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Versions: (draft-resnick-vcarddav-vcardrev) 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 RFC 6350

Network Working Group                                       S. Perreault
Internet-Draft                                                  Viagenie
Obsoletes: 2425, 2426, 4770                                   P. Resnick
(if approved)                                      QUALCOMM Incorporated
Updates: 2739 (if approved)                             October 20, 2009
Intended status: Standards Track
Expires: April 23, 2010


                       vCard Format Specification
                    draft-ietf-vcarddav-vcardrev-09

Status of This Memo

   This Internet-Draft is submitted to IETF in full conformance with the
   provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.  This document may contain material
   from IETF Documents or IETF Contributions published or made publicly
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   document may not be modified outside the IETF Standards Process, and
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Copyright Notice

   Copyright (c) 2009 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the



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   document authors.  All rights reserved.

   This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
   Provisions Relating to IETF Documents in effect on the date of
   publication of this document (http://trustee.ietf.org/license-info).
   Please review these documents carefully, as they describe your rights
   and restrictions with respect to this document.

Abstract

   This document defines the vCard data format for representing and
   exchanging a variety of information about individuals and other
   entities (e.g., formatted and structured name and delivery addresses,
   email address, multiple telephone numbers, photograph, logo, audio
   clips, etc.).

Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  6
   2.  Conventions  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  6
   3.  vCard Format Specification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  6
     3.1.  Line Delimiting and Folding  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  6
     3.2.  ABNF Format Definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  7
     3.3.  Property Value Escaping  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  9
   4.  Property Value Data Types  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
     4.1.  TEXT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
     4.2.  URI  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
     4.3.  DATE, TIME, DATE-TIME, DATE-AND-OR-TIME, and TIMESTAMP . . 12
       4.3.1.  DATE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
       4.3.2.  TIME . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
       4.3.3.  DATE-TIME  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
       4.3.4.  DATE-AND-OR-TIME . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
       4.3.5.  TIMESTAMP  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
     4.4.  BOOLEAN  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
     4.5.  INTEGER  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
     4.6.  FLOAT  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
     4.7.  BINARY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
     4.8.  LANGUAGE-TAG . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
   5.  Property Parameters  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
     5.1.  LANGUAGE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
     5.2.  ENCODING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
     5.3.  VALUE  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
     5.4.  PREF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
     5.5.  PID  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
     5.6.  TYPE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
   6.  vCard Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
     6.1.  General Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
       6.1.1.  BEGIN  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20



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       6.1.2.  END  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
       6.1.3.  SOURCE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
       6.1.4.  NAME . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
       6.1.5.  KIND . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
     6.2.  Identification Properties  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
       6.2.1.  FN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
       6.2.2.  N  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
       6.2.3.  NICKNAME . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
       6.2.4.  PHOTO  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
       6.2.5.  BDAY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
       6.2.6.  DDAY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
       6.2.7.  BIRTH  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
       6.2.8.  DEATH  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
       6.2.9.  ANNIVERSARY  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
       6.2.10. SEX  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
     6.3.  Delivery Addressing Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
       6.3.1.  ADR  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
       6.3.2.  LABEL  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
     6.4.  Communications Properties  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
       6.4.1.  TEL  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
       6.4.2.  EMAIL  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
       6.4.3.  IMPP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
       6.4.4.  LANG . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
     6.5.  Geographical Properties  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
       6.5.1.  TZ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
       6.5.2.  GEO  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
     6.6.  Organizational Properties  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
       6.6.1.  TITLE  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
       6.6.2.  ROLE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
       6.6.3.  LOGO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
       6.6.4.  ORG  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
       6.6.5.  MEMBER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
       6.6.6.  RELATED  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
     6.7.  Explanatory Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
       6.7.1.  CATEGORIES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
       6.7.2.  NOTE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
       6.7.3.  PRODID . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
       6.7.4.  REV  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
       6.7.5.  SORT-STRING  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
       6.7.6.  SOUND  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
       6.7.7.  UID  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
       6.7.8.  CLIENTPIDMAP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
       6.7.9.  URL  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
       6.7.10. VERSION  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
     6.8.  Security Properties  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
       6.8.1.  CLASS  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
       6.8.2.  KEY  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
     6.9.  Calendar Properties  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48



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       6.9.1.  FBURL  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
       6.9.2.  CALADRURI  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
       6.9.3.  CALURI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
     6.10. Extended Properties and Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
   7.  Synchronization  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
     7.1.  Mechanisms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
       7.1.1.  Matching vCard Instances . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
       7.1.2.  Matching Property Instances  . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
       7.1.3.  PID Matching . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
     7.2.  Example  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
       7.2.1.  Creation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
       7.2.2.  Initial Sharing  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
       7.2.3.  Adding and Sharing a Property  . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
       7.2.4.  Simultaneous Editing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
       7.2.5.  Global Context Simplification  . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
   8.  Example: Authors' vCards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
   9.  Security Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
   10. IANA Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
     10.1. MIME Type Registration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
     10.2. Registering New vCard Elements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
       10.2.1. Registration Procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
       10.2.2. Vendor Namespace . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
       10.2.3. Registration Template for Properties . . . . . . . . . 59
       10.2.4. Registration Template for Parameters . . . . . . . . . 60
       10.2.5. Registration Template for Value Data Types . . . . . . 60
       10.2.6. Registration Template for Values . . . . . . . . . . . 60
     10.3. Initial vCard Elements Registries  . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
       10.3.1. Properties Registry  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
       10.3.2. Parameters Registry  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
       10.3.3. Value Data Types Registry  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
       10.3.4. Values Registries  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
   11. Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65
   12. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65
     12.1. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65
     12.2. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68
   Appendix A.  Differences from RFCs 2425 and 2426 . . . . . . . . . 68
     A.1.  New Structure  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68
     A.2.  Removed Features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69
     A.3.  New Properties and Parameters  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69
     A.4.  Other Changes  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69
   Appendix B.  Change Log (to be removed by RFC Editor prior to
                publication)  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70
     B.1.  Changes in -09 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70
     B.2.  Changes in -08 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70
     B.3.  Changes in -07 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70
     B.4.  Changes in -06 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
     B.5.  Changes in -05 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72
     B.6.  Changes in -04 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72



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     B.7.  Changes in -03 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72
     B.8.  Changes in -02 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73
     B.9.  Changes in -01 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73
     B.10. Changes in -00 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74















































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1.  Introduction

   Electronic address books have become ubiquitous.  Their increased
   presence on portable, connected devices as well as the diversity of
   platforms exchanging contact data call for a standard.  This memo
   defines the vCard format, which allows the capture and exchange of
   information normally stored within an address book or directory
   application.

2.  Conventions

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
   document are to be interpreted as described in [RFC2119].

3.  vCard Format Specification

   The text/vcard MIME content type (hereafter known as "vCard", see
   Section 10.1) contains contact information, typically pertaining to a
   single contact or group of contacts.  The content consists of one or
   more lines in the format given below.

3.1.  Line Delimiting and Folding

   Individual lines within vCard are delimited by the [RFC5322] line
   break, which is a CRLF sequence (ASCII decimal 13, followed by ASCII
   decimal 10).  Long logical lines of text can be split into a
   multiple-physical-line representation using the following folding
   technique.  Content lines SHOULD be folded to a maximum width of 75
   octets.  Multi-octet characters MUST remain contiguous.  The
   rationale for this folding process can be found in [RFC5322], Section
   2.1.1.

   A logical line MAY be continued on the next physical line anywhere
   between two characters by inserting a CRLF immediately followed by a
   single white space character (space, ASCII decimal 32, or horizontal
   tab, ASCII decimal 9).  The folded line MUST contain at least one
   character.  Any sequence of CRLF followed immediately by a single
   white space character is ignored (removed) when processing the
   content type.  For example the line:

     DESCRIPTION:This is a long description that exists on a long line.

   can be represented as:

     DESCRIPTION:This is a long description
       that exists on a long line.




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   It could also be represented as:

     DESCRIPTION:This is a long descrip
      tion that exists o
      n a long line.

   The process of moving from this folded multiple-line representation
   of a property definition to its single line representation is called
   unfolding.  Unfolding is accomplished by regarding CRLF immediately
   followed by a white space character (namely HTAB ASCII decimal 9 or
   SPACE ASCII decimal 32) as equivalent to no characters at all (i.e.,
   the CRLF and single white space character are removed).

      Note: It is possible for very simple implementations to generate
      improperly folded lines in the middle of a UTF-8 multi-octet
      sequence.  For this reason, implementations SHOULD unfold lines in
      such a way as to properly restore the original sequence.

      Note: Unfolding is done differently than in [RFC5322].  Unfolding
      in [RFC5322] only removes the CRLF, not the space following it.

   Folding is done after any content encoding of a type value.
   Unfolding is done before any decoding of a type value in a content
   line.

3.2.  ABNF Format Definition

   The following ABNF uses the notation of [RFC5234], which also defines
   CRLF, WSP, DQUOTE, VCHAR, ALPHA, and DIGIT.

     vcard-entity = 1*(vcard)

     vcard = "BEGIN" ":" "VCARD" CRLF
             1*contentline
             "END" ":" "VCARD" CRLF
       ;A vCard object MUST include the VERSION and FN properties.

     contentline = [group "."] name *(";" param) ":" value CRLF
       ; When parsing a content line, folded lines must first
       ; be unfolded according to the unfolding procedure
       ; described above.
       ; When generating a content line, lines longer than 75
       ; characters SHOULD be folded according to the folding
       ; procedure described above.

     group = 1*(ALPHA / DIGIT / "-")
     name  = "SOURCE" / "NAME" / "KIND" / "FN" / "N" / "NICKNAME"
           / "PHOTO" / "BDAY" / "DDAY" / "BIRTH" / "DEATH" / "SEX"



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           / "ADR" / "LABEL" / "TEL" / "EMAIL" / "IMPP" / "LANG"
           / "TZ" / "GEO" / "TITLE" / "ROLE" / "LOGO" / "ORG" / "MEMBER"
           / "RELATED" / "CATEGORIES" / "NOTE" / "PRODID" / "REV"
           / "SORT-STRING" / "SOUND" / "UID" / "CLIENTPIDMAP" / "URL"
           / "VERSION" / "CLASS" / "KEY" / "FBURL" / "CALADRURI"
           / "CALURI" / iana-token / x-name
       ; Parsing of the param and value is based on the "name" as
       ; defined in ABNF sections below.
       ; Group and name are case-insensitive.

     iana-token = 1*(ALPHA / DIGIT / "-")
       ; identifier registered with IANA

     x-name = "x-" 1*(ALPHA / DIGIT / "-")
       ; Names that begin with "x-" or "X-" are
       ; reserved for experimental use, not intended for released
       ; products, or for use in bilateral agreements.

     param = language-param / encoding-param / value-param / pref-param
           / pid-param / type-param / geo-param / tz-param / any-param
       ; Allowed parameters depend on property name.

     param-value = *SAFE-CHAR / DQUOTE *QSAFE-CHAR DQUOTE

     any-param  = (iana-token / x-name) "=" param-value

     NON-ASCII = %x80-FF
       ; Use is restricted by charset parameter
       ; on outer MIME object (UTF-8 by default)

     QSAFE-CHAR = WSP / %x21 / %x23-7E / NON-ASCII
       ; Any character except CTLs, DQUOTE

     SAFE-CHAR = WSP / %x21 / %x23-39 / %x3C-7E / NON-ASCII
       ; Any character except CTLs, DQUOTE, ";", ":"

     VALUE-CHAR = WSP / VCHAR / NON-ASCII
       ; Any textual character

   A line that begins with a white space character is a continuation of
   the previous line, as described above.  The white space character and
   immediately preceeding CRLF should be discarded when reconstructing
   the original line.  Note that this line-folding convention differs
   from that found in [RFC5322], in that the sequence <CRLF><WSP> found
   anywhere in the content indicates a continued line and should be
   removed.

   Property names and parameter names are case insensitive (e.g., the



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   property name "fn" is the same as "FN" and "Fn").  Parameter values
   MAY be case sensitive or case insensitive, depending on their
   definition.

   The group construct is used to group related properties together.
   The group name is a syntactic convention used to indicate that all
   property names prefaced with the same group name SHOULD be grouped
   together when displayed by an application.  It has no other
   significance.  Implementations that do not understand or support
   grouping MAY simply strip off any text before a "." to the left of
   the type name and present the types and values as normal.

   Properties defined in a vCard instance may have multiple values
   depending on the property cardinality.  The general rule for encoding
   multi-valued properties is to simply create a new content line for
   each value (including the property name).  However, it should be
   noted that some value types support encoding multiple values in a
   single content line by separating the values with a comma ",".  This
   approach has been taken for several of the content types defined
   below (date, time, integer, float), for space-saving reasons.

3.3.  Property Value Escaping

   A property instance may contain one or more values delimited by a
   COMMA character (ASCII decimal 44).  Therefore, a COMMA character in
   a value MUST be escaped with a BACKSLASH character (ASCII decimal
   92), even for properties that don't allow multiple instances (for
   consistency).

   Some properties (e.g.  N and ADR) comprise multiple fields delimited
   by a SEMI-COLON character (ASCII decimal 59).  Therefore, a SEMI-
   COLON in a field of such a "compound" property MUST be escaped with a
   BACKSLASH character.  SEMI-COLON characters in non-compound
   properties MUST NOT be escaped.

   Furthermore, some fields of compound properties may contain a list of
   values delimited by a COMMA character.  Therefore, a COMMA character
   in one of a field's values MUST be escaped with a BACKSLASH
   character, even for fields that don't allow multiple values (for
   consistency).  Compound properties allowing multiple instances MUST
   NOT be encoded in a single content line.

   Finally, newline (ASCII decimal 10) and backslash (ASCII decimal 92)
   characters in values MUST be escaped by prefixing them with a
   backslash character.

