4, IPv6 and IPv4v6.  Minimum one PDP
       context is needed to get dual stack connectivity.

   3.  For 2G/3G access to EPC core (PDN-GW via S4-SGSN) from Release-8
       there are three IP PDP Types, IPv4, IPv6 and IPv4v6 which gets
       mapped to PDN Connection type.  Minimum one PDP Context is needed
       to get dual stack connectivity.




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   4.  For LTE (E-UTRAN) access to EPC core from Release-8 there are
       three IP PDN Types, IPv4, IPv6 and IPv4v6.  Minimum one PDN
       Connection is needed to get dual stack connectivity.

6.3.  PDN Connection Establishment Process

   The PDN connection establishment process is specified in detail in
   3GPP specifications.  Figure 8 illustrates the high level process and
   signaling involved in the establishment of a PDN connection.

   UE         eNb/        MME         SGW       PDN-GW       HSS/
   |           BS          |           |           |         AAA
   |           |           |           |           |           |
   |---------->|(1)        |           |           |           |
   |           |---------->|(1)        |           |           |
   |           |           |           |           |           |
   |/---------------------------------------------------------\|
   |             Authentication and Authorization              |(2)
   |\---------------------------------------------------------/|
   |           |           |           |           |           |
   |           |           |---------->|(3)        |           |
   |           |           |           |---------->|(3)        |
   |           |           |           |           |           |
   |           |           |           |<----------|(4)        |
   |           |           |<----------|(4)        |           |
   |           |<----------|(5)        |           |           |
   |/---------\|           |           |           |           |
   | RB setup  |(6)        |           |           |           |
   |\---------/|           |           |           |           |
   |           |---------->|(7)        |           |           |
   |---------->|(8)        |           |           |           |
   |           |---------->|(9)        |           |           |
   |           |           |           |           |           |
   |============= Uplink Data =========>==========>|(10)       |
   |           |           |           |           |           |
   |           |           |---------->|(11)       |           |
   |           |           |           |           |           |
   |           |           |<----------|(12)       |           |
   |           |           |           |           |           |
   |<============ Downlink Data =======<===========|(13)       |
   |           |           |           |           |           |

     Figure 8: Simplified PDN connection setup procedure in Release-8

   1.   The UE (i.e the MS) requires a data connection and hence decides
        to establish a PDN connection with a PDN-GW.  The UE sends an
        "Attach Request" (layer-2) to the BS.  The BS forwards this
        attach request to the MME.



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   2.   Authentication of the UE with the AAA server/HSS follows.  If
        the UE is authorized for establishing a data connection, the
        following steps continue

   3.   The MME sends a "Create Session Request" message to the
        Serving-GW.  The SGW forwards the create session request to the
        PDN-GW.  The SGW knows the address of the PDN-GW to forward the
        create session request to as a result of this information having
        been obtained by the MME during the authentication/authorization
        phase.

        The UE IPv4 address and/or IPv6 prefix get assigned during this
        step.  If a subscribed IPv4 address and/or IPv6 prefix is
        statically allocated for the UE for this APN, then the MME
        already passes the address information to the SGW and eventually
        to the PDN-GW in the "Create Session Request" message.
        Otherwise, the PDN-GW manages the address assignment to the UE
        (there is another variation to this where IPv4 address
        allocation is delayed until the UE initiates a DHCPv4 exchange
        but this is not discussed here).

   4.   The PDN-GW creates a PDN connection for the UE and sends "Create
        Session Response" message to the SGW from which the session
        request message was received from.  The SGW forwards the
        response to the corresponding MME which originated the request.

   5.   The MME sends the "Attach Accept/Initial Context Setup request"
        message to the eNodeB/BS.

   6.   The radio bearer between the UE and the eNb is reconfigured
        based on the parameters received from the MME.  (See note 1
        below)

   7.   The eNb sends "Initial Context Response" message to the MME.

   8.   The UE sends a "Direct Transfer" message to the eNodeB which
        includes the Attach complete signal.

   9.   The eNodeB forwards the Attach complete message to the MME.

   10.  The UE can now start sending uplink packets to the PDN GW.

   11.  The MME sends a "Modify Bearer Request" message to the SGW.

   12.  The SGW responds with a "Modify Bearer Response" message.  At
        this time the downlink connection is also ready.





