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Versions: (draft-chkpvc-enterprise-incremental-ipv6) 00 01 02 03 04 05 06

Network Working Group                                    K. Chittimaneni
Internet-Draft                                               Google Inc.
Intended status: Informational                                  T. Chown
Expires: August 29, 2013                       University of Southampton
                                                               L. Howard
                                                       Time Warner Cable
                                                            V. Kuarsingh
                                                   Rogers Communications
                                                             Y. Pouffary
                                                         Hewlett Packard
                                                               E. Vyncke
                                                           Cisco Systems
                                                       February 25, 2013


                 Enterprise IPv6 Deployment Guidelines
            draft-ietf-v6ops-enterprise-incremental-ipv6-02

Abstract

   Enterprise network administrators worldwide are in various stages of
   preparing for or deploying IPv6 into their networks.  The
   administrators face different challenges than operators of Internet
   access providers, and have reasons for different priorities.  The
   overall problem for many administrators will be to offer Internet-
   facing services over IPv6, while continuing to support IPv4, and
   while introducing IPv6 access within the enterprise IT network.  The
   overall transition will take most networks from an IPv4-only
   environment to a dual stack network environment and potentially an
   IPv6-only operating mode.  This document helps provide a framework
   for enterprise network architects or administrators who may be faced
   with many of these challenges as they consider their IPv6 support
   strategies.

Status of this Memo

   This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the
   provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.

   Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
   Task Force (IETF).  Note that other groups may also distribute
   working documents as Internet-Drafts.  The list of current Internet-
   Drafts is at http://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/.

   Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
   and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any
   time.  It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
   material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."



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   This Internet-Draft will expire on August 29, 2013.

Copyright Notice

   Copyright (c) 2013 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
   document authors.  All rights reserved.

   This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
   Provisions Relating to IETF Documents
   (http://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of
   publication of this document.  Please review these documents
   carefully, as they describe your rights and restrictions with respect
   to this document.  Code Components extracted from this document must
   include Simplified BSD License text as described in Section 4.e of
   the Trust Legal Provisions and are provided without warranty as
   described in the Simplified BSD License.



































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Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  4
     1.1.  Enterprise Assumptions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  4
     1.2.  IPv4-only Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  5
     1.3.  Reasons for a Phased Approach  . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  5
   2.  Preparation and Assessment Phase . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  7
     2.1.  Program Planning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  7
     2.2.  Inventory Phase  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  8
       2.2.1.  Network infrastructure readiness assessment  . . . . .  8
       2.2.2.  Applications readiness assessment  . . . . . . . . . .  9
       2.2.3.  Importance of readiness validation and testing . . . . 10
     2.3.  Training . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
     2.4.  Security Policy  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
       2.4.1.  IPv6 is no more secure than IPv4 . . . . . . . . . . . 10
       2.4.2.  Similarities between IPv6 and IPv4 security  . . . . . 11
       2.4.3.  Specific Security Issues for IPv6  . . . . . . . . . . 12
     2.5.  Routing  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
     2.6.  Address Plan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
     2.7.  Tools Assessment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
   3.  External Phase . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
     3.1.  Connectivity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
     3.2.  Security . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
     3.3.  Monitoring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
     3.4.  Servers and Applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
     3.5.  Network Prefix Translation for IPv6  . . . . . . . . . . . 20
   4.  Internal Phase . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
     4.1.  Security . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
     4.2.  Network Infrastructure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
     4.3.  End user devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
     4.4.  Corporate Systems  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
   5.  IPv6-only  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
   6.  Considerations For Specific Enterprises  . . . . . . . . . . . 26
     6.1.  Content Delivery Networks  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
     6.2.  Data Center Virtualization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
     6.3.  University Campus Networks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
   7.  Security Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
   8.  Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
   9.  IANA Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
   10. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
   Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33










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1.  Introduction

   An Enterprise Network is defined in [RFC4057] as a network that has
   multiple internal links, one or more router connections to one or
   more Providers, and is actively managed by a network operations
   entity (the "administrator", whether a single person or department of
   administrators).  Administrators generally support an internal
   network, consisting of users' workstations, personal computers, other
   computing devices and related peripherals, a server network,
   consisting of accounting and business application servers, and an
   external network, consisting of Internet-accessible services such as
   web servers, email servers, VPN systems, and customer applications.
   This document is intended as guidance for network architects and
   administrators in planning their IPv6 deployments.

   The business reasons for spending time, effort, and money on IPv6
   will be unique to each enterprise.  The most common drivers are due
   to the fact that when Internet service providers, including mobile
   wireless carriers, run out of IPv4 addresses, they will provide
   native IPv6 and non-native IPv4.  The non-native IPv4 service may be
   NAT64, NAT444, Dual-stack Lite, or other transition technologies.
   Compared to tunneled or translated, native traffic typically performs
   better and more reliably than non-native.  For example, for client
   networks trying to reach enterprise networks, the IPv6 experience
   will be better than the transitional IPv4 if the enterprise deploys
   IPv6 in its public-facing services.  The native IPv6 network path
   should also be simpler to manage and, if necessary, troubleshoot.
   Further, enterprises doing business in growing parts of the world may
   find IPv6 growing faster there, where again potential new customers,
   employees and partners are using IPv6.  It is thus in the
   enterprise's interests to deploy native IPv6, at the very least in
   its public-facing services, but ultimately across the majority or all
   of its scope.

   The text in this document provides specific guidance for enterprise
   networks, and complements other related work in the IETF, including
   [I-D.ietf-v6ops-design-choices] and [RFC5375].

1.1.  Enterprise Assumptions

   For the purpose of this document, we assume:

   o  The administrator is considering deploying IPv6 (but see
      Section 1.2 below).

   o  The administrator has existing IPv4 networks and devices which
      will continue to operate and be supported.




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   o  The administrator will want to minimize the level of disruption to
      the users and services by minimizing number of technologies and
      functions that are needed to mediate any given application.  In
      other words, provide native IP wherever possible.

   Based on these assumptions, an administrator will want to use
   technologies which minimize the number of flows being tunnelled,
   translated or intercepted at any given time.  The administrator will
   choose transition technologies or strategies which allow most traffic
   to be native, and will manage non-native traffic.  This will allow
   the administrator to minimize the cost of IPv6 transition
   technologies, by containing the number and scale of transition
   systems.

1.2.  IPv4-only Considerations

   As described in [RFC6302] administrators should take certain steps
   even if they are not considering IPv6.  Specifically, Internet-facing
   servers should log the source port number, timestamp (from a reliable
   source), and the transport protocol.  This will allow investigation
   of malefactors behind address-sharing technologies such as NAT444 or
   Dual-stack Lite.

   Other IPv6 considerations may impact ostensibly IPv4-only networks,
   e.g.  [RFC6104] describes the rogue IPv6 RA problem, which may cause
   problems in IPv4-only networks where IPv6 is enabled in end systems
   on that network.  Further discussion of the security implications of
   IPv6 in IPv4-only networks can be found in
   [I-D.ietf-opsec-ipv6-implications-on-ipv4-nets]).

1.3.  Reasons for a Phased Approach

   Given the challenges of transitioning user workstations, corporate
   systems, and Internet-facing servers, a phased approach allows
   incremental deployment of IPv6, based on the administrator's own
   determination of priorities.  The Preparation Phase is highly
   recommended to all administrators, as it will save errors and
   complexity in later phases.  Each administrator must decide whether
   to begin with the External Phase (as recommended in [RFC5211]) or the
   Internal Phase.  There is no "correct" answer here; the decision is
   one for each enterprise to make.

   Each scenario is likely to be different to some extent, but we can
   highlight some considerations:

   o  In many cases, customers outside the network will have IPv6 before
      the internal enterprise network.  For these customers, IPv6 may
      well perform better, especially for certain applications, than



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      translated or tunneled IPv4, so the administrator may want to
      prioritize the External Phase such that those customers have the
      simplest and most robust connectivity to the enterprise, or at
      least its external-facing elements.

   o  Employees who access internal systems by VPN may find that their
      ISPs provide translated IPv4, which does not support the required
      VPN protocols.  In these cases, the administrator may want to
      prioritize the External Phase, and any other remotely-accessible
      internal systems.  It is worth noting that a number of emerging
      VPN solutions provide dual-stack connectivity; thus a VPN service
      may be useful for employees in IPv4-only access networks to access
      IPv6 resources in the enterprise network (much like many public
      tunnel broker services, but specifically for the enterprise).

   o  Internet-facing servers cannot be managed over IPv6 unless the
      management systems are IPv6-capable.  These might be Network
      Management Systems (NMS), monitoring systems, or just remote
      management desktops.  Thus in some cases, the Internet-facing
      systems are dependent on IPv6-capable internal networks.  However,
      dual-stack Internet-facing systems can still be managed over IPv4.

   o  Virtual machines may enable a faster rollout once initial system
      deployment is complete.  Management of VMs over IPv6 is still
      dependent on the management software supporting IPv6.

   o  IPv6 is enabled by default on all modern operating systems, so it
      may be more urgent to manage and have visibility on the internal
      traffic.  It is important to manage IPv6 for security purposes,
      even in an ostensibly IPv4-only network, as described in
      [I-D.ietf-opsec-ipv6-implications-on-ipv4-nets].

   o  In many cases, the corporate accounting, payroll, human resource,
      and other internal systems may only need to be reachable from the
      internal network, so they may be a lower priority.  As enterprises
      require their vendors to support IPv6, more internal applications
      will support IPv6 by default and it can be expected that
      eventually new applications will only support IPv6.  The
      inventory, as described in Section 2.2, will help determine the
      systems' readiness, as well as the readiness of the supporting
      network elements and security, which will be a consideration in
      prioritization of these corporate systems.

   o  Some large organizations (even when using private IPv4
      addresses[RFC1918]) are facing IPv4 address exhaustion because of
      the internal network growth (for example the vast number of
      virtual machines) or because of the acquisition of other companies
      that often raise private IPv4 address overlapping issues.



