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Versions: (draft-resnick-vcarddav-vcardrev) 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 RFC 6350

Network Working Group                                       S. Perreault
Internet-Draft                                                  Viagenie
Obsoletes: 2425, 2426, 4770                                 May 26, 2011
(if approved)
Updates: 2739 (if approved)
Intended status: Standards Track
Expires: November 27, 2011


                       vCard Format Specification
                    draft-ietf-vcarddav-vcardrev-22

Abstract

   This document defines the vCard data format for representing and
   exchanging a variety of information about individuals and other
   entities (e.g., formatted and structured name and delivery addresses,
   email address, multiple telephone numbers, photograph, logo, audio
   clips, etc.).  This document obsoletes RFCs 2425, 2426, and 4770, and
   updates RFC 2739.

Status of This Memo

   This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the
   provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.

   Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
   Task Force (IETF).  Note that other groups may also distribute
   working documents as Internet-Drafts.  The list of current Internet-
   Drafts is at http://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/.

   Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
   and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any
   time.  It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
   material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."

   This Internet-Draft will expire on November 27, 2011.

Copyright Notice

   Copyright (c) 2011 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
   document authors.  All rights reserved.

   This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
   Provisions Relating to IETF Documents
   (http://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of
   publication of this document.  Please review these documents
   carefully, as they describe your rights and restrictions with respect



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   to this document.  Code Components extracted from this document must
   include Simplified BSD License text as described in Section 4.e of
   the Trust Legal Provisions and are provided without warranty as
   described in the Simplified BSD License.

   This document may contain material from IETF Documents or IETF
   Contributions published or made publicly available before November
   10, 2008.  The person(s) controlling the copyright in some of this
   material may not have granted the IETF Trust the right to allow
   modifications of such material outside the IETF Standards Process.
   Without obtaining an adequate license from the person(s) controlling
   the copyright in such materials, this document may not be modified
   outside the IETF Standards Process, and derivative works of it may
   not be created outside the IETF Standards Process, except to format
   it for publication as an RFC or to translate it into languages other
   than English.

Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  6
   2.  Conventions  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  6
   3.  vCard Format Specification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  6
     3.1.  Charset  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  6
     3.2.  Line Delimiting and Folding  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  6
     3.3.  ABNF Format Definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  7
     3.4.  Property Value Escaping  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
   4.  Property Value Data Types  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
     4.1.  TEXT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
     4.2.  URI  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
     4.3.  DATE, TIME, DATE-TIME, DATE-AND-OR-TIME, and TIMESTAMP . . 13
       4.3.1.  DATE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
       4.3.2.  TIME . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
       4.3.3.  DATE-TIME  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
       4.3.4.  DATE-AND-OR-TIME . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
       4.3.5.  TIMESTAMP  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
     4.4.  BOOLEAN  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
     4.5.  INTEGER  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
     4.6.  FLOAT  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
     4.7.  UTC-OFFSET . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
     4.8.  LANGUAGE-TAG . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
   5.  Property Parameters  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
     5.1.  LANGUAGE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
     5.2.  VALUE  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
     5.3.  PREF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
     5.4.  ALTID  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
     5.5.  PID  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
     5.6.  TYPE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
     5.7.  MEDIATYPE  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21



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     5.8.  CALSCALE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
     5.9.  SORT-AS  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
     5.10. GEO  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
     5.11. TZ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
   6.  vCard Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
     6.1.  General Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
       6.1.1.  BEGIN  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
       6.1.2.  END  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
       6.1.3.  SOURCE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
       6.1.4.  KIND . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
       6.1.5.  XML  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
     6.2.  Identification Properties  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
       6.2.1.  FN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
       6.2.2.  N  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
       6.2.3.  NICKNAME . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
       6.2.4.  PHOTO  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
       6.2.5.  BDAY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
       6.2.6.  ANNIVERSARY  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
       6.2.7.  GENDER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
     6.3.  Delivery Addressing Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
       6.3.1.  ADR  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
     6.4.  Communications Properties  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
       6.4.1.  TEL  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
       6.4.2.  EMAIL  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
       6.4.3.  IMPP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
       6.4.4.  LANG . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
     6.5.  Geographical Properties  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
       6.5.1.  TZ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
       6.5.2.  GEO  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
     6.6.  Organizational Properties  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
       6.6.1.  TITLE  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
       6.6.2.  ROLE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
       6.6.3.  LOGO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
       6.6.4.  ORG  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
       6.6.5.  MEMBER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
       6.6.6.  RELATED  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
     6.7.  Explanatory Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
       6.7.1.  CATEGORIES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
       6.7.2.  NOTE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
       6.7.3.  PRODID . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
       6.7.4.  REV  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
       6.7.5.  SOUND  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
       6.7.6.  UID  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
       6.7.7.  CLIENTPIDMAP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
       6.7.8.  URL  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
       6.7.9.  VERSION  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
     6.8.  Security Properties  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
       6.8.1.  KEY  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50



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     6.9.  Calendar Properties  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
       6.9.1.  FBURL  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
       6.9.2.  CALADRURI  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
       6.9.3.  CALURI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
     6.10. Extended Properties and Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
   7.  Synchronization  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
     7.1.  Mechanisms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
       7.1.1.  Matching vCard Instances . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
       7.1.2.  Matching Property Instances  . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
       7.1.3.  PID Matching . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
     7.2.  Example  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
       7.2.1.  Creation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
       7.2.2.  Initial Sharing  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
       7.2.3.  Adding and Sharing a Property  . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
       7.2.4.  Simultaneous Editing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
       7.2.5.  Global Context Simplification  . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
   8.  Example: Author's vCard  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
   9.  Security Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
   10. IANA Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60
     10.1. Media Type Registration  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60
     10.2. Registering New vCard Elements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
       10.2.1. Registration Procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
       10.2.2. Vendor Namespace . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62
       10.2.3. Registration Template for Properties . . . . . . . . . 63
       10.2.4. Registration Template for Parameters . . . . . . . . . 63
       10.2.5. Registration Template for Value Data Types . . . . . . 64
       10.2.6. Registration Template for Values . . . . . . . . . . . 64
     10.3. Initial vCard Elements Registries  . . . . . . . . . . . . 65
       10.3.1. Properties Registry  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65
       10.3.2. Parameters Registry  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66
       10.3.3. Value Data Types Registry  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67
       10.3.4. Values Registries  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67
   11. Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70
   12. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70
     12.1. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70
     12.2. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73
   Appendix A.  Differences from RFCs 2425 and 2426 . . . . . . . . . 75
     A.1.  New Structure  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75
     A.2.  Removed Features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76
     A.3.  New Properties and Parameters  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76
     A.4.  Other Changes  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76
   Appendix B.  Change Log (to be removed by RFC Editor prior to
                publication)  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77
     B.1.  Changes in -22 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77
     B.2.  Changes in -21 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77
     B.3.  Changes in -20 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77
     B.4.  Changes in -19 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78
     B.5.  Changes in -18 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78



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     B.6.  Changes in -17 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78
     B.7.  Changes in -16 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79
     B.8.  Changes in -15 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79
     B.9.  Changes in -14 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80
     B.10. Changes in -13 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81
     B.11. Changes in -12 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81
     B.12. Changes in -11 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82
     B.13. Changes in -10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83
     B.14. Changes in -09 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83
     B.15. Changes in -08 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83
     B.16. Changes in -07 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84
     B.17. Changes in -06 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84
     B.18. Changes in -05 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85
     B.19. Changes in -04 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85
     B.20. Changes in -03 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86
     B.21. Changes in -02 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86
     B.22. Changes in -01 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87
     B.23. Changes in -00 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87

































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1.  Introduction

   Electronic address books have become ubiquitous.  Their increased
   presence on portable, connected devices as well as the diversity of
   platforms exchanging contact data call for a standard.  This memo
   defines the vCard format, which allows the capture and exchange of
   information normally stored within an address book or directory
   application.

   A high-level overview of the differences from RFCs 2425 and 2426 can
   be found in Appendix A.

2.  Conventions

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "NOT RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and
   "OPTIONAL" in this document are to be interpreted as described in
   [RFC2119].

3.  vCard Format Specification

   The text/vcard MIME content type (hereafter known as "vCard", see
   Section 10.1) contains contact information, typically pertaining to a
   single contact or group of contacts.  The content consists of one or
   more lines in the format given below.

3.1.  Charset

   The charset (see [RFC3536] for internationalization terminology) for
   vCard is UTF-8 as defined in [RFC3629].  There is no way to override
   this.  It is invalid to specify a value other than "UTF-8" in the
   "charset" MIME parameter (see Section 10.1).

3.2.  Line Delimiting and Folding

   Individual lines within vCard are delimited by the [RFC5322] line
   break, which is a CRLF sequence (U+000D followed by U+000A).  Long
   logical lines of text can be split into a multiple-physical-line
   representation using the following folding technique.  Content lines
   SHOULD be folded to a maximum width of 75 octets, excluding the line
   break.  Multi-octet characters MUST remain contiguous.  The rationale
   for this folding process can be found in [RFC5322], Section 2.1.1.

   A logical line MAY be continued on the next physical line anywhere
   between two characters by inserting a CRLF immediately followed by a
   single white space character (space (U+0020) or horizontal tab
   (U+0009)).  The folded line MUST contain at least one character.  Any
   sequence of CRLF followed immediately by a single white space



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   character is ignored (removed) when processing the content type.  For
   example the line:

     NOTE:This is a long description that exists on a long line.

   can be represented as:

     NOTE:This is a long description
       that exists on a long line.

   It could also be represented as:

     NOTE:This is a long descrip
      tion that exists o
      n a long line.

   The process of moving from this folded multiple-line representation
   of a property definition to its single line representation is called
   unfolding.  Unfolding is accomplished by regarding CRLF immediately
   followed by a white space character (namely HTAB (U+0009) or SPACE
   (U+0020)) as equivalent to no characters at all (i.e., the CRLF and
   single white space character are removed).

      Note: It is possible for very simple implementations to generate
      improperly folded lines in the middle of a UTF-8 multi-octet
      sequence.  For this reason, implementations SHOULD unfold lines in
      such a way as to properly restore the original sequence.

      Note: Unfolding is done differently than in [RFC5322].  Unfolding
      in [RFC5322] only removes the CRLF, not the space following it.

   Folding is done after any content encoding of a type value.
   Unfolding is done before any decoding of a type value in a content
   line.

3.3.  ABNF Format Definition

   The following ABNF uses the notation of [RFC5234], which also defines
   CRLF, WSP, DQUOTE, VCHAR, ALPHA, and DIGIT.

   vcard-entity = 1*vcard

   vcard = "BEGIN:VCARD" CRLF
           "VERSION:4.0" CRLF
           1*contentline
           "END:VCARD" CRLF
     ; A vCard object MUST include the VERSION and FN properties.
     ; VERSION MUST come immediately after BEGIN:VCARD.



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   contentline = [group "."] name *(";" param) ":" value CRLF
     ; When parsing a content line, folded lines must first
     ; be unfolded according to the unfolding procedure
     ; described in section 3.2.
     ; When generating a content line, lines longer than 75
     ; characters SHOULD be folded according to the folding
     ; procedure described in section 3.2.

   group = 1*(ALPHA / DIGIT / "-")
   name  = "SOURCE" / "KIND" / "FN" / "N" / "NICKNAME"
         / "PHOTO" / "BDAY" / "ANNIVERSARY" / "GENDER" / "ADR" / "TEL"
         / "EMAIL" / "IMPP" / "LANG" / "TZ" / "GEO" / "TITLE" / "ROLE"
         / "LOGO" / "ORG" / "MEMBER" / "RELATED" / "CATEGORIES"
         / "NOTE" / "PRODID" / "REV" / "SOUND" / "UID" / "CLIENTPIDMAP"
         / "URL" / "KEY" / "FBURL" / "CALADRURI" / "CALURI" / "XML"
         / iana-token / x-name
     ; Parsing of the param and value is based on the "name" as
     ; defined in ABNF sections below.
     ; Group and name are case-insensitive.

   iana-token = 1*(ALPHA / DIGIT / "-")
     ; identifier registered with IANA

   x-name = "x-" 1*(ALPHA / DIGIT / "-")
     ; Names that begin with "x-" or "X-" are
     ; reserved for experimental use, not intended for released
     ; products, or for use in bilateral agreements.

   param = language-param / value-param / pref-param / pid-param
         / type-param / geo-parameter / tz-parameter / sort-as-param
         / calscale-param / any-param
     ; Allowed parameters depend on property name.

   param-value = *SAFE-CHAR / DQUOTE *QSAFE-CHAR DQUOTE

   any-param  = (iana-token / x-name) "=" param-value *("," param-value)

   NON-ASCII = UTF8-2 / UTF8-3 / UTF8-4
     ; UTF8-{2,3,4} are defined in [RFC3629]

   QSAFE-CHAR = WSP / "!" / %x23-7E / NON-ASCII
     ; Any character except CTLs, DQUOTE

   SAFE-CHAR = WSP / "!" / %x23-39 / %x3C-7E / NON-ASCII
     ; Any character except CTLs, DQUOTE, ";", ":"

   VALUE-CHAR = WSP / VCHAR / NON-ASCII
     ; Any textual character



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   A line that begins with a white space character is a continuation of
   the previous line, as described in Section 3.2.  The white space
   character and immediately preceeding CRLF should be discarded when
   reconstructing the original line.  Note that this line-folding
   convention differs from that found in [RFC5322], in that the sequence
   <CRLF><WSP> found anywhere in the content indicates a continued line
   and should be removed.

   Property names and parameter names are case insensitive (e.g., the
   property name "fn" is the same as "FN" and "Fn").  Parameter values
   MAY be case-sensitive or case-insensitive, depending on their
   definition.  Parameter values that are not explicitly defined as
   being case-sensitive are case-insenstive.  Based on experience with
   vCard 3 interoperability, it is RECOMMENDED that property and
   parameter names be upper-case on output.

   The group construct is used to group related properties together.
   The group name is a syntactic convention used to indicate that all
   property names prefaced with the same group name SHOULD be grouped
   together when displayed by an application.  It has no other
   significance.  Implementations that do not understand or support
   grouping MAY simply strip off any text before a "." to the left of
   the type name and present the types and values as normal.

   Property cardinalities are indicated using the following notation,
   which is based on ABNF (see [RFC5234], section 3.6):

    +-------------+--------------------------------------------------+
    | Cardinality | Meaning                                          |
    +-------------+--------------------------------------------------+
    |      1      | Exactly one instance per vCard MUST be present.  |
    |      *1     | Exactly one instance per vCard MAY be present.   |
    |      1*     | One or more instances per vCard MUST be present. |
    |      *      | One or more instances per vCard MAY be present.  |
    +-------------+--------------------------------------------------+

   Properties defined in a vCard instance may have multiple values
   depending on the property cardinality.  The general rule for encoding
   multi-valued properties is to simply create a new content line for
   each value (including the property name).  However, it should be
   noted that some value types support encoding multiple values in a
   single content line by separating the values with a comma ",".  This
   approach has been taken for several of the content types defined
   below (date, time, integer, float).







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3.4.  Property Value Escaping

   Some properties may contain one or more values delimited by a COMMA
   character (U+002C).  Therefore, a COMMA character in a value MUST be
   escaped with a BACKSLASH character (U+005C), even for properties that
   don't allow multiple instances (for consistency).

   Some properties (e.g.  N and ADR) comprise multiple fields delimited
   by a SEMI-COLON character (U+003B).  Therefore, a SEMI-COLON in a
   field of such a "compound" property MUST be escaped with a BACKSLASH
   character.  SEMI-COLON characters in non-compound properties MAY be
   escaped.  On input, an escaped SEMI-COLON character is never a field
   separator.  An unescaped SEMI-COLON character may be a field
   separator, depending on the property in which it appears.

   Furthermore, some fields of compound properties may contain a list of
   values delimited by a COMMA character.  Therefore, a COMMA character
   in one of a field's values MUST be escaped with a BACKSLASH
   character, even for fields that don't allow multiple values (for
   consistency).  Compound properties allowing multiple instances MUST
   NOT be encoded in a single content line.

   Finally, BACKSLASH characters in values MUST be escaped with a
   BACKSLASH character.  NEWLINE (U+000A) characters in values MUST be
   encoded by two characters: a BACKSLASH followed by either an 'n'
   (U+006E) or an 'N' (U+004E).

   In all other cases, escaping MUST NOT be used.