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   13.  The UE can now start receiving downlink packets, including
        possible SLAAC related IPv6 packets.

   The type of PDN connection established between the UE and the PDN-GW
   can be any of the types described in the previous section.  The dual-
   stack (DS) PDN connection, i.e the one which supports both IPv4 and
   IPv6 packets is the default one that will be established if no
   specific PDN connection type is specified by the UE in Release-8
   networks.

      Note 1: The UE receives the PDN Address Information Element
      [TS.24301] at the end of radio bearer setup messaging.  This
      Information Element contains only the Interface Identifier of the
      IPv6 address.  In a case of GPRS the PDP Address Information
      Element [TS.24008] would contain a complete IPv6 address.
      However, the UE must ignore the IPv6 prefix if it receives one in
      the message (see Section 11.2.1.3.2a of [TS.29061]).

6.4.  Mobility of 3GPP IPv4v6 Type of Bearers

   3GPP discussed at length various approaches to support mobility
   between a Release-8 LTE network and a pre-Release-9 2G/3G network
   without a S4-SGSN for the new dual-stack type of bearers.  The chosen
   approach for mobility is as follows, in short: if a UE is allowed for
   doing handovers between a Release-8 LTE network and a pre-Release-9
   2G/3G network without a S4-SGSN while having open PDN connections,
   only single stack bearers are used.  Essentially this means following
   deployment options:

   1.  If a network knows a UE may do handovers between a Release-8 LTE
       network and a pre-Release-9 2G/3G network without a S4-SGSN, then
       the network is configured to provide only single stack bearers,
       even if the UE requests dual-stack bearers.

   2.  If the network knows the UE does handovers only between a
       Release-8 LTE network and a Release-9 2G/3G network or a pre-
       Release-9 network with a S4-SGSN, then the network is configured
       to provide the UE with dual-stack bearers on request.  The same
       also applies for LTE-only deployments.

   When a network operator and their roaming partners have upgraded
   their networks to Release-8, it is possible to use the new IPv4v6
   dual-stack type of bearers.  A Release-8 UE always requests for a
   dual-stack bearer, but accepts what is assigned by the network.







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7.  Dual-Stack Approach to IPv6 Transition in 3GPP Networks

   3GPP networks can natively transport IPv4 and IPv6 packets between
   the UE and the gateway (GGSN or PDN-GW) as a result of establishing
   either a dual-stack PDP context or parallel IPv4 and IPv6 PDP
   contexts.

   Current deployments of 3GPP networks primarily support IPv4-only.
   These networks can be upgraded to also support IPv6 PDP contexts.  By
   doing so devices and applications that are IPv6 capable can start
   utilizing the IPv6 connectivity.  This will also ensure that legacy
   devices and applications continue to work with no impact.  As newer
   devices start using IPv6 connectivity, the demand for actively used
   IPv4 connections is expected to slowly decrease, helping operators
   with a transition to IPv6.  With a dual-stack approach, there is
   always the potential to fallback to IPv4.  A device which may be
   roaming in a network wherein IPv6 is not supported by the visited
   network could fall back to using IPv4 PDP contexts and hence the end
   user would at least get some connectivity.  Unfortunately, dual-stack
   approach as such does not lower the number of used IPv4 addresses.
   Every dual-stack bearer still needs to be given an IPv4 address,
   private or public.  This is a major concern with dual-stack bearers
   concerning IPv6 transition.  However, if the majority of active IP
   communication has moved over to IPv6, then in case of Network Address
   Translation from IPv4 to IPv4 (NAT44) [RFC1918] IPv4 connections the
   number of active IPv4 connections can still be expected to gradually
   decrease and thus giving some level of relief regarding NAT44
   function scalability.