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   o  IPv6 restores end to end transparency even for internal
      applications (of course security policies must still be enforced).
      When two organizations or networks merge
      [I-D.ietf-6renum-enterprise], the unique addressing of IPv6 can
      make the merger much easier and faster.  A merger may, therefore,
      prioritize IPv6 for the affected systems.

   These considerations are in conflict; each administrator must
   prioritize according to their company's conditions.  It is worth
   noting that the reasons given in one "Large Corporate User's View of
   IPng", described in [RFC1687], for reluctance to deploy have largely
   been satisfied or overcome in the intervening 18 years.


2.  Preparation and Assessment Phase

2.1.  Program Planning

   As with any project, an IPv6 deployment project will have its own
   phases.  Generally, one person is identified as the project sponsor
   or champion, who will make sure time, people and other resources are
   committed appropriately for the project.  Because enabling IPv6 can
   be a project with many interrelated tasks, identifying a project
   manager is also recommended.  The project manager and sponsor can
   initiate the project, determining the scope of work, the
   corresponding milestones and deliverables, and identifying whose
   input is required, and who will be affected by work.  The scope will
   generally include the Preparation Phase, and may include the Internal
   Phase, the External Phase, or both, and may include any or all of the
   Other Phases identified.  It may be necessary to complete the
   Preparation Phase before determining which of the other phases will
   be prioritized, since needs and readiness assessments are part of
   that phase.

   The project manager will need to spend some time on planning.  It is
   often useful for the sponsor to communicate with stakeholders at this
   time, to explain why IPv6 is important to the enterprise.  Then, as
   the project manager is assessing what systems and elements will be
   affected, the stakeholders will understand why it is important for
   them to support the effort.  Well-informed project participants can
   help significantly by explaining the relationships between
   components.  For a large enterprise, it may take several iterations
   to really understand the level of effort required; some systems will
   require additional development, some might require software updates,
   and others might need new versions or alternative products from other
   vendors.  Once the projects are understood, the project manager can
   develop a schedule and a budget, and work with the project sponsor to
   determine what constraints can be adjusted, if necessary.



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   It is tempting to roll IPv6 projects into other architectural
   upgrades - this can be an excellent way to improve the network and
   reduce costs.  Project participants are advised that by increasing
   the scope of projects, the schedule is often affected.  For instance,
   a major systems upgrade may take a year to complete, where just
   patching existing systems may take only a few months.  Understanding
   and evaluating these trade-offs are why a project manager is
   important.

   The deployment of IPv6 will not generally stop all other technology
   work.  Once IPv6 has been identified as an important initiative, all
   projects will need to evaluate their ability to support IPv6.  If
   expansions or new deployments fail to include IPv6, then additional
   work will be required after all initial IPv6 has been completed.  It
   may not be possible to delay regular projects for IPv6, if their IPv6
   support is dependent on network elements that have not yet been
   upgraded, but the projects need to include a return to IPv6 support
   in their eventual timeline.

   It is very common for assessments to continue in some areas even as
   execution of the project begins in other areas.  This is fine, as
   long as recommendations in other parts of this document are
   considered, especially regarding security (for instance, one should
   not deploy IPv6 on a system before security has been evaluated).  The
   project manager will need to continue monitoring the progress of
   discrete projects and tasks, to be aware of changes in schedule,
   budget, or scope.  "Feature creep" is common, where engineers or
   management wish to add other features while IPv6 development or
   deployment is ongoing; each feature will need to be individually
   evaluated for its effect on the schedule and budget, and whether
   expanding the scope increases risk to any other part of the project.

   As projects are completed, the project manager will confirm that work
   has been completed, often by means of seeing a completed test plan,
   and will report back to the project sponsor on completed parts of the
   project.  A good project manager will remember to thank the people
   who executed the project.

2.2.  Inventory Phase

   To comprehend the scope of the inventory phase we recommended
   dividing the problem space in two: network infrastructure readiness
   and applications readiness.

2.2.1.  Network infrastructure readiness assessment

   The goal of this assessment is to identify the level of IPv6
   readiness of network equipment.  This is an important step as it will



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   help identify the effort required to move to an infrastructure that
   supports IPv6 with the same functional service capabilities as the
   existing IPv4 network.  This may also require a feature comparison
   and gap analysis between IPv4 and IPv6 functionality on the network
   equipment and software.

   Be able to understand which network devices are already capable,
   which devices can be made IPv6 ready with a code/firmware upgrade,
   and which devices will need to be replaced.  The data collection
   consists of a network discovery to gain an understanding of the
   topology and inventory network infrastructure equipment and code
   versions with information gathered from static files and IP address
   management, DNS and DHCP tools.

   Since IPv6 might already be present in the environment, through
   default configurations or VPNs, an infrastructure assessment (at
   minimum) is essential to evaluate potential security risks.

2.2.2.  Applications readiness assessment

   Just like network equipment, application software needs to support
   IPv6.  This includes OS, firmware, middleware and applications
   (including internally developed applications).  Vendors will
   typically handle IPv6 enablement of off-the-shelf products, but often
   enterprises need to request this support from vendors.  For
   internally developed applications it is the responsibility of the
   enterprise to enable them for IPv6.  Analyzing how a given
   application communicates over the network will dictate the steps
   required to support IPv6.  Applications should be made to use APIs
   which hide the specifics of a given IP address family.  Any
   applications that use APIs, such as the C language, which exposes the
   IP version specificity, need to be modified to also work with IPv6.

   There are two ways to IPv6-enable applications.  The first approach
   is to have separate logic for IPv4 and IPv6, thus leaving the IPv4
   code path mainly untouched.  This approach causes the least
   disruption to the existing IPv4 logic flow, but introduces more
   complexity, since the application now has to deal with two logic
   loops with complex race conditions and error recovery mechanisms
   between these two logic loops.  The second approach is to create a
   combined IPv4/IPv6 logic, which ensures operation regardless of the
   IP version used on the network.  Knowing whether a given
   implementation will use IPv4 or IPv6 in a given deployment is a
   matter of some art; see Source Address Selection[RFC6724] and Happy
   Eyeballs [RFC6555].  It is generally recommend that the application
   developer use industry IPv6-porting tools to locate the code that
   needs to be updated.  Some discussion of IPv6 application porting
   issues can be found in [RFC4038].



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2.2.3.  Importance of readiness validation and testing

   Lastly IPv6 introduces a completely new way of addressing endpoints,
   which can have ramifications at the network layer all the way up to
   the applications.  So to minimize disruption during the transition
   phase we recommend complete functionality, scalability and security
   testing to understand how IPv6 impacts the services and networking
   infrastructure.

2.3.  Training

   IPv6 planning and deployment in the enterprise does not only affect
   the network.  IPv6 adoption will be a multifaceted undertaking that
   will touch everyone in the organization unlike almost any other
   project.  While technology and process transformations are taking
   place, it is critical that personnel training takes place as well.
   Training will ensure that people and skill gaps are assessed
   proactively and managed accordingly.  We recommend that training
   needs be analyzed and defined in order to successfully inform, train,
   and prepare staff for the impacts of the system or process changes.
   Better knowledge of the requirements to deploy IPv6 may also help
   inform procurement processes.

2.4.  Security Policy

   It is obvious that IPv6 networks should be deployed in a secure way.
   The industry has learnt a lot about network security with IPv4, so,
   network operators should leverage this knowledge and expertise when
   deploying IPv6.  IPv6 is not so different than IPv4: it is a
   connectionless network protocol using the same lower layer service
   and delivering the same service to the upper layer.  Therefore, the
   security issues and mitigation techniques are mostly identical with
   same exceptions that are described further.