4.  Property Value Data Types

   Standard value types are defined below.

     value = text
           / text-list
           / date-list
           / time-list
           / date-time-list
           / date-and-or-time-list
           / timestamp-list
           / boolean
           / integer-list
           / float-list
           / URI               ; from Section 3 of [RFC3986]
           / utc-offset
           / Language-Tag
           / iana-valuespec
       ; Actual value type depends on property name and VALUE parameter.



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     text = *TEXT-CHAR

     TEXT-CHAR = "\\" / "\," / "\n" / WSP / NON-ASCII
               / %x21-2B / %x2D-5B / %x5D-7E
        ; Backslashes, commas, and newlines must be encoded.

     component = "\\" / "\," / "\;" / "\n" / WSP / NON-ASCII
               / %x21-2B / %x2D-3A / %x3C-5B / %x5D-7E
     list-component = component *("," component)

     text-list             = text             *("," text)
     date-list             = date             *("," date)
     time-list             = time             *("," time)
     date-time-list        = date-time        *("," date-time)
     date-and-or-time-list = date-and-or-time *("," date-and-or-time)
     timestamp-list        = timestamp        *("," timestamp)
     integer-list          = integer          *("," integer)
     float-list            = float            *("," float)

     boolean = "TRUE" / "FALSE"
     integer = [sign] 1*DIGIT
     float   = [sign] 1*DIGIT ["." 1*DIGIT]

     sign = "+" / "-"

     year   = 4DIGIT  ; 0000-9999
     month  = 2DIGIT  ; 01-12
     day    = 2DIGIT  ; 01-28/29/30/31 depending on month and leap year
     hour   = 2DIGIT  ; 00-23
     minute = 2DIGIT  ; 00-59
     second = 2DIGIT  ; 00-58/59/60 depending on leap second
     zone   = utc-designator / utc-offset
     utc-designator = %x5A  ; uppercase "Z"

     date          = year    [month  day]
                   / year "-" month
                   / "--"     month [day]
                   / "--"      "-"   day
     date-noreduc  = year     month  day
                   / "--"     month  day
                   / "--"      "-"   day
     date-complete = year     month  day

     time          = hour [minute [second]] [zone]
                   /  "-"  minute [second]  [zone]
                   /  "-"   "-"    second   [zone]
     time-notrunc  = hour [minute [second]] [zone]
     time-complete = hour  minute  second   [zone]



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     time-designator = %x54  ; uppercase "T"
     date-time = date-noreduc  time-designator time-notrunc
     timestamp = date-complete time-designator time-complete

     date-and-or-time = date-time / date / time-designator time

     utc-offset = sign hour [minute]

     Language-Tag = <Language-Tag, defined in [RFC5646], Section 2.1>

     iana-valuespec = <value-spec, see Section 12>
                    ; a publicly-defined valuetype format, registered
                    ; with IANA, as defined in section 12 of this
                    ; document

4.1.  TEXT

   "text": The "text" value type should be used to identify values that
   contain human-readable text.  As for the language, it is controlled
   by the LANGUAGE property parameter defined in Section 5.1.

   Examples for "text":

       this is a text value
       this is one value,this is another
       this is a single value\, with a comma encoded

   A formatted text line break in a text value type MUST be represented
   as the character sequence backslash (U+005C) followed by a Latin
   small letter n (U+006E) or a Latin capital letter N (U+004E), that is
   "\n" or "\N".

   For example a multiple line NOTE value of:

       Mythical Manager
       Hyjinx Software Division
       BabsCo, Inc.

   could be represented as:

       NOTE:Mythical Manager\nHyjinx Software Division\n
        BabsCo\, Inc.\n

   demonstrating the \n literal formatted line break technique, the
   CRLF-followed-by-space line folding technique, and the backslash
   escape technique.





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4.2.  URI

   "uri": The "uri" value type should be used to identify values that
   are referenced by a Uniform Resource Identifier (URI) instead of
   encoded in-line.  These value references might be used if the value
   is too large, or otherwise undesirable to include directly.  The
   format for the URI is as defined in Section 3 of [RFC3986].  Note
   that the value of a property of type "uri" is what the URI points to,
   not the URI itself.

   Examples for "uri":

       http://www.example.com/my/picture.jpg
       ldap://ldap.example.com/cn=babs%20jensen

4.3.  DATE, TIME, DATE-TIME, DATE-AND-OR-TIME, and TIMESTAMP

   "date", "time", "date-time", and "timestamp": Each of these value
   types is based on the definitions in [ISO.8601.2004] standard.
   Multiple such values can be specified using the comma-separated
   notation.

   Only the basic format is supported.

4.3.1.  DATE

   A calendar date as specified in [ISO.8601.2004] section 4.1.2.

   Reduced accuracy, as specified in [ISO.8601.2004] sections 4.1.2.3 a)
   and b), but not c), is permitted.

   Expanded representation, as specified in [ISO.8601.2004] section
   4.1.4, is forbidden.

   Truncated representation, as specified in [ISO.8601.2000] sections
   5.2.1.3 d), e), and f), is permitted.

   Examples for "date":

             19850412
             1985-04
             1985
             --0412
             ---12

   Note the use of YYYY-MM in the second example above.  YYYYMM is
   disallowed to prevent confusion with YYMMDD.  Note also that
   YYYY-MM-DD is disallowed since we are using the basic format instead



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   of the extended format.

4.3.2.  TIME

   A time of day as specified in [ISO.8601.2004] section 4.2.

   Reduced accuracy, as specified in [ISO.8601.2004] section 4.2.2.3, is
   permitted.

   Representation with decimal fraction, as specified in [ISO.8601.2004]
   section 4.2.2.4, is forbidden.

   The midnight hour is always represented by 00, never 24 (see
   [ISO.8601.2004] section 4.2.3).

   Truncated representation, as specified in [ISO.8601.2000] sections
   5.3.1.4 a), b), and c), is permitted.

   Examples for "time":

             102200
             1022
             10
             -2200
             --00
             102200Z
             102200-0800

4.3.3.  DATE-TIME

   A date and time of day combination as specified in [ISO.8601.2004]
   section 4.3.

   Truncation of the date part, as specified in [ISO.8601.2000] section
   5.4.2 c), is permitted.

   Examples for "date-time":

             19961022T140000
             --1022T1400
             ---22T14

4.3.4.  DATE-AND-OR-TIME

   Either a DATE-TIME, a DATE, or a TIME value.  To allow unambiguous
   interpretation, a standalone TIME value is always preceded by a "T".





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   Examples for "date-and-or-time":

             19961022T140000
             --1022T1400
             ---22T14
             19850412
             1985-04
             1985
             --0412
             ---12
             T102200
             T1022
             T10
             T-2200
             T--00
             T102200Z
             T102200-0800

4.3.5.  TIMESTAMP

   A complete date and time of day combination as specified in
   [ISO.8601.2004] section 4.3.2.

   Examples for "timestamp":

             19961022T140000
             19961022T140000Z
             19961022T140000-05
             19961022T140000-0500

4.4.  BOOLEAN

   "boolean": The "boolean" value type is used to express boolean
   values.  These values are case insensitive.

   Examples:

       TRUE
       false
       True

4.5.  INTEGER

   "integer": The "integer" value type is used to express signed
   integers in decimal format.  If sign is not specified, the value is
   assumed positive "+".  Multiple "integer" values can be specified
   using the comma-separated notation.  The maximum value is
   9223372036854775807 and the minimum value is -9223372036854775808.



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   These limits correspond to a signed 64-bit integer using two's-
   complement arithmetic.

   Examples:

       1234567890
       -1234556790
       +1234556790,432109876

4.6.  FLOAT

   "float": The "float" value type is used to express real numbers.  If
   sign is not specified, the value is assumed positive "+".  Multiple
   "float" values can be specified using the comma-separated notation.
   Implementations MUST support a precision equal or better than that of
   the IEEE "binary64" format [IEEE.754.2008].

      Note: Scientific notation is disallowed.  Implementors wishing to
      use their favorite language's %f formatting should be careful.

   Examples:

       20.30
       1000000.0000001
       1.333,3.14

4.7.  UTC-OFFSET

   "utc-offset": The "utc-offset" value type specifies that the property
   value is a signed offset from UTC.  This value type can be specified
   in the TZ property.

   The value type is an offset from Coordinated Universal Time (UTC).
   It is specified as a positive or negative difference in units of
   hours and minutes (e.g., +hhmm).  The time is specified as a 24-hour
   clock.  Hour values are from 00 to 23, and minute values are from 00
   to 59.  Hour and minutes are 2-digits with high order zeroes required
   to maintain digit count.  The basic format for ISO 8601 UTC offsets
   MUST be used.

4.8.  LANGUAGE-TAG

   "language-tag": A single language tag, as defined in [RFC5646].

5.  Property Parameters

   A property can have attributes associated with it.  These "property
   parameters" contain meta-information about the property or the



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   property value.  In some cases the property parameter can be multi-
   valued in which case the property parameter value elements are
   separated by a COMMA (U+002C).

   Property parameter value elements that contain the COLON (U+003A),
   SEMICOLON (U+003B) or COMMA (U+002C) character separators MUST be
   specified as quoted-string text values.  Property parameter values
   MUST NOT contain the DQUOTE (U+0022) character.  The DQUOTE character
   is used as a delimiter for parameter values that contain restricted
   characters or URI text.

   Applications MUST ignore x-param and iana-param values they don't
   recognize.

5.1.  LANGUAGE

   The LANGUAGE property parameter is used to identify data in multiple
   languages.  There is no concept of "default" language, except as
   specified by any "Content-Language" MIME header parameter that is
   present [RFC3282].  The value of the LANGUAGE property parameter is a
   language tag as defined in Section 2 of [RFC5646].

   Examples:

     ROLE;LANGUAGE=tr:hoca

   ABNF:

           language-param = "LANGUAGE=" Language-Tag
             ; Language-Tag is defined in section 2.1 of RFC 5646

5.2.  VALUE

   The VALUE parameter is OPTIONAL, used to identify the value type
   (data type) and format of the value.  The use of these predefined
   formats is encouraged even if the value parameter is not explicitly
   used.  By defining a standard set of value types and their formats,
   existing parsing and processing code can be leveraged.  The
   predefined data type values MUST NOT be repeated in COMMA separated
   value lists except within the N, NICKNAME, ADR, and CATEGORIES
   properties.










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   ABNF:

     value-param = "VALUE=" value-type

     value-type = "text"
                / "uri"
                / "date"
                / "time"
                / "date-time"
                / "date-and-or-time"
                / "timestamp"
                / "boolean"
                / "integer"
                / "float"
                / "utc-offset"
                / "language-tag"
                / iana-token  ; registered as described in section 12
                / x-name

5.3.  PREF

   The PREF parameter is OPTIONAL and is used to indicate that the
   corresponding instance of a property is preferred by the vCard
   author.  Its value MUST be an integer between 1 and 100 that
   quantifies the level of preference.  Lower values correspond to a
   higher level of preference, 1 being most preferred.

   When the parameter is absent, the default MUST be to interpret the
   property instance as being least preferred.

   Note that the value of this parameter is to be interpreted only in
   relation to values assigned to other instances of the same property
   in the same vCard.  A given value, or the absence of a value, MUST
   NOT be interpreted on its own.

   This parameter MAY be applied to any property that allows multiple
   instances.

   ABNF:

           pref-param = "PREF=" (1*2DIGIT / "100")
                                ; An integer between 1 and 100.

5.4.  ALTID

   The ALTID parameter is used to "tag" property instances as being
   alternative representations of the same logical property.  For
   example, translations of a property in multiple languages generates



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   multiple property instances having different LANGUAGE (Section 5.1)
   parameter which are tagged with the same ALTID value.

   This parameter's value is treated as an opaque string.  Its sole
   purpose is to be compared for equality against other ALTID parameter
   values.

   Two property instances are considered alternative representations of
   the same logical property if and only if their names as well as the
   value of their ALTID parameters are identical.  Property instances
   without the ALTID parameter MUST NOT be considered an alternative
   representation of any other property instance.  Values for the ALTID
   parameter are not globally unique: they MAY be reused for different
   property names.

   Property instances having the same ALTID parameter value count as 1
   toward cardinality.  Therefore, since N (Section 6.2.2) has
   cardinality *1 and TITLE (Section 6.6.1) has cardinality *, these
   three examples would be legal:

     N;ALTID=1;LANGUAGE=jp:<U+5C71><U+7530>;<U+592A><U+90CE>;;;
     N;ALTID=1;LANGUAGE=en:Yamada;Taro;;;
     (<U+XXXX> denotes a UTF8-encoded Unicode character.)

     TITLE;ALTID=1;LANGUAGE=fr:Patron
     TITLE;ALTID=1;LANGUAGE=en:Boss

     TITLE;ALTID=1;LANGUAGE=fr:Patron
     TITLE;ALTID=1;LANGUAGE=en:Boss
     TITLE;ALTID=2;LANGUAGE=en:Chief vCard Evangelist

   while this one would not:

     N;ALTID=1;LANGUAGE=jp:<U+5C71><U+7530>;<U+592A><U+90CE>;;;
     N:Yamada;Taro;;;
     (Two instances of the N property.)

   and these three would be legal but questionable:













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     TITLE;ALTID=1;LANGUAGE=fr:Patron
     TITLE;ALTID=2;LANGUAGE=en:Boss
     (Should probably have the same ALTID value.)

     TITLE;ALTID=1;LANGUAGE=fr:Patron
     TITLE:LANGUAGE=en:Boss
     (Second line should probably have ALTID=1.)

     N;ALTID=1;LANGUAGE=jp:<U+5C71><U+7530>;<U+592A><U+90CE>;;;
     N;ALTID=1;LANGUAGE=en:Yamada;Taro;;;
     N;ALTID=1;LANGUAGE=en:Smith;John;;;
     (The last line should probably have ALTID=2. But that would be
      illegal because N has cardinality *1.)

   The ALTID property MAY also be used in may contexts other than with
   the LANGUAGE parameter.  Here's an example with two representations
   of the same photo in different file formats:

     PHOTO;ALTID=1:data:image/jpeg;base64,...
     PHOTO;ALTID=1;data:image/jp2;base64,...

   ABNF:

           altid-param = "ALTID=" param-value

5.5.  PID

   The PID parameter is used to identify a specific property among
   multiple instances.  It plays a role analogous to the UID property
   (Section 6.7.6) on a per-property instead of per-vCard basis.  It MAY
   appear more than once in a given property.  It MUST NOT appear on
   properties that may have only one instance per vCard.  Its value is
   either a single small positive integer or a pair of small positive
   integers separated by a dot.  Multiple values may be encoded in a
   single PID parameter by separating the values with a comma ",".  See
   Section 7 for more details on its usage.

   ABNF:

           pid-param = "PID=" pid-value *("," pid-value)
           pid-value = 1*DIGIT ["." 1*DIGIT]

5.6.  TYPE

   The TYPE parameter has multiple, different uses.  In general, it is a
   way of specifying class characteristics of the associated property.
   Most of the time, its value is a comma-separated subset of a pre-
   defined enumeration.  In this document, the following properties make



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   use of this parameter: FN, NICKNAME, PHOTO, ADR, TEL, EMAIL, IMPP,
   LANG, TZ, GEO, TITLE, ROLE, LOGO, ORG, RELATED, CATEGORIES, NOTE,
   SOUND, URL, KEY, FBURL, CALADRURI, and CALURI.  The TYPE parameter
   MUST NOT be applied on other properties defined in this document.

   The "work" and "home" values act like tags.  The "work" value implies
   that the property is related to an individual's work place, while the
   "home" value implies that the property is related to an individual's
   personal life.  When neither "work" nor "home" is present, it is
   implied that the property is related to both an individual's work
   place and personal life in the case that the KIND property's value is
   "individual", or to none in other cases.

   ABNF:

           type-param = "TYPE=" type-value *("," type-value)

           type-value = "work" / "home" / type-param-tel
                      / type-param-related / iana-token / x-name
             ; This is further defined in individual property sections.

5.7.  MEDIATYPE

   The MEDIATYPE parameter is used with properties whose value is a URI.
   Its use is OPTIONAL.  It provides a hint to the vCard consumer
   application about the media type [RFC2046] of the resource identified
   by the URI.  Some URI schemes do not need this parameter.  For
   example, the "data" scheme allows the media type to be explicitly
   indicated as part of the URI [RFC2397].  Another scheme, "http",
   provides the media type as part of the URI resolution process, with
   the Content-Type HTTP header [RFC2616].  The MEDIATYPE parameter is
   intended to be used with URI schemes that do not provide such
   functionality (e.g. "ftp" [RFC1738]).

