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Versions: 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 RFC 6527

Network Working Group                                       Kalyan Tata
Internet Draft                                     Check Point Software
Document: draft-ietf-vrrp-unified-mib-10.txt             September 2011
Obsoletes: 2787 (if approved)
Intended Status: Proposed Standard
Expires: March 2012


                 Definitions of Managed Objects for VRRPv3
                   <draft-ietf-vrrp-unified-mib-10.txt>

Abstract

   This specification defines a portion of the Management Information
   Base (MIB) for use with SNMP-based network management.  In
   particular, it defines objects for configuring, monitoring, and
   controlling routers that employ the Virtual Router Redundancy
   Protocol Version 3 for both IPv4 and IPv6 as defined in RFC 5798.
   This memo obsoletes RFC 2787.

Status of this Memo

   This Internet-Draft is submitted to IETF in full conformance with the
   provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.

   This document may contain material from IETF Documents or IETF
   Contributions published or made publicly available before November
   10, 2008. The person(s) controlling the copyright in some of this
   material may not have granted the IETF Trust the right to allow
   modifications of such material outside the IETF Standards Process.
   Without obtaining an adequate license from the person(s) controlling
   the copyright in such materials, this document may not be modified
   outside the IETF Standards Process, and derivative works of it may
   not be created outside the IETF Standards Process, except to format
   it for publication as an RFC or to translate it into languages other
   than English.

   Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
   Task Force (IETF), its areas, and its working groups.  Note that
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   Drafts.

   Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
   and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any
   time.  It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
   material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."

   The list of current Internet-Drafts can be accessed at
   http://www.ietf.org/ietf/1id-abstracts.txt.



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   The list of Internet-Draft Shadow Directories can be accessed at
   http://www.ietf.org/shadow.html.

   This Internet-Draft will expire in Oct, 2011.

Copyright Notice

  Copyright (c) 2011 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
  document authors.  All rights reserved.

  This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
  Provisions Relating to IETF Documents
  (http://trustee.ietf.org/license-info)
  in effect on the date of publication of this document.  Please
  review these documents carefully, as they describe your rights and
  restrictions with respect to this document.  Code Components
  extracted from this document must include Simplified BSD License
  text as described in Section 4.e of the Trust Legal Provisions and
  are provided without warranty as described in the Simplified BSD
  License.

Table of Contents

   1. The Internet-Standard Management Framework.....................3
   2. Introduction...................................................3
   3. Terminology....................................................3
   4. Relationship to RFC 2787.......................................3
   5. Relation to Interface Group (IF-MIB)...........................3
   6. Multi-Stack Implementations....................................3
   7. Interpretation of RFC5798......................................4
   8. VRRP MIB Structure and Design..................................4
   9. VRRP Multistack Scenario.......................................4
   10. Definitions...................................................7
   11. Security Considerations......................................27
   12. IANA Considerations..........................................28
   13. Normative References.........................................28
   14. Informative References.......................................29
   15. Acknowledgments..............................................29
   16. Author's Address.............................................29












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1.   The Internet-Standard Management Framework

   For a detailed overview of the documents that describe the current
   Internet-Standard Management Framework, please refer to section 7 of
   RFC 3410 [RFC3410].

   Managed objects are accessed via a virtual information store, termed
   the Management Information Base or MIB.  MIB objects are generally
   accessed through the Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP).
   Objects in the MIB are defined using the mechanisms defined in the
   Structure of Management Information (SMI).  This memo specifies a MIB
   module that is compliant to the SMIv2, which is described in STD 58,
   RFC 2578 [RFC2578], STD 58, RFC 2579 [RFC2579] and STD 58, RFC 2580
   [RFC2580].

2.   Introduction

   This specification defines a portion of the Management Information
   Base (MIB) for use with SNMP-based network management.  In
   particular, it defines objects for configuring, monitoring, and
   controlling routers that employ the Virtual Router Redundancy
   Protocol Version 3 for both IPv4 and IPv6 as defined in RFC 5798
   [RFC5798].

3.   Terminology

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "NOT RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and
   "OPTIONAL" in this document are to be interpreted as described in
   RFC 2119 [RFC2119].

4.   Relationship to RFC 2787

   This document obsoletes RFC2787 [RFC2787]. The major changes in this
   document reflect changes in VRRP protocol between RFC 2338 [RFC2338]
   and RFC 5798 [RFC5798]. This document is also updated to conform to
   current MIB conventions.

5.   Relation to Interface Group (IF-MIB)

   Since a router can be participating in VRRP on one or more
   interfaces, "ifIndex" is used as an index into the tables defined in
   the VRRP MIB. This MIB module imports ifIndex from the IF-MIB. At
   this time, the latest version of IF-MIB is from RFC2863 [RFC2863].

6.   Multi-Stack Implementations

   This MIB module is designed to support Multi-Stack implementations



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   that run VRRP over IPv4 and IPv6. IP version, VRID and ifIndex are
   used to uniquely identify rows in a multi stack implementation.

7.   Interpretation of RFC5798

   During the review of this document, It emerged that there are
   different possible interpretations of [RFC5798]. The Authors of that
   document and the VRRP working group were unable to reach consensus on
   which interpretation is correct. This document makes the following
   assumption.

   IPv4 and IPv6 virtual routers are treated as two separate logical
   entities and represented as two separate entries in the
   vrrpv3OperationsTable. This is required due to the undefined behavior
   of the protocol in [RFC5798] in a Multi-Stack scenario.


8.   VRRP MIB Structure and Design

   This MIB module contains three tables:
   (1)  The vrrpv3OperationsTable, which contains objects that define
        the operational characteristics of a VRRP router.  Rows in this
        table correspond to instances of virtual routers.

   (2)  The vrrpv3StatisticsTable which contains the operating
        statistics for a VRRP router.

   (3)  The vrrpv3AssociatedIpAddrTable, contains the addresses of the
        virtual router(s) that a given VRRP router is backing up.

   Tables are indexed on ifIndex, VRID and the IP version to uniquely
   identify a VRRP router.

   Notifications in this MIB module are controlled using the mechanisms
   defined in [RFC3413].



9.   VRRP Multistack Scenario

   The following section provides examples of how some of the objects in
   this MIB are instantiated.