2.4.1.  IPv6 is no more secure than IPv4

   Some people believe that IPv6 is inherently more secure than IPv4
   because it is new.  Nothing can be more wrong.  Indeed, being a new
   protocol means that bugs in the implementations have yet to be
   discovered and fixed and that few people have the operational
   security expertise needed to operate securely an IPv6 network.  This
   lack of operational expertise is the biggest threat when deploying
   IPv6: the importance of training is to be stressed again.

   One security myth is that thanks to its huge address space, a network
   cannot be scanned by enumerating all IPv6 address in a /64 LAN hence
   a malevolent person cannot find a victim.  [RFC5157] describes some
   alternate techniques to find potential targets on a network, for



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   example enumerating all DNS names in a zone.  Additional advice in
   this area is also given in [I-D.ietf-opsec-ipv6-host-scanning].

   Another security myth is that IPv6 is more secure because it mandates
   the use of IPsec everywhere.  While the original IPv6 specifications
   may have implied this, [RFC6434] clearly states that IPsec support is
   not mandatory.  Moreover, if all the intra-enterprise traffic is
   encrypted, then this renders a lot of the network security tools
   (IPS, firewall, ACL, IPFIX, etc) blind and pretty much useless.
   Therefore, IPsec should be used in IPv6 pretty much like in IPv4 (for
   example to establish a VPN overlay over a non-trusted network or
   reserved for some specific applications).

   The last security myth is that amplification attacks (such as
   [SMURF]) do not exist in IPv6 because there is no more broadcast.
   Alas, this is not true as ICMP error (in some cases) or information
   messages can be generated by routers and hosts when forwarding or
   receiving a multicast message (see Section 2.4 of [RFC4443]).
   Therefore, the generation and the forwarding rate of ICMPv6 messages
   must be limited as in IPv4.

   It should be noted that in a dual-stack network the security
   implementation for both IPv4 and IPv6 needs to be considered, in
   addition to security considerations related to the interaction of
   (and transition between) the two, while they coexist.

2.4.2.  Similarities between IPv6 and IPv4 security

   As mentioned earlier, IPv6 is quite similar to IPv4, therefore
   several attacks apply for both protocol families:

   o  Application layer attacks: such as cross-site scripting or SQL
      injection

   o  Rogue device: such as a rogue Wi-Fi Access Point

   o  Flooding and all traffic-based denial of services (including the
      use of control plane policing for IPv6 traffic see [RFC6192])

   o  Etc.

   A specific case of congruence is IPv6 Unique Local Addresses (ULAs)
   [RFC4193] and IPv4 private addressing [RFC1918], which do not provide
   any security by 'magic'.  In both cases, the edge router must apply
   strict filters to block those private addresses from entering and,
   just as importantly, leaving the network.  This filtering can be done
   by the enterprise or by the ISP, but the cautious administrator will
   prefer to do it in the enterprise.



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   IPv6 addresses can be spoofed as easily as IPv4 addresses and there
   are packets with bogon IPv6 addresses (see [CYMRU]).  Anti-bogon
   filtering must be done in the data and routing planes.  It can be
   done by the enterprise or by the ISP, or both, but again the cautious
   administrator will prefer to do it in the enterprise.

2.4.3.  Specific Security Issues for IPv6

   Even if IPv6 is similar to IPv4, there are some differences that
   create some IPv6-only vulnerabilities or issues.  We give examples of
   such differences in this section.

   Privacy extension addresses [RFC4941] are usually used to protect
   individual privacy by periodically changing the interface identifier
   part of the IPv6 address to avoid tracking a host by its otherwise
   always identical and unique MAC-based EUI-64.  While this presents a
   real advantage on the Internet, moderated by the fact that the prefix
   part remains the same, it complicates the task of following an audit
   trail when a security officer or network operator wants to trace back
   a log entry to a host in their network, because when the tracing is
   done the searched IPv6 address could have disappeared from the
   network.  Therefore, the use of privacy extension addresses usually
   requires additional monitoring and logging of the binding of the IPv6
   address to a data-link layer address (see also the monitoring section
   of [I-D.ietf-opsec-v6]).  Some early enterprise deployments have
   taken the approach to use tools that harvest IP/MAC address mappings
   from switch and router devices to provide address accountability;
   this approach has been shown to work, though it can involve gathering
   significantly more address data than in equivalent IPv4 networks.  An
   alternative is to try to prevent the use of privacy extension
   addresses by enforcing the use of DHCPv6, such that hosts only get
   addresses assigned by a DHCPv6 server.  This can be done by
   configuring routers to set the M-bit in Router Advertisements,
   combined with all advertised prefixes being included without the
   A-bit set (to prevent the use of stateless auto-configuration).  This
   technique of course requires that all hosts support stateful DHCPv6.

   Extension headers complicate the task of stateless packet filters
   such as ACLs.  If ACLs are used to enforce a security policy, then
   the enterprise must verify whether its ACL (but also stateful
   firewalls) are able to process extension headers (this means
   understand them enough to parse them to find the upper layers
   payloads) and to block unwanted extension headers (e.g., to implement
   [RFC5095]).  This topic is discussed further in
   [I-D.carpenter-6man-ext-transmit].

   Fragmentation is different in IPv6 because it is done only by source
   host and never during a forwarding operation.  This means that ICMPv6



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   packet-too-big messages must be allowed to pass through the network
   and not be filtered [RFC4890].  Fragments can also be used to evade
   some security mechanisms such as RA-guard [RFC6105].  See also
   [RFC5722], and [I-D.ietf-v6ops-ra-guard-implementation].

   One of the biggest differences between IPv4 and IPv6 is the
   introduction of the Neighbor Discovery Protocol [RFC4861], which
   includes a variety of important IPv6 protocol functions, including
   those provided in IPv4 by ARP [RFC0826].  NDP runs over ICMPv6 (which
   as stated above means that security policies must allow some ICMPv6
   messages to pass, as described in RFC 4890), but has the same lack of
   security as, for example, ARP, in that there is no inherent message
   authentication.  While Secure Neighbour Discovery (SeND) [RFC3971]
   and CGA [RFC3972] have been defined, they are not widely
   implemented).  The threat model for Router Advertisements within the
   NDP suite is similar to that of DHCPv4 (and DHCPv6), in that a rogue
   host could be either a rogue router or a rogue DHCP server.  An IPv4
   network can be made more secure with the help of DHCPv4 snooping in
   edge switches, and likewise RA snooping can improve IPv6 network
   security (in IPv4-only networks as well).  Thus enterprises using
   such techniques for IPv4 should use the equivalent techniques for
   IPv6, including RA-guard (RFC 6105) and all work in progress from the
   SAVI WG, e.g.  [I-D.ietf-savi-threat-scope], which is similar to the
   protection given by dynamic ARP monitoring in IPv4.  Other DoS
   vulnerabilities are related to NDP cache exhaustion, and mitigation
   techniques can be found in ([RFC6583]).

   As stated previously, running a dual-stack network doubles the attack
   exposure as a malevolent person has now two attack vectors: IPv4 and
   IPv6.  This simply means that all routers and hosts operating in a
   dual-stack environment with both protocol families enabled (even if
   by default) must have a congruent security policy for both protocol
   versions.  For example, permit TCP ports 80 and 443 to all web
   servers and deny all other ports to the same servers must be
   implemented both for IPv4 and IPv6.  It is thus important that the
   tools available to administrators readily support such behaviour.

2.5.  Routing

   An important design choice to be made is what IGP to use inside the
   network.  A variety of IGPs (IS-IS, OSPFv3 and RIPng) support IPv6
   today and picking one over the other is a design choice that will be
   dictated mostly by existing operational policies in an enterprise
   network.  As mentioned earlier, it would be beneficial to maintain
   operational parity between IPv4 and IPv6 and therefore it might make
   sense to continue using the same protocol family that is being used
   for IPv4.  For example, in a network using OSPFv2 for IPv4, it might
   make sense to use OSPFv3 for IPv6.  It is important to note that



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   although OSPFv3 is similar to OSPFv2, they are not the same.  On the
   other hand, some organizations may chose to run different routing
   protocols for different IP versions.  For example, one may chose to
   run OSPFv2 for IPv4 and IS-IS for IPv6.  An important design question
   to consider here is whether to support one IGP or two different IGPs
   in the longer term.  [I-D.ietf-v6ops-design-choices] presents advice
   on the design choices that arise when considering IGPs and discusses
   the advantages and disadvantages to different approaches in detail.