   As the networks evolve to support Release-8 EPS architecture and the
   dual-stack PDP contexts, newer devices will be able to leverage such
   capability and have a single bearer which supports both IPv4 and
   IPv6.  Since IPv4 and IPv6 packets are carried as payload within GTP
   between the MS and the gateway (GGSN/PDN-GW) the transport network
   capability in terms of whether it supports IPv4 or IPv6 on the
   interfaces between the eNodeB and SGW or, SGW and PDN-GW is
   immaterial.


8.  Deployment issues

8.1.  Overlapping IPv4 Addresses

   Given the shortage of globally routable public IPv4 addresses,
   operators tend to assign private IPv4 addresses [RFC1918] to UEs when
   they establish an IPv4-only PDP context or an IPv4v6 type PDN
   context.  About 16 million UEs can be assigned a private IPv4 address
   that is unique within a domain.  However, in case of many operators



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   the number of subscribers is greater than 16 million.  The issue can
   be dealt with by assigning overlapping RFC 1918 IPv4 addresses to
   UEs.  As a result the IPv4 address assigned to a UE within the
   context of a single operator realm would no longer be unique.  This
   has the obvious and known issues of NATed IP connection in the
   Internet.  Direct UE to UE connectivity becomes complicated, unless
   the UEs are within the same private address range pool and/or
   anchored to the same gateway, referrals using IP addresses will have
   issues and so forth.  These are generic issues and not only a concern
   of the EPS.  However, 3GPP as such does not have any mandatory
   language concerning NAT44 functionality in EPC.  Obvious deployment
   choices apply also to EPC:

   1.  Very large network deployments are partitioned, for example,
       based on a geographical areas.  This partitioning allows for
       overlapping IPv4 addresses ranges to be assigned to UEs that are
       in different areas.  Each area has its own pool of gateways that
       are dedicated for a certain overlapping IPv4 address range
       (referred here later as a zone).  Standard NAT44 functionality
       allows for communication from the [RFC1918] private zone to the
       Internet.  Communication between zones require special
       arrangement, such as using intermediate gateways (e.g.  Back to
       Back User Agent (B2BUA) in case of SIP).

   2.  A UE attaches to a gateway as part of the attach process.  The
       number of UEs that a gateway supports is in the order of 1 to 10
       million.  Hence all the UEs assigned to a single gateway can be
       assigned private IPv4 addresses.  Operators with large subscriber
       bases have multiple gateways and hence the same [RFC1918] IPv4
       address space can be reused across gateways.  The IPv4 address
       assigned to a UE is unique within the scope of a single gateway.

   3.  New services requiring direct connectivity between UEs should be
       built on IPv6.  Possible existing IPv4-only services and
       applications requiring direct connectivity can be ported to IPv6.

8.2.  IPv6 for transport

   The various reference points of the 3GPP architecture such as S1-U,
   S5 and S8 are based on either GTP or PMIPv6.  The underlying
   transport for these reference points can be IPv4 or IPv6.  GTP has
   been able to operate over IPv6 transport (optionally) since R99 and
   PMIPv6 has supported IPv6 transport starting from its introduction in
   Release-8.  The user plane traffic between the UE and the gateway can
   use either IPv4 or IPv6.  These packets are essentially treated as
   payload by GTP/PMIPv6 and transported accordingly with no real
   attention paid to the information (at least from a routing
   perspective) contained in the IPv4 or IPv6 headers.  The transport



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   links between the eNodeB and the SGW, and the link between the SGW
   and PDN-GW can be migrated to IPv6 without any direct implications to
   the architecture.

   Currently, the inter-operator (for 3GPP technology) roaming networks
   are all IPv4-only (see Inter-PLMN Backbone Guidelines [GSMA.IR.34]).
   Eventually these roaming networks will also get migrated to IPv6, if
   there is a business reason for that.  The migration period can be
   prolonged considerably because the 3GPP protocols always tunnel user
   plane traffic in the core network and as described earlier the
   transport network IP version is not in any way tied to user plane IP
   version.  Furthermore, the design of the inter-operator roaming
   networks is such that the user plane and transport network IP
   addressing is completely separated from each other.  The inter-
   operator roaming network itself is also completely separated from the
   Internet.  Only those core network nodes that must be connected to
   the inter-operator roaming networks are actually visible there, and
   be able to send and receive (tunneled) traffic within the inter-
   operator roaming networks.  Obviously, in order the roaming to work
   properly, the operators have to agree on supported protocol versions
   so that the visited network does not, for example, unnecessarily drop
   user plane IPv6 traffic.