   KEY:
   ----


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   The labels in the following tables and diagrams correspond to the
   actual MIB objects as follows:

   if      = IfIndex
   AddrType= vrrpv3OperationsInetAddrType
   VrId    = vrrpv3OperationsVrId
   State   = vrrpv3OperationsStatus
   Prior   = vrrpOpeartionsPriority
   IpAddr  = vrrpv3OperationsMasterIpAddr

   The following figure shows a hypothetical network with two VRRP
   routers VR1 & VR2, configured with two virtual routers.  Addresses in
   '()' indicate the address of the default gateway for a given host, H1
   to H4 are IPv4 hosts and H5 to H8 are IPv6 hosts. A, B and C are IPv4
   addresses and X, Y and Z are IPv6 addresses. In the diagram,
   "Interface" is used in the context defined in IF-MIB.








                 +------+                      +------+
                 | VR1  |                      |  VR2 |
                 |      |                      |      |
                 +------+                      +------+
                     |                            |
                Intf = I1                    Intf = I2
       IP A          |   IP X         IP B        |    IP Y
       IP C          |                            |    IP Z
       VRID = 1      |   VRID=2       VRID=2      |    VRID = 1
                     |                            |
   ----+------+------+-+-------+--------+--------++------+--------+---
       ^      ^        ^       ^        ^        ^       ^        ^
       |      |        |       |        |        |       |        |
    (IP A)  (IP A)   (IP B)  (IP B)   (IP X)   (IP X)  (IP Y)   (IP Y)
       |      |        |       |        |        |       |        |
    +----+  +----+  +----+  +----+    +----+   +----+  +----+  +----+
    | H1 |  | H2 |  | H3 |  | H4 |    | H5 |   | H6 |  | H7 |  | H8 |
    +----+  +----+  +----+  +----+    +----+   +----+  +----+  +----+


           -----   MIB Tables For VRRP Router "VR1":   -----

   vrrpv3OperationsTable
   -------------------


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   | if | VrId |AddrType| State | Prior |IpAddr|        |
   +----+------+--------+-------+-------+------+--(..)--+
   | I1 |  01  |    1   |   M   |  255  |   A  |        |
   +----+------+--------+-------+-------+------+--(..)--+
   | I1 |  01  |    2   |   B   | 1-254 |   Y  |        |
   +----+------+--------+-------+-------+------+--(..)--+
   | I1 |  02  |    1   |   B   | 1-254 |   B  |        |
   +----+------+--------+-------+-------+------+--(..)--+
   | I1 |  02  |    2   |   M   |  255  |   X  |        |
   +----+------+--------+-------+-------+------+--------+

   vrrpv3AssociatedIpAddrTable
   -------------------------

   | if | VrId | AddrType | IP   | RowStat |
   +----+------+----------+------+---------+
   | I1 |  01  |    1     |  A   | active  |
   +----+------+----------+------+---------+
   | I1 |  01  |    1     |  C   | active  |
   +----+------+----------+------+---------+
   | I1 |  01  |    2     |  Y   | active  |
   +----+------+----------+------+---------+
   | I1 |  01  |    2     |  Z   | active  |
   +----+------+----------+------+---------+
   | I1 |  02  |    1     |  B   | active  |
   +----+------+----------+------+---------+
   | I1 |  02  |    2     |  X   | active  |
   +----+------+----------+------+---------+


   -----   MIB Tables For VRRP Router "VR2":   -----

   vrrpv3OperationsTable
   -------------------

   | if | VrId |AddrType| State | Prior |IpAddr|        |
   +----+------+--------+-------+-------+------+--(..)--+
   | I2 |  01  |    1   |   B   | 1-254 |   A  |        |
   +----+------+--------+-------+-------|------+--(..)--+
   | I2 |  01  |    2   |   M   | 255   |   Y  |        |
   +----+------+--------+-------+-------+------+--(..)--+
   | I2 |  02  |    1   |   M   |  255  |   B  |        |
   +----+------+--------+-------+-------+------+--(..)--+
   | I2 |  02  |    2   |   B   | 1-254 |   X  |        |
   +----+------+--------+-------+-------+------+--------+

   vrrpv3AssociatedIpAddrTable
   -------------------------



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   | if | VrId |AddrType| IP   | RowStat |
   +----+------+--------+------+---------+
   | I2 |  01  |   1    |  A   | active  |
   +----+------+--------+------+---------+
   | I2 |  01  |   1    |  C   | active  |
   +----+------+--------+------+---------+
   | I2 |  01  |   2    |  Y   | active  |
   +----+------+--------+------+---------+
   | I2 |  01  |   2    |  Z   | active  |
   +----+------+--------+------+---------+
   | I2 |  02  |   1    |  B   | active  |
   +----+------+--------+------+---------+
   | I2 |  02  |   2    |  X   | active  |
   +----+------+--------+------+---------+


   NOTES:

   1)  For "State": M = Master;   B = Backup.
   In the vrrpv3OperationsTable, a "priority" of 255 indicates that the
   respective router owns the IP address, e.g., this IP address is
   native to the router (i.e., "the IP Address Owner").


10.   Definitions

   This MIB module makes reference to the following documents [RFC2578],
   [RFC2579], [RFC2580], [RFC2863], and [RFC4001].

   VRRPV3-MIB DEFINITIONS ::= BEGIN

       IMPORTS
           MODULE-IDENTITY, OBJECT-TYPE,
           NOTIFICATION-TYPE, Counter32,
           Integer32, mib-2, Unsigned32,
           Counter64, TimeTicks
               FROM SNMPv2-SMI                 -- RFC2578

           TEXTUAL-CONVENTION, RowStatus,
           MacAddress, TruthValue, TimeStamp,
           TimeInterval
               FROM SNMPv2-TC                  -- RFC2579

           MODULE-COMPLIANCE, OBJECT-GROUP,
           NOTIFICATION-GROUP
               FROM SNMPv2-CONF                -- RFC2580
           ifIndex
               FROM IF-MIB                     -- RFC2863
           InetAddressType, InetAddress


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               FROM INET-ADDRESS-MIB;          -- RFC4001

      vrrpv3MIB  MODULE-IDENTITY
           LAST-UPDATED "201104220000Z"         -- Apr 22, 2011
           ORGANIZATION "IETF VRRP Working Group"
           CONTACT-INFO
                  "WG E-Mail: vrrp@ietf.org

                   Editor:    Kalyan Tata
                              Check Point Software
                              800 Bridge Park Way,
                              Redwood City, CA 94065
                              Tata_kalyan@yahoo.com"

           DESCRIPTION
               "This MIB describes objects used for managing Virtual
                Router Redundancy Protocol version 3 (VRRPv3).