2.6.  Address Plan

   The most common problem encountered in IPv6 networking is in applying
   the same principles of conservation that are so important in IPv4.
   IPv6 addresses do not need to be assigned conservatively.  In fact, a
   single larger allocation is considered more conservative than
   multiple non-contiguous small blocks, because a single block occupies
   only a single entry in a routing table.  The advice in [RFC5375] is
   still sound, and is recommended to the reader.  If considering ULAs,
   give careful thought to how well it is supported, especially in
   multiple address and multicast scenarios, and assess the strength of
   the requirement for ULA.  If using ULAs instead of Globally Unique
   Addressing for hosts, note that Network Prefix Translation will be
   required [RFC6296] for Internet based communication; the implications
   of which must be well understood before deploying.

   The enterprise administrator will want to evaluate whether the
   enterprise will request address space from a LIR (Local Internet
   Registry, such as an ISP), a RIR (Regional Internet Registry, such as
   AfriNIC, APNIC, ARIN, LACNIC, or RIPE-NCC) or a NIR (National
   Internet Registry, operated in some countries).  The normal
   allocation is Provider Aggregatable (PA) address space from the
   enterprise's ISP, but use of PA space implies renumbering when
   changing provider.  Instead, an enterprise may request Provider
   Independent (PI) space; this may involve an additional fee, but the
   enterprise may then be better able to be multihomed using that
   prefix, and will avoid a renumbering process when changing ISPs
   (though it should be noted that renumbering caused by outgrowing the
   space, merger, or other internal reason would still not be avoided
   with PI space).

   The type of address selected (PI vs. PA) should be congruent with the
   routing needs of the enterprise.  The selection of address type will
   determine if an operator will need to apply new routing techniques
   and may limit future flexibility.  There is no right answer, but the
   needs of the external phase may affect what address type is selected.

   Each network location or site will need a prefix assignment.
   Depending on the type of site/location, various prefix sizes may be



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   used.  In general, historical guidance suggests that each site should
   get at least a /48, as documented in RFC 5375 and [RFC6177].  In
   addition to allowing for simple planning, this can allow a site to
   use its prefix for local connectivity, should the need arise, and if
   the local ISP supports it.

   When assigning addresses to end systems, the enterprise may use
   manually-configured addresses (common on servers) or SLAAC or DHCPv6
   for client systems.  Early IPv6 enterprise deployments have used
   SLAAC, both for its simplicity but also due to the time DHCPv6 has
   taken to mature.  However, DHCPv6 is now very mature, and thus
   workstations managed by an enterprise may use stateful DHCPv6 for
   addressing on corporate LAN segments.  DHCPv6 allows for the
   additional configuration options often employed by enterprise
   administrators, and by using stateful DHCPv6, administrators
   correlating system logs know which system had which address at any
   given time.  Such an accountability model is familiar from IPv4
   management, though for DHCPv6 hosts are identified by DUID rather
   than MAC address.  For equivalent accountability with SLAAC (and
   potentially privacy addresses), a monitoring system that harvests IP/
   MAC mappings from switch and router equipment could be used.

   In the data center or server room, assume a /64 per VLAN.  This
   applies even if each individual system is on a separate VLAN.  In a
   /48 assignment, typical for a site, there are then still 65,535 /64
   blocks.  Addresses are either configured manually on the server, or
   reserved on a DHCPv6 server, which may also synchronize forward and
   reverse DNS.  Because of the need to synchronize RA timers and DNS
   TTLs, SLAAC is rarely, if ever, used for servers, and would require
   tightly coupled dynamic DNS updates.
   [I-D.ietf-6renum-static-problem]

   All user access networks should be a /64.  Point-to-point links where
   Neighbor Discovery Protocol is not used may also utilize a /127 (see
   [RFC6164]).

   Plan to aggregate at every layer of network hierarchy.  There is no
   need for VLSM [RFC1817] in IPv6, and addressing plans based on
   conservation of addresses are short-sighted.  Use of prefixes longer
   then /64 on network segments will break common IPv6 functions such as
   SLAAC[RFC4862].  Where multiple VLANs or other layer two domains
   converge, allow some room for expansion.  Renumbering due to
   outgrowing the network plan is a nuisance, so allow room within it.
   Generally, plan to grow to about twice the current size that can be
   accommodated; where rapid growth is planned, allow for twice that
   growth.  Also, if DNS (or reverse DNS) authority may be delegated to
   others in the enterprise, assignments need to be on nibble boundaries
   (that is, on a multiple of 4 bits, such as /64, /60, /56, ..., /48,



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   /44), to ensure that delegated zones align with assigned prefixes.

2.7.  Tools Assessment

   Enterprises will often have a number of operational tools and support
   systems which are used to provision, monitor, manage and diagnose the
   network and systems within their environment.  These tools and
   systems will need to be assessed for compatibility with IPv6.  The
   compatibility may be related to the addressing and connectivity of
   various devices as well as IPv6 awareness the tools and processing
   logic.

   The tools within the organization fall into two general categories,
   those which focus on managing the network, and those which are
   focused on managing systems and applications on the network.  In
   either instance, the tools will run on platforms which may or may not
   be capable of operating in an IPv6 network.  This lack in
   functionality may be related to Operating System version, or based on
   some hardware constraint.  Those systems which are found to be
   incapable of utilizing an IPv6 connection, or which are dependent on
   an IPv4 stack, may need to be replaced or upgraded.

   In addition to devices working on an IPv6 network natively, or via a
   tunnel, many tools and support systems may require additional
   software updates to be IPv6 aware, or even a hardware upgrade
   (usually for additional memory: IPv6 as the addresses are larger and
   for a while, IPv4 and IPv6 addresses will coexist in the tool).  This
   awareness may include the ability to manage IPv6 elements and/or
   applications in addition to the ability to store and utilize IPv6
   addresses.

   Considerations when assessing the tools and support systems may
   include the fact that IPv6 addresses are significantly larger than
   IPv4, requiring data stores to support the increased size.  Such
   issues are among those discussed in [RFC5952].  Many organizations
   may also run dual-stack networks, therefore the tools need to not
   only support IPv6 operation, but may also need to support the
   monitoring, management and intersection with both IPv6 and IPv4
   simultaneously.  It is important to note that managing IPv6 is not
   just constrained to using large IPv6 addresses, but also that IPv6
   interfaces and nodes are likely to use two or more addresses as part
   of normal operation.  Updating management systems to deal with these
   additional nuances will likely consume time and considerable effort.

   For networking systems, like node management systems, it is not
   always necessary to support local IPv6 addressing and connectivity.
   Operations such as SNMP MIB polling can occur over IPv4 transport
   while seeking responses related to IPv6 information.  Where this may



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   seem advantageous to some, it should be noted that without local IPv6
   connectivity, the management system may not be able to perform all
   expected functions - such as reachability and service checks.

   Organizations should be aware that changes to older IPv4-only SNMP
   MIB specifications have been made by the IETF related to legacy
   operation in [RFC2096] and [RFC2011].  Updated specifications are now
   available in [RFC4296] and [RFC4293] which modified the older MIB
   framework to be IP protocol agnostic, supporting both IPv4 and IPv6.
   Polling systems will need to be upgraded to support these updates as
   well as the end stations which are polled.


3.  External Phase

   The external phase for enterprise IPv6 adoption covers topics which
   deal with how an organization connects its infrastructure to the
   external world.  These external connections may be toward the
   Internet at large, or to other networks.  The external phase covers
   connectivity, security and monitoring of various elements and outward
   facing or accessible services.

   How an organization connects to the outside worlds is very important
   as it is often a critical part of how a business functions, therefore
   it must be dealt accordingly.

3.1.  Connectivity

   The enterprise will need to work with one or more Service Providers
   to gain connectivity to the Internet or transport service
   infrastructure such as a BGP/MPLS IP VPN as described in [RFC4364]
   and [RFC4659].  One significant factor that will guide how an
   organization may need to communicate with the outside world will
   involve the use of PI (Provider Independent) and/or PA (Provider
   Aggregatable) IPv6 space.

   Enterprises should be aware that depending on which address type they
   selected (PI vs. PA) in their planning section, they may need to
   implement new routing functions and/or behaviours to support their
   connectivity to the ISP.  In the case of PI, the upstream ISP may
   offer options to route the prefix (typically a /48) on the
   enterprise's behalf and update the relevant routing databases.  In
   other cases, the enterprise may need to perform this task on their
   own and use BGP to inject the prefix into the global BGP system.
   This latter case is not how many enterprises operate today and is an
   important consideration.

   Note that the rules set by the RIRs for an enterprise acquiring PI



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   address space have changed over time.  For example, in the European
   region the RIPE-NCC no longer requires an enterprise to be multihomed
   to be eligible for an IPv6 PI allocation.  Requests can be made
   directly or via an LIR.  It is possible that the rules may change
   again, and may vary between RIRs.