8.3.  Operational Aspects of Running Dual-Stack Networks

   Operating dual-stack networks does imply cost and complexity to a
   certain extent.  However these factors are mitigated by the assurance
   that legacy devices and services are unaffected and there is always a
   fallback to IPv4 in case of issues with the IPv6 deployment or
   network elements.  The model also enables operators to develop
   operational experience and expertise in an incremental manner.

   Running dual-stack networks requires the management of multiple IP
   address spaces.  Tracking of UEs needs to be expanded since it can be
   identified by either an IPv4 address or IPv6 prefix.  Network
   elements will also need to be dual-stack capable in order to support
   the dual-stack deployment model.

   Deployment and migration cases described in Section 6.1 for providing
   dual-stack like capability may mean doubled resource usage in
   operator's network.  This is a major concern against providing dual-
   stack like connectivity using techniques discussed in Section 6.1.
   Also handovers between networks with different capabilities in terms
   of networks being dual-stack like service capable or not, may turn
   out hard to comprehend for users and for application/services to cope
   with.  These facts may add other than just technical concerns for
   operators when planning to roll out dual-stack service offerings.




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8.4.  Operational Aspects of Running a Network with IPv6-only Bearers

   It is possible to allocate IPv6-only type bearers to UEs in 3GPP
   networks.  IPv6-only bearer type has been part of the 3GPP
   specification since the beginning.  In 3GPP Release-8 (and later) it
   was defined that a dual-stack UE (or when the radio equipment has no
   knowledge of the UE IP stack capabilities) must first attempt to
   establish a dual-stack bearer and then possibly fall back to single
   IP version bearer.  A Release-8 (or later) UE with IPv6-only stack
   can directly attempt to establish an IPv6-only bearer.  The IPv6-only
   behaviour is up to a subscription provisioning or a PDN-GW
   configuration, and the fallback scenarios do not necessarily cause
   additional signaling.

   Although the bullets below introduce IPv6 to IPv4 address translation
   and specifically discuss NAT64 technology [RFC6144], the current 3GPP
   Release-8 architecture does not describe the use of address
   translation or NAT64.  It is up to a specific deployment whether
   address translation is part of the network or not.  Some operational
   aspects to consider for running a network with IPv6-only bearers:

   o  The UE must have an IPv6 capable stack and a radio interface
      capable of establishing an IPv6 PDP context or PDN connection.

   o  The GGSN/PDN-GW must be IPv6 capable in order to support IPv6
      bearers.  Furthermore, the SGSN/MME must allow the creation of PDP
      Type or PDN Type of IPv6.

   o  Many of the common applications are IP version agnostic and hence
      would work using an IPv6 bearer.  However, applications that are
      IPv4 specific would not work.

   o  Inter-operator roaming is another aspect which causes issues, at
      least during the ramp up phase of the IPv6 deployment.  If the
      visited network to which outbound roamers attach to does not
      support PDP/PDN Type IPv6, then there needs to be a fallback
      option.  The fallback option in this specific case is mostly up to
      the UE to implement.  Several cases are discussed in the following
      sections.

   o  If and when a UE using IPv6-only bearer needs to access to IPv4
      Internet/network, a translation of some type from IPv6 to IPv4 has
      to be deployed in the network.  NAT64 (and DNS64) is one solution
      that can be used for this purpose and works for a certain set of
      protocols (read TCP, UDP and ICMP, and when applications actually
      use DNS for resolving name to IP addresses).