   In all other cases, escaping MUST NOT be used.




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4.  Property Value Data Types

   Standard value types are defined below.

     value = text
           / text-list
           / date-list
           / time-list
           / date-time-list
           / date-and-or-time-list
           / timestamp-list
           / boolean
           / integer-list
           / float-list
           / binary
           / URI               ; from Section 3 of [RFC3986]
           / iana-valuespec
       ; Actual value type depends on property name and VALUE parameter.

     text = *VALUE-CHAR

     text-list = *TEXT-LIST-CHAR *("," *TEXT-LIST-CHAR)

     TEXT-LIST-CHAR = "\\" / "\," / "\n"
                    / <any VALUE-CHAR except , or \ or newline>
        ; Backslashes, commas, and newlines must be encoded.

     date-list             = date             *("," date)
     time-list             = time             *("," time)
     date-time-list        = date-time        *("," date-time)
     date-and-or-time-list = date-and-or-time *("," date-and-or-time)
     timestamp-list        = timestamp        *("," timestamp)
     integer-list          = integer          *("," integer)
     float-list            = float            *("," float)

     boolean = "TRUE" / "FALSE"
     integer = [sign] 1*DIGIT
     float   = [sign] 1*DIGIT ["." 1*DIGIT]

     sign = "+" / "-"

     binary = <A binary string encoded as per the "encoding" parameter>

     year   = 4DIGIT  ; 0000-9999
     month  = 2DIGIT  ; 01-12
     day    = 2DIGIT  ; 01-28/29/30/31 depending on month and leap year
     hour   = 2DIGIT  ; 00-23
     minute = 2DIGIT  ; 00-59



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     second = 2DIGIT  ; 00-58/59/60 depending on leap second
     zone   = "Z" / utc-offset

     date          = year    [month  day]
                   / year "-" month
                   / "--"     month [day]
                   / "--"      "-"   day
     date-noreduc  = year     month  day
                   / "--"     month  day
                   / "--"      "-"   day
     date-complete = year     month  day

     time          = hour [minute [second]] [zone]
                   /  "-"  minute [second]  [zone]
                   /  "-"   "-"    second   [zone]
     time-notrunc  = hour [minute [second]] [zone]
     time-complete = hour  minute  second   [zone]

     date-time = date-noreduc  "T" time-notrunc
     timestamp = date-complete "T" time-complete

     date-and-or-time = date-time / date / "T" time

     utc-offset = sign hour [minute]

     iana-valuespec = <value-spec, see Section 12>
                    ; a publicly-defined valuetype format, registered
                    ; with IANA, as defined in section 12 of this
                    ; document

4.1.  TEXT

   "text": The "text" value type should be used to identify values that
   contain human-readable text.  The character set in which the text is
   represented is controlled by the "charset" MIME type parameter.  Note
   that there is no way to override this parameter on a per-property
   basis.  As for the language, it is controlled by the "language"
   property parameter defined in Section 5.1.

   Examples for "text":

       this is a text value
       this is one value,this is another
       this is a single value\, with a comma encoded

   A formatted text line break in a text value type MUST be represented
   as the character sequence backslash (ASCII decimal 92) followed by a
   Latin small letter n (ASCII decimal 110) or a Latin capital letter N



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   (ASCII decimal 78), that is "\n" or "\N".

   For example a multiple line DESCRIPTION value of:

       Mythical Manager
       Hyjinx Software Division
       BabsCo, Inc.

   could be represented as:

       DESCRIPTION:Mythical Manager\nHyjinx Software Division\n
        BabsCo\, Inc.\n

   demonstrating the \n literal formatted line break technique, the
   CRLF-followed-by-space line folding technique, and the backslash
   escape technique.

4.2.  URI

   "uri": The "uri" value type should be used to identify values that
   are referenced by a URI (including a Content-ID URI), instead of
   encoded in-line.  These value references might be used if the value
   is too large, or otherwise undesirable to include directly.  The
   format for the URI is as defined in [RFC3986].  Note that the value
   of a property of type "uri" is what the URI points to, not the URI
   itself.

   Examples for "uri":

       http://www.example.com/my/picture.jpg
       ldap://ldap.example.com/cn=babs%20jensen

4.3.  DATE, TIME, DATE-TIME, DATE-AND-OR-TIME, and TIMESTAMP

   "date", "time", "date-time", and "timestamp": Each of these value
   types is based on the definitions in [ISO.8601.2004] standard.
   Multiple such values can be specified using the comma-separated
   notation.

   Only the basic format is supported.

4.3.1.  DATE

   A calendar date as specified in [ISO.8601.2004] section 4.1.2.

   Reduced accuracy, as specified in [ISO.8601.2004] sections 4.1.2.3 a)
   and b), but not c), is permitted.




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   Expanded representation, as specified in [ISO.8601.2004] section
   4.1.4, is forbidden.

   Truncated representation, as specified in [ISO.8601.2000] sections
   5.2.1.3 d), e), and f), is permitted.

   Examples for "date":

             19850412
             1985-04
             1985
             --0412
             ---12

4.3.2.  TIME

   A time of day as specified in [ISO.8601.2004] section 4.2.

   Reduced accuracy, as specified in [ISO.8601.2004] section 4.2.2.3, is
   permitted.

   Representation with decimal fraction, as specified in [ISO.8601.2004]
   section 4.2.2.4, is forbidden.

   Midnight is always represented by 00, never 24 (see [ISO.8601.2004]
   section 4.2.3).

   Truncated representation, as specified in [ISO.8601.2000] sections
   5.3.1.4 a), b), and c), is permitted.

   Examples for "time":

             102200
             1022
             10
             -2200
             --00
             102200Z
             102200-0800

4.3.3.  DATE-TIME

   A date and time of day combination as specified in [ISO.8601.2004]
   section 4.3.

   Truncation of the date part, as specified in [ISO.8601.2000] section
   5.4.2 c), is permitted.




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   Examples for "date-time":

             19961022T140000
             --1022T1400
             ---22T14

4.3.4.  DATE-AND-OR-TIME

   Either a DATE-TIME, a DATE, or a TIME value.  To allow unambiguous
   interpretation, a standalone TIME value is always preceded by a "T".

   Examples for "date-and-or-time":

             19961022T140000
             --1022T1400
             ---22T14
             19850412
             1985-04
             1985
             --0412
             ---12
             T102200
             T1022
             T10
             T-2200
             T--00
             T102200Z
             T102200-0800

4.3.5.  TIMESTAMP

   A complete date and time of day combination as specified in
   [ISO.8601.2004] section 4.3.2.

   Examples for "timestamp":

             19961022T140000
             19961022T140000Z
             19961022T140000-05
             19961022T140000-0500

4.4.  BOOLEAN

   "boolean": The "boolean" value type is used to express boolen values.
   These values are case insensitive.






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   Examples:

       TRUE
       false
       True

4.5.  INTEGER

   "integer": The "integer" value type is used to express signed
   integers in decimal format.  If sign is not specified, the value is
   assumed positive "+".  Multiple "integer" values can be specified
   using the comma-separated notation.

   Examples:

       1234567890
       -1234556790
       +1234556790,432109876

4.6.  FLOAT

   "float": The "float" value type is used to express real numbers.  If
   sign is not specified, the value is assumed positive "+".  Multiple
   "float" values can be specified using the comma-separated notation.

   Examples:

       20.30
       1000000.0000001
       1.333,3.14

4.7.  BINARY

   "binary": The "binary" value type specifies that the type value is
   inline, encoded binary data.  This value type can be specified in the
   PHOTO, LOGO, SOUND, and KEY types.

   If inline encoded binary data is specified, the ENCODING type
   parameter MUST be used to specify the encoding format.  The binary
   data MUST be encoded using the "B" encoding format.  Long lines of
   encoded binary data SHOULD BE folded to 75 characters using the
   folding method defined in Section 3.1.

4.8.  LANGUAGE-TAG

   "language-tag": A single language tag, as defined in [RFC5646].





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5.  Property Parameters

   A property can have attributes associated with it.  These "property
   parameters" contain meta-information about the property or the
   property value.

   Property parameter values that contain the COLON (US-ASCII decimal
   58), SEMICOLON (US-ASCII decimal 59) or COMMA (US-ASCII decimal 44)
   character separators MUST be specified as quoted-string text values.
   Property parameter values MUST NOT contain the DQUOTE (US-ASCII
   decimal 22) character.  The DQUOTE (US-ASCII decimal 22) character is
   used as a delimiter for parameter values that contain restricted
   characters or URI text.  For example:

     EMAIL;PID=8:jdoe@example.com

   Property parameter values that are not in quoted strings are case
   insensitive.

   Applications MUST ignore x-param and iana-param values they don't
   recognize.

5.1.  LANGUAGE

   The "language" property parameter is used to identify data in
   multiple languages.  There is no concept of "default" language,
   except as specified by any "Content-Language" MIME header parameter
   that is present.  The value of the "language" property parameter is a
   language tag as defined in Section 2 of [RFC5646].

   ABNF:

           language-param = "LANGUAGE=" Language-Tag
             ; Language-Tag is defined in section 2.1 of RFC 5646

5.2.  ENCODING

   The "encoding" property parameter is used to specify an alternate
   encoding for a value.  If the value contains a CRLF, it must be
   encoded, since CRLF is used to separate lines in the content-type
   itself.  Currently, only the "b" encoding is supported.

   The "b" encoding can also be useful for binary values that are mixed
   with other text information in the body part (e.g., a certificate).
   Using a per-value "b" encoding in this case leaves the other
   information in a more readable form.  The encoded base 64 value can
   be split across multiple physical lines by using the line folding
   technique described above.



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   The Content-Transfer-Encoding header field is used to specify the
   encoding used for the body part as a whole.  The "encoding" property
   parameter is used to specify an encoding for a particular value
   (e.g., a certificate).  In this case, the Content-Transfer-Encoding
   header might specify "8bit", while the one certificate value might
   specify an encoding of "b" via an "encoding=b" property parameter.

   The Content-Transfer-Encoding and the encodings of individual
   properties given by the "encoding" property parameter are independent
   of one another.  When encoding a text/vcard body part for
   transmission, individual property encodings are performed first, then
   the entire body part is encoded according to the Content-Transfer-
   Encoding.  When decoding a text/vcard body part, the Content-
   Transfer-Encoding is decoded first, and then any individual
   properties with an "encoding" property parameter are decoded.

   ABNF:

           encoding-param = "ENCODING=" encoding-type

           encoding-type = "b"          ; from [RFC2047]
                         / iana-token   ; registered as in section 12

5.3.  VALUE

   The "value" parameter is optional, and is used to identify the value
   type (data type) and format of the value.  The use of these
   predefined formats is encouraged even if the value parameter is not
   explicity used.  By defining a standard set of value types and their
   formats, existing parsing and processing code can be leveraged.  The
   predefined data type values MUST NOT be repeated in COMMA separated
   value lists except within the N, NICKNAME, ADR and CATEGORIES
   properties.

   Including the value type explicitly as part of each property provides
   an extra hint to keep parsing simple and support more generalized
   applications.  For example a search engine would not have to know the
   particular value types for all of the items for which it is
   searching.  Because the value type is explicit in the definition, the
   search engine could look for dates in any item type and provide
   results that can still be interpreted.










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   ABNF:

     value-param = "VALUE=" value-type

     value-type = "text"
                / "uri"
                / "date"
                / "time"
                / "date-time"
                / "timestamp"
                / "boolean"
                / "integer"
                / "float"
                / "binary"
                / "language-tag"
                / iana-token  ; registered as described in section 12
                / x-name

5.4.  PREF

   The "pref" parameter is optional, and is used to indicate that the
   corresponding instance of a property is preferred by the vCard
   author.  Its value MUST be an integer between 1 and 100 that
   quantifies the level of preferredness.  Lower values correspond to a
   higher level of preferrredness, 1 being most preferred.

   When the parameter is absent, the default MUST be to interpret the
   property instance as being least preferred.

   Note that the value of this parameter is to be interpreted only in
   relation to values assigned to other instances of the same property
   in the same vCard.  A given value, or the absence of a value, MUST
   NOT be interpreted on its own.

   This parameter MAY be applied to any property that allows multiple
   instances.

   ABNF:

           pref-param = "PREF=" (1*2DIGIT / "100")

5.5.  PID

   The "pid" parameter is used to identify a specific property among
   multiple instances.  It plays a role analogous to the UID property
   (Section 6.7.7) on a per-property instead of per-vCard basis.  It MAY
   appear more than once in a given property.  It MUST NOT appear on
   properties that only may have one instance per vCard.  Its value is



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   either a single small integer, or a pair of small integers separated
   by a dot.  Multiple values may be encoded in a single PID parameter
   by separating the values with a comma ",".  See Section 7 for more
   details on its usage.

   ABNF:

           pid-param = "PID=" pid-value *("," pid-value)
           pid-value = 1*DIGIT ["." 1*DIGIT]

5.6.  TYPE

   The "type" parameter has multiple, different uses.  In general, it is
   a way of specifying class characteristics of the associated property.
   Most of the time, its value is a comma-separated subset of a pre-
   defined enumeration.  In this document, the following properties make
   use of this parameter: FN, NICKNAME, PHOTO, ADR, LABEL, TEL, EMAIL,
   IMPP, LANG, TZ, GEO, TITLE, ROLE, LOGO, ORG, RELATED, CATEGORIES,
   NOTE, SOUND, URL, KEY, FIBURL, CALADRURI, and CALURI.  The TYPE
   parameter MUST NOT be applied on other properties defined in this
   document.

   The "work" and "home" values can be used wherever the TYPE parameter
   is allowed, but only when the KIND property is absent or its value is
   "individual".  They act like tags.  The "work" value implies that the
   property is related to an individual's work place, while the "home"
   value implies that the property is related to an individual's
   personal life.  When neither "work" nor "home" is present, it is
   implied that the property is related to both an individual's work
   place and personal life in case the KIND property's value is
   "individual", or to none in other cases.