   When seeking IPv6 connectivity to a Service Provider, the Enterprise
   will prefer to use native IPv6 connectivity.  Native IPv6
   connectivity is preferred since it provides the most robust and
   efficient form of connectivity.  If native IPv6 connectivity is not
   possible due to technical or business limitations, the enterprise may
   utilize readily available tunnelled IPv6 connectivity.  There are
   IPv6 transit providers which provide robust tunnelled IPv6
   connectivity which can operate over IPv4 networks.  It is important
   to understand the tunneling mechanism used, and to consider that it
   will have higher latency than native IPv4 or IPv6, and may have other
   problems, e.g. related to MTUs.

   The use of ULAs may provide additional flexibility when an enterprise
   is using PA space, by providing an independent local prefix for
   internal use, while using the PA prefix externally in conjunction
   with NPTv6 [RFC6296].  Many enterprises today are used to using IPv4
   host-based NAT, and indeed may choose to use this model even when
   global IPv4 address space is available.  NPTv6 instead performs
   stateless prefix-based NAT, mapping from an external global prefix to
   (usually) an internal ULA prefix.  Such mappings can be used with
   multiple prefixes in multihoming scenarios, rather than using both
   ISP's global prefixes internally, with hosts receiving an IPv6
   address from each prefix (and then needing to ensure the correct
   source address is used to route traffic out of the correct egress).
   While NPTv6 can provide for simplified renumbering in certain
   scenarios, as described in [I-D.ietf-6renum-enterprise], it must be
   noted that many of the well-known issues with NAT still apply, in
   particular handling IPv6 addresses embedded in payloads.

   It is important to evaluate MTU considerations when adding in IPv6 to
   an existing IPv4 network.  It is generally desirable to have the IPv6
   and IPv4 MTU congruent to simplify operations.  If the enterprise
   uses tunnelling inside or externally for IPv6 connectivity, then
   modification of the MTU on hosts/routers may be needed as mid-stream
   fragmentation is no longer supported in IPv6.  It is preferred that
   pMTUD is used to optimize the MTU, so erroneous filtering of the
   related ICMPv6 message types should be monitored.  Adjusting the MTU
   may be the only option if undesirable upstream ICMPv6 filtering
   cannot be removed.






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3.2.  Security

   The most important part of security for external IPv6 deployment is
   filtering and monitoring.  Filtering can be done by stateless ACLs or
   a stateful firewall.  The security policies must be consistent for
   IPv4 and IPv6 (else the attacker will use the less protected protocol
   stack), except that certain ICMPv6 messages must be allowed through
   and to the filtering device (see [RFC4890]):

   o  Unreachable packet-too-big: it is very important to allow Path MTU
      discovery to work

   o  Unreachable parameter-problem

   o  Neighbor solicitation

   o  Neighbor advertisement

   It could also be safer to block all fragments where the transport
   layer header is not in the first fragment to avoid attacks as
   described in [RFC5722].  Some filtering devices allow this filtering.
   To be fully compliant with [RFC5095], all packets containing the
   routing extension header type 0 must be dropped.

   If an Intrusion Prevention System (IPS) is used for IPv4 traffic,
   then an IPS should also be used for IPv6 traffic.  In general, make
   sure IPv6 security is at least as good as IPv4.  This also includes
   all email content protection (anti-spam, content filtering, data
   leakage prevention, etc.).

   The edge router must also implement anti-spoofing techniques based on
   [RFC2827] (also known as BCP 38).

   In order to protect the networking devices, it is advised to
   implement control plane policing as per [RFC6192].

   The potential NDP cache exhaustion attack (see [RFC6538]) can be
   mitigated by two techniques:

   o  Good NDP implementation with memory utilization limits as well as
      rate-limiters and prioritization of requests.

   o  Or, as the external deployment usually involves just a couple of
      exposed statically configured IPv6 addresses (virtual addresses of
      web, email, and DNS servers), then it is straightforward to build
      an ingress ACL allowing traffic for those addresses and denying
      traffic to any other addresses.  This actually prevents the attack
      as a packet for a random destination will be dropped and will



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      never trigger a neighbor resolution.

3.3.  Monitoring

   Monitoring the use of the Internet connectivity should be done for
   IPv6 as it is done for IPv4.  This includes the use of IP Flow
   Information eXport (IPFIX) [RFC5102] to detect abnormal traffic
   patterns (such as port scanning, SYN-flooding) and SNMP MIB [RFC4293]
   (another way to detect abnormal bandwidth utilization).  Where using
   Netflow, version 9 is required for IPv6 support.

3.4.  Servers and Applications

   The path to the servers accessed from the Internet usually involves
   security devices (firewall, IPS), server load balancing (SLB) and
   real physical servers.  The latter stage is also multi-tiered for
   scalability and security between presentation and data storage.  The
   ideal transition is to enable dual-stack on all devices but this may
   seem too time-consuming and too risky.

   Operators have used the following approaches with success:

   o  Use a network device to apply NAT64 and basically translate an
      inbound TCP connection (or any other transport protocol) over IPv6
      into a TCP connection over IPv4.  This is the easiest to deploy as
      the path is mostly unchanged but it hides all IPv6 remote users
      behind a single IPv4 address which leads to several audit trail
      and security issues (see [RFC6302]).

   o  Use the server load balancer which acts as an application proxy to
      do this translation.  Compared to the NAT64, it has the potential
      benefit of going through the security devices as native IPv6 (so
      more audit and trace abilities) and is also able to insert a HTTP
      X-Forward-For header which contains the remote IPv6 address.  The
      latter feature allows for logging, and rate-limiting on the real
      servers based on the IPV6 address even if those servers run only
      IPv4.

3.5.  Network Prefix Translation for IPv6

   Network Prefix Translation for IPv6, or NPTv6 as described in
   [RFC6296] provides a framework to utilize prefix ranges within the
   internal network which are separate (address-independent) from the
   assigned prefix from the upstream provider or registry.  As mentioned
   above, while NPTv6 has potential use-cases in IPv6 networks, the
   implications of its deployment need to be fully understood,
   particularly where any applications might embed IPv6 addresses in
   their payloads.



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   Use of NTPv6 can be chosen independently from how addresses are
   assigned and routed within the internal network and how prefixes are
   routed towards the Internet (included both PA and PI address
   assignment options).


4.  Internal Phase

   This phase deals with the delivery of IPv6 to the internal user-
   facing side of the IT infrastructure, which comprises various
   components such as network devices (routers, switches, etc.), end
   user devices and peripherals (workstations, printers, etc.), and
   internal corporate systems.

   An important design paradigm to consider during this phase is "dual-
   stack when you can, tunnel when you must".  Dual-stacking allows a
   more robust, production-quality IPv6 network than is typically
   facilitated by internal use of tunnels that are harder to
   troubleshoot and support, and that may introduce scalability and
   performance issues.  Tunnels may of course still be used in
   production networks, but their use needs to be carefully considered,
   e.g. where the tunnel may be run through a security or filtering
   device.  Tunnels do also provide a means to experiment with IPv6 and
   gain some operational experience with the protocol.  [RFC4213]
   describes various transition mechanisms in more detail.
   [I-D.templin-v6ops-isops] suggests operational guidance when using
   ISATAP tunnels [RFC5214], though we would recommend use of dual-stack
   wherever possible.

4.1.  Security

   IPv6 must be deployed in a secure way.  This means that all existing
   IPv4 security policies must be extended to support IPv6; IPv6
   security policies will be the IPv6 equivalent of the existing IPv4
   ones (taking into account the difference for ICMPv6 [RFC4890]).  As
   in IPv4, security policies for IPv6 will be enforced by firewalls,
   ACL, IPS, VPN, and so on.

   Privacy extension addresses [RFC4941] raise a challenge for an audit
   trail as explained in section Section 2.4.3.  The enterprise may
   choose to attempt to enforce use of DHCPv6, or deploy monitoring
   tools that harvest accountability data from switches and routers
   (thus making the assumption that devices may use any addresses inside
   the network).

   But the major issue is probably linked to all threats against
   Neighbor Discovery.  This means, for example, that the internal
   network at the access layer (where hosts connect to the network over



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   wired or wireless) should implement RA-guard [RFC6105] and the
   techniques being specified by SAVI WG [I-D.ietf-savi-threat-scope];
   see also Section 2.4.3 for more information.

4.2.  Network Infrastructure

   The typical enterprise network infrastructure comprises a combination
   of the following network elements - wired access switches, wireless
   access points, and routers (although it is fairly common to find
   hardware that collapses switching and routing functionality into a
   single device).  Basic wired access switches and access points
   operate only at the physical and link layers, and don't really have
   any special IPv6 considerations other than being able to support IPv6
   addresses themselves for management purposes.  In many instances,
   these devices possess a lot more intelligence than simply switching
   packets.  For example, some of these devices help assist with link
   layer security by incorporating features such as ARP inspection and
   DHCP Snooping, or they may help limit where multicast floods by using
   IGMP (or, in the case of IPv6, MLD) snooping.