   ABNF:

     mediatype-param = "MEDIATYPE=" mediatype
     mediatype = type-name "/" subtype-name *( ";" attribute "=" value )
       ; "attribute" and "value" are from [RFC2045]
       ; "type-name" and "subtype-name" are from [RFC4288]

5.8.  CALSCALE

   The CALSCALE parameter is identical to the CALSCALE property in
   iCalendar (see [RFC5545], section 3.7.1).  It is used to define the
   calendar system in which a date or date-time value is expressed.  The
   only value specified by iCalendar is "gregorian", which stands for
   the Gregorian system.  It is the default when the parameter is



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   absent.  Additional values may be defined in extension documents and
   registered from IANA (see Section 10.3.4).  A vCard implementation
   MUST ignore properties with a CALSCALE parameter value that it does
   not understand.

   ABNF:

           calscale-param = "CALSCALE=" calscale-value

           calscale-value = "gregorian" / iana-token / x-name

5.9.  SORT-AS

   The "sort-as" parameter is used to specify the string to be used for
   national-language-specific sorting.  Without this information,
   sorting algorithms could incorrectly sort this vCard within a
   sequence of sorted vCards.  When this property is present in a vCard,
   then the given strings are used for sorting the vCard.

   This parameter's value is a comma-separated list which MUST have as
   many or fewer elements as the corresponding property value has
   components.  This parameter's value is case-sensitive.

   ABNF:

     sort-as-param = "SORT-AS=" sort-as-value

     sort-as-value = param-value *("," param-value)

   Examples: For the case of surname and given name sorting, the
   following examples define common sort string usage with the N
   property.



















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           FN:Rene van der Harten
           N;SORT-AS="Harten,Rene":van der Harten;Rene,J.;Sir;R.D.O.N.

           FN:Robert Pau Shou Chang
           N;SORT-AS="Pau Shou Chang,Robert":Shou Chang;Robert,Pau;;

           FN:Osamu Koura
           N;SORT-AS="Koura,Osamu":Koura;Osamu;;

           FN:Oscar del Pozo
           N;SORT-AS="Pozo,Oscar":del Pozo Triscon;Oscar;;

           FN:Chistine d'Aboville
           N;SORT-AS="Aboville,Christine":d'Aboville;Christine;;

           FN:H. James de Mann
           N;SORT-AS="Mann,James":de Mann;Henry,James;;

   If sorted by surname the results would be:

           Christine d'Aboville
           Rene van der Harten
           Osamu Koura
           H. James de Mann
           Robert Pau Shou Chang
           Oscar del Pozo

   If sorted by given name the results would be:

           Christine d'Aboville
           H. James de Mann
           Osamu Koura
           Oscar del Pozo
           Rene van der Harten
           Robert Pau Shou Chang

5.10.  GEO

   The GEO parameter can be used to indicate global positioning
   information that is specific to an address.  Its value is the same as
   that of the GEO property (see Section 6.5.2).

   ABNF:

     geo-parameter = "GEO=" DQUOTE URI DQUOTE






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5.11.  TZ

   The TZ parameter can be used to indicate time zone information that
   is specific to an address.  Its value is the same as that of the TZ
   property.

   ABNF:

     tz-parameter = "TZ=" (param-value / DQUOTE URI DQUOTE)

6.  vCard Properties

   What follows is an enumeration of the standard vCard properties.

6.1.  General Properties

6.1.1.  BEGIN

   Purpose:  To denote the beginning of a syntactic entity within a
      text/vcard content-type.

   Value type:  text

   Cardinality:  1

   Special notes:  The content entity MUST begin with the BEGIN property
      with a value of "VCARD".  The value is case-insensitive.

      The BEGIN property is used in conjunction with the END property to
      delimit an entity containing a related set of properties within an
      text/vcard content-type.  This construct can be used instead of
      including multiple vCards as body parts inside of a multipart/
      alternative MIME message.  It is provided for applications that
      wish to define content that can contain multiple entities within
      the same text/vcard content-type or to define content that can be
      identifiable outside of a MIME environment.

   ABNF:

     BEGIN-param = 0" "  ; no parameter allowed
     BEGIN-value = "VCARD"

   Example:

         BEGIN:VCARD






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6.1.2.  END

   Purpose:  To denote the end of a syntactic entity within a text/vcard
      content-type.

   Value type:  text

   Cardinality:  1

   Special notes:  The content entity MUST end with the END type with a
      value of "VCARD".  The value is case-insensitive.

      The END property is used in conjunction with the BEGIN property to
      delimit an entity containing a related set of properties within an
      text/vcard content-type.  This construct can be used instead of or
      in addition to wrapping separate sets of information inside
      additional MIME headers.  It is provided for applications that
      wish to define content that can contain multiple entities within
      the same text/vcard content-type or to define content that can be
      identifiable outside of a MIME environment.

   ABNF:

     END-param = 0" "  ; no parameter allowed
     END-value = "VCARD"

   Example:

         END:VCARD

6.1.3.  SOURCE

   Purpose:  To identify the source of directory information contained
      in the content type.

   Value type:  uri

   Cardinality:  *

   Special notes:  The SOURCE property is used to provide the means by
      which applications knowledgable in the given directory service
      protocol can obtain additional or more up-to-date information from
      the directory service.  It contains a URI as defined in [RFC3986]
      and/or other information referencing the vCard to which the
      information pertains.  When directory information is available
      from more than one source, the sending entity can pick what it
      considers to be the best source, or multiple SOURCE properties can
      be included.



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   ABNF:

     SOURCE-param = "VALUE=uri" / pid-param / pref-param / altid-param
                  / mediatype-param / any-param
     SOURCE-value = URI

   Examples:

     SOURCE:ldap://ldap.example.com/cn=Babs%20Jensen,%20o=Babsco,%20c=US

     SOURCE:http://directory.example.com/addressbooks/jdoe/
      Jean%20Dupont.vcf

6.1.4.  KIND

   Purpose:  To specify the kind of object the vCard represents.

   Value type:  A single text value.

   Cardinality:  *1

   Special notes:  The value may be one of the following:

      "individual"  for a vCard representing a single person or entity.
         This is the default kind of vCard.

      "group"  for a vCard representing a group of persons or entities.
         The group's member entities can be other vCards or other types
         of entities, such as email addresses or web sites.  A group
         vCard will usually contain MEMBER properties to specify the
         members of the group, but it is not required to.  A group vCard
         without MEMBER properties can be considered an abstract
         grouping, or one whose members are known empirically (perhaps
         "IETF Participants" or "Republican U.S. Senators").

         All properties in a group vCard apply to the group as a whole,
         and not to any particular MEMBER.  For example, an EMAIL
         property might specify the address of a mailing list associated
         with the group, and an IMPP property might refer to a group
         chat room.

      "org"  for a vCard representing an organization.  An organization
         vCard will not (in fact, MUST NOT) contain MEMBER properties,
         and so these are something of a cross between "individual" and
         "group".  An organization is a single entity, but not a person.
         It might represent a business or government, a department or
         division within a business or government, a club, an
         association, or the like.



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         All properties in an organization vCard apply to the
         organization as a whole, as is the case with a group vCard.
         For example, an EMAIL property might specify the address of a
         contact point for the organization.

      "location"  for a named geographical place.  A location vCard will
         usually contain a GEO property, but it is not required to.  A
         location vCard without a GEO property can be considered an
         abstract location, or one whose definition is known empirically
         (perhaps "New England" or "The Seashore").

         All properties in a location vCard apply to the location
         itself, and not with any entity that might exist at that
         location.  For example, in a vCard for an office building, an
         ADR property might give the mailing address for the building,
         and a TEL property might specify the telephone number of the
         receptionist.

      An x-name.  vCards MAY include private or experimental values for
         KIND.  Remember that x-name values are not intended for general
         use, and are unlikely to interoperate.

      An iana-token.  Additional values may be registered with IANA (see
         Section 10.3.4).  A new value's specification document MUST
         specify which properties make sense for that new kind of vCard
         and which do not.

      Implementations MUST support the specific string values defined
      above.  If this property is absent, "individual" MUST be assumed
      as the default.  If this property is present but the
      implementation does not understand its value (the value is an
      x-name or iana-token that the implementation does not support),
      the implementation SHOULD act in a neutral way, which usually
      means treating the vCard as though its kind were "individual".
      The presence of MEMBER properties MAY, however, be taken as an
      indication that the unknown kind is an extension of "group".

      Clients often need to visually distinguish contacts based on what
      they represent, and the KIND property provides a direct way for
      them to do so.  For example, when displaying contacts in a list,
      an icon could be displayed next to each one, using distinctive
      icons for the different kinds; a client might use an outline of a
      single person to represent an "individual", an outline of multiple
      people to represent a "group", and so on.  Alternatively, or in
      addition, a client might choose to segregate different kinds of
      vCards to different panes, tabs, or selections in the user
      interface.




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      Some clients might also make functional distinctions among the
      kinds, ignoring "location" vCards for some purposes and
      considering only "location" vCards for others.

      When designing those sorts of visual and functional distinctions,
      client implementations have to decide how to fit unsupported kinds
      into the scheme.  What icon is used for them?  The one for
      "individual"?  A unique one, such as an icon of a question-mark?
      Which tab do they go into?  It is beyond the scope of this
      specification to answer these questions, but these are things
      implementors need to consider.

   ABNF:

     KIND-param = "VALUE=text" / any-param
     KIND-value = "individual" / "group" / "org" / "location"
                / iana-token / x-name

   Example:

      This represents someone named Jane Doe working in the marketing
      department of the North American division of ABC Inc.

         BEGIN:VCARD
         VERSION:4.0
         KIND:individual
         FN:Jane Doe
         ORG:ABC\, Inc.;North American Division;Marketing
         END:VCARD

      This represents the department itself, commonly known as ABC
      Marketing.

         BEGIN:VCARD
         VERSION:4.0
         KIND:org
         FN:ABC Marketing
         ORG:ABC\, Inc.;North American Division;Marketing
         END:VCARD

6.1.5.  XML

   Purpose:  To include extended XML-encoded vCard data in a plain
      vCard.







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   Value type:  A single text value.

   Cardinality:  *

   Special notes:  The content of this property is a single XML 1.0
      [W3C.REC-xml-20081126] element whose namespace MUST be explicitly
      specified using the xmlns attribute and MUST NOT be the vCard 4
      namespace ("urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:vcard-4.0").  (This implies
      that it cannot duplicate a standard vCard property.)  The element
      is to be interpreted as if it was contained in a <vcard> element,
      as defined in [I-D.ietf-vcarddav-vcardxml].

      The fragment is subject to normal line folding and escaping, i.e.
      replace all backslashes with "\\", then replace all newlines with
      "\n", then fold long lines.

      Support for this property is OPTIONAL, but implementations of this
      specification MUST preserve instances of this property when
      propagating vCards.

      See [I-D.ietf-vcarddav-vcardxml] for more information on the
      intended use of this property.

   ABNF:

     XML-param = "VALUE=text" / altid-param
     XML-value = text

6.2.  Identification Properties

   These types are used to capture information associated with the
   identification and naming of the entity associated with the vCard.

6.2.1.  FN

   Purpose:  To specify the formatted text corresponding to the name of
      the object the vCard represents.

   Value type:  A single text value.

   Cardinality:  1*

   Special notes:  This property is based on the semantics of the X.520
      Common Name attribute.  The property MUST be present in the vCard
      object.






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   ABNF:

     FN-param = "VALUE=text" / type-param / language-param / altid-param
              / pid-param / pref-param / any-param
     FN-value = text

   Example:

         FN:Mr. John Q. Public\, Esq.

6.2.2.  N

   Purpose:  To specify the components of the name of the object the
      vCard represents.

   Value type:  A single structured text value.  Each component can have
      multiple values.

   Cardinality:  *1

   Special note:  The structured property value corresponds, in
      sequence, to the Family Names (also known as surnames), Given
      Names, Additional Names, Honorific Prefixes, and Honorific
      Suffixes.  The text components are separated by the SEMI-COLON
      character (U+003B).  Individual text components can include
      multiple text values separated by the COMMA character (U+002C).
      This property is based on the semantics of the X.520 individual
      name attributes.  The property SHOULD be present in the vCard
      object when the name of the object the vCard represents follows
      the X.520 model.

      The SORT-AS parameter MAY be applied to this property.

   ABNF:

     N-param = "VALUE=text" / sort-as-param / language-param
             / altid-param / any-param
     N-value = list-component 4(";" list-component)

   Examples:

             N:Public;John;Quinlan;Mr.;Esq.

             N:Stevenson;John;Philip,Paul;Dr.;Jr.,M.D.,A.C.P.







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6.2.3.  NICKNAME

   Purpose:  To specify the text corresponding to the nickname of the
      object the vCard represents.

   Value type:  One or more text values separated by a COMMA character
      (U+002C).

   Cardinality:  *

   Special note:  The nickname is the descriptive name given instead of
      or in addition to the one belonging to a the object the vCard
      represents.  It can also be used to specify a familiar form of a
      proper name specified by the FN or N properties.

   ABNF:

     NICKNAME-param = "VALUE=text" / type-param / language-param
                    / altid-param / pid-param / pref-param / any-param
     NICKNAME-value = text-list

   Examples:

             NICKNAME:Robbie

             NICKNAME:Jim,Jimmie

             NICKNAME;TYPE=work:Boss

6.2.4.  PHOTO

   Purpose:  To specify an image or photograph information that
      annotates some aspect of the object the vCard represents.

   Value type:  A single URI.

   Cardinality:  *

   ABNF:

     PHOTO-param = "VALUE=uri" / altid-param / type-param
                 / mediatype-param / pref-param / pid-param / any-param
     PHOTO-value = URI








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   Examples:

       PHOTO:http://www.example.com/pub/photos/jqpublic.gif

       PHOTO:data:image/jpeg;base64,MIICajCCAdOgAwIBAgICBEUwDQYJKoZIhv
        AQEEBQAwdzELMAkGA1UEBhMCVVMxLDAqBgNVBAoTI05ldHNjYXBlIENvbW11bm
        ljYXRpb25zIENvcnBvcmF0aW9uMRwwGgYDVQQLExNJbmZvcm1hdGlvbiBTeXN0
        <...remainder of base64-encoded data...>

6.2.5.  BDAY

   Purpose:  To specify the birth date of the object the vCard
      represents.

   Value type:  The default is a single date-and-or-time value.  It can
      also be reset to a single text value.

   Cardinality:  *1

   ABNF:

     BDAY-param = BDAY-param-date / BDAY-param-text
     BDAY-value = date-and-or-time / text
       ; Value and parameter MUST match.

     BDAY-param-date = "VALUE=date-and-or-time"
     BDAY-param-text = "VALUE=text" / language-param

     BDAY-param =/ altid-param / calscale-param / any-param
       ; calscale-param can only be present when BDAY-value is
       ; date-and-or-time and actually contains a date or date-time.

   Examples:

             BDAY:19960415
             BDAY:--0415
             BDAY;19531015T231000Z
             BDAY;VALUE=text:circa 1800

6.2.6.  ANNIVERSARY

   Purpose:  The date of marriage, or equivalent, of the object the
      vCard represents.

   Value type:  The default is a single date-and-or-time value.  It can
      also be reset to a single text value.





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   Cardinality:  *1

   ABNF:

     ANNIVERSARY-param = "VALUE=" ("date-and-or-time" / "text")
     ANNIVERSARY-value = date-and-or-time / text
       ; Value and parameter MUST match.

     ANNIVERSARY-param =/ altid-param / calscale-param / any-param
       ; calscale-param can only be present when ANNIVERSARY-value is
       ; date-and-or-time and actually contains a date or date-time.

   Examples:

             ANNIVERSARY:19960415

6.2.7.  GENDER

   Purpose:  To specify the components of the sex and gender identity of
      the object the vCard represents.

   Value type:  A single structured value with two components.  Each
      component has a single text value.

   Cardinality:  *1

   Special notes:  The components correspond, in sequence, to the sex
      (biological), and gender identity.  Each component is optional.

      Sex component:  A single letter.  M stands for "male", F stands
         for "female", O stands for "other", N stands for "none or not
         applicable", U stands for "unknown".

      Gender identity component:  Free-form text.