                Copyright (C) The Internet Society (2011).
                This version of MIB module is part of RFC YYYY.
                Please see the RFC for full legal notices."

           REVISION "201104220000Z"    -- Apr 22, 2011
           DESCRIPTION "Initial version as published in RFC YYYY."

   -- EdNote: Please replace YYYY with actual RFC number for
   -- this draft and remove this note.

           ::= { mib-2 ZZZ }

   -- EdNote: Please replace ZZZ with IANA assigned number
   -- and remove this note.

   -- Textual Conventions

      Vrrpv3VrIdTC ::= TEXTUAL-CONVENTION
           DISPLAY-HINT "d"
           STATUS       current
           DESCRIPTION
               "The value of the virtual router identifier noted as
               (VRID) in RFC5798. This along with interface index
               (ifIndex) and IP version, serves to uniquely identify a
               virtual router on a given VRRP router."
           REFERENCE " RFC 5798 (Sections 3 and 5.2.3)"
           SYNTAX      Integer32 (1..255)

   --  VRRPv3 MIB Groups

      vrrpv3Notifications   OBJECT IDENTIFIER ::= { vrrpv3MIB 0 }


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      vrrpv3Objects         OBJECT IDENTIFIER ::= { vrrpv3MIB 1 }
      vrrpv3Conformance     OBJECT IDENTIFIER ::= { vrrpv3MIB 2 }

   -- VRRPv3 MIB Objects

      vrrpv3Operations      OBJECT IDENTIFIER ::= { vrrpv3Objects 1 }
      vrrpv3Statistics      OBJECT IDENTIFIER ::= { vrrpv3Objects 2 }


   --  VRRPv3 Operations Table

       vrrpv3OperationsTable OBJECT-TYPE
           SYNTAX       SEQUENCE OF Vrrpv3OperationsEntry
           MAX-ACCESS   not-accessible
           STATUS       current
           DESCRIPTION
               "Unified Operations table for a VRRP router which
                consists of a sequence (i.e., one or more conceptual
                rows) of 'vrrpv3OperationsEntry' items each of which
                describe the operational characteristics of a virtual
                router."

           ::= { vrrpv3Operations 1 }

       vrrpv3OperationsEntry OBJECT-TYPE
           SYNTAX       Vrrpv3OperationsEntry
           MAX-ACCESS   not-accessible
           STATUS       current
           DESCRIPTION
               "An entry in the vrrpv3OperationsTable containing the
                operational characteristics of a virtual router.  On a
                VRRP router, a given virtual router is identified by a
                combination of ifIndex, VRID and the IP version.
                ifIndex represents a interface of the router.

                A row must be created with vrrpv3OperationsStatus
                set to initialize(1) and cannot transition to
                backup(2) or master(3) until vrrpv3OperationsRowStatus
                is transitioned to active(1).

                The information in this table is persistent and when
                written the entity SHOULD save the change to non-
                volatile storage."

           INDEX    { ifIndex, vrrpv3OperationsVrId,
                      vrrpv3OperationsInetAddrType
                     }
           ::= { vrrpv3OperationsTable 1 }



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       Vrrpv3OperationsEntry ::=

           SEQUENCE {
               vrrpv3OperationsVrId
                   Vrrpv3VrIdTC,
               vrrpv3OperationsInetAddrType
                   InetAddressType,
               vrrpv3OperationsMasterIpAddr
                   InetAddress,
               vrrpv3OperationsPrimaryIpAddr
                   InetAddress,
               vrrpv3OperationsVirtualMacAddr
                   MacAddress,
               vrrpv3OperationsStatus
                   INTEGER,
               vrrpv3OperationsPriority
                   Unsigned32,
               vrrpv3OperationsAddrCount
                   Integer32,
               vrrpv3OperationsAdvInterval
                   TimeInterval,
               vrrpv3OperationsPreemptMode
                   TruthValue,
               vrrpv3OperationsAcceptMode
                   TruthValue,
               vrrpv3OperationsUpTime
                   TimeTicks,
               vrrpv3OperationsRowStatus
                   RowStatus
       }
       vrrpv3OperationsVrId OBJECT-TYPE
           SYNTAX       Vrrpv3VrIdTC
           MAX-ACCESS   not-accessible
           STATUS       current
           DESCRIPTION
               "This object contains the Virtual Router Identifier
                (VRID)."
           REFERENCE "RFC 4001"
           ::= { vrrpv3OperationsEntry 1 }

       vrrpv3OperationsInetAddrType OBJECT-TYPE
           SYNTAX       InetAddressType
           MAX-ACCESS   not-accessible
           STATUS       current
           DESCRIPTION
               "The IP address type of Vrrpv3OperationsEntry and
                Vrrpv3AssociatedIpAddrEntry. This value determines
                the type for vrrpv3OperationsMasterIpAddr,


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                vrrpv3OperationsPrimaryIpAddr and
                vrrpv3AssociatedIpAddrAddress.

                ipv4(1) and ipv6(2) are the only two values supported
                in this MIB module."
           REFERENCE "RFC 4001"
           ::= { vrrpv3OperationsEntry 2 }

       vrrpv3OperationsMasterIpAddr OBJECT-TYPE
           SYNTAX       InetAddress
           MAX-ACCESS   read-only
           STATUS       current
           DESCRIPTION
               "The master router's real IP address. Master router
               would set this address to vrrpv3OperationsPrimaryIpAddr
               while transitioning to master state. For backup
               routers, this is the IP address listed as the source in
               VRRP advertisement last received by this virtual
               router."
           REFERENCE " RFC 5798"
           ::= { vrrpv3OperationsEntry 3 }

       vrrpv3OperationsPrimaryIpAddr OBJECT-TYPE
           SYNTAX       InetAddress
           MAX-ACCESS   read-create
           STATUS       current
           DESCRIPTION
               "In the case where there is more than one IP
               Address (associated IP addresses) for a given
               `ifIndex', this object is used to specify the IP
               address that will become the
               vrrpv3OperationsMasterIpAddr', should the virtual
               router transition from backup state to master."
           ::= { vrrpv3OperationsEntry 4 }


       vrrpv3OperationsVirtualMacAddr OBJECT-TYPE
           SYNTAX       MacAddress
           MAX-ACCESS   read-only
           STATUS       current
           DESCRIPTION
               "The virtual MAC address of the virtual router.
               Although this object can be derived from the
               'vrrpv3OperationsVrId' object, it is defined so that it
               is easily obtainable by a management application and
               can be included in VRRP-related SNMP notifications."
           ::= { vrrpv3OperationsEntry 5 }

       vrrpv3OperationsStatus OBJECT-TYPE


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           SYNTAX       INTEGER {
               initialize(1),
               backup(2),
               master(3)
           }
           MAX-ACCESS   read-only
           STATUS       current

           DESCRIPTION
               "The current state of the virtual router. This object
               has three defined values:

                 - `initialize', which indicates that the
                   virtual router is waiting for a startup event.