   ABNF:

           type-param = "TYPE=" type-value *("," type-value)

           type-value = "work" / "home" / type-param-tel
                      / type-param-related / iana-token / x-name
             ; This is further defined in individual property sections.

6.  vCard Properties

   What follows is an enumeration of the standard vCard properties.

   Property cardinalities are indicated using the following notation:






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    +-------------+--------------------------------------------------+
    | Cardinality | Meaning                                          |
    +-------------+--------------------------------------------------+
    |    (1,1)    | Exactly one instance per vCard MUST be present.  |
    |    (0,1)    | Exactly one instance per vCard MAY be present.   |
    |    (1,n)    | One or more instances per vCard MUST be present. |
    |    (0,n)    | One or more instances per vCard MAY be present.  |
    +-------------+--------------------------------------------------+

6.1.  General Properties

6.1.1.  BEGIN

   Purpose:  To denote the beginning of a syntactic entity within a
      text/vcard content-type.

   Value type:  text

   Cardinality:  (1,1)

   Special notes:  The content entity MUST begin with the BEGIN property
      with a value of "VCARD".

      The BEGIN property is used in conjunction with the END property to
      delimit an entity containing a related set of properties within an
      text/vcard content-type.  This construct can be used instead of or
      in addition to wrapping separate sets of information inside
      additional MIME headers.  It is provided for applications that
      wish to define content that can contain multiple entities within
      the same text/vcard content-type or to define content that can be
      identifiable outside of a MIME environment.

   ABNF:

                   BEGIN-param =  ; no parameter allowed
                   BEGIN-value = "VCARD"

   Example:

         BEGIN:VCARD

6.1.2.  END

   Purpose:  To denote the end of a syntactic entity within a text/vcard
      content-type.






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   Value type:  text

   Cardinality:  (1,1)

   Special notes:  The content entity MUST end with the END type with a
      value of "VCARD".

      The END property is used in conjunction with the BEGIN property to
      delimit an entity containing a related set of properties within an
      text/vcard content-type.  This construct can be used instead of or
      in addition to wrapping separate sets of information inside
      additional MIME headers.  It is provided for applications that
      wish to define content that can contain multiple entities within
      the same text/vcard content-type or to define content that can be
      identifiable outside of a MIME environment.

   ABNF:

                   END-param =  ; no parameter allowed
                   END-value = "VCARD"

   Example:

         END:VCARD

6.1.3.  SOURCE

   Purpose:  To identify the source of directory information contained
      in the content type.

   Value type:  uri

   Cardinality:  (0,n)

   Special notes:  The SOURCE property is used to provide the means by
      which applications knowledgable in the given directory service
      protocol can obtain additional or more up-to-date information from
      the directory service.  It contains a URI as defined in [RFC3986]
      and/or other information referencing the vCard to which the
      information pertains.  When directory information is available
      from more than one source, the sending entity can pick what it
      considers to be the best source, or multiple SOURCE properties can
      be included.

   ABNF:

     SOURCE-param = "VALUE=uri" / pid-param / pref-param / any-param
     SOURCE-value = uri



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   Examples:

     SOURCE:ldap://ldap.example.com/cn=Babs%20Jensen,%20o=Babsco,%20c=US

     SOURCE:http://directory.example.com/addressbooks/jdoe/
      Jean%20Dupont.vcf

6.1.4.  NAME

   Purpose:  To identify the displayable name of the directory entity to
      which information in the vCard pertains.

   Value type:  text

   Cardinality:  (0,1)

   Special notes:  The NAME property is used to convey the display name
      of the entity to which the directory information pertains.  Its
      value is the displayable, presentation text associated with the
      source for the vCard, as specified in the SOURCE property.

   ABNF:

                   NAME-param = "VALUE=text" / any-param
                   NAME-value = text

   Example:

         NAME:Babs Jensen's Contact Information

6.1.5.  KIND

   Purpose:  To specify the kind of object the vCard represents.

   Value type:  A single text value.

   Cardinality:  (0,1)

   Special notes:  The value may be one of: "individual" for a single
      person, "group" for a group of people, "org" for an organization,
      "location" for a named geographical place, "thing" for an
      inanimate object (e.g. a device, a server, etc.), an x-name or an
      iana-token.  If this property is absent, "individual" MUST be
      assumed as default.







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   ABNF:

     KIND-param = "VALUE=text" / any-param
     KIND-value = "individual" / "group" / "org" / "location"
                / iana-token / x-name

   Example:

      This represents someone named Jane Doe working in the marketing
      department of the North American division of ABC Inc.

         BEGIN:VCARD
         VERSION:4.0
         KIND:individual
         FN:Jane Doe
         ORG:ABC\, Inc.;North American Division;Marketing
         END:VCARD

      This represents the department itself, commonly known as ABC
      Marketing.

         BEGIN:VCARD
         VERSION:4.0
         KIND:org
         FN:ABC Marketing
         ORG:ABC\, Inc.;North American Division;Marketing
         END:VCARD

6.2.  Identification Properties

   These types are used to capture information associated with the
   identification and naming of the person or resource associated with
   the vCard.

6.2.1.  FN

   Purpose:  To specify the formatted text corresponding to the name of
      the object the vCard represents.

   Value type:  A single text value.

   Cardinality:  (1,n)

   Special notes:  This property is based on the semantics of the X.520
      Common Name attribute.  The property MUST be present in the vCard
      object.





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   ABNF:

     FN-param = "VALUE=text" / type-param / language-param / pid-param
              / pref-param / any-param
     FN-value = text

   Example:

         FN:Mr. John Q. Public\, Esq.

6.2.2.  N

   Purpose:  To specify the components of the name of the object the
      vCard represents.

   Value type:  A single structured text value.  Each component can have
      multiple values.

   Cardinality:  (0,1)

   Special note:  The structured property value corresponds, in
      sequence, to the Surname, Given Names, Honorific Prefixes, and
      Honorific Suffixes.  The text components are separated by the
      SEMI-COLON character (ASCII decimal 59).  Individual text
      components can include multiple text values (e.g., multiple
      Additional Names) separated by the COMMA character (ASCII decimal
      44).  This property is based on the semantics of the X.520
      individual name attributes.  The property SHOULD be present in the
      vCard object when the name of the object the vCard represents
      follows the X.520 model.

   ABNF:

     N-param = "VALUE=text" / language-param / any-param
     N-value = list-component 3(";" list-component)

     list-component = list-component-value *("," list-component-value)
     list-component-value = "\\" / "\," / "\;" / "\n" / WSP / NON-ASCII
                          / %x21-2B / %x2D-3A / %x3C-5B / %x5D-7E

   Examples:

             N:Public;John,Q.;Mr.;Esq.

             N:Stevenson;John,Philip,Paul;Dr.;Jr.,M.D.,A.C.P.






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6.2.3.  NICKNAME

   Purpose:  To specify the text corresponding to the nickname of the
      object the vCard represents.

   Value type:  One or more text values separated by a COMMA character
      (ASCII decimal 44).

   Cardinality:  (0,n)

   Special note:  The nickname is the descriptive name given instead of
      or in addition to the one belonging to a person, place, or thing.
      It can also be used to specify a familiar form of a proper name
      specified by the FN or N properties.

   ABNF:

     NICKNAME-param = "VALUE=text" / type-param / language-param
                    / pid-param / pref-param / any-param
     NICKNAME-value = text-list

   Examples:

             NICKNAME:Robbie

             NICKNAME:Jim,Jimmie

             NICKNAME;TYPE=work:Boss

6.2.4.  PHOTO

   Purpose:  To specify an image or photograph information that
      annotates some aspect of the object the vCard represents.

   Encoding:  The encoding MUST be reset to "b" using the ENCODING
      parameter in order to specify inline, encoded binary data.  If the
      value is referenced by a URI value, then the default encoding is
      used and no explicit ENCODING parameter is needed.

   Value type:  A single value.  The default is binary value.  It can
      also be reset to uri value.  The uri value can be used to specify
      a value outside of this MIME entity.

   Cardinality:  (0,n)







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   Special notes:  This property SHOULD include the parameter "TYPE" to
      specify the graphic image format type.  The TYPE parameter value
      MUST be an image media type as specified in [RFC4288].  The full
      media type name, including the "image/" prefix, SHOULD be used.
      However, implementations SHOULD be able to handle bare subtypes.

   ABNF:

     PHOTO-param = inline-param / refer-param / type-param
     PHOTO-value = inline-value / refer-value
       ; Value and parameter MUST match.

     PHOTO-param =/ pid-param / pref-param / any-param

     inline-param = "VALUE=binary"
                  / encoding-param
                  / "TYPE=" type-name "/" subtype-name
                      ; from [RFC4288] section 4.2
     inline-value = binary

     refer-param = "VALUE=uri"
     refer-value = uri

   Example:

       PHOTO;VALUE=uri:http://www.example.com/pub/photos
        /jqpublic.gif


       PHOTO;ENCODING=b;TYPE=image/jpeg:MIICajCCAdOgAwIBAgICBEUwDQYJKo
        ZIhvcNAQEEBQAwdzELMAkGA1UEBhMCVVMxLDAqBgNVBAoTI05ldHNjYXBlIENv
        bW11bmljYXRpb25zIENvcnBvcmF0aW9uMRwwGgYDVQQLExNJbmZvcm1hdGlvbi
        <...remainder of "B" encoded binary data...>

6.2.5.  BDAY

   Purpose:  To specify the birth date of the object the vCard
      represents.

   Value type:  The default is a single date-and-or-time value.  It can
      also be reset to a single text value.

   Cardinality:  (0,1)

   ABNF:






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                   BDAY-param = "VALUE=" ("date-and-or-time" / "text")
                   BDAY-value = date-and-or-time / text
                     ; Value and parameter MUST match.

                   BDAY-param =/ any-param

   Examples:

             BDAY:19960415
             BDAY:--0415
             BDAY;19531015T231000Z
             BDAY;VALUE=text:circa 1800

6.2.6.  DDAY

   Purpose:  To specify the date of death of the object the vCard
      represents.

   Value type:  The default is a single date-and-or-time value.  It can
      also be reset to a single text value.

   Cardinality:  (0,1)

   ABNF:

                   DDAY-param = "VALUE=" ("date-and-or-time" / "text")
                   DDAY-value = date-and-or-time / text
                     ; Value and parameter MUST match.

                   DDAY-param =/ any-param

6.2.7.  BIRTH

   Purpose:  To specify the place of birth of the object the vCard
      represents.

   Value type:  A single text value.

   Cardinality:  (0,1)

   ABNF:

     BIRTH-param = "VALUE=text" / language-param / any-param
     BIRTH-value = text







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   Example:

             BIRTH:Babies'R'Us Hospital

6.2.8.  DEATH

   Purpose:  To specify the place of death of the object the vCard
      represents.

   Value type:  A single text value.

   Cardinality:  (0,1)

   ABNF:

     DEATH-param = "VALUE=text" / language-param / any-param
     DEATH-value = text

   Example:

             DEATH:Aboard the Titanic\, near Newfoundland

6.2.9.  ANNIVERSARY

   Purpose:  The date of marriage, or equivalent, of the object the
      vCard represents.

   Value type:  The default is a single date-and-or-time value.  It can
      also be reset to a single text value.

   Cardinality:  (0,1)

   ABNF:

     ANNIVERSARY-param = "VALUE=" ("date-and-or-time" / "text")
     ANNIVERSARY-value = date-and-or-time / text
       ; Value and parameter MUST match.

     ANNIVERSARY-param =/ any-param

   Examples:

             ANNIVERSARY:19960415








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6.2.10.  SEX

   Purpose:  To specify the sex of the object the vCard represents, as
      defined in [ISO.5218.2004].

   Value type:  A single integer value.

   Cardinality:  (0,1)

   Special notes:  The value 0 stands for "not known", 1 stands for
      "male", 2 stands for "female", and 9 stands for "not applicable".

   ABNF:

                   SEX-param = "VALUE=integer" / any-param
                   SEX-value = "0" / "1" / "2" / "9"

   Example:

             SEX:2

6.3.  Delivery Addressing Properties

   These types are concerned with information related to the delivery
   addressing or label for the vCard object.

6.3.1.  ADR

   Purpose:  To specify the components of the delivery address for the
      vCard object.

   Value type:  A single structured text value, separated by the SEMI-
      COLON character (ASCII decimal 59).

   Cardinality:  (0,n)

   Special notes:  The structured type value consists of a sequence of
      address components.  The component values MUST be specified in
      their corresponding position.  The structured type value
      corresponds, in sequence, to the post office box; the extended
      address (e.g. apartment or suite number); the street address; the
      locality (e.g., city); the region (e.g., state or province); the
      postal code; the country name.  When a component value is missing,
      the associated component separator MUST still be specified.







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      The text components are separated by the SEMI-COLON character
      (ASCII decimal 59).  Where it makes semantic sense, individual
      text components can include multiple text values (e.g., a "street"
      component with multiple lines) separated by the COMMA character
      (ASCII decimal 44).

      The property can include the "PREF" parameter to indicate the
      preferred delivery address when more than one address is
      specified.

      The GEO parameter can be used to indicate global positioning
      information that is specific to this address.  Its value is the
      same as that of the GEO property.

      The TZ parameter can be used to indicate time zone information
      that is specific to this address.  Its value is the same as that
      of the TZ property.

   ABNF:

     ADR-param = "VALUE=text" / language-param / geo-param / tz-param
               / pid-param / pref-param / type-param / any-param
     ADR-value = list-component 6(";" list-component)

     geo-param = "GEO=" DQUOTE uri DQUOTE
     tz-param  = "TZ=" DQUOTE (text / uri) DQUOTE

   Example: In this example the post office box and the extended address
   are absent.