   ABNF:

                   GENDER-param = "VALUE=text" / any-param
                   GENDER-value = sex [";" text]

                   sex = "" / "M" / "F" / "O" / "N" / "U"

   Examples:








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     GENDER:M
     GENDER:F
     GENDER:M;Fellow
     GENDER:F;grrrl
     GENDER:O;intersex
     GENDER:;it's complicated

6.3.  Delivery Addressing Properties

   These types are concerned with information related to the delivery
   addressing or label for the vCard object.

6.3.1.  ADR

   Purpose:  To specify the components of the delivery address for the
      vCard object.

   Value type:  A single structured text value, separated by the SEMI-
      COLON character (U+003B).

   Cardinality:  *

   Special notes:  The structured type value consists of a sequence of
      address components.  The component values MUST be specified in
      their corresponding position.  The structured type value
      corresponds, in sequence, to
         the post office box;
         the extended address (e.g. apartment or suite number);
         the street address;
         the locality (e.g., city);
         the region (e.g., state or province);
         the postal code;
         the country name (full name in the language specified in
         Section 5.1).
      When a component value is missing, the associated component
      separator MUST still be specified.

      Experience with vCard 3 has shown that the first two components
      (post office box and extended address) are plagued with many
      interoperability issues.  To ensure maximal interoperability,
      their values SHOULD be empty.

      The text components are separated by the SEMI-COLON character
      (U+003B).  Where it makes semantic sense, individual text
      components can include multiple text values (e.g., a "street"
      component with multiple lines) separated by the COMMA character
      (U+002C).




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      The property can include the "PREF" parameter to indicate the
      preferred delivery address when more than one address is
      specified.

      The GEO and TZ parameters MAY be used with this property.

      The property can also include a "LABEL" parameter to present a
      delivery delivery address label for the address.  Its value is a
      plain-text string representing the formatted address.  Newlines
      are encoded as \n, as they are for property values.

   ABNF:

     label-param = "LABEL=" param-value

     ADR-param = "VALUE=text" / label-param / language-param
               / geo-parameter / tz-parameter / altid-param / pid-param
               / pref-param / type-param / any-param
     ADR-value = ADR-component-pobox ";" ADR-component-ext ";"
                 ADR-component-street ";" ADR-component-locality ";"
                 ADR-component-region ";" ADR-component-code ";"
                 ADR-component-country
     ADR-component-pobox    = list-component
     ADR-component-ext      = list-component
     ADR-component-street   = list-component
     ADR-component-locality = list-component
     ADR-component-region   = list-component
     ADR-component-code     = list-component
     ADR-component-country  = list-component

   Example: In this example the post office box and the extended address
   are absent.

     ADR;GEO="geo:12.3457,78.910";LABEL="Mr. John Q. Public, Esq.\n
      Mail Drop: TNE QB\n123 Main Street\nAny Town, CA  91921-1234\n
      U.S.A.":;;123 Main Street;Any Town;CA;91921-1234;U.S.A.

6.4.  Communications Properties

   These properties describe information about how to communicate with
   the object the vCard represents.

6.4.1.  TEL








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   Purpose:  To specify the telephone number for telephony communication
      with the object the vCard represents.

   Value type:  By default it is a single free-form text value (for
      backward compatibility with vCard 3), but it SHOULD be reset to a
      URI value.  It is expected that the URI scheme will be "tel", as
      specified in [RFC3966], but other schemes MAY be used.

   Cardinality:  *

   Special notes:  This property is based on the X.520 Telephone Number
      attribute.

      The property can include the "PREF" parameter to indicate a
      preferred-use telephone number.

      The property can include the parameter "TYPE" to specify intended
      use for the telephone number.  The predefined values for the TYPE
      parameter are:

   +-----------+-------------------------------------------------------+
   | Value     | Description                                           |
   +-----------+-------------------------------------------------------+
   | text      | Indicates that the telephone number supports text     |
   |           | messages (SMS).                                       |
   | voice     | Indicates a voice telephone number.                   |
   | fax       | Indicates a facsimile telephone number.               |
   | cell      | Indicates a cellular or mobile telephone number.      |
   | video     | Indicates a video conferencing telephone number.      |
   | pager     | Indicates a paging device telephone number.           |
   | textphone | Indicates a telecommunication device for people with  |
   |           | hearing or speech difficulties..                      |
   +-----------+-------------------------------------------------------+

      The default type is "voice".  These type parameter values can be
      specified as a parameter list (e.g., TYPE=text;TYPE=voice) or as a
      value list (e.g., TYPE="text,voice").  The default can be
      overridden to another set of values by specifying one or more
      alternate values.  For example, the default TYPE of "voice" can be
      reset to a VOICE and FAX telephone number by the value list
      TYPE="voice,fax".

      If this property's value is a URI that can also be used for
      instant messaging, the IMPP (Section 6.4.3) property SHOULD be
      used in addition to this property.






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   ABNF:

     TEL-param = TEL-text-param / TEL-uri-param
     TEL-value = TEL-text-value / TEL-uri-value
       ; Value and parameter MUST match

     TEL-text-param = "VALUE=text"
     TEL-text-value = text

     TEL-uri-param = "VALUE=uri" / mediatype-param
     TEL-uri-value = URI

     TEL-param =/ type-param / pid-param / pref-param / altid-param
                / any-param

     type-param-tel = "text" / "voice" / "fax" / "cell" / "video"
                    / "pager" / "textphone" / iana-token / x-name
       ; type-param-tel MUST NOT be used with a property other than TEL.

   Example:

     TEL;VALUE=uri;PREF=1;TYPE="voice,home":tel:+1-555-555-5555;ext=5555
     TEL;VALUE=uri;TYPE=home:tel:+33-01-23-45-67

6.4.2.  EMAIL

   Purpose:  To specify the electronic mail address for communication
      with the object the vCard represents.

   Value type:  A single text value.

   Cardinality:  *

   Special notes:  The property can include tye "PREF" parameter to
      indicate a preferred-use email address when more than one is
      specified.

      Even though the value is free-form UTF-8 text, it is likely to be
      interpreted by an MUA as an "addr-spec", as defined in [RFC5322],
      section 3.4.1.  Readers should also be aware of the current work
      toward internationalized email addresses
      [I-D.ietf-eai-rfc5335bis].

   ABNF:

     EMAIL-param = "VALUE=text" / pid-param / pref-param / type-param
                 / altid-param / any-param
     EMAIL-value = text



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   Example:

           EMAIL;TYPE=work:jqpublic@xyz.example.com

           EMAIL;PREF=1:jane_doe@example.com

6.4.3.  IMPP

   Purpose:  To specify the URI for instant messaging and presence
      protocol communications with the object the vCard represents.

   Value type:  A single URI.

   Cardinality:  *

   Special notes:  The property may include the "PREF" parameter to
      indicate that this is a preferred address and has the same
      semantics as the "PREF" parameter in a TEL property.

      If this property's value is a URI that can be used for voice
      and/or video, the TEL property (Section 6.4.1) SHOULD be used in
      addition to this property.

      This property is adapted from [RFC4770], which is made obsolete by
      this document.

   ABNF:

     IMPP-param = "VALUE=uri" / pid-param / pref-param / type-param
                / mediatype-param / altid-param / any-param
     IMPP-value = URI

   Example:

       IMPP;PREF=1:xmpp:alice@example.com

6.4.4.  LANG

   Purpose:  To specify the language(s) that may be used for contacting
      the entity associated with the vCard.

   Value type:  A single language-tag value.

   Cardinality:  *







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   ABNF:

     LANG-param = "VALUE=language-tag" / pid-param / pref-param
                / altid-param / type-param / any-param
     LANG-value = Language-Tag

   Example:

       LANG;TYPE=work;PREF=1:en
       LANG;TYPE=work;PREF=2:fr
       LANG;TYPE=home:fr

6.5.  Geographical Properties

   These properties are concerned with information associated with
   geographical positions or regions associated with the object the
   vCard represents.

6.5.1.  TZ

   Purpose:  To specify information related to the time zone of the
      object the vCard represents.

   Value type:  The default is a single text value.  It can also be
      reset to a single URI or utc-offset value.

   Cardinality:  *

   Special notes:  It is expected that names from the public-domain
      Olson database [TZ-DB] will be used, but this is not a
      restriction.  See also [I-D.lear-iana-timezone-database].

      Efforts are currently being directed at creating a standard URI
      scheme for expressing time zone information.  Usage of such a
      scheme would ensure a high level of interoperability between
      implementations that support it.

      Note that utc-offset values SHOULD NOT be used because the UTC
      offset varies with time - not just because of the usual daylight
      saving time shifts that occur in may regions, but often entire
      regions will "re-base" their overall offset.  The actual offset
      may be +/- 1 hour (or perhaps a little more) than the one given.

   ABNF:







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     TZ-param = "VALUE=" ("text" / "uri" / "utc-offset")
     TZ-value = text / URI / utc-offset
       ; Value and parameter MUST match

     TZ-param =/ altid-param / pid-param / pref-param / type-param
               / mediatype-param / any-param

   Examples:

     TZ:Raleigh/North America

     TZ;VALUE=utc-offset:-0500
       ; Note: utc-offset format is NOT RECOMMENDED.

6.5.2.  GEO

   Purpose:  To specify information related to the global positioning of
      the object the vCard represents.

   Value type:  A single URI.

   Cardinality:  *

   Special notes:  The "geo" URI scheme [RFC5870] is particularly well-
      suited for this property, but other schemes MAY be used.

   ABNF:

     GEO-param = "VALUE=uri" / pid-param / pref-param / type-param
               / mediatype-param / altid-param / any-param
     GEO-value = URI

   Example:

           GEO:geo:37.386013,-122.082932

6.6.  Organizational Properties

   These properties are concerned with information associated with
   characteristics of the organization or organizational units of the
   object that the vCard represents.

6.6.1.  TITLE








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   Purpose:  To specify the position or job of the object the vCard
      represents.

   Value type:  A single text value.

   Cardinality:  *

   Special notes:  This property is based on the X.520 Title attribute.

   ABNF:

     TITLE-param = "VALUE=text" / language-param / pid-param
                 / pref-param / altid-param / type-param / any-param
     TITLE-value = text

   Example:

           TITLE:Research Scientist

6.6.2.  ROLE

   Purpose:  To specify the function or part played in a particular
      situation by the object the vCard represents.

   Value type:  A single text value.

   Cardinality:  *

   Special notes:  This property is based on the X.520 Business Category
      explanatory attribute.  This property is included as an
      organizational type to avoid confusion with the semantics of the
      TITLE property and incorrect usage of that property when the
      semantics of this property is intended.

   ABNF:

     ROLE-param = "VALUE=text" / language-param / pid-param / pref-param
                / type-param / altid-param / any-param
     ROLE-value = text

   Example:

           ROLE:Project Leader








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6.6.3.  LOGO

   Purpose:  To specify a graphic image of a logo associated with the
      object the vCard represents.

   Value type:  A single URI.

   Cardinality:  *

   ABNF:

     LOGO-param = "VALUE=uri" / language-param / pid-param / pref-param
                / type-param / mediatype-param / altid-param / any-param
     LOGO-value = URI

   Examples:

     LOGO:http://www.example.com/pub/logos/abccorp.jpg

     LOGO:data:image/jpeg;base64,MIICajCCAdOgAwIBAgICBEUwDQYJKoZIhvc
      AQEEBQAwdzELMAkGA1UEBhMCVVMxLDAqBgNVBAoTI05ldHNjYXBlIENvbW11bm
      ljYXRpb25zIENvcnBvcmF0aW9uMRwwGgYDVQQLExNJbmZvcm1hdGlvbiBTeXN0
      <...the remainder of base64-encoded data...>

6.6.4.  ORG

   Purpose:  To specify the organizational name and units associated
      with the vCard.

   Value type:  A single structured text value consisting of components
      separated by the SEMI-COLON character (U+003B).

   Cardinality:  *

   Special notes:  The property is based on the X.520 Organization Name
      and Organization Unit attributes.  The property value is a
      structured type consisting of the organization name, followed by
      zero or more levels of organizational unit names.

      The SORT-AS parameter MAY be applied to this property.

   ABNF:

     ORG-param = "VALUE=text" / sort-as-param / language-param
               / pid-param / pref-param / altid-param / type-param
               / any-param
     ORG-value = component *(";" component)




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   Example: A property value consisting of an organizational name,
   organizational unit #1 name and organizational unit #2 name.

           ORG:ABC\, Inc.;North American Division;Marketing

6.6.5.  MEMBER

   Purpose:  To include a member in the group this vCard represents.

   Value type:  A single URI.  It MAY refer to something other than a
      vCard object.  For example, an e-mail distribution list could
      employ the "mailto" URI scheme [RFC6068] for efficiency.

   Cardinality:  *

   Special notes:  This property MUST NOT be present unless the value of
      the KIND property is "group".

   ABNF:

     MEMBER-param = "VALUE=uri" / pid-param / pref-param / altid-param
                  / mediatype-param / any-param
     MEMBER-value = URI

   Examples:

     BEGIN:VCARD
     VERSION:4.0
     KIND:group
     FN:The Doe family
     MEMBER:urn:uuid:03a0e51f-d1aa-4385-8a53-e29025acd8af
     MEMBER:urn:uuid:b8767877-b4a1-4c70-9acc-505d3819e519
     END:VCARD
     BEGIN:VCARD
     VERSION:4.0
     FN:John Doe
     UID:urn:uuid:03a0e51f-d1aa-4385-8a53-e29025acd8af
     END:VCARD
     BEGIN:VCARD
     VERSION:4.0
     FN:Jane Doe
     UID:urn:uuid:b8767877-b4a1-4c70-9acc-505d3819e519
     END:VCARD








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     BEGIN:VCARD
     VERSION:4.0
     KIND:group
     FN:Funky distribution list
     MEMBER:mailto:subscriber1@example.com
     MEMBER:xmpp:subscriber2@example.com
     MEMBER:sip:subscriber3@example.com
     MEMBER:tel:+1-418-555-5555
     END:VCARD

6.6.6.  RELATED

   Purpose:  To specify a relationship between another entity and the
      entity represented by this vCard.

   Value type:  A single URI.  It can also be reset to a single text
      value.  The text value can be used to specify textual information.

   Cardinality:  *

   Special notes:  The TYPE parameter MAY be used to characterize the
      related entity.  It contains a comma-separated list of values that
      are registered from IANA as described in Section 10.2.  The
      registry is pre-populated with the values defined in [xfn].  This
      document also specifies two additional values:

      agent:  an entity who may sometimes act on behalf of the entity
         associated with the vCard.

      emergency:  indicates an emergency contact

   ABNF:



















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     RELATED-param = RELATED-param-uri / RELATED-param-text
     RELATED-value = URI / text
       ; Parameter and value MUST match.

     RELATED-param-uri = "VALUE=uri" / mediatype-param
     RELATED-param-text = "VALUE=text" / language-param

     RELATED-param =/ pid-param / pref-param / altid-param / type-param
                    / any-param

     type-param-related = related-type-value *("," related-type-value)
       ; type-param-related MUST NOT be used with a property other than
       ; RELATED.

     related-type-value = "contact" / "acquaintance" / "friend" / "met"
                        / "co-worker" / "colleague" / "co-resident"
                        / "neighbor" / "child" / "parent"
                        / "sibling" / "spouse" / "kin" / "muse"
                        / "crush" / "date" / "sweetheart" / "me"
                        / "agent" / "emergency"

   Examples:

   RELATED;TYPE=friend:urn:uuid:f81d4fae-7dec-11d0-a765-00a0c91e6bf6
   RELATED;TYPE=contact:http://example.com/directory/jdoe.vcf
   RELATED;TYPE=co-worker;VALUE=text:Please contact my assistant Jane
    Doe for any inquiries.

6.7.  Explanatory Properties

   These properties are concerned with additional explanations, such as
   that related to informational notes or revisions specific to the
   vCard.

6.7.1.  CATEGORIES

   Purpose:  To specify application category information about the
      vCard.  Also known as "tags".

   Value type:  One or more text values separated by a COMMA character
      (U+002C).

   Cardinality:  *

   ABNF:

     CATEGORIES-param = "VALUE=text" / pid-param / pref-param
                      / type-param / altid-param / any-param



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     CATEGORIES-value = text-list

   Example:

           CATEGORIES:TRAVEL AGENT

           CATEGORIES:INTERNET,IETF,INDUSTRY,INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY

6.7.2.  NOTE

   Purpose:  To specify supplemental information or a comment that is
      associated with the vCard.

   Value type:  A single text value.

   Cardinality:  *

   Special notes:  The property is based on the X.520 Description
      attribute.