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8.5.  Restricting Outbound IPv6 Roaming

   Roaming was briefly touched upon in Sections 8.2 and 8.4.  While
   there is interest in offering roaming service for IPv6 enabled UEs
   and subscriptions, not all visited networks are prepared for IPv6
   outbound roamers:

   o  The visited network SGSN does not support the IPv6 PDP Context or
      IPv4v6 PDP Context types.  These should mostly concern pre-
      Release-9 2G/3G networks without S4-SGSN but there is no
      definitive rule as the deployed feature sets vary depending on
      implementations and licenses.

   o  The visited network might not be commercially ready for IPv6
      outbound roamers, while everything might work technically at the
      user plane level.  This would lead to "revenue leakage" especially
      from the visited operator point of view (note that the use of
      visited network GGSN/PDN-GW does not really exist in commercial
      deployments today for data roaming).

   It might be in the interest of operators to prohibit roaming
   selectively within specific visited networks until IPv6 roaming is in
   place. 3GPP does not specify a mechanism whereby IPv6 roaming is
   prohibited without also disabling IPv4 access and other packet
   services.  The following options for disabling IPv6 access for
   roaming subscribers could be available in some network deployments:

   o  Using Policy and Charging Control (PCC) [TS.23203] functionality
      and its rules to fail, for example, the bearer authorization when
      a desired criteria is met.  In this case that would be PDN/PDP
      Type IPv6/IPv4v6 and a specific visited network.  The rules can be
      provisioned either in the home network or locally in the visited
      network.

   o  Some Home Location Register (HLR) and Home Subscriber Server (HSS)
      subscriber databases allow prohibiting roaming in a specific
      (visited) network for a specified PDN/PDP Type.

   The obvious problems are that these solutions are not mandatory, are
   not unified across networks, and therefore also lack well-specified
   fall back mechanism from the UE point of view.

8.6.  Inter-RAT Handovers and IP Versions

   It is obvious that operators start incrementally deploy EPS along
   with the existing UTRAN/GERAN, handovers between different radio
   technologies (inter-RAT handovers) become inevitable.  In case of
   inter-RAT handovers 3GPP supports the following IP addressing



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   scenarios:

   o  E-UTRAN IPv4v6 bearer has to map one to one to UTRAN/GERAN IPv4v6
      bearer.

   o  E-UTRAN IPv6 bearer has to map one to one to UTRAN/GERAN IPv6
      bearer.

   o  E-UTRAN IPv4 bearer has to map one to one to UTRAN/GERAN IPv4
      bearer.

   Other types of configurations are not standardized.  What the above
   rules essentially imply is that the network migration has to be
   planned and subscriptions provisioned based on the lowest common
   nominator, if inter-RAT handovers are desired.  For example, if some
   part of the UTRAN network cannot serve anything but IPv4 bearers,
   then the E-UTRAN is also forced to provide only IPv4 bearers.
   Various combinations of subscriber provisioning regarding IP versions
   are discussed further in Section 8.7.

8.7.  Provisioning of IPv6 Subscribers and Various Combinations During
      Initial Network Attachment

   Subscribers' provisioned PDP/PDN Types have multiple configurations.
   The supported PDP/PDN Type is provisioned per each APN for every
   subscriber.  The following PDN Types are possible in the HSS for a
   Release-8 subscription [TS.23401]:

   o  IPv4v6 PDN Type (note that IPv4v6 PDP Type does not exist in a HLR
      and Mobile Application Part (MAP) [TS.29002] signaling prior
      Release-9).

   o  IPv6-only PDN Type

   o  IPv4-only PDN Type.

   o  IPv4_or_IPv6 PDN Type (note that IPv4_or_IPv6 PDP Type does not
      exist in a HLR or MAP signaling.  However, a HLR may have multiple
      APN configurations of different PDN Types, which effectively
      achieves the same functionality).

   A Release-8 dual-stack UE must always attempt to establish a PDP/PDN
   Type IPv4v6 bearer.  The same also applies when the modem part of the
   UE does not have exact knowledge whether the UE operating system IP
   stack is a dual-stack capable or not.  A UE that is IPv6-only capable
   must attempt to establish a PDP/PDN Type IPv6 bearer.  Last, a UE
   that is IPv4-only capable must attempt to establish a PDN/PDP Type
   IPv4 bearer.



