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Versions: (draft-newton-weirds-unified-json-response) 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 07

Network Working Group                                          A. Newton
Internet-Draft                                                      ARIN
Intended status: Standards Track                           S. Hollenbeck
Expires: June 5, 2013                                      Verisign Labs
                                                        December 2, 2012


    JSON Responses for the Registration Data Access Protocol (RDAP)
                   draft-ietf-weirds-json-response-01

Abstract

   This document describes JSON data structures representing
   registration information maintained by Regional Internet Registries
   (RIRs) and Domain Name Registries (DNRs).  These data structures are
   used to form Registration Data Access Protocol (RDAP) query
   responses.

Status of this Memo

   This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the
   provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.

   Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
   Task Force (IETF).  Note that other groups may also distribute
   working documents as Internet-Drafts.  The list of current Internet-
   Drafts is at http://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/.

   Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
   and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any
   time.  It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
   material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."

   This Internet-Draft will expire on June 5, 2013.

Copyright Notice

   Copyright (c) 2012 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
   document authors.  All rights reserved.

   This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
   Provisions Relating to IETF Documents
   (http://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of
   publication of this document.  Please review these documents
   carefully, as they describe your rights and restrictions with respect
   to this document.  Code Components extracted from this document must
   include Simplified BSD License text as described in Section 4.e of
   the Trust Legal Provisions and are provided without warranty as



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   described in the Simplified BSD License.


Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  4
   2.  Terminology and Definitions  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  5
   3.  Common Data Types  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  6
   4.  Use of JSON  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  8
     4.1.  Signaling  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  8
     4.2.  Naming . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  8
   5.  Common Data Structures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
     5.1.  RDAP Conformance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
     5.2.  Notices  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
     5.3.  Language Identifier  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
     5.4.  An Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
   6.  Object Class Links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
   7.  The Entity Object Class  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
     7.1.  The RIR Entity Object Class  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
     7.2.  The DNR Entity Object Class  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
   8.  The Nameserver Object Class  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
   9.  The Domain Object Class  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
     9.1.  The RIR Domain Object Class  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
     9.2.  The DNR Domain Object Class  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
   10. The IP Network Object Class  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
   11. Autonomous System Number Entity Object Class . . . . . . . . . 32
   12. Error Response Body  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
   13. IANA Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
   14. Internationalization Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
     14.1. Character Encoding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
     14.2. URIs and IRIs  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
     14.3. Language Tags  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
     14.4. Internationalized Domain Names . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
   15. Contributing Authors and Acknowledgements  . . . . . . . . . . 38
   16. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
     16.1. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
     16.2. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
   Appendix A.  Suggested Values  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
     A.1.  Status . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
     A.2.  Roles  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
     A.3.  Variant Relations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
   Appendix B.  Suggested Data Modeling with the Entity Object
                Class . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
     B.1.  Registrants and Contacts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
     B.2.  Registrars . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
   Appendix C.  IDN Query and Response Model  . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
   Appendix D.  Postal Addresses vs Location  . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
   Appendix E.  Motivations for Using JSON  . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48



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   Appendix F.  Changelog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
   Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50

















































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1.  Introduction

   This document describes responses in the JSON [RFC4627] format for
   the RESTful web queries as defined by UNIFIED-RDAP-QUERY
   [I-D.ietf-weirds-rdap-query].

   The data model for the responses consists of two major categories:
   responses returned by Regional Internet Registries (RIRs) for
   registrations data related to IP addresses, reverse DNS names, and
   Autonomous System numbers; and responses returned by Domain Name
   Registries (DNRs) for registration data related to forward DNS names.
   Where overlap exists between RIR and DNR response object classes, the
   RIR object classes are a proper subset of the DNR object classes.
   The current division between RIR and DNR object classes is given to
   illustrate an expectation of what data may be expected from an RIR vs
   a DNR.  However, implementers should be aware that RIRs are not
   limited to the data in the RIR object classes (as an example, some
   RIRs have a notion of "status" for entities as defined in the DNR
   entity object class and may at some point start publishing that
   data).