   ABNF:

     NOTE-param = "VALUE=text" / language-param / pid-param / pref-param
                / type-param / altid-param / any-param
     NOTE-value = text

   Example:

           NOTE:This fax number is operational 0800 to 1715
             EST\, Mon-Fri.

6.7.3.  PRODID

   Purpose:  To specify the identifier for the product that created the
      vCard object.

   Type value:  A single text value.

   Cardinality:  *1

   Special notes:  Implementations SHOULD use a method such as that
      specified for Formal Public Identifiers in [ISO9070] or for
      Universal Resource Names in [RFC3406] to ensure that the text
      value is unique.







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   ABNF:

     PRODID-param = "VALUE=text" / any-param
     PRODID-value = text

   Example:

           PRODID:-//ONLINE DIRECTORY//NONSGML Version 1//EN

6.7.4.  REV

   Purpose:  To specify revision information about the current vCard.

   Value type:  A single timestamp value.

   Cardinality:  *1

   Special notes:  The value distinguishes the current revision of the
      information in this vCard for other renditions of the information.

   ABNF:

     REV-param = "VALUE=timestamp" / any-param
     REV-value = timestamp

   Example:

           REV:19951031T222710Z

6.7.5.  SOUND

   Purpose:  To specify a digital sound content information that
      annotates some aspect of the vCard.  This property is often used
      to specify the proper pronunciation of the name property value of
      the vCard.

   Value type:  A single URI.

   Cardinality:  *

   ABNF:

     SOUND-param = "VALUE=uri" / language-param / pid-param / pref-param
                 / type-param / mediatype-param / altid-param
                 / any-param
     SOUND-value = URI

   Example:



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     SOUND:CID:JOHNQPUBLIC.part8.19960229T080000.xyzMail@example.com

     SOUND:data:audio/basic;base64,MIICajCCAdOgAwIBAgICBEUwDQYJKoZIh
      AQEEBQAwdzELMAkGA1UEBhMCVVMxLDAqBgNVBAoTI05ldHNjYXBlIENvbW11bm
      ljYXRpb25zIENvcnBvcmF0aW9uMRwwGgYDVQQLExNJbmZvcm1hdGlvbiBTeXN0
      <...the remainder of base64-encoded data...>

6.7.6.  UID

   Purpose:  To specify a value that represents a globally unique
      identifier corresponding to the entity associated with the vCard.

   Value type:  A single URI value.  It MAY also be reset to free-form
      text.

   Cardinality:  *1

   Special notes:  This property is used to uniquely identify the object
      that the vCard represents.  The "uuid" URN namespace defined in
      [RFC4122] is particularly well-suited to this task, but other URI
      schemes MAY be used.  Free-form text MAY also be used.

   ABNF:

     UID-param = UID-uri-param / UID-text-param
     UID-value = UID-uri-value / UID-text-value
       ; Value and parameter MUST match.

     UID-uri-param = "VALUE=uri"
     UID-uri-value = URI

     UID-text-param = "VALUE=text"
     UID-text-value = text

     UID-param =/ any-param

   Example:

           UID:urn:uuid:f81d4fae-7dec-11d0-a765-00a0c91e6bf6

6.7.7.  CLIENTPIDMAP

   Purpose:  To give a global meaning to a local PID source identifier.

   Value type:  A semicolon-separated pair of values.  The first field
      is a small integer corresponding to the second field of a PID
      parameter instance.  The second field is a URI.  The "uuid" URN
      namespace defined in [RFC4122] is particularly well-suited to this



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      task, but other URI schemes MAY be used.

   Cardinality:  *

   Special notes:  PID source identifiers (the source identifier is the
      second field in a PID parameter instance) are small integers that
      only have significance within the scope of a single vCard
      instance.  Each distinct source identifier present in a vCard MUST
      have an associated CLIENTPIDMAP.  See Section 7 for more details
      on the usage of CLIENTPIDMAP.

      PID source identifiers MUST be strictly positive.  Zero is not
      allowed.

      As a special exception, the PID parameter MUST NOT be applied to
      this property.

   ABNF:

     CLIENTPIDMAP-param = any-param
     CLIENTPIDMAP-value = 1*DIGIT ";" URI

   Example:

     TEL;PID=3.1,4.2;VALUE=uri:tel:+1-555-555-5555
     EMAIL;PID=4.1,5.2:jdoe@example.com
     CLIENTPIDMAP:1;urn:uuid:3df403f4-5924-4bb7-b077-3c711d9eb34b
     CLIENTPIDMAP:2;urn:uuid:d89c9c7a-2e1b-4832-82de-7e992d95faa5

6.7.8.  URL

   Purpose:  To specify a uniform resource locator associated with the
      object that the vCard refers to.  Examples for individuals include
      personal web sites, blogs, and social networking site identifiers.

   Cardinality:  *

   Value type:  A single uri value.

   ABNF:

     URL-param = "VALUE=uri" / pid-param / pref-param / type-param
               / mediatype-param / altid-param / any-param
     URL-value = URI

   Example:

           URL:http://example.org/restaurant.french/~chezchic.html



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6.7.9.  VERSION

   Purpose:  To specify the version of the vCard specification used to
      format this vCard.

   Value type:  A single text value.

   Cardinality:  1

   Special notes:  This property MUST be present in the vCard object,
      and it must appear immediately after BEGIN:VCARD.  The value MUST
      be "4.0" if the vCard corresponds to this specification.  Note
      that earlier versions of vCard allowed this property to be placed
      anywhere in the vCard object, or even to be absent.

   ABNF:

     VERSION-param = "VALUE=text" / any-param
     VERSION-value = "4.0"

   Example:

           VERSION:4.0

6.8.  Security Properties

   These properties are concerned with the security of communication
   pathways or access to the vCard.

6.8.1.  KEY

   Purpose:  To specify a public key or authentication certificate
      associated with the object that the vCard represents.

   Value type:  A single URI.  It can also be reset to a text value.

   Cardinality:  *

   ABNF:












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     KEY-param = KEY-uri-param / KEY-text-param
     KEY-value = KEY-uri-value / KEY-text-value
       ; Value and parameter MUST match.

     KEY-uri-param = "VALUE=uri" / mediatype-param
     KEY-uri-value = URI

     KEY-text-param = "VALUE=text"
     KEY-text-value = text

     KEY-param =/ altid-param / pid-param / pref-param / type-param
                / any-param

   Examples:

     KEY:http://www.example.com/keys/jdoe.cer

     KEY;MEDIATYPE=application/pgp-keys:ftp://example.com/keys/jdoe

     KEY:data:application/pgp-keys;base64,MIICajCCAdOgAwIBAgICBE
      UwDQYJKoZIhvcNAQEEBQAwdzELMAkGA1UEBhMCVVMxLDAqBgNVBAoTI05l
      <... remainder of base64-encoded data ...>

6.9.  Calendar Properties

   These properties are further specified in [RFC2739].

6.9.1.  FBURL

   Purpose:  To specify the URI for the busy time associated with the
      object that the vCard represents.

   Value type:  A single URI value.

   Cardinality:  *

   Special notes:  Where multiple FBURL properties are specified, the
      default FBURL property is indicated with the PREF parameter.  The
      FTP [RFC1738] or HTTP [RFC2616] type of URI points to an iCalendar
      [RFC5545] object associated with a snapshot of the next few weeks
      or months of busy time data.  If the iCalendar object is
      represented as a file or document, its file extension should be
      ".ifb".

   ABNF:

     FBURL-param = "VALUE=uri" / pid-param / pref-param / type-param
                 / mediatype-param / altid-param / any-param



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     FBURL-value = URI

   Examples:

     FBURL;PREF=1:http://www.example.com/busy/janedoe
     FBURL;MEDIATYPE=text/calendar:ftp://example.com/busy/project-a.ifb

6.9.2.  CALADRURI

   Purpose:  To specify the calendar user address [RFC5545] to which a
      scheduling request [RFC5546] should be sent for the object
      represented by the vCard.

   Value type:  A single URI value.

   Cardinality:  *

   Special notes:  Where multiple CALADRURI properties are specified,
      the default CALADRURI property is indicated with the PREF
      parameter.

   ABNF:

     CALADRURI-param = "VALUE=uri" / pid-param / pref-param / type-param
                     / mediatype-param / altid-param / any-param
     CALADRURI-value = URI

   Example:

     CALADRURI;PREF=1:mailto:janedoe@example.com
     CALADRURI:http://example.com/calendar/jdoe

6.9.3.  CALURI

   Purpose:  To specify the URI for a calendar associated with the
      object represented by the vCard.

   Value type:  A single URI value.

   Cardinality:  *

   Special notes:  Where multiple CALURI properties are specified, the
      default CALURI property is indicated with the PREF parameter.  The
      property should contain a URI pointing to an iCalendar [RFC5545]
      object associated with a snapshot of the user's calendar store.
      If the iCalendar object is represented as a file or document, its
      file extension should be ".ics".




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   ABNF:

     CALURI-param = "VALUE=uri" / pid-param / pref-param / type-param
                  / mediatype-param / altid-param / any-param
     CALURI-value = URI

   Examples:

     CALURI;PREF=1:http://cal.example.com/calA
     CALURI;MEDIATYPE=text/calendar:ftp://ftp.example.com/calA.ics

6.10.  Extended Properties and Parameters

   The properties and parameters defined by this document can be
   extended.  Non-standard, private properties and parameters with a
   name starting with "X-" may be defined bilaterally between two
   cooperating agents without outside registration or standardization.

7.  Synchronization

   vCard data often needs to be synchronized between devices.  In this
   context, synchronization is defined as the intelligent merging of two
   representations of the same object. vCard 4.0 includes mechanisms to
   aid this process.

7.1.  Mechanisms

   Two mechanisms are available: the UID property is used to match
   multiple instances of the same vCard, while the PID parameter is used
   to match multiple instances of the same property.

   The term "matching" is used here to mean recognizing that two
   instances are in fact representations of the same object.  For
   example, a single vCard that is shared with someone results in two
   vCard instances.  After they have evolved separately, they still
   represent the same object, and therefore may be matched by a
   synchronization engine.

7.1.1.  Matching vCard Instances

   vCard instances for which the UID properties (Section 6.7.6) are
   equivalent MUST be matched.  Equivalence is determined as specified
   in [RFC3986], Section 6.

   In all other cases, vCard instances MAY be matched at the discretion
   of the synchronization engine.





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7.1.2.  Matching Property Instances

   Property instances belonging to unmatched vCards MUST NOT be matched.

   Property instances whose name (e.g.  EMAIL, TEL, etc.) is not the
   same MUST NOT be matched.

   Property instances whose name is CLIENTPIDMAP are handled separately
   and MUST NOT be matched.  The synchronization MUST ensure that there
   is consistency of CLIENTPIDMAPs among matched vCard instances.

   Property instances belonging to matched vCards, whose name is the
   same, and whose maximum cardinality is 1 MUST be matched.

   Property instances belonging to matched vCards, whose name is the
   same, and whose PID parameters match MUST be matched.  See
   Section 7.1.3 for details on PID matching.

   In all other cases, property instances MAY be matched at the
   discretion of the synchronization engine.

7.1.3.  PID Matching

   Two PID values for which the first fields are equivalent represent
   the same local value.

   Two PID values representing the same local value and for which the
   second fields point to CLIENTPIDMAP properties whose second field
   URIs are equivalent (as specified in [RFC3986], Section 6) also
   represent the same global value.

   PID parameters for which at least one pair of their values represent
   the same global value MUST be matched.

   In all other cases, PID parameters MAY be matched at the discretion
   of the synchronization engine.















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   For example, PID value "5.1", in the first vCard below, and PID value
   "5.2", in the second vCard below, represent the same global value.

     BEGIN:VCARD
     VERSION:4.0
     EMAIL;PID=4.2,5.1:jdoe@example.com
     CLIENTPIDMAP:1;urn:uuid:3eef374e-7179-4196-a914-27358c3e6527
     CLIENTPIDMAP:2;urn:uuid:42bcd5a7-1699-4514-87b4-056edf68e9cc
     END:VCARD

     BEGIN:VCARD
     VERSION:4.0
     EMAIL;PID=5.1,5.2:john@example.com
     CLIENTPIDMAP:1;urn:uuid:0c75c629-6a8d-4d5e-a07f-1bb35846854d
     CLIENTPIDMAP:2;urn:uuid:3eef374e-7179-4196-a914-27358c3e6527
     END:VCARD

7.2.  Example

7.2.1.  Creation

   The following simple vCard is first created on a given device.

     BEGIN:VCARD
     VERSION:4.0
     UID:urn:uuid:4fbe8971-0bc3-424c-9c26-36c3e1eff6b1
     FN;PID=1.1:J. Doe
     N:Doe;J.;;;
     EMAIL;PID=1.1:jdoe@example.com
     CLIENTPIDMAP:1;urn:uuid:53e374d9-337e-4727-8803-a1e9c14e0556
     END:VCARD

   This new vCard is assigned the UID
   "urn:uuid:4fbe8971-0bc3-424c-9c26-36c3e1eff6b1" by the creating
   device.  The FN and EMAIL properties are assigned the same local
   value of 1, and this value is given global context by associating it
   with "urn:uuid:53e374d9-337e-4727-8803-a1e9c14e0556", which
   represents the creating device.  We are at liberty to reuse the same
   local value since instances of different properties will never be
   matched.  The N property has no PID because it is forbidden by its
   maximum cardinality of 1.

7.2.2.  Initial Sharing

   This vCard is shared with a second device.  Upon inspecting the UID
   property, the second device understands that this is a new vCard
   (i.e. unmatched) and thus the synchronization results in a simple
   copy.



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7.2.3.  Adding and Sharing a Property

   A new phone number is created on the first device, then the vCard is
   shared with the second device.  This is what the second device
   receives:

     BEGIN:VCARD
     VERSION:4.0
     UID:urn:uuid:4fbe8971-0bc3-424c-9c26-36c3e1eff6b1
     FN;PID=1.1:J. Doe
     N:Doe;J.;;;
     EMAIL;PID=1.1:jdoe@example.com
     TEL;PID=1.1;VALUE=uri:tel:+1-555-555-5555
     CLIENTPIDMAP:1;urn:uuid:53e374d9-337e-4727-8803-a1e9c14e0556
     END:VCARD

   Upon inspecting the UID property, the second device matches the vCard
   it received to the vCard that it already has stored.  It then starts
   comparing the properties of the two vCards in same-named pairs.

   The FN properties are matched because the PID parameters have the
   same global value.  Since the property value is the same, no update
   takes place.

   The N properties are matched automatically because their maximum
   cardinality is 1.  Since the property value is the same, no update
   takes place.

   The EMAIL properties are matched because the PID parameters have the
   same global value.  Since the property value is the same, no update
   takes place.

   The TEL property in the new vCard is not matched to any in the stored
   vCard because no property in the stored vCard has the same name.
   Therefore, this property is copied from the new vCard to the stored
   vCard.

   The CLIENTPIDMAP property is handled separately by the
   synchronization engine.  It ensures that it is consistent with the
   stored one.  If it was not, the results would be up to the
   synchronization engine, and thus undefined by this document.

7.2.4.  Simultaneous Editing

   A new email address and a new phone number are added to the vCard on
   each of the two devices, and then a new synchronization event
   happens.  Here are the vCards that are communicated to each other:




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     BEGIN:VCARD
     VERSION:4.0
     UID:urn:uuid:4fbe8971-0bc3-424c-9c26-36c3e1eff6b1
     FN;PID=1.1:J. Doe
     N:Doe;J.;;;
     EMAIL;PID=1.1:jdoe@example.com
     EMAIL;PID=2.1:boss@example.com
     TEL;PID=1.1;VALUE=uri:tel:+1-555-555-5555
     TEL;PID=2.1;VALUE=uri:tel:+1-666-666-6666
     CLIENTPIDMAP:1;urn:uuid:53e374d9-337e-4727-8803-a1e9c14e0556
     END:VCARD

     BEGIN:VCARD
     VERSION:4.0
     UID:urn:uuid:4fbe8971-0bc3-424c-9c26-36c3e1eff6b1
     FN;PID=1.1:J. Doe
     N:Doe;J.;;;
     EMAIL;PID=1.1:jdoe@example.com
     EMAIL;PID=2.2:ceo@example.com
     TEL;PID=1.1;VALUE=uri:tel:+1-555-555-5555
     TEL;PID=2.2;VALUE=uri:tel:+1-666-666-6666
     CLIENTPIDMAP:1;urn:uuid:53e374d9-337e-4727-8803-a1e9c14e0556
     CLIENTPIDMAP:2;urn:uuid:1f762d2b-03c4-4a83-9a03-75ff658a6eee
     END:VCARD

   On the first device, the same PID source identifier (1) is reused for
   the new EMAIL and TEL properties.  On the second device, a new source
   identifier (2) is generated, and a corresponding CLIENTPIDMAP
   property is created.  It contains the second device's identifier,
   "urn:uuid:1f762d2b-03c4-4a83-9a03-75ff658a6eee".