                 - `backup', which indicates the virtual router is
                   monitoring the availability of the master router.

                 - `master', which indicates that the virtual router
                   is forwarding packets for IP addresses that are
                   associated with this router."
           REFERENCE " RFC 5798"
           ::= { vrrpv3OperationsEntry 6 }

       vrrpv3OperationsPriority OBJECT-TYPE
           SYNTAX       Unsigned32 (0..255)
           MAX-ACCESS   read-create
           STATUS       current
           DESCRIPTION
               "This object specifies the priority to be used for the
               virtual router master election process.  Higher values
               imply higher priority.

               A priority of '0', although not settable, is sent by
               the master router to indicate that this router has
               ceased to participate in VRRP and a backup virtual
               router should transition to become a new master.

               A priority of 255 is used for the router that owns the
               associated IP address(es) for VRRP over IPv4 and hence
               not settable.

               A 'badValue(3)' should be returned when a user tries to
               set 0 or 255 for this object. "
           REFERENCE " RFC 5798 section 6.1"
           DEFVAL       { 100 }
           ::= { vrrpv3OperationsEntry 7 }

       vrrpv3OperationsAddrCount OBJECT-TYPE


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           SYNTAX       Integer32 (0..255)
           MAX-ACCESS   read-only
           STATUS       current
           DESCRIPTION
               "The number of IP addresses that are associated with
               this virtual router.  This number is equal to the
               number of rows in the vrrpv3AssociatedAddrTable that
               correspond to a given ifIndex/VRID/IP version."
           REFERENCE "RFC 5798 Section 6.1"
           ::= { vrrpv3OperationsEntry 8 }

       vrrpv3OperationsAdvInterval OBJECT-TYPE
           SYNTAX       TimeInterval (1..4095)
           UNITS        "centiseconds"
           MAX-ACCESS   read-create
           STATUS       current
           DESCRIPTION
               "The time interval, in centiseconds, between sending
               advertisement messages. Only the master router sends
               VRRP advertisements."
           REFERENCE " RFC 5798 section 6.1"
           DEFVAL       { 100}
           ::= { vrrpv3OperationsEntry 9 }

       vrrpv3OperationsPreemptMode OBJECT-TYPE
           SYNTAX       TruthValue
           MAX-ACCESS   read-create
           STATUS       current
           DESCRIPTION
               "Controls whether a higher priority virtual router will
               preempt a lower priority master."
           REFERENCE " RFC 5798 section 6.1"
           DEFVAL       { true }
           ::= { vrrpv3OperationsEntry 10 }

       vrrpv3OperationsAcceptMode OBJECT-TYPE
           SYNTAX       TruthValue
           MAX-ACCESS   read-create
           STATUS       current
           DESCRIPTION
               "Controls whether a virtual router in Master state
               will accept packets addressed to the address owner's
               IPv6 address as its own if it is not the IPv6 address
               owner.  Default is false(2).
               This object is not relevant for rows representing VRRP
               over IPv4 and should be set to false(2)."
           DEFVAL       { false }
           ::= { vrrpv3OperationsEntry 11 }



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       vrrpv3OperationsUpTime OBJECT-TYPE
           SYNTAX       TimeTicks
           MAX-ACCESS   read-only
           STATUS       current
           DESCRIPTION
               "This value represents the amount of time, in
               TimeTicks (hundredth of a second), since this virtual
               router (i.e., the ` vrrpv3OperationsStatus')
               transitioned out of `initialize'."
           REFERENCE " RFC 5798 section 6.1"
           ::= { vrrpv3OperationsEntry 12 }

       vrrpv3OperationsRowStatus OBJECT-TYPE
           SYNTAX       RowStatus
           MAX-ACCESS   read-create
           STATUS       current
           DESCRIPTION
               "The RowStatus variable should be used in accordance to
               installation and removal conventions for conceptual
               rows.


               To create a row in this table, a manager sets this
               object to either createAndGo(4) or createAndWait(5).
               Until instances of all corresponding columns are
               appropriately configured, the value of the
               Corresponding instance of the
               `vrrpv3OperationsRowStatus' column will be read as
               notReady(3).
               In particular, a newly created row cannot be made
               active(1) until (minimally) the corresponding instance
               of vrrpv3OperationsInetAddrType, vrrpv3OperationsVrId
               and vrrpv3OperationsPrimaryIpAddr has been set and
               there is at least one active row in the
               `vrrpv3AssociatedIpAddrTable' defining an associated
               IP address.

               notInService(2) should be used to administratively
               bring the row down.

               A typical order of operation to add a row is:
               1. Create a row in vrrpv3OperationsTable with
               createAndWait(5).
               2. Create one or more corresponding rows in
               vrrpv3AssociatedIpAddrTable.
               3. Populate the vrrpv3OperationsEntry.
               4. set vrrpv3OperationsRowStatus to active(1).

               A typical order of operation to delete an entry is:


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               1. Set vrrpv3OperationsRowStatus to notInService(2).
               2. Set the corresponding rows in
               vrrpv3AssociatedIpAddrTable to destroy(6) to delete the
               entry.
               3. set vrrpv3OperationsRowStatus to destroy(6) to
               delete the entry."
           ::= { vrrpv3OperationsEntry 13 }

   --  VRRP Associated Address Table

       vrrpv3AssociatedIpAddrTable OBJECT-TYPE
           SYNTAX       SEQUENCE OF Vrrpv3AssociatedIpAddrEntry
           MAX-ACCESS   not-accessible
           STATUS       current
           DESCRIPTION
               "The table of addresses associated with each virtual
                router."
           ::= { vrrpv3Operations 2 }

       vrrpv3AssociatedIpAddrEntry OBJECT-TYPE
           SYNTAX       Vrrpv3AssociatedIpAddrEntry
           MAX-ACCESS   not-accessible
           STATUS       current
           DESCRIPTION
               "An entry in the table contains an IP address that is
               associated with a virtual router.  The number of rows
               for a given IP version, VrID and ifIndex will equal the
               number of IP addresses associated (e.g., backed up) by
               the virtual router (equivalent to
               'vrrpv3OperationsIpAddrCount').