   Object classes defined in this document do not represent the full
   range of data that any registry may wish to publish.  Section 4.2
   defines a JSON extension mechanism that maybe used by registries to
   insert registry specific data values.


























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2.  Terminology and Definitions

   The following list describes terminology and definitions used
   throughout this document:

   DNR:              "Domain Name Registry".

   member:           data found with in an object as defined by JSON
                     [RFC4627].

   object:           a data structure as defined by JSON [RFC4627].

   object class:     the definition of members that may be found in JSON
                     objects described in this document.

   object instance:  an instantiation or specific instance of an object
                     class.

   RDAP:             "Registration Data Access Protocol".

   RIR:              "Regional Internet Registry".






























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3.  Common Data Types

   JSON [RFC4627] defines the data types of a number, character string,
   boolean, array, object and null.  This section describes the
   semantics and/or syntax reference for data types used in this
   document derived from the JSON character string.

   'handle':   DNRs and RIRs have registry-unique identifiers that may
      be used to specifically reference an object instance.  The
      semantics of this data type as found in this document is to be a
      registry-unique reference to the closest enclosing object where
      the value is found.  The data type names 'registryId', 'roid',
      'nic-handle', 'registrationNo', etc... are terms often synonymous
      with this data type.  In this document, the term 'handle' is used.
      The term exposed to users by clients is a presentation issue
      beyond the scope of this document.

   IPv4 addresses:   The representation of IPv4 addresses in this
      document uses the dotted-decimal notation described in [RFC1166].
      An example of this textual representation is '192.0.2.0'.

   IPv6 addresses:   The representation of IPv6 addresses in this
      document follow the forms outlined in [RFC5952].  An example of
      this textual representation is '2001:db8::1:0:0:1'.

   country codes:   Where the identity of a geopolitical nation or
      country is needed, these identities are represented with the
      alpha-2 or 2 character country code designation as defined in
      [ISO.3166.1988].  The alpha-2 representation is used because it is
      freely available whereas the alpha-3 and numeric-3 standards are
      not.

   domain names:   Textual representations of DNS names follow the rules
      set forth in [RFC4343], specifically the case insensitivity and
      character escaping rules.  Trailing periods are optional for both
      input and output.

   email addresses:   Textual representations of email addresses follow
      the syntax defined in [RFC5322].

   dates and times:   The syntax for values denoting dates and times is
      defined in [RFC3339].

   URIs:   The syntax for values denoting a Uniform Resource Identifier
      (URI) is defined by [RFC3986].

   Many of the object classes defined in this document contain values
   representing telephone numbers.  Servers are encouraged to provide



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   those telephone numbers in [E164] format, however clients MUST be
   prepared for telephone numbers that do not adhere to the [E164]
   standard.

   Postal addresses also appear in some of the object classes.  This
   document specifies no standard for postal addresses as many
   registries would have to undergo severe data cleanup efforts to meet
   such standards.











































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4.  Use of JSON

4.1.  Signaling

   Clients may signal their desire for JSON using the "application/json"
   media type or the more specific media type "application/rdap" as
   specified in Section 13.

4.2.  Naming

   Clients processing JSON [RFC4627] responses SHOULD ignore values
   associated with unrecognized names.  Servers MAY insert values
   signified by names into the JSON responses which are not specified in
   this document.  Insertion of unspecified values into JSON responses
   SHOULD have names prefixed with a short identifier followed by an
   underscore followed by a meaningful name.  The full JSON name, the
   prefix plus the underscore plus the meaningful name, SHOULD adhere to
   the character and name limitations of the prefix registry described
   in [I-D.ietf-weirds-using-http].

   Consider the following JSON response with JSON names. "handle" and
   "remarks" are JSON names specified in this document.