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   In a case the PDP/PDN Type requested by a UE does not match what has
   been provisioned for the subscriber in the HSS (or HLR), the UE
   possibly falls back to a different PDP/PDN Type.  The network (i.e.
   the MME or the S4-SGSN) is able to inform the UE during the network
   attachment signaling why it did not get the requested PDP/PDN Type.
   These response/cause codes are documented in [TS.24008] for requested
   PDP Types and [TS.24301] for requested PDN Types:

   o  (E)SM cause #50 "PDN/PDP type IPv4-only allowed".

   o  (E)SM cause #51 "PDN/PDP type IPv6-only allowed".

   o  (E)SM cause #52 "single address bearers only allowed".

   The above response/cause codes apply to Release-8 and onwards.  In
   pre-Release-8 networks used response/cause codes vary depending on
   the vendor, unfortunately.

   Possible fall back cases when the network deploys MMEs and/or S4-
   SGSNs include (as documented in [TS.23401]):

   o  Requested and provisioned PDP/PDN Types match => requested.

   o  Requested IPv4v6 and provisioned IPv6 => IPv6 and a UE receives
      indication that IPv6-only bearer is allowed.

   o  Requested IPv4v6 and provisioned IPv4 => IPv4 and the UE receives
      indication that IPv4-only bearer is allowed.

   o  Requested IPv4v6 and provisioned IPv4_or_IPv6 => IPv4 or IPv6 is
      selected by the MME/S4-SGSN based on an unspecified criteria.  The
      UE may then attempt to establish, based on the UE implementation,
      a parallel bearer of a different PDP/PDN Type.

   o  Other combinations cause the bearer establishment to fail.

   In addition to PDP/PDN Types provisioned in the HSS, it is also
   possible for a PDN-GW (and a MME/S4-SGSN) to affect the final
   selected PDP/PDN Type:

   o  Requested IPv4v6 and configured IPv4 or IPv6 in the PDN-GW => IPv4
      or IPv6.  If the MME operator had included the "Dual Address
      Bearer Flag" into the bearer establishment signaling, then the UE
      receives an indication that IPv6-only or IPv4-only bearer is
      allowed.

   o  Requested IPv4v6 and configured IPv4 or IPv6 in the PDN-GW => IPv4
      or IPv6.  If the MME operator had not included the "Dual Address



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      Bearer Flag" into the bearer establishment signaling, then the UE
      may attempt to establish, based on the UE implementation, a
      parallel bearer of different PDP/PDN Type.

   A SGSN that does not understand the requested PDP Type is supposed to
   handle the requested PDP Type as IPv4.  If for some reason a MME does
   not understand the requested PDN Type, then the PDN Type is handled
   as IPv6.


9.  IANA Considerations

   This document has no requests to IANA.


10.  Security Considerations

   This document does not introduce any security related concerns.
   Section 5 of [RFC3316] already contains in depth discussion of IPv6
   related security considerations in 3GPP networks prior Release-8.
   This section discusses few additional security concerns to take into
   consideration.

   In 3GPP access the UE and the network always perform a mutual
   authentication during the network attachment [TS.33102][TS.33401].
   Furthermore, each time a PDP Context/PDN Connection gets created, a
   new connection, a modification of an existing connection and an
   assignment of an IPv6 prefix or an IP address can be authorized
   against the PCC infrastructure [TS.23203] and/or PDN's AAA server.

   The wireless part of the 3GPP link between the UE and the (e)NodeB as
   well as the signaling messages between the UE and the MME/SGSN can be
   protected depending on the regional regulation and operators'
   deployment policy.  User plane traffic can be confidentiality
   protected.  The control plane is always at least integrity and replay
   protected, and may also be confidentiality protected.  The protection
   within the transmission part of the network depends on operators'
   deployment policy.  [TS.33401]

   Several of the on-link and neighbor discovery related attacks can be
   mitigated due the nature of 3GPP point to point link model, and the
   fact the UE and the first hop router (PGW/GGSN or SGW) being the only
   nodes on the link.  For off-link IPv6 attacks the 3GPP EPS is as
   vulnerable as any IPv6 system.