     ADR;GEO="geo:12.3457,78.910":;;123 Main Street;Any Town;CA
      ;91921-1234;USA

6.3.2.  LABEL

   Purpose:  To specify the formatted text corresponding to a delivery
      address of the object the vCard represents.

   Value type:  A single text value.

   Cardinality:  (0,n)

   Special notes:  The property value is formatted text that can be used
      to present a delivery address label for the vCard object.  The
      property can include the "PREF" parameter to indicate the
      preferred delivery address when more than one address is
      specified.




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   ABNF:

     LABEL-param = "VALUE=text" / language-param / pid-param
                 / pref-param / type-param / any-param
     LABEL-value = text

   Example: A multi-line address label.

           LABEL:Mr.John Q. Public\, Esq.\nMail Drop: TNE QB\n
            123 Main Street\nAny Town\, CA  91921-1234\nU.S.A.

6.4.  Communications Properties

   These properties are concerned with information associated with the
   way communications with the object the vCard represents are carried
   out.

6.4.1.  TEL

   Purpose:  To specify the telephone number for telephony communication
      with the object the vCard represents.

   Value type:  A single URI value.  It is expected that the URI scheme
      will be "tel", as specified in [RFC3966], but other schemes MAY be
      used.

   Cardinality:  (0,n)

   Special notes:  This property is based on the X.520 Telephone Number
      attribute.

      The property can include the "PREF" parameter to indicate a
      preferred-use telephone number.

      The property can include the parameter "TYPE" to specify intended
      use for the telephone number.  The TYPE parameter values can
      include: "text" to indicate the telephone number supports text
      messages, "voice" to indicate a voice telephone number, "fax" to
      indicate a facsimile telephone number, "cell" to indicate a
      cellular or mobile telephone number, "video" to indicate a video
      conferencing telephone number, "pager" to indicate a paging device
      telephone number.  The default type is "voice".  These type
      parameter values can be specified as a parameter list (e.g.,
      "TYPE=text;TYPE=voice") or as a value list (e.g.,
      "TYPE=text,voice").  The default can be overridden to another set
      of values by specifying one or more alternate values.  For
      example, the default TYPE of "voice" can be reset to a VOICE and
      FAX telephone number by the value list "TYPE=voice,fax".



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   ABNF:

     TEL-param = "VALUE=uri" / type-param / pid-param / pref-param
               / any-param
     TEL-value = uri

     type-param-tel = "text" / "voice" / "fax" / "cell" / "video"
                    / "pager" / iana-token / x-name
       ; type-param-tel MUST NOT be used with a property other than TEL.

   Example:

           TEL;PREF=1;TYPE=voice,msg,home:tel:+1-555-555-5555;ext=5555
           TEL;TYPE=home:tel:+33-01-23-45-67

6.4.2.  EMAIL

   Purpose:  To specify the electronic mail address for communication
      with the object the vCard represents.

   Value type:  A single text value.

   Cardinality:  (0,n)

   Special notes:  The property can include tye "PREF" parameter to
      indicate a preferred-use email address when more than one is
      specified.

   ABNF:

     EMAIL-param = "VALUE=text" / pid-param / pref-param / type-param
                 / any-param
     EMAIL-value = addr-spec  ; from [RFC5322] section 3.4.1

   Type example:

           EMAIL;TYPE=work:jqpublic@xyz.example.com

           EMAIL;PREF=1:jane_doe@example.com

6.4.3.  IMPP

   Purpose:  To specify the URI for instant messaging and presence
      protocol communications with the object the vCard represents.







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   Value type:  A single URI.

   Cardinality:  (0,n)

   Special notes:  The property may include the "PREF" parameter to
      indicate that this is a preferred address and has the same
      semantics as the "PREF" parameter in a TEL property.

      This property is adapted from [RFC4770], which is made obsolete by
      this document.

   ABNF:

     IMPP-param = "VALUE=uri" / pid-param / pref-param / type-param
                / any-param
     IMPP-value = uri

   Example:

       IMPP;PREF=1:xmpp:alice@example.com

6.4.4.  LANG

   Purpose:  To specify the language(s) that may be used for contacting
      the individual associated with the vCard.

   Value type:  A single language-tag value.

   Cardinality:  (0,n)

   ABNF:

     LANG-param = "VALUE=language-tag" / pid-param / pref-param
                / type-param / any-param
     LANG-value = Language-Tag

   Example:

       LANG;TYPE=work;PREF=1:en
       LANG;TYPE=work;PREF=2:fr
       LANG;TYPE=home=fr

6.5.  Geographical Properties

   These properties are concerned with information associated with
   geographical positions or regions associated with the object the
   vCard represents.




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6.5.1.  TZ

   Purpose:  To specify information related to the time zone of the
      object the vCard represents.

   Value type:  The default is a single text value.  It can also be
      reset to a single URI or utc-offset value.

   Cardinality:  (0,n)

   Special notes:  It is expected that names from the public-domain
      Olson database [TZ-DB] will be used, but this is not a
      restriction.

      Efforts are currently being directed at creating a standard URI
      scheme for expressing time zone information.  Usage of such a
      scheme would ensure a high level of interoperability between
      implementations that support it.

      Note that utc-offset values SHOULD NOT be used because the UTC
      offset varies with time - not just because of the usual DST shifts
      that occur in may regions, but often entire regions will "re-base"
      their offset entirely.  The actual offset may be +/- 1 hour (or
      perhaps a little more) than the one given.

   ABNF:

     TZ-param = "VALUE=" ("text" / "uri" / "utc-offset")
     TZ-value = text / uri / utc-offset
       ; Value and parameter must match

     TZ-param =/ pid-param / pref-param / type-param / any-param

   Type examples:

     TZ:-0500; EST; Raleigh/North America
       ;This example has a single value, not a structure text value.

6.5.2.  GEO

   Purpose:  To specify information related to the global positioning of
      the object the vCard represents.

   Value type:  A single URI.







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   Cardinality:  (0,n)

   Special notes:  The "geo" URI scheme [I-D.ietf-geopriv-geo-uri] is
      particularly well-suited for this property, but other schemes MAY
      be used.

   ABNF:

     GEO-param = "VALUE=uri" / pid-param / pref-param / type-param
               / any-param
     GEO-value = uri

   Example:

           GEO:geo:37.386013,-122.082932

6.6.  Organizational Properties

   These properties are concerned with information associated with
   characteristics of the organization or organizational units of the
   object the vCard represents.

6.6.1.  TITLE

   Purpose:  To specify the position or job of the object the vCard
      represents.

   Value type:  A single text value.

   Cardinality:  (0,n)

   Special notes:  This property is based on the X.520 Title attribute.

   ABNF:

     TITLE-param = "VALUE=text" / language-param / pid-param
                 / pref-param / type-param / any-param
     TITLE-value = text

   Example:

           TITLE:Research Scientist

6.6.2.  ROLE







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   Purpose:  To specify the function or part played in a particular
      situation by the object the vCard represents.

   Value type:  A single text value.

   Cardinality:  (0,n)

   Special notes:  This property is based on the X.520 Business Category
      explanatory attribute.  This property is included as an
      organizational type to avoid confusion with the semantics of the
      TITLE property and incorrect usage of that property when the
      semantics of this property is intended.

   ABNF:

     ROLE-param = "VALUE=text" / language-param / pid-param / pref-param
                / type-param / any-param
     ROLE-value = text

   Example:

           ROLE:Project Leader

6.6.3.  LOGO

   Purpose:  To specify a graphic image of a logo associated with the
      object the vCard represents.

   Encoding:  The encoding MUST be reset to "b" using the ENCODING
      parameter in order to specify inline, encoded binary data.  If the
      value is referenced by a URI value, then the default encoding of
      8bit is used and no explicit ENCODING parameter is needed.

   Value type:  A single value.  The default is binary value.  It can
      also be reset to uri value.  The uri value can be used to specify
      a value outside of this MIME entity.

   Cardinality:  (0,n)

   Special notes:  This property SHOULD include the parameter "TYPE" to
      specify the graphic image format type.  The TYPE parameter value
      MUST be an image media type as specified in [RFC4288].  The full
      media type name, including the "image/" prefix, SHOULD be used.
      However, implementations SHOULD be able to handle bare subtypes.







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   ABNF:

     LOGO-param = inline-param / refer-param
     LOGO-value = inline-value / refer-value
       ; Value and parameter MUST match.

     LOGO-param =/ language-param / pid-param / pref-param / type-param
                 / any-param

   Example:

   LOGO;VALUE=uri:http://www.example.com/pub/logos/abccorp.jpg

   LOGO;ENCODING=b;TYPE=image/jpeg:MIICajCCAdOgAwIBAgICBEUwDQYJKoZ
    AQEEBQAwdzELMAkGA1UEBhMCVVMxLDAqBgNVBAoTI05ldHNjYXBlIENvbW11bm
    ljYXRpb25zIENvcnBvcmF0aW9uMRwwGgYDVQQLExNJbmZvcm1hdGlvbiBTeXN0
    <...the remainder of "B" encoded binary data...>

6.6.4.  ORG

   Purpose:  To specify the organizational name and units associated
      with the vCard.

   Value type:  A single structured text value consisting of components
      separated the SEMI-COLON character (ASCII decimal 59).

   Cardinality:  (0,n)

   Special notes:  The property is based on the X.520 Organization Name
      and Organization Unit attributes.  The property value is a
      structured type consisting of the organization name, followed by
      zero or more levels of organizational unit names.

   ABNF:

     ORG-param = "VALUE=text" / language-param / pid-param / pref-param
               / type-param / any-param
     ORG-value = component *(";" component)

     component = "\\" / "\;" / "\n" / WSP / NON-ASCII
               / %x21-3A / %x3C-5B / %x5D-7E

   Example: A property value consisting of an organizational name,
   organizational unit #1 name and organizational unit #2 name.

           ORG:ABC\, Inc.;North American Division;Marketing





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6.6.5.  MEMBER

   Purpose:  To include a member in the group this vCard represents.

   Value type:  A single URI.  It MAY refer to something other than a
      vCard object.  For example, an e-mail distribution list could
      employ the "mailto" URI scheme for efficiency.

   Cardinality:  (0,n)

   Special notes:  This property MUST NOT be present unless the value of
      the KIND property is "group".

   ABNF:

     MEMBER-param = "VALUE=uri" / pid-param / pref-param / any-param
     MEMBER-value = uri

   Examples:

     BEGIN:VCARD
     VERSION:4.0
     KIND:group
     FN:The Doe family
     MEMBER:urn:uuid:03a0e51f-d1aa-4385-8a53-e29025acd8af
     MEMBER:urn:uuid:b8767877-b4a1-4c70-9acc-505d3819e519
     END:VCARD
     BEGIN:VCARD
     VERSION:4.0
     FN:John Doe
     UID:urn:uuid:03a0e51f-d1aa-4385-8a53-e29025acd8af
     END:VCARD
     BEGIN:VCARD
     VERSION:4.0
     FN:Jane Doe
     UID:urn:uuid:b8767877-b4a1-4c70-9acc-505d3819e519
     END:VCARD


     BEGIN:VCARD
     VERSION:4.0
     KIND:group
     FN:Funky distribution list
     MEMBER:mailto:subscriber1@example.com
     MEMBER:xmpp:subscriber2@example.com
     MEMBER:sip:subscriber3@example.com
     MEMBER:tel:+1-418-555-5555
     END:VCARD



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6.6.6.  RELATED

   Purpose:  To specify a relationship between another person and the
      individual represented by this vCard.

   Value type:  A single URI.  It can also be reset to a single text
      value.  The text value can be used to specify textual information.

   Cardinality:  (0,n)

   Special notes:  The TYPE parameter MAY be used to characterize the
      related individual.  The understood types are:

      *  "parent" means that the related individual is the parent of the
         individual this vCard represents.

      *  "child" means that the related individual is the child of the
         individual this vCard represents.  Note that the parent/child
         relationship does not need to be biological.

      *  "sibling" means that the two individuals are siblings.

      *  "spouse" for a spouse, domestic partner, or similar relation.

      *  "family" for any other family relationship.

      *  "friend" for a friend.

      *  "supervisor" means that the related individual is the direct
         hierarchical superior (i.e. supervisor or manager) of the
         individual this vCard represents.

      *  "supervisee" means the opposite of "supervisor".

      *  "assistant" for an assistant or secretary.

      *  "colleague" for any other workplace relationship.

      *  "agent" for a person who will act on behalf of the individual
         or resource associated with the vCard.

      *  "emergency" indicates an emergency contact.

      Other types may be registered to IANA as described in
      Section 10.2, and private extensions starting with "X-" may be
      used.





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   ABNF:

     RELATED-param = "VALUE=" ("uri" / "text")
     RELATED-value = uri / text
       ; Parameter and value MUST match.

     RELATED-param =/ type-param / pid-param / pref-param / type-param
                    / any-param

     type-param-related = "parent" / "child" / "sibling" / "spouse"
                        / "family" / "friend" / "supervisor"
                        / "supervisee" / "assistant" / "colleague"
                        / "agent" / "emergency" / iana-token / x-name
       ; type-param-related MUST NOT be used with a property other than
       ; RELATED.

   Examples:

     RELATED;TYPE=manager:urn:uuid:f81d4fae-7dec-11d0-a765-00a0c91e6bf6
     RELATED;TYPE=assistant:http://example.com/directory/jdoe.vcf
     RELATED;TYPE=agent;VALUE=text:Please contact my assistant Jane Doe
      for any inquiries.

6.7.  Explanatory Properties

   These properties are concerned with additional explanations, such as
   that related to informational notes or revisions specific to the
   vCard.

6.7.1.  CATEGORIES

   Purpose:  To specify application category information about the
      vCard.  Also known as "tags".

   Value type:  One or more text values separated by a COMMA character
      (ASCII decimal 44).