   Another important consideration in enterprise networks is first hop
   router redundancy.  This directly ties into network reachability from
   an end host's point of view.  IPv6 Neighbor Discovery (ND),
   [RFC4861], provides a node with the capability to maintain a list of
   available routers on the link, in order to be able to switch to a
   backup path should the primary be unreachable.  By default, ND will
   detect a router failure in 38 seconds and cycle onto the next default
   router listed in its cache.  While this feature provides a basic
   level of first hop router redundancy, most enterprise IPv4 networks
   are designed to fail over much faster.  Although this delay can be
   improved by adjusting the default timers, care must be taken to
   protect against transient failures and to account for increased
   traffic on the link.  Another option to provide robust first hop
   redundancy is to use the Virtual Router Redundancy Protocol for IPv6
   (VRRPv3), [RFC5798].  This protocol provides a much faster switchover
   to an alternate default router than default ND parameters.  Using
   VRRPv3, a backup router can take over for a failed default router in
   around three seconds (using VRRPv3 default parameters).  This is done
   without any interaction with the hosts and a minimum amount of VRRP
   traffic.

   Last but not the least, one of the most important design choices to
   make while deploying IPv6 on the internal network is whether to use
   Stateless Automatic Address Configuration (SLAAC), [RFC4862], or
   Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol for IPv6 (DHCPv6), [RFC3315], or
   a combination thereof.  Each option has advantages and disadvantages,
   and the choice will ultimately depend on the operational policies
   that guide each enterprise's network design.  For example, if an



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   enterprise is looking for ease of use, rapid deployment, and less
   administrative overhead, then SLAAC makes more sense for
   workstations.  Manual or DHCPv6 assignments are still needed for
   servers, as described in the External Phase and Address Plan sections
   of this document.  However, if the operational policies call for
   precise control over IP address assignment for auditing then DHCPv6
   may be preferred.  DHCPv6 also allows you tie into DNS systems for
   host entry updates and gives you the ability to send other options
   and information to clients.  It is worth noting that in general
   operation RAs are still needed in DHCPv6 networks, as there is no
   DHCPv6 Default Gateway option.  Similarly, DHCPv6 is needed in RA
   networks for other configuration information, e.g.  NTP servers or,
   in the absence of support for DNS resolvers in RAs [RFC6106], DNS
   resolver information.

4.3.  End user devices

   Most operating systems (OSes) that are loaded on workstations and
   laptops in a typical enterprise support IPv6 today.  However, there
   are various out-of-the-box nuances that one should be mindful about.
   For example, the default behavior of OSes vary; some may have IPv6
   turned off by default, some may only have certain features such as
   privacy extensions to IPv6 addresses (RFC 4941) turned off while
   others have IPv6 fully enabled.  Further, even when IPv6 is enabled,
   the choice of which address is used may be subject to Source Address
   Selection (RFC 6724) and Happy Eyeballs (RFC 6555).  Therefore, it is
   advised that enterprises investigate the default behavior of their
   installed OS base and account for it during the Inventory phases of
   their IPv6 preparations.  Furthermore, some OSes may have tunneling
   mechanisms turned on by default and in such cases it is recommended
   to administratively shut down such interfaces unless required.

   It is important to note that it is recommended that IPv6 be deployed
   at the network and system infrastructure level before it is rolled
   out to end user devices; ensure IPv6 is running and routed on the
   wire, and secure and correctly monitored, before exposing IPv6 to end
   users.

   Smartphones and tablets are poised to become one of the major
   consumers of IP addresses and enterprises, and should be ready to
   support IPv6 on various networks that serve such devices.  In
   general, support for IPv6 in these devices, albeit in its infancy,
   has been steadily rising.  Most of the leading smartphone OSes have
   some level of support for IPv6.  However, the level of configurable
   options are mostly at a minimum and are not consistent across all
   platforms.  Also, it is fairly common to find IPv6 support on the
   Wi-Fi connection alone and not on the radio interface in these
   devices.  This is sometimes due to the radio network not being IPv6



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   ready, or it may be device-related.  An IPv6-enabled enterprise Wi-Fi
   network will allow the majority of these devices to connect via IPv6.
   Much work is still being done to bring the full IPv6 feature set
   across all interfaces (802.11, 3G, LTE, etc.) and platforms.

   IPv6 support in peripheral equipment such as printers, IP cameras,
   etc., has been steadily rising as well, although at a much slower
   pace than traditional OSes and smartphones.  Most newer devices are
   coming out with IPv6 support but there is still a large installed
   base of legacy peripheral devices that might need IPv4 for some time
   to come.  The audit phase mentioned earlier will make it easier for
   enterprises to plan for equipment upgrades, in line with their
   corporate equipment refresh cycle.

4.4.  Corporate Systems

   No IPv6 deployment will be successful without ensuring that all the
   corporate systems that an enterprise uses as part of its IT
   infrastructure support IPv6.  Examples of such systems include, but
   are not limited to, email, video conferencing, telephony (VoIP), DNS,
   RADIUS, etc.  All these systems must have their own detailed IPv6
   rollout plan in conjunction with the network IPv6 rollout.  It is
   important to note that DNS is one of the main anchors in an
   enterprise deployment, since most end hosts decide whether or not to
   use IPv6 depending on the presence of IPv6 AAAA records in a reply to
   a DNS query.  It is recommended that system administrators
   selectively turn on AAAA records for various systems as and when they
   are IPv6 enabled; care must be taken though to ensure all services
   running on that host name are IPv6-enabled before adding the AAAA
   record.  Additionally, all monitoring and reporting tools across the
   enterprise would need to be modified to support IPv6.


5.  IPv6-only

   Early IPv6 enterprise deployments have generally taken a dual-stack
   approach to enabling IPv6, i.e. the existing IPv4 services have not
   been turned off.  Although IPv4 and IPv6 networks will coexist for a
   long time, the long term enterprise network roadmap should include
   steps on gradually deprecating IPv4 from the dual-stack network.  In
   some extreme cases, deploying dual-stack networks may not even be a
   viable option for very large enterprises due to the RFC 1918 address
   space not being large enough to support the network's growth.  In
   such cases, deploying IPv6-only networks might be the only choice
   available to sustain network growth.  In other cases, there may be
   elements of an otherwise dual-stack network that may be run IPv6-
   only.




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   If nodes in the network don't need to talk to an IPv4-only node, then
   deploying IPv6-only networks should be fairly trivial.  However, in
   the current environment, given that IPv4 is the dominant protocol on
   the Internet, an IPv6-only node most likely needs to talk to an IPv4-
   only node on the Internet.  It is therefore important to provide such
   nodes with a translation mechanism to ensure communication between
   nodes configured with different address families.  As [RFC6144]
   points out, it is important to look at address translation as a
   transition strategy towards running an IPv6-only network.

   There are various stateless and stateful IPv4/IPv6 translation
   methods available today that help IPv6 to IPv4 communication.  RFC
   6144 provides a framework for IPv4/IPv6 translation and describes in
   detail various scenarios in which such translation mechanisms could
   be used.  [RFC6145] describes stateless address translation.  In this
   mode, a specific IPv6 address range will represent IPv4 systems
   (IPv4-converted addresses), and the IPv6 systems have addresses
   (IPv4-translatable addresses) that can be algorithmically mapped to a
   subset of the service provider's IPv4 addresses.  [RFC6146], NAT64,
   describes stateful address translation.  As the name suggests, the
   translation state is maintained between IPv4 address/port pairs and
   IPv6 address/port pairs, enabling IPv6 systems to open sessions with
   IPv4 systems.  [RFC6147], DNS64, describes a mechanism for
   synthesizing AAAA resource records (RRs) from A RRs.  Together, RFCs
   6146 and RFC 6147 provide a viable method for an IPv6-only client to
   initiate communications to an IPv4-only server.

   The address translation mechanisms for the stateless and stateful
   translations are defined in [RFC6052].  It is important to note that
   both of these mechanisms have limitations as to which protocols they
   support.  For example, RFC 6146 only defines how stateful NAT64
   translates unicast packets carrying TCP, UDP, and ICMP traffic only.
   The classic problems of IPv4 NAT also apply, e.g. handling IP
   literals in application payloads.  The ultimate choice of which
   translation mechanism to chose will be dictated mostly by existing
   operational policies pertaining to application support, logging
   requirements, etc.

   There is additional work being done in the area of address
   translation to enhance and/or optimize current mechanisms.  For
   example, [I-D.xli-behave-divi] describes limitations with the current
   stateless translation, such as IPv4 address sharing and application
   layer gateway (ALG) problems, and presents the concept and
   implementation of dual-stateless IPv4/IPv6 translation (dIVI) to
   address those issues.