   The new EMAIL properties are unmatched on both sides since the PID
   global value is new in both cases.  The sync thus results in a copy
   on both sides.

   Although the situation appears to be the same for the TEL properties,
   in this case the synchronization engine is particularly smart and
   matches the two new TEL properties even though their PID global
   values are different.  Note that in this case, the rules of section
   Section 7.1.2 state that two properties MAY be matched at the
   discretion of the synchronization engine.  Therefore, the two
   properties are merged.

   All this results in the following vCard which is stored on both
   devices:






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     BEGIN:VCARD
     VERSION:4.0
     UID:urn:uuid:4fbe8971-0bc3-424c-9c26-36c3e1eff6b1
     FN:J. Doe
     N:Doe;J.;;;
     EMAIL;PID=1.1:jdoe@example.com
     EMAIL;PID=2.1:boss@example.com
     EMAIL;PID=2.2:ceo@example.com
     TEL;PID=1.1;VALUE=uri:tel:+1-555-555-5555
     TEL;PID=2.1,2.2;VALUE=uri:tel:+1-666-666-6666
     CLIENTPIDMAP:1;urn:uuid:53e374d9-337e-4727-8803-a1e9c14e0556
     CLIENTPIDMAP:2;urn:uuid:1f762d2b-03c4-4a83-9a03-75ff658a6eee
     END:VCARD

7.2.5.  Global Context Simplification

   The two devices finish their synchronization procedure by simplifying
   their global contexts.  Since they haven't talked to any other
   device, the following vCard is for all purposes equivalent to the
   above.  It is also shorter.

     BEGIN:VCARD
     VERSION:4.0
     UID:urn:uuid:4fbe8971-0bc3-424c-9c26-36c3e1eff6b1
     FN:J. Doe
     N:Doe;J.;;;
     EMAIL;PID=1.1:jdoe@example.com
     EMAIL;PID=2.1:boss@example.com
     EMAIL;PID=3.1:ceo@example.com
     TEL;PID=1.1;VALUE=uri:tel:+1-555-555-5555
     TEL;PID=2.1;VALUE=uri:tel:+1-666-666-6666
     CLIENTPIDMAP:1;urn:uuid:53e374d9-337e-4727-8803-a1e9c14e0556
     END:VCARD

   The details of global context simplification are unspecified by this
   document.  They are left up to the synchronization engine.  This
   example is merely intended to illustrate the possibility, which
   investigating would be, in the authors' opinion, worthwhile.













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8.  Example: Author's vCard

    BEGIN:VCARD
    VERSION:4.0
    FN:Simon Perreault
    N:Perreault;Simon;;;ing. jr,M.Sc.
    BDAY:--0203
    ANNIVERSARY:20090808T1430-0500
    GENDER:M
    LANG;PREF=1:fr
    LANG;PREF=2:en
    ORG;TYPE=work:Viagenie
    ADR;TYPE=work:;Suite D2-630;2875 Laurier;
     Quebec;QC;G1V 2M2;Canada
    TEL;VALUE=uri;TYPE="work,voice";PREF=1:tel:+1-418-656-9254;ext=102
    TEL;VALUE=uri;TYPE="work,cell,voice,video,text":tel:+1-418-262-6501
    EMAIL;TYPE=work:simon.perreault@viagenie.ca
    GEO;TYPE=work:geo:46.772673,-71.282945
    KEY;TYPE=work;VALUE=uri:
     http://www.viagenie.ca/simon.perreault/simon.asc
    TZ:-0500
    URL;TYPE=home:http://nomis80.org
    END:VCARD

9.  Security Considerations

   o  Internet mail is often used to transport vCards and is subject to
      many well known security attacks, including monitoring, replay,
      and forgery.  Care should be taken by any directory service in
      allowing information to leave the scope of the service itself,
      where any access controls or confidentiality can no longer be
      guaranteed.  Applications should also take care to display
      directory data in a "safe" environment

   o  vCards can carry cryptographic keys or certificates, as described
      in Section 6.8.1.

   o  vCards often carry information that can be sensitive (e.g.
      birthday, address, and phone information).  Although vCards have
      no inherent authentication or confidentiality provisions, they can
      easily be carried by any security mechanism that transfers MIME
      objects to address authentication or confidentiality (e.g.  S/MIME
      [RFC5751], OpenPGP [RFC4880]).  In cases where the confidentiality
      or authenticity of information contained in vCard is a concern,
      the vCard SHOULD be transported using one of these secure
      mechanisms.  The KEY property (Section 6.8.1) can be used to
      transport the public key used by these mechanisms.




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   o  The information in a vCard may become out of date.  In cases where
      the vitality of data is important to an originator of a vCard, the
      SOURCE property (Section 6.1.3) SHOULD be specified.  In addition,
      the "REV" type described in section Section 6.7.4 can be specified
      to indicate the last time that the vCard data was updated.

   o  Many vCard properties may be used to transport URIs.  Please refer
      to [RFC3986] section 7 for considerations related to URIs.

10.  IANA Considerations

10.1.  Media Type Registration

   IANA is asked to register the following Media Type (in
   <http://www.iana.org/assignments/media-types/>), and to mark the
   text/directory Media Type as DEPRECATED.

   To:  ietf-types@iana.org

   Subject:  Registration of media type text/vcard

   Type name:  text

   Subtype name:  vcard

   Required parameters:  none

   Optional parameters:  version

      The "version" parameter is to be interpreted identically as the
      VERSION vCard property.  If this parameter is present, all vCards
      in a text/vcard body part MUST have a VERSION property with value
      identical to that of this MIME parameter.

      "charset": as defined for text/plain [RFC2046]; encodings other
      than UTF-8 [RFC3629] MUST NOT be used.

   Encoding considerations:  8bit

   Security considerations:  See Section 9.

   Interoperability considerations:  The text/vcard media type is
      intended to identify vCard data of any version.  There are older
      specifications of vCard [RFC2426][vCard21] still in common use.
      While these formats are similar, they are not strictly compatible.
      In general, it is necessary to inspect the value of the VERSION
      property (see Section 6.7.9) for identifying the standard to which
      a given vCard object conforms.



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      In addition, the following media types are known to have been used
      to refer to vCard data.  They should be considered deprecated in
      favor of text/vcard.

      *  text/directory

      *  text/directory; profile=vcard

      *  text/x-vcard

   Published specification:  draft-ietf-vcarddav-vcardrev-22

   Applications that use this media type:  They are numerous, diverse,
      and include mail user agents, instant messaging clients, address
      book applications, directory servers, customer relationship
      management software.

   Additional information:

      Magic number(s):

      File extension(s):  .vcf .vcard

      Macintosh file type code(s):

   Person & email address to contact for further information:  vCard
      discussion mailing list <vcarddav@ietf.org>

   Intended usage:  COMMON

   Restrictions on usage:  none

   Author:  Simon Perreault

   Change controller:  IETF

10.2.  Registering New vCard Elements

   This section defines the process for registering new or modified
   vCard elements (i.e. properties, parameters, value data types, and
   values) with IANA.  It does not contain any immediate IANA actions.

10.2.1.  Registration Procedure

   The IETF will create a mailing list, vcarddav@ietf.org [1], which can
   be used for public discussion of vCard element proposals prior to
   registration.  Use of the mailing list is strongly encouraged.  The
   IESG will appoint a designated expert who will monitor the



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   vcarddav@ietf.org [1] mailing list and review registrations.

   Registration of new vCard elements MUST be reviewed by the designated
   expert and published in an RFC.  A Standard Track RFC is REQUIRED for
   the registration of new value data types that modify existing
   properties.  A Standard Track RFC is also REQUIRED for registration
   of vCard elements that modify vCard elements previously documented in
   a Standard Track RFC.

   The registration procedure begins when a completed registration
   template, defined in the sections below, is sent to
   vcarddav@ietf.org [1] and iana@iana.org [2].  The designated expert
   is expected to tell IANA and the submitter of the registration within
   two weeks whether the registration is approved, approved with minor
   changes, or rejected with cause.  When a registration is rejected
   with cause, it can be re-submitted if the concerns listed in the
   cause are addressed.  Decisions made by the designated expert can be
   appealed to the IESG Applications Area Director, then to the IESG.
   They follow the normal appeals procedure for IESG decisions.

   Once the registration procedure concludes successfully, IANA creates
   or modifies the corresponding record in the vCard registry.  The
   completed registration template is discarded.

   An RFC specifying new vCard elements MUST include the completed
   registration templates, which MAY be expanded with additional
   information.  These completed templates are intended to go in the
   body of the document, not in the IANA Considerations section.

   Finally, note that there is an XML representation for vCard defined
   in [I-D.ietf-vcarddav-vcardxml].  An XML representation SHOULD be
   defined for new vCard elements.

10.2.2.  Vendor Namespace

   The vendor namespace is used for vCard elements associated with
   commercially available products.  "Vendor" or "producer" are
   construed as equivalent and very broadly in this context.

   A registration may be placed in the vendor namespace by anyone who
   needs to interchange files associated with the particular product.
   However, the registration formally belongs to the vendor or
   organization handling the vCard elements in the namespace being
   registered.  Changes to the specification will be made at their
   request, as discussed in subsequent sections.

   vCard elements belonging to the vendor namespace will be
   distinguished by the "VND-" prefix.  This is followed by an IANA-



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   registered Private Enterprise Number (PEN), a dash, and a vCard
   element designation of the vendor's choosing (e.g., "VND-123456-
   MUDPIE").

   While public exposure and review of vCard elements to be registered
   in the vendor namespace is not required, using the
   vcarddav@ietf.org [1] mailing list for review is strongly encouraged
   to improve the quality of those specifications.  Registrations in the
   vendor namespace may be submitted directly to the IANA.

10.2.3.  Registration Template for Properties

   A property is defined by completing the following template.

   Namespace:  Empty for the global namespace, "VND-NNNN-" for a vendor-
      specific property (where NNNN is replaced by the vendor's PEN).

   Property name:  The name of the property.

   Purpose:  The purpose of the property.  Give a short but clear
      description.

   Value type:  Any of the valid value types for the property value
      needs to be specified.  The default value type also needs to be
      specified.

   Cardinality:  See Section 6.

   Property parameters:  Any of the valid property parameters for the
      property MUST be specified.

   Description:  Any special notes about the property, how it is to be
      used, etc.

   Format definition:  The ABNF for the property definition needs to be
      specified.

   Example(s):  One or more examples of instances of the property needs
      to be specified.

10.2.4.  Registration Template for Parameters

   A parameter is defined by completing the following template.








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   Namespace:  Empty for the global namespace, "VND-NNNN-" for a vendor-
      specific property (where NNNN is replaced by the vendor's PEN).

   Parameter name:  The name of the parameter.

   Purpose:  The purpose of the parameter.  Give a short but clear
      description.

   Description:  Any special notes about the parameter, how it is to be
      used, etc.

   Format definition:  The ABNF for the parameter definition needs to be
      specified.

   Example(s):  One or more examples of instances of the parameter needs
      to be specified.

10.2.5.  Registration Template for Value Data Types

   A value data type is defined by completing the following template.

   Value name:  The name of the value type.

   Purpose:  The purpose of the value type.  Give a short but clear
      description.

   Description:  Any special notes about the value type, how it is to be
      used, etc.

   Format definition:  The ABNF for the value type definition needs to
      be specified.

   Example(s):  One or more examples of instances of the value type
      needs to be specified.

10.2.6.  Registration Template for Values

   A value is defined by completing the following template.

   Value:  The value literal.

   Purpose:  The purpose of the value.  Give a short but clear
      description.

   Conformance:  The vCard properties and/or parameters that can take
      this value needs to be specified.





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   Example(s):  One or more examples of instances of the value needs to
      be specified.

   The following is a fictitious example of a registration of a vCard
   value:

   Value:  supervisor

   Purpose:  It means that the related entity is the direct hierarchical
      superior (i.e. supervisor or manager) of the entity this vCard
      represents.

   Conformance:  This value can be used with the "TYPE" parameter
      applied on the "RELATED" property.

   Example(s):


   RELATED;TYPE=supervisor:urn:uuid:f81d4fae-7dec-11d0-a765-00a0c91e6bf6

10.3.  Initial vCard Elements Registries

   The IANA is requested to create and maintain the following registries
   for vCard elements with pointers to appropriate reference documents.
   The registries will be grouped together under the heading "vCard
   Elements".

10.3.1.  Properties Registry

   The following table is to be used to initialize the properties
   registry.




















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           +-----------+--------------+------------------------+
           | Namespace | Property     | Reference              |
           +-----------+--------------+------------------------+
           |           | SOURCE       | RFCXXXX, Section 6.1.3 |
           |           | KIND         | RFCXXXX, Section 6.1.4 |
           |           | XML          | RFCXXXX, Section 6.1.5 |
           |           | FN           | RFCXXXX, Section 6.2.1 |
           |           | N            | RFCXXXX, Section 6.2.2 |
           |           | NICKNAME     | RFCXXXX, Section 6.2.3 |
           |           | PHOTO        | RFCXXXX, Section 6.2.4 |
           |           | BDAY         | RFCXXXX, Section 6.2.5 |
           |           | ANNIVERSARY  | RFCXXXX, Section 6.2.6 |
           |           | GENDER       | RFCXXXX, Section 6.2.7 |
           |           | ADR          | RFCXXXX, Section 6.3.1 |
           |           | TEL          | RFCXXXX, Section 6.4.1 |
           |           | EMAIL        | RFCXXXX, Section 6.4.2 |
           |           | IMPP         | RFCXXXX, Section 6.4.3 |
           |           | LANG         | RFCXXXX, Section 6.4.4 |
           |           | TZ           | RFCXXXX, Section 6.5.1 |
           |           | GEO          | RFCXXXX, Section 6.5.2 |
           |           | TITLE        | RFCXXXX, Section 6.6.1 |
           |           | ROLE         | RFCXXXX, Section 6.6.2 |
           |           | LOGO         | RFCXXXX, Section 6.6.3 |
           |           | ORG          | RFCXXXX, Section 6.6.4 |
           |           | MEMBER       | RFCXXXX, Section 6.6.5 |
           |           | RELATED      | RFCXXXX, Section 6.6.6 |
           |           | CATEGORIES   | RFCXXXX, Section 6.7.1 |
           |           | NOTE         | RFCXXXX, Section 6.7.2 |
           |           | PRODID       | RFCXXXX, Section 6.7.3 |
           |           | REV          | RFCXXXX, Section 6.7.4 |
           |           | SOUND        | RFCXXXX, Section 6.7.5 |
           |           | UID          | RFCXXXX, Section 6.7.6 |
           |           | CLIENTPIDMAP | RFCXXXX, Section 6.7.7 |
           |           | URL          | RFCXXXX, Section 6.7.8 |
           |           | VERSION      | RFCXXXX, Section 6.7.9 |
           |           | KEY          | RFCXXXX, Section 6.8.1 |
           |           | FBURL        | RFCXXXX, Section 6.9.1 |
           |           | CALADRURI    | RFCXXXX, Section 6.9.2 |
           |           | CALURI       | RFCXXXX, Section 6.9.3 |
           +-----------+--------------+------------------------+

10.3.2.  Parameters Registry

   The following table is to be used to initialize the parameters
   registry.






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             +-----------+-----------+-----------------------+
             | Namespace | Parameter | Reference             |
             +-----------+-----------+-----------------------+
             |           | LANGUAGE  | RFCXXXX, Section 5.1  |
             |           | VALUE     | RFCXXXX, Section 5.2  |
             |           | PREF      | RFCXXXX, Section 5.3  |
             |           | ALTID     | RFCXXXX, Section 5.4  |
             |           | PID       | RFCXXXX, Section 5.5  |
             |           | TYPE      | RFCXXXX, Section 5.6  |
             |           | MEDIATYPE | RFCXXXX, Section 5.7  |
             |           | CALSCALE  | RFCXXXX, Section 5.8  |
             |           | SORT-AS   | RFCXXXX, Section 5.9  |
             |           | GEO       | RFCXXXX, Section 5.10 |
             |           | TZ        | RFCXXXX, Section 5.11 |
             +-----------+-----------+-----------------------+

10.3.3.  Value Data Types Registry

   The following table is to be used to initialize the parameters
   registry.