               Rows in the table cannot be modified unless the value
               of `vrrpv3OperationsStatus' for the corresponding entry
               in the vrrpv3OperationsTable has transitioned to
               initialize(1).

               The information in this table is persistent and when
               written the entity SHOULD save the change to non-
               volatile storage."

           INDEX    { ifIndex, vrrpv3OperationsVrId,
                      vrrpv3OperationsInetAddrType,
                      vrrpv3AssociatedIpAddrAddress }

           ::= { vrrpv3AssociatedIpAddrTable 1 }

       Vrrpv3AssociatedIpAddrEntry ::=
           SEQUENCE {
               vrrpv3AssociatedIpAddrAddress


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                   InetAddress,
               vrrpv3AssociatedIpAddrRowStatus
                   RowStatus
       }

       vrrpv3AssociatedIpAddrAddress OBJECT-TYPE
           SYNTAX       InetAddress (SIZE (0|4|16))
           MAX-ACCESS   not-accessible
           STATUS       current
           DESCRIPTION
               "The assigned IP addresses that a virtual router is
               responsible for backing up.

               The IP address type is determined by the value of
               vrrpv3OperationsInetAddrType in the index of this
               row"
           REFERENCE " RFC 5798 "
           ::= { vrrpv3AssociatedIpAddrEntry 1 }

       vrrpv3AssociatedIpAddrRowStatus OBJECT-TYPE
           SYNTAX       RowStatus
           MAX-ACCESS   read-create
           STATUS       current
           DESCRIPTION
               "The row status variable, used according to
               installation and removal conventions for conceptual
               rows. To create a row in this table, a manager sets
               this object to either createAndGo(4) or
               createAndWait(5). Setting this object to active(1)
               results in the addition of an associated address for a
               virtual router. Setting this object to notInService(2)
               results in administratively bringing down the row.

               Destroying the entry or setting it to destroy(6)
               removes the associated address from the virtual router.
               The use of other values is implementation-dependent.

               Implementations should not allow deletion of the last
               row corresponding to an active row in
               vrrpv3OperationsTable.

               Refer to description of vrrpv3OperationsRowStatus for a
               typical row creation and deletion scenarios."
           ::= { vrrpv3AssociatedIpAddrEntry 2 }

   --  VRRP Router Statistics

       vrrpv3RouterChecksumErrors OBJECT-TYPE



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           SYNTAX       Counter64
           MAX-ACCESS   read-only
           STATUS       current
           DESCRIPTION
               "The total number of VRRP packets received with an
               invalid VRRP checksum value.

               Discontinuities in the value of this counter can occur
               at re-initialization of the management system, and at
               other times as indicated by the value of
               vrrpv3GlobalStatisticsDiscontinuityTime."

           REFERENCE " RFC 5798 Section 5.2.8"
           ::= { vrrpv3Statistics 1 }

       vrrpv3RouterVersionErrors OBJECT-TYPE
           SYNTAX       Counter64
           MAX-ACCESS   read-only
           STATUS       current
           DESCRIPTION
               "The total number of VRRP packets received with an
               unknown or unsupported version number.

               Discontinuities in the value of this counter can occur
               at re-initialization of the management system, and at
               other times as indicated by the value of
               vrrpv3GlobalStatisticsDiscontinuityTime."

           REFERENCE " RFC 5798 Section 5.2.1"
           ::= { vrrpv3Statistics 2 }

       vrrpv3RouterVrIdErrors OBJECT-TYPE
           SYNTAX       Counter64
           MAX-ACCESS   read-only
          STATUS       current
           DESCRIPTION
               "The total number of VRRP packets received with a
                VRID that is not valid for any virtual router on this
                router.

               Discontinuities in the value of this counter can occur
               at re-initialization of the management system, and at
               other times as indicated by the value of
               vrrpv3GlobalStatisticsDiscontinuityTime."

           REFERENCE " RFC 5798 Section 5.2.3"
           ::= { vrrpv3Statistics 3 }

      vrrpv3GlobalStatisticsDiscontinuityTime OBJECT-TYPE


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          SYNTAX     TimeStamp
          MAX-ACCESS read-only
          STATUS     current
          DESCRIPTION
              "The value of sysUpTime on the most recent occasion at
               which one of vrrpv3RouterChecksumErrors,
               vrrpv3RouterVersionErrors and vrrpv3RouterVrIdErrors
               suffered a discontinuity.

               If no such discontinuities have occurred since the last
               re-initialization of the local management subsystem,
               then this object contains a zero value."

          ::= { vrrpv3Statistics 4 }

   --  VRRP Router Statistics Table

       vrrpv3StatisticsTable OBJECT-TYPE
           SYNTAX       SEQUENCE OF Vrrpv3StatisticsEntry
           MAX-ACCESS   not-accessible
           STATUS       current
           DESCRIPTION
               "Table of virtual router statistics."
           ::= { vrrpv3Statistics 5 }

       vrrpv3StatisticsEntry OBJECT-TYPE
           SYNTAX       Vrrpv3StatisticsEntry
           MAX-ACCESS   not-accessible
           STATUS       current
           DESCRIPTION
               "An entry in the table, containing statistics
               information about a given virtual router."
           AUGMENTS    { vrrpv3OperationsEntry }
           ::= { vrrpv3StatisticsTable 1 }

       Vrrpv3StatisticsEntry ::=
           SEQUENCE {
               vrrpv3StatisticsMasterTransitions
                   Counter32,
               vrrpv3StatisticsNewMasterReason
                   INTEGER,
               vrrpv3StatisticsRcvdAdvertisements
                   Counter64,
               vrrpv3StatisticsAdvIntervalErrors
                   Counter64,
               vrrpv3StatisticsIpTtlErrors
                   Counter64,
               vrrpv3StatisticsProtoErrReason
                   INTEGER,


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               vrrpv3StatisticsRcvdPriZeroPackets
                   Counter64,
               vrrpv3StatisticsSentPriZeroPackets
                   Counter64,
               vrrpv3StatisticsRcvdInvalidTypePackets
                   Counter64,
               vrrpv3StatisticsAddressListErrors
                   Counter64,
               vrrpv3StatisticsPacketLengthErrors
                   Counter64,
               vrrpv3StatisticsRowDiscontinuityTime
                    TimeStamp,
               vrrpv3StatisticsRefreshRate
                    Unsigned32
           }


       vrrpv3StatisticsMasterTransitions OBJECT-TYPE
           SYNTAX       Counter32
           MAX-ACCESS   read-only
           STATUS       current
           DESCRIPTION
               "The total number of times that this virtual router's
               state has transitioned to MASTER.