   Cardinality:  (0,n)

   ABNF:

     CATEGORIES-param = "VALUE=text" / pid-param / pref-param
                      / type-param / any-param
     CATEGORIES-value = text-list

   Example:





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           CATEGORIES:TRAVEL AGENT

           CATEGORIES:INTERNET,IETF,INDUSTRY,INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY

6.7.2.  NOTE

   Purpose:  To specify supplemental information or a comment that is
      associated with the vCard.

   Value type:  A single text value.

   Cardinality:  (0,n)

   Special notes:  The property is based on the X.520 Description
      attribute.

   ABNF:

     NOTE-param = "VALUE=text" / language-param / pid-param / pref-param
                / type-param / any-param
     NOTE-value = text

   Example:

           NOTE:This fax number is operational 0800 to 1715
             EST\, Mon-Fri.

6.7.3.  PRODID

   Purpose:  To specify the identifier for the product that created the
      vCard object.

   Type value:  A single text value.

   Cardinality:  (0,1)

   Special notes:  Implementations SHOULD use a method such as that
      specified for Formal Public Identifiers in [ISO9070] or for
      Universal Resource Names in [RFC3406] to ensure that the text
      value is unique.

   ABNF:

     PRODID-param = "VALUE=text" / any-param
     PRODID-value = text

   Example:




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           PRODID:-//ONLINE DIRECTORY//NONSGML Version 1//EN

6.7.4.  REV

   Purpose:  To specify revision information about the current vCard.

   Value type:  A single timestamp value.

   Cardinality:  (0,1)

   Special notes:  The value distinguishes the current revision of the
      information in this vCard for other renditions of the information.

   ABNF:

     REV-param = "VALUE=timestamp" / any-param
     REV-value = timestamp

   Example:

           REV:19951031T222710Z

6.7.5.  SORT-STRING

   Purpose:  To specify the family name or given name text to be used
      for national-language-specific sorting of the FN and N types.

   Value type:  A single text value.

   Cardinality:  (0,1)

   Special notes:  The sort string is used to provide family name or
      given name text that is to be used in sorting of the formatted
      name and structured name types in the context of a particular
      locale or national language.  Without this information, sorting
      algorithms could incorrectly sort this vCard within a sequence of
      sorted vCards.  When this property is present in a vCard, then
      this family name or given name value is used for sorting the
      vCard.

   ABNF:

     SORT-STRING-param = "VALUE=text" / any-param
     SORT-STRING-value = text

   Examples: For the case of family name sorting, the following examples
   define common sort string usage with the FN and N properties.




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           FN:Rene van der Harten
           N:van der Harten;Rene;J.;Sir;R.D.O.N.
           SORT-STRING:Harten

           FN:Robert Pau Shou Chang
           N:Pau;Shou Chang;Robert
           SORT-STRING:Pau

           FN:Osamu Koura
           N:Koura;Osamu
           SORT-STRING:Koura

           FN:Oscar del Pozo
           N:del Pozo Triscon;Oscar
           SORT-STRING:Pozo

           FN:Chistine d'Aboville
           N:d'Aboville;Christine
           SORT-STRING:Aboville

6.7.6.  SOUND

   Purpose:  To specify a digital sound content information that
      annotates some aspect of the vCard.  This property is often used
      to specify the proper pronunciation of the name property value of
      the vCard.

   Encoding:  The encoding MUST be reset to "b" using the ENCODING
      parameter in order to specify inline, encoded binary data.  If the
      value is referenced by a URI value, then the default encoding of
      8bit is used and no explicit ENCODING parameter is needed.

   Value type:  A single value.  The default is binary value.  It can
      also be reset to uri value.  The uri value can be used to specify
      a value outside of this MIME entity.

   Cardinality:  (0,n)

   Special notes:  This property SHOULD include the parameter "TYPE" to
      specify the audio format type.  The TYPE parameter value MUST be
      an audio media type as specified in [RFC4288].  The full media
      type name, including the "audio/" prefix, SHOULD be used.
      However, implementations SHOULD be able to handle bare subtypes.

   ABNF:






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     SOUND-param = inline-param / refer-param
     SOUND-value = inline-value / refer-value
       ; Value and parameter MUST match.

     SOUND-param =/ language-param / pid-param / pref-param / type-param
                  / any-param

   Example:

   SOUND;TYPE=audio/basic;VALUE=uri:CID:JOHNQPUBLIC.part8.
    19960229T080000.xyzMail@example.com

   SOUND;TYPE=audio/basic;ENCODING=b:MIICajCCAdOgAwIBAgICBEUwDQYJK
    AQEEBQAwdzELMAkGA1UEBhMCVVMxLDAqBgNVBAoTI05ldHNjYXBlIENvbW11bm
    ljYXRpb25zIENvcnBvcmF0aW9uMRwwGgYDVQQLExNJbmZvcm1hdGlvbiBTeXN0
    <...the remainder of "B" encoded binary data...>

6.7.7.  UID

   Purpose:  To specify a value that represents a globally unique
      identifier corresponding to the individual or resource associated
      with the vCard.

   Value type:  A single URI value.

   Cardinality:  (0,1)

   Special notes:  This property is used to uniquely identify the object
      that the vCard represents.  The "uuid" URN namespace defined in
      [RFC4122] is particularly well-suited to this task, but other URI
      schemes MAY be used.

   ABNF:

     UID-param = "VALUE=uri" / any-param
     UID-value = uri

   Example:

           UID:urn:uuid:f81d4fae-7dec-11d0-a765-00a0c91e6bf6

6.7.8.  CLIENTPIDMAP

   Purpose:  To give a global meaning to a local PID source identifier.







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   Value type:  A semicolon-separated pair of values.  The first field
      is a small integer corresponding to the second field of a PID
      parameter instance.  The second field is a URI.  The "uuid" URN
      namespace defined in [RFC4122] is particularly well-suited to this
      task, but other URI schemes MAY be used.

   Cardinality:  (0,n)

   Special notes:  PID source identifiers (the source identifier is the
      second field in a PID parameter instance) are small integers that
      only have significance within the scope of a single vCard
      instance.  Each distinct source identifier present in a vCard MUST
      have an associated CLIENTPIDMAP.  See Section 7 for more details
      on the usage of CLIENTPIDMAP.

      PID source identifiers MUST be strictly positive.  Zero is not
      allowed.

      As a special exception, the PID parameter MUST NOT be applied to
      this property.

   ABNF:

     CLIENTPIDMAP-param = any-param
     CLIENTPIDMAP-value = 1*DIGIT ";" uri

   Example:

     TEL;PID=3.1,4.2:tel:+1-555-555-5555
     EMAIL;PID=4.1,5.2:jdoe@example.com
     CLIENTPIDMAP:1;urn:uuid:3df403f4-5924-4bb7-b077-3c711d9eb34b
     CLIENTPIDMAP:2;urn:uuid:d89c9c7a-2e1b-4832-82de-7e992d95faa5

6.7.9.  URL

   Purpose:  To specify a uniform resource locator associated with the
      object that the vCard refers to.

   Cardinality:  (0,n)

   Value type:  A single uri value.

   ABNF:

     URL-param = "VALUE=uri" / pid-param / pref-param / type-param
               / any-param
     URL-value = uri




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   Example:

           URL:http://example.org/restaurant.french/~chezchic.html

6.7.10.  VERSION

   Purpose:  To specify the version of the vCard specification used to
      format this vCard.

   Value type:  A single text value.

   Cardinality:  (1,1)

   Special notes:  The property MUST be present in the vCard object.
      The value MUST be "4.0" if the vCard corresponds to this
      specification.

   ABNF:

     VERSION-param = "VALUE=text" / any-param
     VERSION-value = "4.0"

   Example:

           VERSION:4.0

6.8.  Security Properties

   These properties are concerned with the security of communication
   pathways or access to the vCard.

6.8.1.  CLASS

   Purpose:  To specify the access classification for a vCard object.

   Value type:  A single text value.

   Cardinality:  (0,1)

   Special notes:  An access classification is only one component of the
      general security model for a directory service.  The
      classification attribute provides a method of capturing the intent
      of the owner for general access to information described by the
      vCard object.







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      Predefined values are:

      PUBLIC:  This vCard MAY be shared with anyone.

      PRIVATE:  This vCard MUST NOT be shared.  It MAY be exported if
         explictly authorized and requested by the creator.

      CONFIDENTIAL:  This vCard MAY be shared with allowed users or
         systems.  The exact confidentiality level is site-specific and
         out of scope for the vCard specification.

   ABNF:

     CLASS-param = "VALUE=text" / any-param
     CLASS-value = "PUBLIC" / "PRIVATE" / "CONFIDENTIAL" / iana-token
                 / x-name

   Examples:

           CLASS:PUBLIC

           CLASS:PRIVATE

           CLASS:CONFIDENTIAL

6.8.2.  KEY

   Purpose:  To specify a public key or authentication certificate
      associated with the object that the vCard represents.

   Encoding:  The encoding MUST be reset to "b" using the ENCODING
      parameter in order to specify inline, encoded binary data.  If the
      value is a text value, then the default encoding of 8bit is used
      and no explicit ENCODING parameter is needed.

   Value type:  A single value.  The default is binary.  It can also be
      reset to uri value.  The uri value can be used to specify a value
      outside of this MIME entity.  In this case, the key's media type
      is obtained externally (e.g. with the HTTP Content-Type header)
      instead of with the TYPE parameter.

   Cardinality:  (0,n)

   Special notes:  This property SHOULD include the parameter "TYPE" to
      specify the public key or authentication certificate format.  The
      TYPE parameter value MUST be a media type as specified in
      [RFC4288].




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   ABNF:

     KEY-param = inline-param / refer-param
     KEY-value = inline-value / refer-value
       ; Value and parameter MUST match.

     KEY-param =/ pid-param / pref-param / type-param / any-param

   Examples:

   KEY;VALUE=uri:http://www.example.com/keys/jdoe

   KEY;TYPE=application/pgp-keys;ENCODING=b:mQGiBEbEPUsRBACBF0RSIN
    mGutdM+KSAl7HMzwXHaLbvEOyu8At80I8qGejhzWowKbfem3X0m68Y/vhb+J2g
    7q11KHpnEdNb67uZaj9nTQ09Q+UFtH25qD/Afn3+9bOJQaPjAUYzXu3vD/xmN8
    <...remainder of "B" encoded binary data...>

6.9.  Calendar Properties

   These properties are further specified in [RFC2739].

6.9.1.  FBURL

   Purpose:  To specify the URI for a user's busy time in a vCard
      object.

   Value type:  A single URI value.

   Cardinality:  (0,n)

   Special notes:  Where multiple FBURL properties are specified, the
      default FBURL property is indicated with the PREF parameter.  The
      FTP or HTTP type of URI points to an iCalendar object associated
      with a snapshot of the last six weeks of the user's busy time
      data.  If the iCalendar object is represented as a file or
      document, its file type should be "ifb".

   ABNF:

     FBURL-param = "VALUE=uri" / pid-param / pref-param / type-param
                 / any-param
     FBURL-value = uri

   Examples:

     FBURL;PREF=1:http://www.example.com/busy/janedoe
     FBURL:FTP://ftp.example.com/busy/project-a.ifb




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6.9.2.  CALADRURI

   Purpose:  To specify the location to which an event request should be
      sent for the user.

   Value type:  A single URI value.

   Cardinality:  (0,n)

   Special notes:  Where multiple CALADRURI properties are specified,
      the default CALADRURI property is indicated with the PREF
      parameter.

   ABNF:

     CALADRURI-param = "VALUE=uri" / pid-param / pref-param / type-param
                     / any-param
     CALADRURI-value = uri

   Example:

     CALADRURI;PREF=1:mailto:janedoe@example.com
     CALADRURI:http://example.com/calendar/jdoe

6.9.3.  CALURI

   Purpose:  To specify the URI for a user's calendar in a vCard object.

   Value type:  A single URI value.

   Cardinality:  (0,n)

   Special notes:  Where multiple CALURI properties are specified, the
      default CALURI property is indicated with the PREF parameter.  The
      property should contain a URI pointing to an iCalendar object
      associated with a snapshot of the user's calendar store.  If the
      iCalendar object is represented as a file or document, its file
      type should be "ics".

   ABNF:

     CALURI-param = "VALUE=uri" / pid-param / pref-param / type-param
                  / any-param
     CALURI-value = uri







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   Examples:

     CALURI;PREF=1:http://cal.example.com/calA
     CALURI:ftp://ftp.example.com/calA.ics

6.10.  Extended Properties and Parameters

   The properties and parameters defined by this document can be
   extended.  Non-standard, private properties and parameters with a
   name starting with "X-" may be defined bilaterally between two
   cooperating agents without outside registration or standardization.

7.  Synchronization

   vCard data often needs to be synchronized between devices.  In this
   context, synchronization is defined as the intelligent merging of two
   representations of the same object. vCard 4.0 includes mechanisms to
   aid this process.

7.1.  Mechanisms

   Two mechanisms are available: the UID property is used to match
   multiple instances of the same vCard, while the PID parameter is used
   to match multiple instances of the same property.

   The term "matching" is used here to mean recognizing that two
   instances are in fact representations of the same object.  For
   example, a single vCard that is shared with someone results in two
   vCard instances.  After they have evolved separately, they still
   represent the same object, and therefore may be matched by a
   synchronization engine.

7.1.1.  Matching vCard Instances

   vCard instances for which the UID properties (Section 6.7.7) are
   equivalent MUST be matched.  Equivalence is determined as specified
   in [RFC3986], Section 6.

   In all other cases, vCard instances MAY be matched at the discretion
   of the synchronization engine.

7.1.2.  Matching Property Instances

   Property instances belonging to unmatched vCards MUST NOT be matched.

   Property instances whose name (e.g.  EMAIL, TEL, etc.) is not the
   same MUST NOT be matched.