   {
       "handle" : "ABC123",
       "remarks" :
       [
         "she sells seas shells",
         "down by the seashore"
       ]
   }

                                 Figure 1

   If The Registry of the Moon desires to express information not found
   in this specification, it might select "lunarNic" as its identifying
   prefix and insert, as an example, the name
   "lunarNic_beforeOneSmallStep" to signify registrations occuring
   before the first moon landing and the name
   "lunarNic_harshMistressNotes" containing other descriptive text.











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   Consider the following JSON response with JSON names, some of which
   should be ignored by clients without knowledge of their meaning.

   {
     "handle" : "ABC123",
     "lunarNic_beforeOneSmallStep" : "TRUE THAT!",
     "remarks" :
     [
       "she sells seas shells",
       "down by the seashore"
     ],
     "lunarNic_harshMistressNotes" :
     [
       "In space,",
       "nobody can hear you scream."
     ]
   }

                                 Figure 2

   Insertion of unrecognized names ignored by clients may also be used
   for future revisions to this specification.

   Clients processing JSON responses MUST be prepared for values
   specified in this document to be absent from a response as no JSON
   value listed is required to appear in a response.  In other words,
   servers MAY remove values as is needed by the policies of the server
   operator.























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5.  Common Data Structures

   This section defines three common data structures to be used in
   respones.  Each of these datatypes MAY appear within any object class
   of a response, but the intended purpose is that they will be mostly
   used in the top-most object class of a response.

5.1.  RDAP Conformance

   The first data structure is named "rdapConformance" and is simply an
   array of strings, each providing a hint as to the specifications used
   in the construction of the response.

   An example rdapConformance data structure.

   "rdapConformance" :
   [
     "rdap_level_0"
   ]

                                 Figure 3

   The string literal "rdap_level_0" signifies conformance with this
   specification.  When custom JSON values are inserted into responses,
   conformance to those custom specifications should use a string
   prefixed with the appropriate identifier from the IANA prefix
   identifier registry specified in [I-D.ietf-weirds-using-http].  For
   example, if the fictional Registry of the Moon want to signify that
   their JSON responses are conformant with their registered extensions,
   the string used might be "lunarNIC_level_0".

   Example rdapConformance structure with custom extensions noted.

   "rdapConformance" :
   [
     "rdap_level_0",
     "lunarNic_level_0"
   ]

                                 Figure 4

5.2.  Notices

   The second data structure is named "notices" and is an array of
   objects.  Each object contains a "title" string representing the
   title of the notice object, an array of strings named "description"
   for the purposes of conveying any descriptive text about the notice,
   and an optional "links" object as described in Section 6.



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   An exmaple of the notices data structure.

   "notices" :
   [
     {
       "title" : "Terms of Use",
       "description" :
       [
         "This service is subject to The Registry of the Moons",
         "terms of service."
       ],
       "links" :
       [
         {
           "value" : "http://example.net/entity/XXXX"
           "rel" : "alternate",
           "type" : "text/html",
           "href" : "http://www.example.com/terms_of_use.html"
         }
       ]
     }
   ]

                                 Figure 5

5.3.  Language Identifier

   The third data structure is a simple JSON name/value of "lang" with a
   string containing a language identifier as described by [RFC5646].

   "lang" : "mn-Cyrl-MN"

                                 Figure 6


















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5.4.  An Example

   This is an example response with both rdapConformance and notices
   embedded.