               Discontinuities in the value of this counter can occur
               at re-initialization of the management system, and at
               other times as indicated by the value of
               vrrpv3StatisticsRowDiscontinuityTime."

           ::= { vrrpv3StatisticsEntry 1 }

      vrrpv3StatisticsNewMasterReason OBJECT-TYPE
           SYNTAX        INTEGER {
               notMaster (0),
               priority  (1),
               preempted (2),
               masterNoResponse (3)
           }
           MAX-ACCESS   read-only
           STATUS       current
           DESCRIPTION
               "This indicates the reason for the virtual router to
               transition to MASTER state. If the virtual router never
               transitioned to master state, this SHOULD be set to
               notmaster(0). Otherwise this indicates the reason this
               virtual router transitioned to master state the last
               time. Used by vrrpv3NewMaster notification."
           ::= { vrrpv3StatisticsEntry 2 }


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       vrrpv3StatisticsRcvdAdvertisements OBJECT-TYPE
           SYNTAX       Counter64
           MAX-ACCESS   read-only
           STATUS       current
           DESCRIPTION
               "The total number of VRRP advertisements received by
               this virtual router.

               Discontinuities in the value of this counter can occur
               at re-initialization of the management system, and at
               other times as indicated by the value of
               vrrpv3StatisticsRowDiscontinuityTime."

           ::= { vrrpv3StatisticsEntry 3 }

       vrrpv3StatisticsAdvIntervalErrors OBJECT-TYPE
           SYNTAX       Counter64
           MAX-ACCESS   read-only
           STATUS       current
           DESCRIPTION
               "The total number of VRRP advertisement packets
               received for which the advertisement interval is
               different from the vrrpv3OperationsAdvInterval
               configured on this virtual router.

               Discontinuities in the value of this counter can occur
               at re-initialization of the management system, and at
               other times as indicated by the value of
               vrrpv3StatisticsRowDiscontinuityTime."

           ::= { vrrpv3StatisticsEntry 4 }

       vrrpv3StatisticsIpTtlErrors OBJECT-TYPE
           SYNTAX       Counter64
           MAX-ACCESS   read-only
           STATUS       current
           DESCRIPTION
               "The total number of VRRP packets received by the
               Virtual router with IPv4 TTL (for VRRP over IPv4) or
               IPv6 Hop Limit (for VRRP over IPv6) not equal to 255.

               Discontinuities in the value of this counter can occur
               at re-initialization of the management system, and at
               other times as indicated by the value of
               vrrpv3StatisticsRowDiscontinuityTime."
           REFERENCE "RFC 5798 Section 5.1.1.3"


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           ::= { vrrpv3StatisticsEntry 5 }

      vrrpv3StatisticsProtoErrReason OBJECT-TYPE
           SYNTAX        INTEGER {
               noError (0),
               ipTtlError (1),
               versionError  (2),
               checksumError (3),
               vrIdError(4)
           }
           MAX-ACCESS   read-only
           STATUS       current
           DESCRIPTION
               "This indicates the reason for the last protocol error.
                This SHOULD be set to noError(0) when no protocol
                errors are encountered. Used by vrrpv3ProtoError
                notification."
           ::= { vrrpv3StatisticsEntry 6 }

       vrrpv3StatisticsRcvdPriZeroPackets OBJECT-TYPE
           SYNTAX       Counter64
           MAX-ACCESS   read-only
           STATUS       current
           DESCRIPTION
               "The total number of VRRP packets received by the
               virtual router with a priority of '0'.

               Discontinuities in the value of this counter can occur
               at re-initialization of the management system, and at
               other times as indicated by the value of
               vrrpv3StatisticsRowDiscontinuityTime."
           REFERENCE "RFC 5798 Section 5.2.4"
           ::= { vrrpv3StatisticsEntry 7 }

       vrrpv3StatisticsSentPriZeroPackets OBJECT-TYPE
           SYNTAX       Counter64
           MAX-ACCESS   read-only
           STATUS       current
           DESCRIPTION
               "The total number of VRRP packets sent by the virtual
               router with a priority of '0'.

               Discontinuities in the value of this counter can occur
               at re-initialization of the management system, and at
               other times as indicated by the value of
               vrrpv3StatisticsRowDiscontinuityTime."
           REFERENCE "RFC 5798 Section 5.3.4"
           ::= { vrrpv3StatisticsEntry 8 }



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       vrrpv3StatisticsRcvdInvalidTypePackets OBJECT-TYPE
           SYNTAX       Counter64
           MAX-ACCESS   read-only


           STATUS       current
           DESCRIPTION
               "The number of VRRP packets received by the virtual
               router with an invalid value in the 'type' field.

               Discontinuities in the value of this counter can occur
               at re-initialization of the management system, and at
               other times as indicated by the value of
               vrrpv3StatisticsRowDiscontinuityTime."
           ::= { vrrpv3StatisticsEntry 9 }

       vrrpv3StatisticsAddressListErrors OBJECT-TYPE
           SYNTAX       Counter64
           MAX-ACCESS   read-only
           STATUS       current
           DESCRIPTION
               "The total number of packets received for which the
               address list does not match the locally configured list
               for the virtual router.

               Discontinuities in the value of this counter can occur
               at re-initialization of the management system, and at
               other times as indicated by the value of
               vrrpv3StatisticsRowDiscontinuityTime."
           ::= { vrrpv3StatisticsEntry 10 }

       vrrpv3StatisticsPacketLengthErrors OBJECT-TYPE
           SYNTAX       Counter64
           MAX-ACCESS   read-only
           STATUS       current
           DESCRIPTION
               "The total number of packets received with a packet
               length less than the length of the VRRP header.

               Discontinuities in the value of this counter can occur
               at re-initialization of the management system, and at
               other times as indicated by the value of
               vrrpv3StatisticsRowDiscontinuityTime."