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   Property instances whose name is CLIENTPIDMAP are handled separately
   and MUST NOT be matched.  The synchronization MUST ensure that there
   is consistency of CLIENTPIDMAPs among matched vCard instances.

   Property instances belonging to matched vCards, whose name is the
   same, and whose maximum cardinality is 1 MUST be matched.

   Property instances belonging to matched vCards, whose name is the
   same, and whose PID parameters match MUST be matched.  See
   Section 7.1.3 for details on PID matching.

   In all other cases, property instances MAY be matched at the
   discretion of the synchronization engine.

7.1.3.  PID Matching

   Two PID values for which the first fields are equivalent represent
   the same local value.

   Two PID values representing the same local value and for which the
   second fields point to CLIENTPIDMAP properties whose second field
   URIs are equivalent (as specified in [RFC3986], Section 6) also
   represent the same global value.

   PID parameters for which at least one pair of their values represent
   the same global value MUST be matched.

   In all other cases, PID parameters MAY be matched at the discretion
   of the synchronization engine.

   For example, PID value "5.1", in the first vCard below, and PID value
   "6.2", in the second vCard below, represent the same global value.

     BEGIN:VCARD
     VERSION:4.0
     EMAIL;PID=4.2,5.1:jdoe@example.com
     CLIENTPIDMAP:1;urn:uuid:3eef374e-7179-4196-a914-27358c3e6527
     CLIENTPIDMAP:2;urn:uuid:42bcd5a7-1699-4514-87b4-056edf68e9cc
     END:VCARD

     BEGIN:VCARD
     VERSION:4.0
     EMAIL;PID=5.1,6.2:john@example.com
     CLIENTPIDMAP:1;urn:uuid:0c75c629-6a8d-4d5e-a07f-1bb35846854d
     CLIENTPIDMAP:2;urn:uuid:3eef374e-7179-4196-a914-27358c3e6527
     END:VCARD





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7.2.  Example

7.2.1.  Creation

   The following simple vCard is first created on a given device.

     BEGIN:VCARD
     VERSION:4.0
     UID:urn:uuid:4fbe8971-0bc3-424c-9c26-36c3e1eff6b1
     FN:J. Doe
     EMAIL;PID=1.1:jdoe@example.com
     CLIENTPIDMAP:1;urn:uuid:53e374d9-337e-4727-8803-a1e9c14e0556
     END:VCARD

   This new vCard is assigned the UID
   "urn:uuid:4fbe8971-0bc3-424c-9c26-36c3e1eff6b1" by the creating
   device.  The EMAIL property is assigned PID 1, and this PID is given
   global context by associating it with
   "urn:uuid:53e374d9-337e-4727-8803-a1e9c14e0556", which represents the
   creating device.  The FN property has no PID because it is forbidden
   by its maximum cardinality of 1.

7.2.2.  Initial Sharing

   This vCard is shared with a second device.  Upon inspecting the UID
   property, the second device understands that this is a new vCard
   (i.e. unmatched) and thus the synchronization results in a simple
   copy.

7.2.3.  Adding and Sharing a Property

   A new phone number is created on the first device, then the vCard is
   shared with the second device.  This is what the second device
   receives:

     BEGIN:VCARD
     VERSION:4.0
     UID:urn:uuid:4fbe8971-0bc3-424c-9c26-36c3e1eff6b1
     FN:J. Doe
     EMAIL;PID=1.1:jdoe@example.com
     TEL;PID=1.1:tel:+1-555-555-5555
     CLIENTPIDMAP:1;urn:uuid:53e374d9-337e-4727-8803-a1e9c14e0556
     END:VCARD

   Upon inspecting the UID property, the second device matches the vCard
   it received to the vCard that it already has stored.  It then starts
   comparing the properties of the two vCards in same-named pairs.




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   The FN properties are matched automatically because their maximum
   cardinality is 1.  Since the property value is the same, no update
   takes place.

   The EMAIL properties are matched because the PID parameters have the
   same global value.  Since the property value is the same, no update
   takes place.

   The TEL property in the new vCard is not matched to any in the stored
   vCard because no property in the stored vCard has the same name.
   Therefore, this property is copied from the new vCard to the stored
   vCard.

   The CLIENTPIDMAP property is handled separately by the
   synchronization engine.  It ensures that it is consistent with the
   stored one.  If it was not, the results would be up to the
   synchronization engine, and thus undefined by this document.

7.2.4.  Simultaneous Editing

   A new email address and a new phone number are added to the vCard on
   each of the two devices, and then a new synchronization event
   happens.  Here are the vCards that are communicated to each other:

     BEGIN:VCARD
     VERSION:4.0
     UID:urn:uuid:4fbe8971-0bc3-424c-9c26-36c3e1eff6b1
     FN:J. Doe
     EMAIL;PID=1.1:jdoe@example.com
     EMAIL;PID=2.1:boss@example.com
     TEL;PID=1.1:tel:+1-555-555-5555
     TEL;PID=2.1:tel:+1-666-666-6666
     CLIENTPIDMAP:1;urn:uuid:53e374d9-337e-4727-8803-a1e9c14e0556
     END:VCARD

     BEGIN:VCARD
     VERSION:4.0
     UID:urn:uuid:4fbe8971-0bc3-424c-9c26-36c3e1eff6b1
     FN:J. Doe
     EMAIL;PID=1.1:jdoe@example.com
     EMAIL;PID=2.2:ceo@example.com
     TEL;PID=1.1:tel:+1-555-555-5555
     TEL;PID=2.2:tel:+1-666-666-6666
     CLIENTPIDMAP:1;urn:uuid:53e374d9-337e-4727-8803-a1e9c14e0556
     CLIENTPIDMAP:2;urn:uuid:1f762d2b-03c4-4a83-9a03-75ff658a6eee
     END:VCARD

   On the first device, the same PID source identifier (1) is reused for



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   the new EMAIL and TEL properties.  On the second device, a new source
   identifier (2) is generated, and a corresponding CLIENTPIDMAP
   property is created.  It contains the second device's identifier,
   "urn:uuid:1f762d2b-03c4-4a83-9a03-75ff658a6eee".

   The new EMAIL properties are unmatched on both sides since the PID
   global value is new in both cases.  The sync thus results in a copy
   on both sides.

   Although the situation appears to be the same for the TEL properties,
   in this case the synchronization engine is particularly smart and
   matches the two new TEL properties even though their PID global
   values are different.  Note that in this case, the rules of section
   Section 7.1.2 state that two properties may be matched at the
   discretion of the synchronization engine.  Therefore, the two
   properties are merged.

   All this results in the following vCard which is stored on both
   devices:

     BEGIN:VCARD
     VERSION:4.0
     UID:urn:uuid:4fbe8971-0bc3-424c-9c26-36c3e1eff6b1
     FN:J. Doe
     EMAIL;PID=1.1:jdoe@example.com
     EMAIL;PID=2.1:boss@example.com
     EMAIL;PID=2.2:ceo@example.com
     TEL;PID=1.1:tel:+1-555-555-5555
     TEL;PID=2.1,2.2:tel:+1-666-666-6666
     CLIENTPIDMAP:1;urn:uuid:53e374d9-337e-4727-8803-a1e9c14e0556
     CLIENTPIDMAP:2;urn:uuid:1f762d2b-03c4-4a83-9a03-75ff658a6eee
     END:VCARD

7.2.5.  Global Context Simplification

   The two devices finish their synchronization procedure by simplifying
   their global contexts.  Since they haven't talked to any other
   device, the following vCard is for all purposes equivalent to the
   above.  It is also shorter.












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     BEGIN:VCARD
     VERSION:4.0
     UID:urn:uuid:4fbe8971-0bc3-424c-9c26-36c3e1eff6b1
     FN:J. Doe
     EMAIL;PID=1.1:jdoe@example.com
     EMAIL;PID=2.1:boss@example.com
     EMAIL;PID=3.1:ceo@example.com
     TEL;PID=1.1:tel:+1-555-555-5555
     TEL;PID=2.1:tel:+1-666-666-6666
     CLIENTPIDMAP:1;urn:uuid:53e374d9-337e-4727-8803-a1e9c14e0556
     END:VCARD

   The details of global context simplification are unspecified by this
   document.  They are left up to the synchronization engine.  This
   example is merely intended to illustrate the possibility, which
   investigating would be, in the authors' opinion, worthwhile.

8.  Example: Authors' vCards

    BEGIN:VCARD
    VERSION:4.0
    FN:Simon Perreault
    N:Perreault;Simon;;ing. jr,M.Sc.
    BDAY:--0203
    ANNIVERSARY:20090808T1430-0500
    SEX:1
    LANG;PREF=1:fr
    LANG;PREF=2:en
    ORG;TYPE=work:Viagenie
    ADR;TYPE=work:;Suite 625;2600 boul. Laurier;
     Quebec;QC;G1V 4W1;Canada
    TEL;TYPE=work,voice;PREF=1:tel:+1-418-656-9254;ext=102
    TEL;TYPE=work,cell,voice,video,text:tel:+1-418-262-6501
    TEL;TYPE=work,fax:tel:+1-418-656-9257
    EMAIL;TYPE=work:simon.perreault@viagenie.ca
    GEO;TYPE=work:geo:46.772673,-71.282945
    KEY;TYPE=work;VALUE=uri:
     http://www.viagenie.ca/simon.perreault/simon.asc
    TZ:-0500
    CLASS:PUBLIC
    END:VCARD










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    BEGIN:VCARD
    VERSION:4.0
    FN:Pete Resnick
    N:Resnick;Pete;;
    SEX:1
    ORG;TYPE=work:QUALCOMM Incorporated
    ADR;TYPE=work:;;5775 Morehouse Drive;San Diego;CA;92121-1714;US
    TEL;TYPE=work,voice:tel:+1-858-651-4478
    EMAIL;TYPE=work:presnick@qualcomm.com
    URL;TYPE=work:http://www.qualcomm.com/~presnick/
    END:VCARD

9.  Security Considerations

   o  Internet mail is often used to transport vCards and is subject to
      many well known security attacks, including monitoring, replay,
      and forgery.  Care should be taken by any directory service in
      allowing information to leave the scope of the service itself,
      where any access controls can no longer be guaranteed.
      Applications should also take care to display directory data in a
      "safe" environment (e.g., PostScript-valued types).

   o  vCards can carry cryptographic keys or certificates, as described
      in Section 6.8.2.

   o  Section 6.8.1 specifies a desired security classification policy
      for a particular vCard.  That policy is not enforced in any way.

   o  The vCard objects have no inherent authentication or privacy, but
      can easily be carried by any security mechanism that transfers
      MIME objects with authentication or privacy.  In cases where the
      threat of "spoofed" vCard information is a concern, the vCard
      SHOULD BE transported using one of these secure mechanisms.

   o  The information in a vCard may become out of date.  In cases where
      the vitality of data is important to an originator of a vCard, the
      "URL" type described in Section 6.7.9 SHOULD BE specified.  In
      addition, the "REV" type described in section Section 6.7.4 can be
      specified to indicate the last time that the vCard data was
      updated.

10.  IANA Considerations

10.1.  MIME Type Registration







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   To:  ietf-types@iana.org

   Subject:  Registration of media type text/vcard

   Type name:  text

   Subtype name:  vcard

   Required parameters:  none

   Optional parameters:  charset

   Encoding considerations:  The "charset" MIME parameter is interpreted
      as defined in [RFC2046], section 4.1.2.  If it is omitted, the
      default encoding is UTF-8 as defined in [RFC3629].

   Security considerations:  See Section 9.

   Interoperability considerations:  The text/vcard media type is
      intended to identify vCard data of any version.  There are older
      specifications of vCard [RFC2426][oldreference_VCARD] still in
      common use.  While these formats are similar, they are not
      strictly compatible.  In general, it is necessary to inspect the
      value of the VERSION property (see Section 6.7.10) for identifying
      the standard to which a given vCard object conforms.

      In addition, the following media types are known to have been used
      to refer to vCard data.  They should be considered deprecated in
      favor of text/vcard.

      *  text/directory

      *  text/directory; type=vcard

      *  text/x-vcard

   Published specification:  draft-ietf-vcarddav-vcardrev-09

   Applications that use this media type:  They are numerous, diverse,
      and include mail user agents, instant messaging clients, address
      book applications, directory servers, customer relationship
      management software, etc.

   Additional information:







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      Magic number(s):

      File extension(s):  .vcf

      Macintosh file type code(s):

   Person & email address to contact for further information:  Simon
      Perreault <simon.perreault@viagenie.ca>

   Intended usage:  COMMON

   Restrictions on usage:  none

   Author:  Simon Perreault and Pete Resnick

   Change controller:  IETF

10.2.  Registering New vCard Elements

   This section defines the process for registering new or modified
   vCard elements (i.e. properties, parameters, value data types, and
   values) with IANA.

10.2.1.  Registration Procedure

   The IETF will create a mailing list, vcard@ietf.org [1], which can be
   used for public discussion of vCard element proposals prior to
   registration.  Use of the mailing list is strongly encouraged.  The
   IESG will appoint a designated expert who will monitor the
   vcard@ietf.org [1] mailing list and review registrations.

   Registration of new vCard elements MUST be reviewed by the designated
   expert and published in an RFC.  A Standard Tracks RFC is REQUIRED
   for the registration of new value data types that modify existing
   properties.  A Standard Tracks RFC is also REQUIRED for registration
   of vCard elements that modify vCard elements previously documented in
   a Standard Tracks RFC.

   The registration procedure begins when a completed registration
   template, defined in the sections below, is sent to
   vcard@ietf.org [1] and iana@iana.org [2].  The designated expert is
   expected to tell IANA and the submitter of the registration within
   two weeks whether the registration is approved, approved with minor
   changes, or rejected with cause.  When a registration is rejected
   with cause, it can be re-submitted if the concerns listed in the
   cause are addressed.  Decisions made by the designated expert can be
   appealed to the IESG Applications Area Director, then to the IESG.
   They follow the normal appeals procedure for IESG decisions.