   There have also been concerns that the UE IP stack might use
   permanent subscriber identities, such as IMSI, as the source for IPv6
   address Interface Identifier.  This would be a privacy threat and



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   allow tracking of subscribers, and therefore use of IMSI (or any
   [TS.23003] defined identity) as the Interface Identifier is
   prohibited [TS.23401].  However, there is no standardized method to
   block such misbehaving UEs.


11.  Summary and Conclusion

   The 3GPP network architecture and specifications enable the
   establishment of IPv4 and IPv6 connections through the use of
   appropriate PDP context types.  The current generation of deployed
   networks can support dual-stack connectivity if the packet core
   network elements such as the SGSN and GGSN have the capability.  With
   Release-8, 3GPP has specified a more optimal PDP context type which
   enables the transport of IPv4 and IPv6 packets within a single PDP
   context between the UE and the gateway.

   As devices and applications are upgraded to support IPv6 they can
   start leveraging the IPv6 connectivity provided by the networks while
   maintaining the fall back to IPv4 capability.  Enabling IPv6
   connectivity in the 3GPP networks by itself will provide some degree
   of relief to the IPv4 address space as many of the applications and
   services can start to work over IPv6.  However without comprehensive
   testing of different applications and solutions that exist today and
   are widely used, for their ability to operate over IPv6 PDN
   connections, an IPv6-only access would cause disruptions.


12.  Acknowledgements

   The authors thank Shabnam Sultana, Sri Gundavelli, Hui Deng,
   Zhenqiang Li, Mikael Abrahamsson, James Woodyatt, Wes George, Martin
   Thomson, Russ Mundy, Cameron Byrne, Ales Vizdal, Frank Brockners,
   Adrian Farrel, Stephen Farrell, and Jari Arkko for their reviews and
   comments on this document.


13.  Informative References

   [GSMA.IR.34]
              GSMA, "Inter-PLMN Backbone Guidelines", GSMA
              PRD IR.34.4.9, March 2010.

   [I-D.ietf-dhc-pd-exclude]
              Korhonen, J., Savolainen, T., Krishnan, S., and O. Troan,
              "Prefix Exclude Option for DHCPv6-based Prefix
              Delegation", draft-ietf-dhc-pd-exclude-03 (work in
              progress), August 2011.



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   [RFC1918]  Rekhter, Y., Moskowitz, R., Karrenberg, D., Groot, G., and
              E. Lear, "Address Allocation for Private Internets",
              BCP 5, RFC 1918, February 1996.

   [RFC2131]  Droms, R., "Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol",
              RFC 2131, March 1997.

   [RFC3315]  Droms, R., Bound, J., Volz, B., Lemon, T., Perkins, C.,
              and M. Carney, "Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol for
              IPv6 (DHCPv6)", RFC 3315, July 2003.

   [RFC3316]  Arkko, J., Kuijpers, G., Soliman, H., Loughney, J., and J.
              Wiljakka, "Internet Protocol Version 6 (IPv6) for Some
              Second and Third Generation Cellular Hosts", RFC 3316,
              April 2003.

   [RFC3633]  Troan, O. and R. Droms, "IPv6 Prefix Options for Dynamic
              Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) version 6", RFC 3633,
              December 2003.

   [RFC3736]  Droms, R., "Stateless Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol
              (DHCP) Service for IPv6", RFC 3736, April 2004.

   [RFC4389]  Thaler, D., Talwar, M., and C. Patel, "Neighbor Discovery
              Proxies (ND Proxy)", RFC 4389, April 2006.

   [RFC4861]  Narten, T., Nordmark, E., Simpson, W., and H. Soliman,
              "Neighbor Discovery for IP version 6 (IPv6)", RFC 4861,
              September 2007.

   [RFC4862]  Thomson, S., Narten, T., and T. Jinmei, "IPv6 Stateless
              Address Autoconfiguration", RFC 4862, September 2007.