               +------------------+------------------------+
               | Value Data Type  | Reference              |
               +------------------+------------------------+
               | BOOLEAN          | RFCXXXX, Section 4.4   |
               | DATE             | RFCXXXX, Section 4.3.1 |
               | TIME             | RFCXXXX, Section 4.3.2 |
               | DATE-TIME        | RFCXXXX, Section 4.3.3 |
               | DATE-AND-OR-TIME | RFCXXXX, Section 4.3.4 |
               | TIMESTAMP        | RFCXXXX, Section 4.3.5 |
               | FLOAT            | RFCXXXX, Section 4.6   |
               | INTEGER          | RFCXXXX, Section 4.5   |
               | TEXT             | RFCXXXX, Section 4.1   |
               | URI              | RFCXXXX, Section 4.2   |
               | UTC-OFFSET       | RFCXXXX, Section 4.7   |
               | LANGUAGE-TAG     | RFCXXXX, Section 4.8   |
               +------------------+------------------------+

10.3.4.  Values Registries

   Separate tables will be used for property and parameter values.

   The following table is to be used to initialize the property values
   registry.







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            +----------+------------+------------------------+
            | Property | Value      | Reference              |
            +----------+------------+------------------------+
            | BEGIN    | VCARD      | RFCXXXX, Section 6.1.1 |
            | END      | VCARD      | RFCXXXX, Section 6.1.2 |
            | KIND     | individual | RFCXXXX, Section 6.1.4 |
            | KIND     | group      | RFCXXXX, Section 6.1.4 |
            | KIND     | org        | RFCXXXX, Section 6.1.4 |
            | KIND     | location   | RFCXXXX, Section 6.1.4 |
            +----------+------------+------------------------+

   The following table is to be used to initialize the parameter values
   registry.

   +------------------------+-----------+--------------+---------------+
   | Property               | Parameter | Value        | Reference     |
   +------------------------+-----------+--------------+---------------+
   | FN, NICKNAME, PHOTO,   | TYPE      | work         | RFCXXXX,      |
   | ADR, TEL, EMAIL, IMPP, |           |              | Section 5.6   |
   | LANG, TZ, GEO, TITLE,  |           |              |               |
   | ROLE, LOGO, ORG,       |           |              |               |
   | RELATED, CATEGORIES,   |           |              |               |
   | NOTE, SOUND, URL, KEY, |           |              |               |
   | FBURL, CALADRURI, and  |           |              |               |
   | CALURI                 |           |              |               |
   | FN, NICKNAME, PHOTO,   | TYPE      | home         | RFCXXXX,      |
   | ADR, TEL, EMAIL, IMPP, |           |              | Section 5.6   |
   | LANG, TZ, GEO, TITLE,  |           |              |               |
   | ROLE, LOGO, ORG,       |           |              |               |
   | RELATED, CATEGORIES,   |           |              |               |
   | NOTE, SOUND, URL, KEY, |           |              |               |
   | FBURL, CALADRURI, and  |           |              |               |
   | CALURI                 |           |              |               |
   | TEL                    | TYPE      | text         | RFCXXXX,      |
   |                        |           |              | Section 6.4.1 |
   | TEL                    | TYPE      | voice        | RFCXXXX,      |
   |                        |           |              | Section 6.4.1 |
   | TEL                    | TYPE      | fax          | RFCXXXX,      |
   |                        |           |              | Section 6.4.1 |
   | TEL                    | TYPE      | cell         | RFCXXXX,      |
   |                        |           |              | Section 6.4.1 |
   | TEL                    | TYPE      | video        | RFCXXXX,      |
   |                        |           |              | Section 6.4.1 |
   | TEL                    | TYPE      | pager        | RFCXXXX,      |
   |                        |           |              | Section 6.4.1 |
   | BDAY, ANNIVERSARY      | CALSCALE  | gregorian    | RFCXXXX,      |
   |                        |           |              | Section 6.2.5 |




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   | RELATED                | TYPE      | contact      | RFCXXXX,      |
   |                        |           |              | Section 6.6.6 |
   |                        |           |              | and [xfn]     |
   | RELATED                | TYPE      | acquaintance | RFCXXXX,      |
   |                        |           |              | Section 6.6.6 |
   |                        |           |              | and [xfn]     |
   | RELATED                | TYPE      | friend       | RFCXXXX,      |
   |                        |           |              | Section 6.6.6 |
   |                        |           |              | and [xfn]     |
   | RELATED                | TYPE      | met          | RFCXXXX,      |
   |                        |           |              | Section 6.6.6 |
   |                        |           |              | and [xfn]     |
   | RELATED                | TYPE      | co-worker    | RFCXXXX,      |
   |                        |           |              | Section 6.6.6 |
   |                        |           |              | and [xfn]     |
   | RELATED                | TYPE      | colleague    | RFCXXXX,      |
   |                        |           |              | Section 6.6.6 |
   |                        |           |              | and [xfn]     |
   | RELATED                | TYPE      | co-resident  | RFCXXXX,      |
   |                        |           |              | Section 6.6.6 |
   |                        |           |              | and [xfn]     |
   | RELATED                | TYPE      | neighbor     | RFCXXXX,      |
   |                        |           |              | Section 6.6.6 |
   |                        |           |              | and [xfn]     |
   | RELATED                | TYPE      | child        | RFCXXXX,      |
   |                        |           |              | Section 6.6.6 |
   |                        |           |              | and [xfn]     |
   | RELATED                | TYPE      | parent       | RFCXXXX,      |
   |                        |           |              | Section 6.6.6 |
   |                        |           |              | and [xfn]     |
   | RELATED                | TYPE      | sibling      | RFCXXXX,      |
   |                        |           |              | Section 6.6.6 |
   |                        |           |              | and [xfn]     |
   | RELATED                | TYPE      | spouse       | RFCXXXX,      |
   |                        |           |              | Section 6.6.6 |
   |                        |           |              | and [xfn]     |
   | RELATED                | TYPE      | kin          | RFCXXXX,      |
   |                        |           |              | Section 6.6.6 |
   |                        |           |              | and [xfn]     |
   | RELATED                | TYPE      | muse         | RFCXXXX,      |
   |                        |           |              | Section 6.6.6 |
   |                        |           |              | and [xfn]     |
   | RELATED                | TYPE      | crush        | RFCXXXX,      |
   |                        |           |              | Section 6.6.6 |
   |                        |           |              | and [xfn]     |
   | RELATED                | TYPE      | date         | RFCXXXX,      |
   |                        |           |              | Section 6.6.6 |
   |                        |           |              | and [xfn]     |



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   | RELATED                | TYPE      | sweetheart   | RFCXXXX,      |
   |                        |           |              | Section 6.6.6 |
   |                        |           |              | and [xfn]     |
   | RELATED                | TYPE      | me           | RFCXXXX,      |
   |                        |           |              | Section 6.6.6 |
   |                        |           |              | and [xfn]     |
   | RELATED                | TYPE      | agent        | RFCXXXX,      |
   |                        |           |              | Section 6.6.6 |
   | RELATED                | TYPE      | emergency    | RFCXXXX,      |
   |                        |           |              | Section 6.6.6 |
   +------------------------+-----------+--------------+---------------+

11.  Acknowledgements

   The authors would like to thank Tim Howes, Mark Smith, and Frank
   Dawson, the original authors of [RFC2425] and [RFC2426], Pete
   Resnick, who got this effort started and provided help along the way,
   as well as the following individuals who have participated in the
   drafting, review and discussion of this memo:

   Aki Niemi, Andy Mabbett, Alexander Mayrhofer, Alexey Melnikov, Anil
   Srivastava, Barry Leiba, Ben Fortuna, Bernard Desruisseaux, Bernie
   Hoeneisen, Bjoern Hoehrmann, Caleb Richarson, Chris Bryant, Chris
   Newman, Cyrus Daboo, Daisuke Miyakawa, Dan Brickley, Dan Mosedale,
   Dany Cauchie, Darryl Champagne, Dave Thewlis, Filip Navara, Florian
   Zeitz, Helge Hess, Jari Urpalainen, Javier Godoy, Jean-Luc Schellens,
   Joe Hildebrand, Jose Luis Gayosso, Joseph Smarr, Julian Reschke,
   Kepeng Li, Kevin Marks, Kevin Wu Won, Kurt Zeilenga.  Lisa Dusseault,
   Marc Blanchet, Mark Paterson, Markus Lorenz, Michael Haardt, Mike
   Douglass, Nick Levinson, Peter K. Sheerin, Peter Mogensen, Peter
   Saint-Andre, Renato Iannella, Rohit Khare, Sly Gryphon, Stephane
   Bortzmeyer, Tantek Celik, and Zoltan Ordogh.

12.  References

12.1.  Normative References

   [CCITT.E163.1988]                  International Telephone and
                                      Telegraph Consultative Committee,
                                      "Numbering Plan for the
                                      International Telephone Service",
                                      CCITT Recommendation E.163, 1988.

   [CCITT.X121.1988]                  International Telephone and
                                      Telegraph Consultative Committee,
                                      "International Numbering Plan for
                                      the Public Data Networks",
                                      CCITT Recommendation X.121, 1988.



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   [CCITT.X520.1988]                  International International
                                      Telephone and Telegraph
                                      Consultative Committee,
                                      "Information Technology - Open
                                      Systems Interconnection - The
                                      Directory: Selected Attribute
                                      Types", CCITT Recommendation
                                      X.520, November 1988.

   [CCITT.X521.1988]                  International International
                                      Telephone and Telegraph
                                      Consultative Committee,
                                      "Information Technology - Open
                                      Systems Interconnection - The
                                      Directory: Selected Object
                                      Classes", CCITT Recommendation
                                      X.521, November 1988.

   [I-D.ietf-vcarddav-vcardxml]       Perreault, S., "vCard XML
                                      Representation",
                                      draft-ietf-vcarddav-vcardxml-08
                                      (work in progress), April 2011.

   [IEEE.754.2008]                    Institute of Electrical and
                                      Electronics Engineers, "IEEE
                                      Standard for Floating-Point
                                      Arithmetic", IEEE Standard 754,
                                      August 2008.

   [ISO.8601.2000]                    International Organization for
                                      Standardization, "Data elements
                                      and interchange formats -
                                      Information interchange -
                                      Representation of dates and
                                      times", ISO Standard 8601,
                                      December 2000.

   [ISO.8601.2004]                    International Organization for
                                      Standardization, "Data elements
                                      and interchange formats -
                                      Information interchange -
                                      Representation of dates and
                                      times", ISO Standard 8601,
                                      December 2004.

   [RFC2045]                          Freed, N. and N. Borenstein,
                                      "Multipurpose Internet Mail
                                      Extensions (MIME) Part One: Format



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                                      of Internet Message Bodies",
                                      RFC 2045, November 1996.

   [RFC2046]                          Freed, N. and N. Borenstein,
                                      "Multipurpose Internet Mail
                                      Extensions (MIME) Part Two: Media
                                      Types", RFC 2046, November 1996.

   [RFC2119]                          Bradner, S., "Key words for use in
                                      RFCs to Indicate Requirement
                                      Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119,
                                      March 1997.

   [RFC2739]                          Small, T., Hennessy, D., and F.
                                      Dawson, "Calendar Attributes for
                                      vCard and LDAP", RFC 2739,
                                      January 2000.

   [RFC3629]                          Yergeau, F., "UTF-8, a
                                      transformation format of ISO
                                      10646", STD 63, RFC 3629,
                                      November 2003.

   [RFC3966]                          Schulzrinne, H., "The tel URI for
                                      Telephone Numbers", RFC 3966,
                                      December 2004.

   [RFC3986]                          Berners-Lee, T., Fielding, R., and
                                      L. Masinter, "Uniform Resource
                                      Identifier (URI): Generic Syntax",
                                      STD 66, RFC 3986, January 2005.

   [RFC4122]                          Leach, P., Mealling, M., and R.
                                      Salz, "A Universally Unique
                                      IDentifier (UUID) URN Namespace",
                                      RFC 4122, July 2005.

   [RFC4288]                          Freed, N. and J. Klensin, "Media
                                      Type Specifications and
                                      Registration Procedures", BCP 13,
                                      RFC 4288, December 2005.

   [RFC5234]                          Crocker, D. and P. Overell,
                                      "Augmented BNF for Syntax
                                      Specifications: ABNF", STD 68,
                                      RFC 5234, January 2008.

   [RFC5322]                          Resnick, P., Ed., "Internet



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                                      Message Format", RFC 5322,
                                      October 2008.

   [RFC5545]                          Desruisseaux, B., "Internet
                                      Calendaring and Scheduling Core
                                      Object Specification (iCalendar)",
                                      RFC 5545, September 2009.

   [RFC5546]                          Daboo, C., "iCalendar Transport-
                                      Independent Interoperability
                                      Protocol (iTIP)", RFC 5546,
                                      December 2009.

   [RFC5646]                          Phillips, A. and M. Davis, "Tags
                                      for Identifying Languages",
                                      BCP 47, RFC 5646, September 2009.

   [RFC5870]                          Mayrhofer, A. and C. Spanring, "A
                                      Uniform Resource Identifier for
                                      Geographic Locations ('geo' URI)",
                                      RFC 5870, June 2010.

   [W3C.REC-xml-20081126]             Paoli, J., Yergeau, F., Bray, T.,
                                      Maler, E., and C. Sperberg-
                                      McQueen, "Extensible Markup
                                      Language (XML) 1.0 (Fifth
                                      Edition)", World Wide Web
                                      Consortium Recommendation REC-xml-
                                      20081126, November 2008, <http://
                                      www.w3.org/TR/2008/
                                      REC-xml-20081126>.

   [xfn]                              Celik, T., Mullenweg, M., and E.
                                      Meyer, "XHTML Friends Network
                                      1.1", <http://gmpg.org/xfn/11>.

12.2.  Informative References

   [I-D.ietf-eai-rfc5335bis]          Yang, A. and S. Steele,
                                      "Internationalized Email Headers",
                                      draft-ietf-eai-rfc5335bis-10 (work
                                      in progress), March 2011.

   [I-D.lear-iana-timezone-database]  Lear, E. and P. Eggert, "IANA
                                      Procedures for Maintaining the
                                      Timezone Database", draft-lear-
                                      iana-timezone-database-04 (work in
                                      progress), May 2011.



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   [ISO9070]                          The International Organization for
                                      Standardization, "ISO 9070,
                                      Information Processing - SGML
                                      support facilities - Registration
                                      Procedures for Public Text Owner
                                      Identifiers", April 1991.

   [RFC1738]                          Berners-Lee, T., Masinter, L., and
                                      M. McCahill, "Uniform Resource
                                      Locators (URL)", RFC 1738,
                                      December 1994.

   [RFC2397]                          Masinter, L., "The "data" URL
                                      scheme", RFC 2397, August 1998.

   [RFC2425]                          Howes, T., Smith, M., and F.
                                      Dawson, "A MIME Content-Type for
                                      Directory Information", RFC 2425,
                                      September 1998.

   [RFC2426]                          Dawson, F. and T. Howes, "vCard
                                      MIME Directory Profile", RFC 2426,
                                      September 1998.

   [RFC2616]                          Fielding, R., Gettys, J., Mogul,
                                      J., Frystyk, H., Masinter, L.,
                                      Leach, P., and T. Berners-Lee,
                                      "Hypertext Transfer Protocol --
                                      HTTP/1.1", RFC 2616, June 1999.

   [RFC3282]                          Alvestrand, H., "Content Language
                                      Headers", RFC 3282, May 2002.

   [RFC3406]                          Daigle, L., van Gulik, D.,
                                      Iannella, R., and P. Faltstrom,
                                      "Uniform Resource Names (URN)
                                      Namespace Definition Mechanisms",
                                      BCP 66, RFC 3406, October 2002.

   [RFC3536]                          Hoffman, P., "Terminology Used in
                                      Internationalization in the IETF",
                                      RFC 3536, May 2003.

   [RFC4770]                          Jennings, C. and J. Reschke, Ed.,
                                      "vCard Extensions for Instant
                                      Messaging (IM)", RFC 4770,
                                      January 2007.




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   [RFC4880]                          Callas, J., Donnerhacke, L.,
                                      Finney, H., Shaw, D., and R.
                                      Thayer, "OpenPGP Message Format",
                                      RFC 4880, November 2007.