           ::= { vrrpv3StatisticsEntry 11 }

      vrrpv3StatisticsRowDiscontinuityTime OBJECT-TYPE
          SYNTAX     TimeStamp
          MAX-ACCESS read-only


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          STATUS     current
          DESCRIPTION
              "The value of sysUpTime on the most recent occasion at
               which any one or more of this entry's counters suffered
               a discontinuity.

               If no such discontinuities have occurred since the last
               re-initialization of the local management subsystem,
               then this object contains a zero value."

          ::= { vrrpv3StatisticsEntry 12 }

      vrrpv3StatisticsRefreshRate OBJECT-TYPE
          SYNTAX     Unsigned32
          UNITS "milli-seconds"
          MAX-ACCESS read-only
          STATUS     current
          DESCRIPTION
              "The minimum reasonable polling interval for this entry.
               This object provides an indication of the minimum
               Amount of time required to update the counters in this
               entry."

          ::= { vrrpv3StatisticsEntry 13 }

   --   Notification Definitions
   --   Notifications may be controlled using SNMP-NOTIFICATION-MIB

       vrrpv3NewMaster NOTIFICATION-TYPE
           OBJECTS      {
                          vrrpv3OperationsMasterIpAddr,
                          vrrpv3StatisticsNewMasterReason
                        }
           STATUS       current
           DESCRIPTION
               "The newMaster notification indicates that the sending
               agent has transitioned to 'Master' state."
           ::= { vrrpv3Notifications 1 }

       vrrpv3ProtoError NOTIFICATION-TYPE
           OBJECTS      {
                          vrrpv3StatisticsProtoErrReason
                        }
           STATUS       current
           DESCRIPTION
               "The notification indicates that the sending agent has
               encountered the protocol error indicated by
               vrrpv3StatisticsProtoErrReason."
           ::= { vrrpv3Notifications 2 }


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   --  Conformance Information


      vrrpv3Compliances  OBJECT IDENTIFIER ::= { vrrpv3Conformance 1 }
      vrrpv3Groups       OBJECT IDENTIFIER ::= { vrrpv3Conformance 2 }

   -- Compliance Statements

       vrrpv3FullCompliance MODULE-COMPLIANCE
           STATUS current
           DESCRIPTION
              "The compliance statement"
           MODULE -- this module
           MANDATORY-GROUPS  {
               vrrpv3OperationsGroup,
               vrrpv3StatisticsGroup,
               vrrpv3InfoGroup,
               vrrpv3NotificationsGroup
           }
           OBJECT        vrrpv3OperationsPriority
           WRITE-SYNTAX  Unsigned32 (1..254)
           DESCRIPTION  "Setable values are from 1 to 254."
           ::= { vrrpv3Compliances 1 }

       vrrpv3ReadOnlyCompliance MODULE-COMPLIANCE
           STATUS current
           DESCRIPTION
              "When this MIB module is implemented without support for
              read-create (i.e. in read-only mode), then such an
              implementation can claim read-only compliance. Such a
              device can then be monitored but can not be configured
              with this MIB."

           MODULE -- this module
           MANDATORY-GROUPS  {
               vrrpv3OperationsGroup,
               vrrpv3StatisticsGroup,
               vrrpv3StatisticsDiscontinuityGroup,
               vrrpv3InfoGroup,
               vrrpv3NotificationsGroup
           }

           OBJECT        vrrpv3OperationsPriority
           MIN-ACCESS    read-only
           DESCRIPTION  "Write access is not required."

           OBJECT        vrrpv3OperationsPrimaryIpAddr


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           MIN-ACCESS    read-only
           DESCRIPTION  "Write access is not required."

           OBJECT        vrrpv3OperationsAdvInterval
           MIN-ACCESS    read-only
           DESCRIPTION  "Write access is not required."

           OBJECT        vrrpv3OperationsPreemptMode
           MIN-ACCESS    read-only
           DESCRIPTION  "Write access is not required."

           OBJECT        vrrpv3OperationsAcceptMode
           MIN-ACCESS    read-only
           DESCRIPTION  "Write access is not required."

           OBJECT        vrrpv3OperationsRowStatus
           MIN-ACCESS    read-only
           DESCRIPTION  "Write access is not required."

           OBJECT        vrrpv3AssociatedIpAddrRowStatus
           MIN-ACCESS    read-only
           DESCRIPTION  "Write access is not required."

           ::= { vrrpv3Compliances 2 }


   -- Conformance Groups

       vrrpv3OperationsGroup   OBJECT-GROUP
           OBJECTS  {
               vrrpv3OperationsVirtualMacAddr,
               vrrpv3OperationsStatus,
               vrrpv3OperationsPriority,
               vrrpv3OperationsMasterIpAddr,
               vrrpv3OperationsAdvInterval,
               vrrpv3OperationsPreemptMode,
               vrrpv3OperationsAcceptMode,
               vrrpv3OperationsUpTime,
               vrrpv3OperationsRowStatus,
               vrrpv3OperationsAddrCount,
               vrrpv3OperationsPrimaryIpAddr,
               vrrpv3AssociatedIpAddrRowStatus
               }
           STATUS current
           DESCRIPTION
              "Conformance group for VRRPv3 operations."
           ::= { vrrpv3Groups 1 }




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       vrrpv3StatisticsGroup  OBJECT-GROUP
           OBJECTS  {
               vrrpv3RouterChecksumErrors,
               vrrpv3RouterVersionErrors,
               vrrpv3RouterVrIdErrors,
               vrrpv3StatisticsMasterTransitions,
               vrrpv3StatisticsNewMasterReason,
               vrrpv3StatisticsRcvdAdvertisements,
               vrrpv3StatisticsAdvIntervalErrors,
               vrrpv3StatisticsRcvdPriZeroPackets,
               vrrpv3StatisticsSentPriZeroPackets,
               vrrpv3StatisticsRcvdInvalidTypePackets,
               vrrpv3StatisticsIpTtlErrors,
               vrrpv3StatisticsProtoErrReason,
               vrrpv3StatisticsAddressListErrors,
               vrrpv3StatisticsPacketLengthErrors,
               vrrpv3StatisticsRowDiscontinuityTime,
               vrrpv3StatisticsRefreshRate
               }
           STATUS current
           DESCRIPTION
              "Conformance group for VRRPv3 statistics."
           ::= { vrrpv3Groups 2 }

       vrrpv3StatisticsDiscontinuityGroup  OBJECT-GROUP
           OBJECTS  {
               vrrpv3GlobalStatisticsDiscontinuityTime
               }
           STATUS current
           DESCRIPTION
              "Objects providing information statistics counter
               discontinuities."
           ::= { vrrpv3Groups 3 }


       vrrpv3InfoGroup  OBJECT-GROUP
           OBJECTS  {
               vrrpv3StatisticsProtoErrReason,
               vrrpv3StatisticsNewMasterReason
               }
           STATUS current
           DESCRIPTION
              "Conformance group for objects contained in VRRPv3
               notifications."
           ::= { vrrpv3Groups 4 }

       vrrpv3NotificationsGroup NOTIFICATION-GROUP
           NOTIFICATIONS {
               vrrpv3NewMaster,