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10.2.2.  Vendor Namespace

   The vendor namespace is used for vCard elements associated with
   commercially available products.  "Vendor" or "producer" are
   construed as equivalent and very broadly in this context.

   A registration may be placed in the vendor namespace by anyone who
   needs to interchange files associated with the particular product.
   However, the registration formally belongs to the vendor or
   organization handling the vCard elements in the namespace being
   registered.  Changes to the specification will be made at their
   request, as discussed in subsequent sections.

   vCard elements belonging to the vendor namespace will be
   distinguished by the "VND-" prefix.  This is followed by an IANA-
   registered Private Enterprise Number (PEN), a dash, and a vCard
   element designation of the vendor's choosing (e.g., "VND-123456-
   MUDPIE").

   While public exposure and review of vCard elements to be registered
   in the vendor namespace is not required, using the vcard@ietf.org [1]
   mailing list for review is strongly encouraged to improve the quality
   of those specifications.  Registrations in the vendor namespace may
   be submitted directly to the IANA.

10.2.3.  Registration Template for Properties

   A property is defined by completing the following template.

   Namespace:  Empty for the global namespace, "VND-NNNN-" for a vendor-
      specific property (where NNNN is replaced by the vendor's PEN).

   Property name:  The name of the property.

   Purpose:  The purpose of the property.  Give a short but clear
      description.

   Value type:  Any of the valid value types for the property value
      needs to be specified.  The default value type also needs to be
      specified.

   Property parameters:  Any of the valid property parameters for the
      property MUST be specified.

   Description:  Any special notes about the property, how it is to be
      used, etc.





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   Format definition:  The ABNF for the property definition needs to be
      specified.

   Example(s):  One or more examples of instances of the property needs
      to be specified.

10.2.4.  Registration Template for Parameters

   A parameter is defined by completing the following template.

   Parameter name:  The name of the parameter.

   Purpose:  The purpose of the parameter.  Give a short but clear
      description.

   Description:  Any special notes about the parameter, how it is to be
      used, etc.

   Format definition:  The ABNF for the parameter definition needs to be
      specified.

   Example(s):  One or more examples of instances of the parameter needs
      to be specified.

10.2.5.  Registration Template for Value Data Types

   A value data type is defined by completing the following template.

   Value name:  The name of the value type.

   Purpose:  The purpose of the value type.  Give a short but clear
      description.

   Description:  Any special notes about the value type, how it is to be
      used, etc.

   Format definition:  The ABNF for the value type definition needs to
      be specified.

   Example(s):  One or more examples of instances of the value type
      needs to be specified.

10.2.6.  Registration Template for Values

   A value is defined by completing the following template.






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   Value:  The value literal.

   Purpose:  The purpose of the value.  Give a short but clear
      description.

   Conformance:  The vCard properties and/or parameters that can take
      this value needs to be specified.

   Example(s):  One or more examples of instances of the value needs to
      be specified.

   The following is a fictitious example of a registration of a vCard
   value:

   Value:  TOP-SECRET

   Purpose:  This value is used to specify the access classification of
      top-secret vCards.

   Conformance:  This value can be used with the "CLASS" property.

   Example(s):  The following is an example of this value used with the
      "CLASS" property:


     CLASS:TOP-SECRET

10.3.  Initial vCard Elements Registries

   The IANA is requested to create and maintain the following registries
   for vCard elements with pointers to appropriate reference documents.

10.3.1.  Properties Registry

   The following table is to be used to initialize the properties
   registry.















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     +-----------+--------------+---------+-------------------------+
     | Namespace | Property     | Status  | Reference               |
     +-----------+--------------+---------+-------------------------+
     |           | SOURCE       | Current | RFCXXXX, Section 6.1.3  |
     |           | NAME         | Current | RFCXXXX, Section 6.1.4  |
     |           | KIND         | Current | RFCXXXX, Section 6.1.5  |
     |           | FN           | Current | RFCXXXX, Section 6.2.1  |
     |           | N            | Current | RFCXXXX, Section 6.2.2  |
     |           | NICKNAME     | Current | RFCXXXX, Section 6.2.3  |
     |           | PHOTO        | Current | RFCXXXX, Section 6.2.4  |
     |           | BDAY         | Current | RFCXXXX, Section 6.2.5  |
     |           | DDAY         | Current | RFCXXXX, Section 6.2.6  |
     |           | BIRTH        | Current | RFCXXXX, Section 6.2.7  |
     |           | DEATH        | Current | RFCXXXX, Section 6.2.8  |
     |           | ANNIVERSARY  | Current | RFCXXXX, Section 6.2.9  |
     |           | SEX          | Current | RFCXXXX, Section 6.2.10 |
     |           | ADR          | Current | RFCXXXX, Section 6.3.1  |
     |           | LABEL        | Current | RFCXXXX, Section 6.3.2  |
     |           | TEL          | Current | RFCXXXX, Section 6.4.1  |
     |           | EMAIL        | Current | RFCXXXX, Section 6.4.2  |
     |           | IMPP         | Current | RFCXXXX, Section 6.4.3  |
     |           | LANG         | Current | RFCXXXX, Section 6.4.4  |
     |           | TZ           | Current | RFCXXXX, Section 6.5.1  |
     |           | GEO          | Current | RFCXXXX, Section 6.5.2  |
     |           | TITLE        | Current | RFCXXXX, Section 6.6.1  |
     |           | ROLE         | Current | RFCXXXX, Section 6.6.2  |
     |           | LOGO         | Current | RFCXXXX, Section 6.6.3  |
     |           | ORG          | Current | RFCXXXX, Section 6.6.4  |
     |           | MEMBER       | Current | RFCXXXX, Section 6.6.5  |
     |           | RELATED      | Current | RFCXXXX, Section 6.6.6  |
     |           | CATEGORIES   | Current | RFCXXXX, Section 6.7.1  |
     |           | NOTE         | Current | RFCXXXX, Section 6.7.2  |
     |           | PRODID       | Current | RFCXXXX, Section 6.7.3  |
     |           | REV          | Current | RFCXXXX, Section 6.7.4  |
     |           | SORT-STRING  | Current | RFCXXXX, Section 6.7.5  |
     |           | SOUND        | Current | RFCXXXX, Section 6.7.6  |
     |           | UID          | Current | RFCXXXX, Section 6.7.7  |
     |           | CLIENTPIDMAP | Current | RFCXXXX, Section 6.7.8  |
     |           | URL          | Current | RFCXXXX, Section 6.7.9  |
     |           | VERSION      | Current | RFCXXXX, Section 6.7.10 |
     |           | CLASS        | Current | RFCXXXX, Section 6.8.1  |
     |           | KEY          | Current | RFCXXXX, Section 6.8.2  |
     |           | FBURL        | Current | RFCXXXX, Section 6.9.1  |
     |           | CALADRURI    | Current | RFCXXXX, Section 6.9.2  |
     |           | CALURI       | Current | RFCXXXX, Section 6.9.3  |
     +-----------+--------------+---------+-------------------------+





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10.3.2.  Parameters Registry

   The following table is to be used to initialize the parameters
   registry.

             +-----------+---------+------------------------+
             | Parameter | Status  | Reference              |
             +-----------+---------+------------------------+
             | LANGUAGE  | Current | RFCXXXX, Section 5.1   |
             | ENCODING  | Current | RFCXXXX, Section 5.2   |
             | VALUE     | Current | RFCXXXX, Section 5.3   |
             | PREF      | Current | RFCXXXX, Section 5.4   |
             | PID       | Current | RFCXXXX, Section 5.5   |
             | TYPE      | Current | RFCXXXX, Section 5.6   |
             | GEO       | Current | RFCXXXX, Section 6.3.1 |
             | TZ        | Current | RFCXXXX, Section 6.3.1 |
             +-----------+---------+------------------------+

10.3.3.  Value Data Types Registry

   The following table is to be used to initialize the parameters
   registry.

          +------------------+---------+------------------------+
          | Value Data Type  | Status  | Reference              |
          +------------------+---------+------------------------+
          | BINARY           | Current | RFCXXXX, Section 4.7   |
          | BOOLEAN          | Current | RFCXXXX, Section 4.4   |
          | DATE             | Current | RFCXXXX, Section 4.3.1 |
          | TIME             | Current | RFCXXXX, Section 4.3.2 |
          | DATE-TIME        | Current | RFCXXXX, Section 4.3.3 |
          | DATE-AND-OR-TIME | Current | RFCXXXX, Section 4.3.4 |
          | TIMESTAMP        | Current | RFCXXXX, Section 4.3.5 |
          | FLOAT            | Current | RFCXXXX, Section 4.6   |
          | INTEGER          | Current | RFCXXXX, Section 4.5   |
          | TEXT             | Current | RFCXXXX, Section 4.1   |
          | URI              | Current | RFCXXXX, Section 4.2   |
          | LANGUAGE-TAG     | Current | RFCXXXX, Section 4.8   |
          +------------------+---------+------------------------+

10.3.4.  Values Registries

   Separate tables will be used for property and parameter values.

   The following table is to be used to initialize the property values
   registry.





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      +----------+--------------+---------+------------------------+
      | Property | Value        | Status  | Reference              |
      +----------+--------------+---------+------------------------+
      | BEGIN    | VCARD        | Current | RFCXXXX, Section 6.1.1 |
      | END      | VCARD        | Current | RFCXXXX, Section 6.1.2 |
      | KIND     | individual   | Current | RFCXXXX, Section 6.1.5 |
      | KIND     | group        | Current | RFCXXXX, Section 6.1.5 |
      | KIND     | org          | Current | RFCXXXX, Section 6.1.5 |
      | KIND     | location     | Current | RFCXXXX, Section 6.1.5 |
      | KIND     | thing        | Current | RFCXXXX, Section 6.1.5 |
      | CLASS    | PUBLIC       | Current | RFCXXXX, Section 6.8.1 |
      | CLASS    | PRIVATE      | Current | RFCXXXX, Section 6.8.1 |
      | CLASS    | CONFIDENTIAL | Current | RFCXXXX, Section 6.8.1 |
      +----------+--------------+---------+------------------------+

   The following table is to be used to initialize the parameter values
   registry.

   +----------+-----------+------------+---------+---------------------+
   | Property | Parameter | Value      | Status  | Reference           |
   +----------+-----------+------------+---------+---------------------+
   | TEL      | TYPE      | text       | Current | RFCXXXX,            |
   |          |           |            |         | Section 6.4.1       |
   | TEL      | TYPE      | voice      | Current | RFCXXXX,            |
   |          |           |            |         | Section 6.4.1       |
   | TEL      | TYPE      | fax        | Current | RFCXXXX,            |
   |          |           |            |         | Section 6.4.1       |
   | TEL      | TYPE      | cell       | Current | RFCXXXX,            |
   |          |           |            |         | Section 6.4.1       |
   | TEL      | TYPE      | video      | Current | RFCXXXX,            |
   |          |           |            |         | Section 6.4.1       |
   | TEL      | TYPE      | pager      | Current | RFCXXXX,            |
   |          |           |            |         | Section 6.4.1       |
   | RELATED  | TYPE      | parent     | Current | RFCXXXX,            |
   |          |           |            |         | Section 6.6.6       |
   | RELATED  | TYPE      | child      | Current | RFCXXXX,            |
   |          |           |            |         | Section 6.6.6       |
   | RELATED  | TYPE      | sibling    | Current | RFCXXXX,            |
   |          |           |            |         | Section 6.6.6       |
   | RELATED  | TYPE      | spouse     | Current | RFCXXXX,            |
   |          |           |            |         | Section 6.6.6       |
   | RELATED  | TYPE      | family     | Current | RFCXXXX,            |
   |          |           |            |         | Section 6.6.6       |
   | RELATED  | TYPE      | friend     | Current | RFCXXXX,            |
   |          |           |            |         | Section 6.6.6       |
   | RELATED  | TYPE      | supervisor | Current | RFCXXXX,            |
   |          |           |            |         | Section 6.6.6       |




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   | RELATED  | TYPE      | supervisee | Current | RFCXXXX,            |
   |          |           |            |         | Section 6.6.6       |
   | RELATED  | TYPE      | assistant  | Current | RFCXXXX,            |
   |          |           |            |         | Section 6.6.6       |
   | RELATED  | TYPE      | colleague  | Current | RFCXXXX,            |
   |          |           |            |         | Section 6.6.6       |
   | RELATED  | TYPE      | agent      | Current | RFCXXXX,            |
   |          |           |            |         | Section 6.6.6       |
   | RELATED  | TYPE      | emergency  | Current | RFCXXXX,            |
   |          |           |            |         | Section 6.6.6       |
   +----------+-----------+------------+---------+---------------------+

11.  Acknowledgements

   The authors would like to thank Tim Howes, Mark Smith, and Frank
   Dawson, the original authors of [RFC2425] and [RFC2426], as well as
   the following individuals who have participated in the drafting,
   review and discussion of this memo:

   Aki Niemi, Andy Mabbett, Alexander Mayrhofer, Alexey Melnikov, Anil
   Srivastava, Barry Leiba, Ben Fortuna, Bernard Desruisseaux, Bernie
   Hoeneisen, Caleb Richarson, Chris Bryant, Chris Newman, Cyrus Daboo,
   Dan Brickley, Dan Mosedale, Dany Cauchie, Darryl Champagne, Dave
   Thewlis, Helge Hess, Jari Urpalainen, Javier Godoy, Jean-Luc
   Schellens, Joe Hildebrand, Jose Luis Gayosso, Joseph Smarr, Julian
   Reschke, Kepeng Li, Kurt Zeilenga.  Lisa Dusseault, Marc Blanchet,
   Mark Paterson, Markus Lorenz, Mike Douglass, Peter K. Sheerin, Peter
   Mogensen, Peter St-Andre, Renato Iannella, Sly Gryphon, Stephane
   Bortzmeyer, and Tantek Celik.