   It is worth noting that for IPv6-only access networks that use
   technologies such as NAT64, the more content providers (and



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   enterprises) that make their content available over IPv6, the less
   the requirement to apply NAT64 to traffic leaving the access network.


6.  Considerations For Specific Enterprises

6.1.  Content Delivery Networks

   Some guidance for Internet Content and Application Service Providers
   can be found in [I-D.ietf-v6ops-icp-guidance], which includes a
   dedicated section on CDNs.  An enterprise that relies on CDN to
   deliver a 'better' e-commerce experience needs to ensure that their
   CDN provider also supports IPv4/IPv6 traffic selection so that they
   can ensure 'best' access to the content.

6.2.  Data Center Virtualization

   IPv6 Data Center considerations are described in
   [I-D.lopez-v6ops-dc-ipv6].

6.3.  University Campus Networks

   A number of campus networks around the world have made some initial
   IPv6 deployment.  This has been encouraged by their National Research
   and Education Network (NREN) backbones having made IPv6 available
   natively since the early 2000's.  Universities are a natural place
   for IPv6 deployment to be considered at an early stage, perhaps
   compared to other enterprises, as they are involved by their very
   nature in research and education.

   Campus networks can deploy IPv6 at their own pace; their is no need
   to deploy IPv6 across the entire enterprise from day one, rather
   specific projects can be identified for an initial deployment, that
   are both deep enough to give the university experience, but small
   enough to be a realistic first step.  There are generally three areas
   in which such deployments are currently made.

   In particular those initial areas commonly approached are:

   o  External-facing services.  Typically the campus web presence and
      commonly also external-facing DNS and MX services.  This ensures
      early IPv6-only adopters elsewhere can access the campus services
      as simply and as robustly as possible.

   o  Computer science department.  This is where IPv6-related research
      and/or teaching is most likely to occur, and where many of the
      next generation of network engineers are studying, so enabling
      some or all of the campus computer science department network is a



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      sensible first step.

   o  The eduroam wireless network.  Eduroam [I-D.wierenga-ietf-eduroam]
      is the de facto wireless roaming system for academic networks, and
      uses 802.1X-based authentication, which is agnostic to the IP
      version used (unlike web-redirection gateway systems).  Making a
      campus' eduroam network dual-stack is a very viable early step.

   The general IPv6 deployment model in a campus enterprise will still
   follow the general principles described in this document.  While the
   above early stage projects are commonly followed, these still require
   the campus to acquire IPv6 connectivity and address space from their
   NREN (or other provider in some parts of the world), and to enable
   IPv6 on the wire on at least part of the core of the campus network.
   This implies a requirement to have an initial address plan, and to
   ensure appropriate monitoring and security measures are in place, as
   described elsewhere in this document.

   Campuses which have deployed to date do not use ULAs, nor do they use
   NPTv6.  In general, campuses have very stable PA-based address
   allocations from their NRENs (or their equivalent).  However, campus
   enterprises may consider applying for IPv6 PI; some have already done
   so.  The discussions earlier in this text about PA vs. PI still
   apply.

   Finally, campuses may be more likely than many other enterprises to
   run multicast applications, such as IP TV or live lecture or seminar
   streaming, so may wish to consider support for specific IPv6
   multicast functionality, e.g.  Embedded-RP [RFC3956] in routers and
   MLDv1 and MLDv2 snooping in switches.


7.  Security Considerations

   This document has multiple security sections detailing how to
   securely deploy an IPv6 network within an enterprise network.


8.  Acknowledgements

   The authors would like to thank Chris Grundemann, Ray Hunter, Brian
   Carpenter, Tina Tsou, Christian Jaquenet, and Fred Templin for their
   substantial comments and contributions.


9.  IANA Considerations

   There are no IANA considerations or implications that arise from this



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   document.


10.  Informative References

   [RFC0826]  Plummer, D., "Ethernet Address Resolution Protocol: Or
              converting network protocol addresses to 48.bit Ethernet
              address for transmission on Ethernet hardware", STD 37,
              RFC 826, November 1982.

   [RFC1687]  Fleischman, E., "A Large Corporate User's View of IPng",
              RFC 1687, August 1994.

   [RFC1817]  Rekhter, Y., "CIDR and Classful Routing", RFC 1817,
              August 1995.

   [RFC1918]  Rekhter, Y., Moskowitz, R., Karrenberg, D., Groot, G., and
              E. Lear, "Address Allocation for Private Internets",
              BCP 5, RFC 1918, February 1996.

   [RFC2011]  McCloghrie, K., "SNMPv2 Management Information Base for
              the Internet Protocol using SMIv2", RFC 2011,
              November 1996.

   [RFC2096]  Baker, F., "IP Forwarding Table MIB", RFC 2096,
              January 1997.

   [RFC2827]  Ferguson, P. and D. Senie, "Network Ingress Filtering:
              Defeating Denial of Service Attacks which employ IP Source
              Address Spoofing", BCP 38, RFC 2827, May 2000.

   [RFC3315]  Droms, R., Bound, J., Volz, B., Lemon, T., Perkins, C.,
              and M. Carney, "Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol for
              IPv6 (DHCPv6)", RFC 3315, July 2003.

   [RFC3956]  Savola, P. and B. Haberman, "Embedding the Rendezvous
              Point (RP) Address in an IPv6 Multicast Address",
              RFC 3956, November 2004.

   [RFC3971]  Arkko, J., Kempf, J., Zill, B., and P. Nikander, "SEcure
              Neighbor Discovery (SEND)", RFC 3971, March 2005.

   [RFC3972]  Aura, T., "Cryptographically Generated Addresses (CGA)",
              RFC 3972, March 2005.

   [RFC4038]  Shin, M-K., Hong, Y-G., Hagino, J., Savola, P., and E.
              Castro, "Application Aspects of IPv6 Transition",
              RFC 4038, March 2005.



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   [RFC4057]  Bound, J., "IPv6 Enterprise Network Scenarios", RFC 4057,
              June 2005.

   [RFC4193]  Hinden, R. and B. Haberman, "Unique Local IPv6 Unicast
              Addresses", RFC 4193, October 2005.

   [RFC4213]  Nordmark, E. and R. Gilligan, "Basic Transition Mechanisms
              for IPv6 Hosts and Routers", RFC 4213, October 2005.

   [RFC4293]  Routhier, S., "Management Information Base for the
              Internet Protocol (IP)", RFC 4293, April 2006.

   [RFC4296]  Bailey, S. and T. Talpey, "The Architecture of Direct Data
              Placement (DDP) and Remote Direct Memory Access (RDMA) on
              Internet Protocols", RFC 4296, December 2005.

   [RFC4364]  Rosen, E. and Y. Rekhter, "BGP/MPLS IP Virtual Private
              Networks (VPNs)", RFC 4364, February 2006.

   [RFC4443]  Conta, A., Deering, S., and M. Gupta, "Internet Control
              Message Protocol (ICMPv6) for the Internet Protocol
              Version 6 (IPv6) Specification", RFC 4443, March 2006.

   [RFC4659]  De Clercq, J., Ooms, D., Carugi, M., and F. Le Faucheur,
              "BGP-MPLS IP Virtual Private Network (VPN) Extension for
              IPv6 VPN", RFC 4659, September 2006.

   [RFC4861]  Narten, T., Nordmark, E., Simpson, W., and H. Soliman,
              "Neighbor Discovery for IP version 6 (IPv6)", RFC 4861,
              September 2007.

   [RFC4862]  Thomson, S., Narten, T., and T. Jinmei, "IPv6 Stateless
              Address Autoconfiguration", RFC 4862, September 2007.

   [RFC4890]  Davies, E. and J. Mohacsi, "Recommendations for Filtering
              ICMPv6 Messages in Firewalls", RFC 4890, May 2007.

   [RFC4941]  Narten, T., Draves, R., and S. Krishnan, "Privacy
              Extensions for Stateless Address Autoconfiguration in
              IPv6", RFC 4941, September 2007.

   [RFC5095]  Abley, J., Savola, P., and G. Neville-Neil, "Deprecation
              of Type 0 Routing Headers in IPv6", RFC 5095,
              December 2007.

   [RFC5102]  Quittek, J., Bryant, S., Claise, B., Aitken, P., and J.
              Meyer, "Information Model for IP Flow Information Export",
              RFC 5102, January 2008.



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   [RFC5157]  Chown, T., "IPv6 Implications for Network Scanning",
              RFC 5157, March 2008.

   [RFC5211]  Curran, J., "An Internet Transition Plan", RFC 5211,
              July 2008.

   [RFC5214]  Templin, F., Gleeson, T., and D. Thaler, "Intra-Site
              Automatic Tunnel Addressing Protocol (ISATAP)", RFC 5214,
              March 2008.