   [RFC4941]  Narten, T., Draves, R., and S. Krishnan, "Privacy
              Extensions for Stateless Address Autoconfiguration in
              IPv6", RFC 4941, September 2007.

   [RFC5213]  Gundavelli, S., Leung, K., Devarapalli, V., Chowdhury, K.,
              and B. Patil, "Proxy Mobile IPv6", RFC 5213, August 2008.

   [RFC6144]  Baker, F., Li, X., Bao, C., and K. Yin, "Framework for
              IPv4/IPv6 Translation", RFC 6144, April 2011.

   [TR.23975]
              3GPP, "IPv6 Migration Guidelines", 3GPP TR 23.975 1.1.1,
              June 2010.

   [TS.23003]



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              3GPP, "Numbering, addressing and identification", 3GPP
              TS 23.003 10.2.0, June 2011.

   [TS.23060]
              3GPP, "General Packet Radio Service (GPRS); Service
              description; Stage 2", 3GPP TS 23.060 8.8.0, March 2010.

   [TS.23203]
              3GPP, "Policy and charging control architecture (PCC)",
              3GPP TS 23.203 8.11.0, September 2010.

   [TS.23401]
              3GPP, "General Packet Radio Service (GPRS) enhancements
              for Evolved Universal Terrestrial Radio Access Network
              (E-UTRAN) access", 3GPP TS 23.401 10.4.0, June 2011.

   [TS.23402]
              3GPP, "Architecture enhancements for non-3GPP accesses",
              3GPP TS 23.402 10.5.0, September 2011.

   [TS.24008]
              3GPP, "Mobile radio interface Layer 3 specification", 3GPP
              TS 24.008 8.12.0, December 2010.

   [TS.24301]
              3GPP, "Non-Access-Stratum (NAS) protocol for Evolved
              Packet System (EPS)", 3GPP TS 24.301 8.8.0, December 2010.

   [TS.29002]
              3GPP, "Mobile Application Part (MAP) specification", 3GPP
              TS 29.002 9.5.0, June 2011.

   [TS.29060]
              3GPP, "General Packet Radio Service (GPRS); GPRS
              Tunnelling Protocol (GTP) across the Gn and Gp interface",
              3GPP TS 29.274 8.8.0, April 2010.

   [TS.29061]
              3GPP, "Interworking between the Public Land Mobile Network
              (PLMN) supporting packet based services and Packet Data
              Networks (PDN)", 3GPP TS 29.061 8.5.0, April 2010.

   [TS.29274]
              3GPP, "3GPP Evolved Packet System (EPS);  Evolved General
              Packet Radio Service (GPRS)  Tunnelling Protocol for
              Control plane (GTPv2-C)", 3GPP TS 29.060 8.11.0,
              December 2010.




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   [TS.33102]
              3GPP, "3G Security;  Security architecture", 3GPP
              TS 33.102 10.0.0, December 2010.

   [TS.33401]
              3GPP, "3GPP System Architecture Evolution (SAE); Security
              architecture", 3GPP TS 33.401 10.1.1, June 2011.


Authors' Addresses

   Jouni Korhonen (editor)
   Nokia Siemens Networks
   Linnoitustie 6
   FI-02600 Espoo
   FINLAND

   Email: jouni.nospam@gmail.com


   Jonne Soininen
   Renesas Mobile
   Porkkalankatu 24
   FI-00180 Helsinki
   FINLAND

   Email: jonne.soininen@renesasmobile.com


   Basavaraj Patil
   Nokia
   6021 Connection drive
   Irving, TX  75039
   USA

   Email: basavaraj.patil@nokia.com


   Teemu Savolainen
   Nokia
   Hermiankatu 12 D
   FI-33720 Tampere
   FINLAND

   Email: teemu.savolainen@nokia.com






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   Gabor Bajko
   Nokia
   323 Fairchild drive 6
   Mountain view, CA  94043
   USA

   Email: gabor.bajko@nokia.com


   Kaisu Iisakkila
   Renesas Mobile
   Porkkalankatu 24
   FI-00180 Helsinki
   FINLAND

   Email: kaisu.iisakkila@renesasmobile.com



































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