12.  References

12.1.  Normative References

   [CCITT.E163.1988]           International Telephone and Telegraph
                               Consultative Committee, "Numbering Plan
                               for the International Telephone Service",
                               CCITT Recommendation E.163, 1988.

   [CCITT.X121.1988]           International Telephone and Telegraph
                               Consultative Committee, "International
                               Numbering Plan for the Public Data
                               Networks", CCITT Recommendation X.121,
                               1988.

   [CCITT.X520.1988]           International International Telephone and
                               Telegraph Consultative Committee,
                               "Information Technology - Open Systems



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                               Interconnection - The Directory: Selected
                               Attribute Types", CCITT Recommendation
                               X.520, November 1988.

   [CCITT.X521.1988]           International International Telephone and
                               Telegraph Consultative Committee,
                               "Information Technology - Open Systems
                               Interconnection - The Directory: Selected
                               Object Classes", CCITT Recommendation
                               X.521, November 1988.

   [I-D.ietf-geopriv-geo-uri]  Mayrhofer, A. and C. Spanring, "A Uniform
                               Resource Identifier for Geographic
                               Locations ('geo' URI)",
                               draft-ietf-geopriv-geo-uri-02 (work in
                               progress), September 2009.

   [ISO.5218.2004]             International Organization for
                               Standardization, "Information Technology
                               - Codes for the representation of human
                               sexes", ISO Standard 5218, December 2004.

   [ISO.8601.2000]             International Organization for
                               Standardization, "Data elements and
                               interchange formats - Information
                               interchange - Representation of dates and
                               times", ISO Standard 8601, December 2000.

   [ISO.8601.2004]             International Organization for
                               Standardization, "Data elements and
                               interchange formats - Information
                               interchange - Representation of dates and
                               times", ISO Standard 8601, December 2004.

   [RFC2046]                   Freed, N. and N. Borenstein,
                               "Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions
                               (MIME) Part Two: Media Types", RFC 2046,
                               November 1996.

   [RFC2047]                   Moore, K., "MIME (Multipurpose Internet
                               Mail Extensions) Part Three: Message
                               Header Extensions for Non-ASCII Text",
                               RFC 2047, November 1996.

   [RFC2119]                   Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs
                               to Indicate Requirement Levels", BCP 14,
                               RFC 2119, March 1997.




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   [RFC2425]                   Howes, T., Smith, M., and F. Dawson, "A
                               MIME Content-Type for Directory
                               Information", RFC 2425, September 1998.

   [RFC2426]                   Dawson, F. and T. Howes, "vCard MIME
                               Directory Profile", RFC 2426,
                               September 1998.

   [RFC2739]                   Small, T., Hennessy, D., and F. Dawson,
                               "Calendar Attributes for vCard and LDAP",
                               RFC 2739, January 2000.

   [RFC3629]                   Yergeau, F., "UTF-8, a transformation
                               format of ISO 10646", STD 63, RFC 3629,
                               November 2003.

   [RFC3966]                   Schulzrinne, H., "The tel URI for
                               Telephone Numbers", RFC 3966,
                               December 2004.

   [RFC3986]                   Berners-Lee, T., Fielding, R., and L.
                               Masinter, "Uniform Resource Identifier
                               (URI): Generic Syntax", STD 66, RFC 3986,
                               January 2005.

   [RFC4122]                   Leach, P., Mealling, M., and R. Salz, "A
                               Universally Unique IDentifier (UUID) URN
                               Namespace", RFC 4122, July 2005.

   [RFC4288]                   Freed, N. and J. Klensin, "Media Type
                               Specifications and Registration
                               Procedures", BCP 13, RFC 4288,
                               December 2005.

   [RFC4770]                   Jennings, C. and J. Reschke, Ed., "vCard
                               Extensions for Instant Messaging (IM)",
                               RFC 4770, January 2007.

   [RFC5234]                   Crocker, D. and P. Overell, "Augmented
                               BNF for Syntax Specifications: ABNF",
                               STD 68, RFC 5234, January 2008.

   [RFC5322]                   Resnick, P., Ed., "Internet Message
                               Format", RFC 5322, October 2008.

   [RFC5646]                   Phillips, A. and M. Davis, "Tags for
                               Identifying Languages", BCP 47, RFC 5646,
                               September 2009.



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   [oldreference_VCARD]        Internet Mail Consortium, "vCard - The
                               Electronic Business Card Version 2.1",
                               September September.

12.2.  Informative References

   [ISO9070]                   The International Organization for
                               Standardization, "ISO 9070, Information
                               Processing - SGML support facilities -
                               Registration Procedures for Public Text
                               Owner Identifiers", April 1991.

   [RFC3406]                   Daigle, L., van Gulik, D., Iannella, R.,
                               and P. Faltstrom, "Uniform Resource Names
                               (URN) Namespace Definition Mechanisms",
                               BCP 66, RFC 3406, October 2002.

   [TZ-DB]                     Olson, A., "Time zone code and data",
                               <ftp://elsie.nci.nih.gov/pub/>.

URIs

   [1]  <mailto:vcard@ietf.org>

   [2]  <mailto:iana@iana.org>

Appendix A.  Differences from RFCs 2425 and 2426

   This appendix contains a list of changes that have been made in the
   vCard specification from RFCs 2425 and 2426.

A.1.  New Structure

   o  [RFC2425] and [RFC2426] have been merged.  Initially [RFC2425] was
      intended to be extensible but only 2426 ever extended it.

   o  vCard is now not only a MIME type but a stand-alone format.

   o  A proper MIME type registration form has been included.

   o  UTF-8 is now the default character set.

   o  New vCard elements can be registered from IANA.

   o  Changed "manager" to "supervisor".

   o  Added "family", "supervisee", and "colleague" RELATED types.




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A.2.  Removed Features

   o  The group construct (i.e.  GROUP.PROPERTY:...) no longer exists.

   o  The CONTEXT and CHARSET parameters are no more.

   o  The MAILER property is no more.

   o  The "intl", "dom", "postal", and "parcel" TYPE parameter values
      for the ADR and LABEL properties have been removed.

   o  Inline vCards (such as the value of the AGENT property) are no
      longer supported.

   o  In the N property, additional names are now subsumed into the
      given names list.

A.3.  New Properties and Parameters

   o  The KIND, SEX, LANG, DDAY, BIRTH, and DEATH properties have been
      added.

   o  [RFC2739], which defines the FBURL, CALADRURI, CAPURI, and CALURI
      properties, has been merged in.

   o  [RFC4770], which defines the IMPP property, has been merged in.

   o  The "work", "home", and "uri" TYPE parameter values for the EMAIL
      property have been added.

   o  The "pref" value of the TYPE parameter is now a parameter of its
      own, with a positive integer value indicating the level of
      preferredness.

A.4.  Other Changes

   o  Synchronization is addressed in Section 7.

   o  The N property is no longer mandatory.

   o  The value of TEL is now a URI.

   o  The AGENT property was replaced with a type of RELATED.

   o  Date and time values now only support the basic format.
      Truncation is now supported.





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Appendix B.  Change Log (to be removed by RFC Editor prior to
             publication)

B.1.  Changes in -09

   o  Removed special meaning for groups.  Removed the "work" and "home"
      groups.  Removed the group registry.  Re-introduced the "work" and
      "home" TYPE parameter values.  Applied the TYPE parameter to
      properties which supported the "work" and "home" groups.

   o  Vendor namespace now uses private enterprise number in prefix.

   o  Added "thing" value for KIND property.

B.2.  Changes in -08

   o  Allow 1985 (year only) in date ABNF.

   o  Fixed missing country in ADR example.

   o  Added the DATE-AND-OR-TIME value.

   o  Made BDAY and DDAY use DATE-AND-OR-TIME.

   o  Prefixed "param" and "value" production rules specific to
      properties with the property name.

   o  Replaced the GENDER property with the SEX property.

   o  Added the ANNIVERSARY property.

   o  Added the "friend" and "spouse" types of RELATED.

   o  TZ property now has text / uri value.

   o  Refined the definitions of TITLE and ROLE.

B.3.  Changes in -07

   o  PREF is now bounded. 100 is the maximum value.

   o  Added the "emergency" RELATED type.

   o  Made GEO a URI.

   o  Added GEO and TZ parameters to ADR.





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   o  Changed wording of "default" use of SOUND property.

   o  Completely reworked the date, time, and date-time grammars.

   o  Added the timestamp value type.

   o  REV now has the timestamp value type.

   o  Rewrote ABNF.

   o  ORG can now have a single level.

B.4.  Changes in -06

   o  Corrected omission of resetability to text value for RELATED.

   o  Let KEY value type be reset to a URI value.

   o  ABNF fixes.

   o  Made gender values extensible.

   o  Gave the PREF parameter a positive integer value.

   o  Removed usage of the undefined "word" ABNF production rule.

   o  Defined property cardinalities.

   o  Defined properties allowable in WORK and HOME groups.

   o  Simplified the LANG property to use the vCard preference
      mechanism.

   o  Created the "language-tag" value type.

   o  Added PID to ABNF of SOURCE allowed parameters.

   o  Clarified escaping rules.

   o  Changed ABNF definition of non-standard X- properties.

   o  Removed TYPE parameter from EMAIL properties in examples.

   o  Created the CLIENTPIDMAP property.

   o  Changed PID value to a pair of small integers.





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   o  Completely reworked synchronization mechanisms.

   o  Created brand new synchronization example.

B.5.  Changes in -05

   o  Added multi PID value proposal.

B.6.  Changes in -04

   o  Added "location" value for KIND property.

   o  Some fixes to ABNF.

   o  Moved "pref" from being a TYPE value to a parameter in its own
      right.

   o  Removed the "work" and "home" TYPE values.

   o  Reintroduced the group construct.

   o  Assigned meaning to WORK and HOME groups.

   o  Restricted the TEL TYPE parameter value set.

   o  In N property, removed additional names, and replaced with
      multiple given names.

   o  Removed TYPE parameter from EMAIL and IMPP properties.

   o  Replaced AGENT with a type of RELATED.

   o  Use example.org domain in URL example.

   o  Created initial IANA table of values.

   o  Defined meaning of PUBLIC, PRIVATE, CONFIDENTIAL.

B.7.  Changes in -03

   o  Various changes to the synchronization mechanisms.

   o  Allowed truncated format for dated.  See issue #236.








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B.8.  Changes in -02

   o  Removed useless text in IMPP description.

   o  Added CalDAV-SCHED example to CALADRURI.

   o  Removed CAPURI property.

   o  Dashes in dates and colons in times are now mandatory.

   o  Allow for dates such as 2008 and 2008-05 and times such as 07 and
      07:54.

   o  Removed inline vCard value.

   o  Made AGENT only accept URI references instead of inline vCards.

   o  Added the MEMBER property.

   o  Renamed the UID parameter to PID.

   o  Changed the value type of the PID parameter to "a small integer."

   o  Changed the presence of UID and PID when synchronization is to be
      used from MUST to SHOULD.

   o  Added the RELATED (Section 6.6.6) property.

   o  Fixed many ABNF typos (issue #252).

   o  Changed formatting of ABNF comments to make them easier to read
      (issue #226).

B.9.  Changes in -01

   o  Merged [RFC2739] in.

   o  Converted all foobar.com, abc.com, etc. to example.com.

   o  Fixed bugs in ABNF.

   o  Made explicit that coordinates in the GEO property are expressed
      in the WGS 84 reference system.

   o  Clarified folding issues with multi-byte characters.

   o  Made the value of TEL a URI.




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   o  Added the UID parameter.

   o  Made the UID property's value type a URI.

   o  Added Section 7.

   o  Created IANA process for registering new parameters, value types,
      and properties.

   o  Created the initial IANA registries.

   o  Created vendor namespace based on text from RFC 4288.

B.10.  Changes in -00

   o  Name change because draft has been accepted as WG item.
      Otherwise, same as draft-resnick-vcarddav-vcardrev-01.

   o  Removed reference to RFC 2234.

   o  Fixed errata from
      http://www.rfc-editor.org/errata_search.php?rfc=2426.

   o  Removed passage referring to RFC 2425 profiles.

   o  Renamed Section 6.4 from "Telecommunications Adressing Properties"
      to "Communications Properties.

   o  Added Appendix A and Appendix B.

   o  Added reference to [RFC4770].

   o  Removed the group construct.

   o  Made the N property no longer mandatory.

   o  Added the KIND property.

   o  Clarified meaning of TYPE parameter value for PHOTO, LOGO, KEY,
      and SOUND.

   o  Removed the CONTEXT parameter.

   o  Removed the MAILER property.

   o  Made reference to [ISO9070] informative.





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   o  Removed "intl", "dom", "postal", and "parcel" TYPE parameter
      values for the ADR and LABEL properties.

   o  Clarified meaning of "extended address" ADR field.

   o  Mentioned [RFC3406] as another method of generating PRODID values.

   o  Updated obsolete references.

   o  Allowed BDAY and DDAY value types to be text values for fuzzy
      dates.

   o  Removed the CHARSET property.  Now the encoding is always UTF-8,
      except when overridden by the Content-Type (which is considered a
      compatibility feature).

Authors' Addresses

   Simon Perreault
   Viagenie
   2600 boul. Laurier, suite 625
   Quebec, QC  G1V 4W1
   Canada

   Phone: +1 418 656 9254
   EMail: simon.perreault@viagenie.ca
   URI:   http://www.viagenie.ca


   Peter W. Resnick
   QUALCOMM Incorporated
   5775 Morehouse Drive
   San Diego, CA  92121-1714
   US

   Phone: +1 858 651 4478
   EMail: presnick@qualcomm.com
   URI:   http://www.qualcomm.com/~presnick/













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