   [RFC5375]  Van de Velde, G., Popoviciu, C., Chown, T., Bonness, O.,
              and C. Hahn, "IPv6 Unicast Address Assignment
              Considerations", RFC 5375, December 2008.

   [RFC5722]  Krishnan, S., "Handling of Overlapping IPv6 Fragments",
              RFC 5722, December 2009.

   [RFC5798]  Nadas, S., "Virtual Router Redundancy Protocol (VRRP)
              Version 3 for IPv4 and IPv6", RFC 5798, March 2010.

   [RFC5952]  Kawamura, S. and M. Kawashima, "A Recommendation for IPv6
              Address Text Representation", RFC 5952, August 2010.

   [RFC6052]  Bao, C., Huitema, C., Bagnulo, M., Boucadair, M., and X.
              Li, "IPv6 Addressing of IPv4/IPv6 Translators", RFC 6052,
              October 2010.

   [RFC6104]  Chown, T. and S. Venaas, "Rogue IPv6 Router Advertisement
              Problem Statement", RFC 6104, February 2011.

   [RFC6105]  Levy-Abegnoli, E., Van de Velde, G., Popoviciu, C., and J.
              Mohacsi, "IPv6 Router Advertisement Guard", RFC 6105,
              February 2011.

   [RFC6106]  Jeong, J., Park, S., Beloeil, L., and S. Madanapalli,
              "IPv6 Router Advertisement Options for DNS Configuration",
              RFC 6106, November 2010.

   [RFC6144]  Baker, F., Li, X., Bao, C., and K. Yin, "Framework for
              IPv4/IPv6 Translation", RFC 6144, April 2011.

   [RFC6145]  Li, X., Bao, C., and F. Baker, "IP/ICMP Translation
              Algorithm", RFC 6145, April 2011.

   [RFC6146]  Bagnulo, M., Matthews, P., and I. van Beijnum, "Stateful
              NAT64: Network Address and Protocol Translation from IPv6
              Clients to IPv4 Servers", RFC 6146, April 2011.




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   [RFC6147]  Bagnulo, M., Sullivan, A., Matthews, P., and I. van
              Beijnum, "DNS64: DNS Extensions for Network Address
              Translation from IPv6 Clients to IPv4 Servers", RFC 6147,
              April 2011.

   [RFC6177]  Narten, T., Huston, G., and L. Roberts, "IPv6 Address
              Assignment to End Sites", BCP 157, RFC 6177, March 2011.

   [RFC6164]  Kohno, M., Nitzan, B., Bush, R., Matsuzaki, Y., Colitti,
              L., and T. Narten, "Using 127-Bit IPv6 Prefixes on Inter-
              Router Links", RFC 6164, April 2011.

   [RFC6192]  Dugal, D., Pignataro, C., and R. Dunn, "Protecting the
              Router Control Plane", RFC 6192, March 2011.

   [RFC6296]  Wasserman, M. and F. Baker, "IPv6-to-IPv6 Network Prefix
              Translation", RFC 6296, June 2011.

   [RFC6302]  Durand, A., Gashinsky, I., Lee, D., and S. Sheppard,
              "Logging Recommendations for Internet-Facing Servers",
              BCP 162, RFC 6302, June 2011.

   [RFC6434]  Jankiewicz, E., Loughney, J., and T. Narten, "IPv6 Node
              Requirements", RFC 6434, December 2011.

   [RFC6538]  Henderson, T. and A. Gurtov, "The Host Identity Protocol
              (HIP) Experiment Report", RFC 6538, March 2012.

   [RFC6724]  Thaler, D., Draves, R., Matsumoto, A., and T. Chown,
              "Default Address Selection for Internet Protocol Version 6
              (IPv6)", RFC 6724, September 2012.

   [RFC6555]  "Happy Eyeballs: Success with Dual-Stack Hosts".

   [RFC6583]  "Operational Neighbor Discovery Problems".

   [I-D.xli-behave-divi]
              Shang, W., Li, X., Zhai, Y., and C. Bao, "dIVI: Dual-
              Stateless IPv4/IPv6 Translation", draft-xli-behave-divi-04
              (work in progress), October 2011.

   [I-D.wierenga-ietf-eduroam]
              Wierenga, K., Winter, S., and T. Wolniewicz, "The eduroam
              architecture for network roaming",
              draft-wierenga-ietf-eduroam-00 (work in progress),
              October 2012.

   [I-D.ietf-savi-threat-scope]



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              McPherson, D., Baker, F., and J. Halpern, "SAVI Threat
              Scope", draft-ietf-savi-threat-scope-06 (work in
              progress), February 2013.

   [I-D.lopez-v6ops-dc-ipv6]
              Lopez, D., Chen, Z., Tsou, T., Zhou, C., and A. Servin,
              "IPv6 Operational Guidelines for Datacenters",
              draft-lopez-v6ops-dc-ipv6-04 (work in progress),
              February 2013.

   [I-D.templin-v6ops-isops]
              Templin, F., "Operational Guidance for IPv6 Deployment in
              IPv4 Sites using ISATAP", draft-templin-v6ops-isops-18
              (work in progress), October 2012.

   [I-D.carpenter-6man-ext-transmit]
              Carpenter, B. and S. Jiang, "Transmission of IPv6
              Extension Headers", draft-carpenter-6man-ext-transmit-02
              (work in progress), February 2013.

   [I-D.ietf-6renum-enterprise]
              Jiang, S., Liu, B., and B. Carpenter, "IPv6 Enterprise
              Network Renumbering Scenarios, Considerations and
              Methods", draft-ietf-6renum-enterprise-06 (work in
              progress), January 2013.

   [I-D.ietf-6renum-static-problem]
              Carpenter, B. and S. Jiang, "Problem Statement for
              Renumbering IPv6 Hosts with Static Addresses in Enterprise
              Networks", draft-ietf-6renum-static-problem-03 (work in
              progress), December 2012.

   [I-D.ietf-v6ops-design-choices]
              Matthews, P., "Design Choices for IPv6 Networks",
              draft-ietf-v6ops-design-choices-00 (work in progress),
              February 2013.

   [I-D.ietf-opsec-v6]
              Chittimaneni, K., Kaeo, M., and E. Vyncke, "Operational
              Security Considerations for IPv6 Networks",
              draft-ietf-opsec-v6-02 (work in progress), February 2013.

   [I-D.ietf-opsec-ipv6-host-scanning]
              Gont, F. and T. Chown, "Network Reconnaissance in IPv6
              Networks", draft-ietf-opsec-ipv6-host-scanning-00 (work in
              progress), December 2012.

   [I-D.ietf-opsec-ipv6-implications-on-ipv4-nets]



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              Gont, F. and W. Liu, "Security Implications of IPv6 on
              IPv4 Networks",
              draft-ietf-opsec-ipv6-implications-on-ipv4-nets-03 (work
              in progress), February 2013.

   [I-D.ietf-v6ops-ra-guard-implementation]
              Gont, F., "Implementation Advice for IPv6 Router
              Advertisement Guard (RA-Guard)",
              draft-ietf-v6ops-ra-guard-implementation-07 (work in
              progress), November 2012.

   [I-D.ietf-v6ops-icp-guidance]
              Carpenter, B. and S. Jiang, "IPv6 Guidance for Internet
              Content and Application Service Providers",
              draft-ietf-v6ops-icp-guidance-05 (work in progress),
              January 2013.

   [SMURF]    "CERT Advisory CA-1998-01 Smurf IP Denial-of-Service
              Attacks",
              <http://www.cert.org/advisories/CA-1998-01.html>.

   [CYMRU]    "THE BOGON REFERENCE",
              <http://www.team-cymru.org/Services/Bogons/>.


Authors' Addresses

   Kiran K. Chittimaneni
   Google Inc.
   1600 Amphitheater Pkwy
   Mountain View, California  CA 94043
   USA

   Email: kk@google.com


   Tim Chown
   University of Southampton
   Highfield
   Southampton, Hampshire  SO17 1BJ
   United Kingdom

   Email: tjc@ecs.soton.ac.uk








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   Lee Howard
   Time Warner Cable
   13820 Sunrise Valley Drive
   Herndon, VA  20171
   US

   Phone: +1 703 345 3513
   Email: lee.howard@twcable.com


   Victor Kuarsingh
   Rogers Communications
   8200 Dixie Road
   Brampton, Ontario
   Canada

   Email: victor.kuarsingh@rci.rogers.com


   Yanick Pouffary
   Hewlett Packard
   950 Route Des Colles
   Sophia-Antipolis  06901
   France

   Email: Yanick.Pouffary@hp.com


   Eric Vyncke
   Cisco Systems
   De Kleetlaan 6a
   Diegem  1831
   Belgium

   Phone: +32 2 778 4677
   Email: evyncke@cisco.com















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