   [RFC5751]                          Ramsdell, B. and S. Turner,
                                      "Secure/Multipurpose Internet Mail
                                      Extensions (S/MIME) Version 3.2
                                      Message Specification", RFC 5751,
                                      January 2010.

   [RFC6068]                          Duerst, M., Masinter, L., and J.
                                      Zawinski, "The 'mailto' URI
                                      Scheme", RFC 6068, October 2010.

   [TZ-DB]                            Olson, A., "Time zone code and
                                      data",
                                      <ftp://elsie.nci.nih.gov/pub/>.

   [vCard21]                          Internet Mail Consortium, "vCard -
                                      The Electronic Business Card
                                      Version 2.1", September September.

URIs

   [1]  <mailto:vcarddav@ietf.org>

   [2]  <mailto:iana@iana.org>

Appendix A.  Differences from RFCs 2425 and 2426

   This appendix contains a high-level overview of the major changes
   that have been made in the vCard specification from RFCs 2425 and
   2426.  It is incomplete as it only lists the most important changes.

A.1.  New Structure

   o  [RFC2425] and [RFC2426] have been merged.

   o  vCard is now not only a MIME type but a stand-alone format.

   o  A proper MIME type registration form has been included.

   o  UTF-8 is now the only possible character set.

   o  New vCard elements can be registered from IANA.





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A.2.  Removed Features

   o  The CONTEXT and CHARSET parameters are no more.

   o  The NAME, MAILER, LABEL, and CLASS properties are no more.

   o  The "intl", "dom", "postal", and "parcel" TYPE parameter values
      for the ADR property have been removed.

   o  Inline vCards (such as the value of the AGENT property) are no
      longer supported.

A.3.  New Properties and Parameters

   o  The KIND, GENDER, LANG, ANNIVERSARY, XML, and CLIENTPIDMAP
      properties have been added.

   o  [RFC2739], which defines the FBURL, CALADRURI, CAPURI, and CALURI
      properties, has been merged in.

   o  [RFC4770], which defines the IMPP property, has been merged in.

   o  The "work" and "home" TYPE parameter values are now applicable to
      many more properties.

   o  The "pref" value of the TYPE parameter is now a parameter of its
      own, with a positive integer value indicating the level of
      preference.

   o  The ALTID and PID parameters have been added.

   o  The MEDIATYPE parameter has been added and replaces the TYPE
      parameter when it was used for indicating the media type of the
      property's content.

A.4.  Other Changes

   o  Synchronization is addressed in Section 7.

   o  The N property is no longer mandatory.

   o  In the N property, each component may now contain multiple comma-
      separated values.

   o  The value of TEL is now a URI.

   o  The AGENT property was replaced with a type of RELATED.




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   o  Date and time values now only support the basic format.
      Truncation is now supported.

Appendix B.  Change Log (to be removed by RFC Editor prior to
             publication)

B.1.  Changes in -22

   o  Made reference to RFC3536 informative instead of normative.

   o  Adjusted ABNF for readability (no normative changes).

   o  Added informative reference to draft-lear-iana-timezone-database.

   o  Tweaked Appendix A a little bit.

   o  s/privacy/confidentiality/

   o  Changed all references to ASCII characters into Unicode code
      points.

   o  Added pointer to URI security considerations.

   o  Adjusted GENDER examples.

   o  Clearly ask IANA to mark text/directory as DEPRECATED.

   o  Adjusted updating/obsoleting text in abstract.

B.2.  Changes in -21

   o  Minor ABNF clarification.

B.3.  Changes in -20

   o  Reworded security considerations.

   o  Specified range of integer and float value types.

   o  Adjusted IANA considerations wording.

   o  Added missing date-and-or-type to the VALUE ABNF.

   o  s/vcard@ietf.org/vcarddav@ietf.org/

   o  More precise wording: charset instead of character set





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   o  Make parameter values case-insensitive by default.

   o  Escaping newlines can be done with \n or \N.

   o  Make SORT-AS value case-sensitive.

   o  Better formatting for ADR special notes.

   o  Removed Pete Resnick's example vCard.

   o  vcarddav@ietf.org is the contact person for the media type.

   o  Add missing pref-param, pid-param, and any-param to the PHOTO
      property.

   o  Re-added missing section on UTC-OFFSET value type.

B.4.  Changes in -19

   o  Fixed nits.

   o  Fixed MEDIATYPE ABNF.

B.5.  Changes in -18

   o  Fix missing text in KIND section.

B.6.  Changes in -17

   o  s/individual/entity/

   o  Moved section 3.4 for better flow.

   o  Removed text overriding general MIME and HTTP rules.

   o  Fixed redundant ABNF.

   o  Fixed parameter value quoting in examples.

   o  Added informative reference for Content-Language header.

   o  Moved cardinality table earlier for better flow.

   o  Added normative reference for XML 1.0.

   o  Added informative reference for mailto: scheme.





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   o  Clarified where the VERSION property must go.

   o  Created the MEDIATYPE parameter.

   o  Fixed text/vcard encoding considerations.

   o  Added .vcard file extension.

   o  Removed need for extension documents to contain tables in their
      IANA Considerations section.

   o  Removed underspecified "Status" column in IANA registry.

   o  Moved obsoleted references to Informative section.

   o  Moved iCalendar references to Normative section.

   o  Expanded specification of KIND values.

   o  Recommend defining an XML representation for new vCard elements.

B.7.  Changes in -16

   o  RELATED: Added XFN values into IANA registry.

   o  RELATED: Added values "agent" and "emergency".

   o  EMAIL is now free-form text, with informative reference to EAI.

   o  GENDER now has two components: one for biological sex, the other
      for gender identity.

   o  Bugfixes to the core ABNF.

   o  Clarified IANA considerations.

   o  UID may be reset to free-form text.

B.8.  Changes in -15

   o  Reverted N to the 5-component format of vCard 3.

   o  Removed DDAY, BIRTH, and DEATH.

   o  First two components in ADR SHOULD be empty.

   o  Removed the LABEL property.




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   o  Removed the binary value type and the ENCODING and FMTTYPE
      parameters.

   o  Renamed SEX to GENDER.  Set predefined values to "male" and
      "female".

   o  Reverted TEL to take a text value by default, but SHOULD be reset
      to a URI.

   o  Refer to iCalendar for CALSCALE.

   o  Removed the "thing" value for KIND.

   o  RELATED now uses XFN 1.1 for its value.

   o  Dropped the VERSION parameter.  XML MUST be version 1.0.

   o  Dropped the CLASS property.

   o  Property and parameter names SHOULD be upper-case.

   o  Use ABNF for cardinality notation.

B.9.  Changes in -14

   o  DQUOTE is US-ASCII decimal 34, not 22.

   o  Removed unused reference to RFC 2046.

   o  Updated reference to draft-ietf-vcarddav-vcardxml.

   o  Small fixes to the IANA registration text.

   o  Added notes on the usage of TEL and IMPP properties.

   o  Clarified "country name" component of ADR property.

   o  Removed usage of undefined type value "msg" in TEL example.

   o  Fixed parameter value quoting rules and ABNF.

   o  Added example to LANGUAGE property.

   o  Fixed synchronization example regarding the cardinality of FN.

   o  Added implementation note for float value type.





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   o  Removed advice for always including VALUE parameter.

   o  FMTTYPE MUST include the full MIME type.

   o  Made ADR's ABNF more verbose.

   o  Organized TEL TYPE values in a table.

   o  Replaced TOP-SECRET example with NOINDEX.

B.10.  Changes in -13

   o  Changed global ABNF to make explicit that VERSION comes first.

   o  Reworked example for LANGUAGE property.

   o  s/TYPE/FMTTYPE/ in two examples.

   o  Allow LANGUAGE parameter for text-valued BDAY, DDAY, and RELATED.

   o  Tightened language on LANGUAGE parameter regarding cardinality.

   o  Removed the NAME property.

   o  Adjusted semi-colon escaping rules.

   o  Added the ALTID parameter.

B.11.  Changes in -12

   o  Fixed example of LANGUAGE cardinality.

   o  Added note about YYYY-MM date format.

   o  Fixed appendix A.

   o  VERSION property must come first.

   o  Fixed mistake in PID example.

   o  Removed two changes from Appendix A which were probably intended
      to go into this change log section.

   o  Explicitly state that the value for the BEGIN and END properties
      is case-insensitive.

   o  Removed the SORT-STRING property.  Created the SORT-AS parameter.




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   o  "T" and "Z" in dates and times are now mandatory uppercase.

   o  Added the "version" MIME parameter.

   o  More consistent capitalization.

   o  Added missing "ANNIVERSARY" in name production rule.

   o  Added missing calscale-param in param production rule.

   o  Moved definition of GEO and TZ parameters to section 5.

   o  Simplified discussion of encoding.

   o  Removed restriction for "work" and "home" values of TYPE parameter
      w.r.t. the KIND property.

   o  XML value may now be binary.

   o  Created VERSION parameter for XML.

   o  BIRTH and DEATH can now have URI values.

   o  Created the FMTTYPE parameter.

   o  KEY can now take a text value.

   o  Added references to RFC 5545 (iCalendar).

   o  Added namespace column in parameters registry.

B.12.  Changes in -11

   o  Change "XML chunk" to "XML fragment".

   o  Cite W3C document containing definition of "fragment".

   o  Added "XML" to property name ABNF.

   o  Clarified newline escaping rule.

   o  Replaced one remaining "type" with "property".

   o  Removed case insensitivity of parameter values.

   o  XML property can now only contain one element that is not in the
      vCard 4 namespace.




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   o  Clarified interrelationship between LANGUAGE, cardinality, and
      PID.

   o  Added "textphone" TEL type.

   o  Fixed quoting of comma in ORG examples.

B.13.  Changes in -10

   o  Added component in SORT-STRING for sorting by given name.  Fixed
      and expanded the examples.

   o  Fixed KIND-value ABNF.

   o  Fixed deprecated media type.

   o  Created the CALSCALE parameter.

   o  Strenghtened the stance on character set.

   o  Defined the Language-Tag ABNF.

   o  Made explicit the fact that IANA does not register templates.

   o  Created the XML property.

   o  Added social networking examples to URL property.

B.14.  Changes in -09

   o  Removed special meaning for groups.  Removed the "work" and "home"
      groups.  Removed the group registry.  Re-introduced the "work" and
      "home" TYPE parameter values.  Applied the TYPE parameter to
      properties which supported the "work" and "home" groups.

   o  Vendor namespace now uses private enterprise number in prefix.

   o  Added "thing" value for KIND property.

B.15.  Changes in -08

   o  Allow 1985 (year only) in date ABNF.

   o  Fixed missing country in ADR example.

   o  Added the DATE-AND-OR-TIME value.





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   o  Made BDAY and DDAY use DATE-AND-OR-TIME.

   o  Prefixed "param" and "value" production rules specific to
      properties with the property name.

   o  Replaced the GENDER property with the SEX property.

   o  Added the ANNIVERSARY property.

   o  Added the "friend" and "spouse" types of RELATED.

   o  TZ property now has text / uri value.

   o  Refined the definitions of TITLE and ROLE.

B.16.  Changes in -07

   o  PREF is now bounded. 100 is the maximum value.

   o  Added the "emergency" RELATED type.

   o  Made GEO a URI.

   o  Added GEO and TZ parameters to ADR.

   o  Changed wording of "default" use of SOUND property.

   o  Completely reworked the date, time, and date-time grammars.

   o  Added the timestamp value type.

   o  REV now has the timestamp value type.

   o  Rewrote ABNF.

   o  ORG can now have a single level.

B.17.  Changes in -06

   o  Corrected omission of resetability to text value for RELATED.

   o  Let KEY value type be reset to a URI value.

   o  ABNF fixes.

   o  Made gender values extensible.





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   o  Gave the PREF parameter a positive integer value.

   o  Removed usage of the undefined "word" ABNF production rule.

   o  Defined property cardinalities.

   o  Defined properties allowable in WORK and HOME groups.

   o  Simplified the LANG property to use the vCard preference
      mechanism.

   o  Created the "language-tag" value type.

   o  Added PID to ABNF of SOURCE allowed parameters.

   o  Clarified escaping rules.

   o  Changed ABNF definition of non-standard X- properties.

   o  Removed TYPE parameter from EMAIL properties in examples.

   o  Created the CLIENTPIDMAP property.

   o  Changed PID value to a pair of small integers.

   o  Completely reworked synchronization mechanisms.

   o  Created brand new synchronization example.

B.18.  Changes in -05

   o  Added multi PID value proposal.

B.19.  Changes in -04

   o  Added "location" value for KIND property.

   o  Some fixes to ABNF.

   o  Moved "pref" from being a TYPE value to a parameter in its own
      right.

   o  Removed the "work" and "home" TYPE values.

   o  Reintroduced the group construct.

   o  Assigned meaning to WORK and HOME groups.




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   o  Restricted the TEL TYPE parameter value set.

   o  In N property, removed additional names, and replaced with
      multiple given names.

   o  Removed TYPE parameter from EMAIL and IMPP properties.

   o  Replaced AGENT with a type of RELATED.

   o  Use example.org domain in URL example.

   o  Created initial IANA table of values.

   o  Defined meaning of PUBLIC, PRIVATE, CONFIDENTIAL.

B.20.  Changes in -03

   o  Various changes to the synchronization mechanisms.

   o  Allowed truncated format for dated.  See issue #236.

B.21.  Changes in -02

   o  Removed useless text in IMPP description.

   o  Added CalDAV-SCHED example to CALADRURI.

   o  Removed CAPURI property.

   o  Dashes in dates and colons in times are now mandatory.

   o  Allow for dates such as 2008 and 2008-05 and times such as 07 and
      07:54.

   o  Removed inline vCard value.

   o  Made AGENT only accept URI references instead of inline vCards.

   o  Added the MEMBER property.

   o  Renamed the UID parameter to PID.

   o  Changed the value type of the PID parameter to "a small integer."

   o  Changed the presence of UID and PID when synchronization is to be
      used from MUST to SHOULD.





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   o  Added the RELATED (Section 6.6.6) property.

   o  Fixed many ABNF typos (issue #252).

   o  Changed formatting of ABNF comments to make them easier to read
      (issue #226).

B.22.  Changes in -01

   o  Merged [RFC2739] in.

   o  Converted all foobar.com, abc.com, etc. to example.com.

   o  Fixed bugs in ABNF.

   o  Made explicit that coordinates in the GEO property are expressed
      in the WGS 84 reference system.

   o  Clarified folding issues with multi-byte characters.

   o  Made the value of TEL a URI.

   o  Added the UID parameter.

   o  Made the UID property's value type a URI.

   o  Added Section 7.

   o  Created IANA process for registering new parameters, value types,
      and properties.

   o  Created the initial IANA registries.

   o  Created vendor namespace based on text from RFC 4288.

B.23.  Changes in -00

   o  Name change because draft has been accepted as WG item.
      Otherwise, same as draft-resnick-vcarddav-vcardrev-01.

   o  Removed reference to RFC 2234.

   o  Fixed errata from
      http://www.rfc-editor.org/errata_search.php?rfc=2426.

   o  Removed passage referring to RFC 2425 profiles.





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   o  Renamed Section 6.4 from "Telecommunications Adressing Properties"
      to "Communications Properties.

   o  Added Appendix A and Appendix B.

   o  Added reference to [RFC4770].

   o  Removed the group construct.

   o  Made the N property no longer mandatory.

   o  Added the KIND property.

   o  Clarified meaning of TYPE parameter value for PHOTO, LOGO, KEY,
      and SOUND.

   o  Removed the CONTEXT parameter.

   o  Removed the MAILER property.

   o  Made reference to [ISO9070] informative.

   o  Removed "intl", "dom", "postal", and "parcel" TYPE parameter
      values for the ADR and LABEL properties.

   o  Clarified meaning of "extended address" ADR field.

   o  Mentioned [RFC3406] as another method of generating PRODID values.

   o  Updated obsolete references.

   o  Allowed BDAY and DDAY value types to be text values for fuzzy
      dates.

   o  Removed the CHARSET property.  Now the encoding is always UTF-8,
      except when overridden by the Content-Type (which is considered a
      compatibility feature).














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Author's Address

   Simon Perreault
   Viagenie
   2875 Laurier, suite D2-630
   Quebec, QC  G1V 2M2
   Canada

   Phone: +1 418 656 9254
   EMail: simon.perreault@viagenie.ca
   URI:   http://www.viagenie.ca








































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