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               vrrpv3ProtoError
               }
           STATUS current
           DESCRIPTION
              "The VRRP MIB Notification Group."
           ::= { vrrpv3Groups 5 }

   END


11.   Security Considerations

   There are a number of management objects defined in this MIB module
   with a MAX-ACCESS clause of read-write and/or read-create.  Such
   objects may be considered sensitive or vulnerable in some network
   environments.  The support for SET operations in a non-secure
   environment without proper protection can have a negative effect on
   network operations.  These are the tables and objects and their
   sensitivity/vulnerability:

   The objects vrrpv3OperationsPriority, vrrpv3OperationsPrimaryIpAddr,
   vrrpv3OperationsAdvInterval, vrrpv3OperationsPreemptMode,
   vrrpv3OperationsAcceptMode, vrrpv3OperationsRowStatus and
   vrrpv3AssociatedIpAddrRowStatus possess the read-create attribute.
   Manipulation of these objects is capable of affecting the operation
   of a virtual router.

   Specific examples of this include, but are not limited to:

   o The vrrpv3OperationsRowStatus object which could be used to disable
   a virtual router. While there are other columns that, if changed,
   could disrupt operations, they can not be changed without first
   changing the RowStatus object.

   SNMP versions prior to SNMPv3 did not include adequate security.
   Even if the network itself is secure (for example by using IPSec),
   even then, there is no control as to who on the secure network is
   allowed to access and GET/SET (read/change/create/delete) the
   objects in this MIB module.

   It is RECOMMENDED that implementers consider the security features
   as provided by the SNMPv3 framework (see [RFC3410], section 8),
   including full support for the SNMPv3 cryptographic mechanisms (for
   authentication and privacy).

   Further, deployment of SNMP versions prior to SNMPv3 is NOT
   RECOMMENDED.  Instead, it is RECOMMENDED to deploy SNMPv3 and to
   enable cryptographic security.  It is then a customer/operator



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   responsibility to ensure that the SNMP entity giving access to an
   instance of this MIB module is properly configured to give access to
   the objects only to those principals (users) that have legitimate
   rights to indeed GET or SET (change/create/delete) them.



12.   IANA Considerations

      The MIB module in this document uses the following IANA-assigned
      OBJECT IDENTIFIER values recorded in the SMI Numbers registry:

           Descriptor        OBJECT IDENTIFIER value
           ----------        -----------------------

           vrrpv3MIB           { mib-2 ZZZ }

      [Editor's Note (to be removed prior to publication): The IANA is
      requested to assign a value for "ZZZ" under the 'mib-2' subtree
      and to record the assignment in the SMI Numbers registry. When
      the assignment has been made, the RFC Editor is asked to replace
      "ZZZ" (here and in the MIB module) with the assigned value.

      This document obsoletes RFC 2787 and the IANA is requested to
      deprecate the value 68 under 'mib-2' assigned to VRRP-MIB.]

13.   Normative References

   [RFC2119] Bradner S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
             Requirement Levels", RFC 2119, March 1997.
   [RFC2578] McCloghrie, K., D. Perkins, J. Schoenwaelder, J. Case, M.
             Rose, S. Waldbusser, "Structure of Management Information
             Version 2 (SMIv2)", STD 58, RFC 2578, April 1999.
   [RFC2579] McCloghrie, K., D. Perkins, J. Schoenwaelder, J. Case, M.
             Rose, S. Waldbusser, "Textual Conventions for SMIv2", STD
             58, RFC 2579, April 1999.
   [RFC2580] McCloghrie, K., D. Perkins, J. Schoenwaelder, J. Case, M.
             Rose, S. Waldbusser, "Conformance Statements for SMIv2",
             STD 58, RFC 2580, April 1999.
    [RFC5798]  S. Nadas, Ed., "Virtual Router Redundancy Protocol
             Version 3 for IPv4 and IPv6 ", RFC 5798, Mar 2010.
   [RFC2787] Jewell, B., D. Chuang, "Definitions of Managed Objects for
             the Virtual Router Redundancy Protocol", RFC 2787, March
             2000.
   [RFC2863] McCloghrie, K., Kastenholz, F., "The Interfaces Group
             MIB" RFC2863, June 2000.
   [RFC4001] Daniele, M., Haberman, B., Routhier, S., and J.
             Schoenwaelder, "Textual Conventions for Internet
             Network Addresses", RFC 4001, February 2005.


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   [RFC3413] Levi, D., Meyer, P., Stewart, B., "SNMP Applications",
             RFC 3413, December 2002.

14.   Informative References

   [RFC3410] Case, J., R. Mundy, D. Partain, B. Stewart, "Introduction
             and Applicability Statements for Internet-Standard
             Management Framework", RFC 3410, December 2002.
   [RFC2338] S.Knight, D.Weaver, D.Whipple, R.Hinden, D.Mitzel, P.Hunt,
             P.Higginson, M.Shand, A.Lindem, "Virtual Router Redundancy
             Protocol", RFC 2338, April 1998.


15.   Acknowledgments

   Kripakaran Karlekar and Brain Jewell helped in design and initial
   drafts of this specification. This specification is based on RFC
   2787. The authors of RFC2787 are Brian Jewell and David Chuang. The
   author would also like to thank Bert Wijnen, Dave Thaler, Joan
   Cucchiara, Mukesh Gupta, Steve Bates, Adrian Farrel, Ben Campbell and
   Joel M. Halpern for taking time to review the document and provide
   valuable guidance.

16.   Author's Address

   Srinivas Kalyan Tata
   Check Point Software
   800 Bridge Parkway
   Redwood City, CA 94065
   Phone: +1-408-505-0542
   EMail: tata_kalyan@yahoo.com




















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