   {
     "rdapConformance" :
     [
       "rdap_level_0"
     ]
     "notices" :
     [
       {
         "title" : "Content Redacted",
         "description" :
         [
           "Without full authorization, content has been redacted.",
           "Sorry, dude!"
         ],
         "links" :
         [
           {
             "value" : "http://example.net/ip/192.0.2.0/24"
             "rel" : "alternate",
             "type" : "text/html",
             "href" : "http://www.example.com/redaction_policy.html"
           }
         ]
       }
     ]
     "lang" : "en"
     "startAddress" : "192.0.2.0",
     "endAddress" : "192.0.2.255",
     "handle" : "XXXX-RIR",
     "ipVersion" : 4,
     "name": "NET-RTR-1",
     "description" : [ "A network used for example documentation" ],
     "parentHandle" : "YYYY-RIR",
     "remarks" :
     [
       "she sells seas shells",
       "down by the seashore"
     ]
   }

                                 Figure 7





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6.  Object Class Links

   Each object class defined in this document may have links to other
   resources on the Internet.  The relationship of these links is
   defined by the IANA registry described by [RFC5988].

   The following is an example of the link structure of object classes

       {
         "value" : "http://example.com/context_uri",
         "rel" : "self",
         "href" : "http://example.com/target_uri",
         "hreflang" : [ "en, "ch" ],
         "title" : [ "title1", "title2" ],
         "media" : "screen",
         "type" : "application/json"
       }

   The JSON name/values of "rel", "href", "hreflang", "title", "media",
   and "type" correspond to values found in Section 5 of [RFC5988].  The
   "value" JSON value is the context URI as described by [RFC5988].  The
   "value", "rel", and "href" JSON values MUST be specified.  All other
   JSON values are optional.

   Within an object class, these structures are to be in an array named
   "links".

   This is an example of the "links" array as it might be found in an
   object class.

       "links" :
       [
           {
             "value" : "http://example.com/ip/2001:db8::123",
             "rel" : "self",
             "href" : "http://example.com/ip/2001:db8::123",
           },
           {
             "value" : "http://example.com/ip/2001:db8::123",
             "rel" : "up",
             "href" : "http://example.com/ip/2001:db8::/48",
           }

       ]







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7.  The Entity Object Class

   The entity object class appears throughout this document and is an
   appropriate response for the /entity/XXXX query defined in UNIFIED-
   RDAP-QUERY [I-D.ietf-weirds-rdap-query].  This object class
   represents the information of organizations, corporations,
   governments, non-profits, clubs, individual persons, and informal
   groups of people.  All of these representations are so similar that
   it is best to represent them in JSON [RFC4627] with one construct,
   the entity object class, to aid in the re-use of code by
   implementers.

   Many of the members of the entity object class are repeated in other
   object classes described later in this document.





































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7.1.  The RIR Entity Object Class

   The following is an example of an RIR entity:


       {
         "handle" : "XXXX",
         "entityNames": [ "Joe Bob, Inc.", "Bobby Joe Shopping" ],
         "roles" : [ "registrant" ],
         "postalAddress" :
         [
           "123 Maple Ave",
           "Suite 90001",
           "Vancouver",
           "BC",
           "12393"
         ],
         "emails" : [ "joe@bob.com", "bob@joe.com" ],
         "phones" :
         {
           "office" : [ "1-958-555-4321", "1-958-555-4322" ],
           "fax" :    [ "1-958-555-4323" ],
           "mobile" : [ "1-958-555-4324" ]
         },
         "remarks" :
         [
           "she sells seas shells",
           "down by the seashore"
         ],
         "links" :
         [
           {
             "value" : "http://example.com/entity/XXXX",
             "rel" : "self",
             "href" : "http://example.com/entity/XXXX"
           },
         ],
         "registrationDate" : "1990-12-31T23:59:60Z",
         "lastChangedDate" : "1990-12-31T23:59:60Z",
         "lastChangedBy" : "joe@bob.com"
       }


   This object as the following members.

   o  handle -- a string representing an registry unique identifier of
      the entity




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   o  entityNames -- an array of strings, each signifying the name of
      the entity

   o  roles -- an array of strings, each signifying the relationship an
      object would have with its closest containing object.

   o  postalAddress -- an array of string, each representing a line in a
      postal address.

   o  emails -- an array of strings, each containing an email address
      for the entity

   o  phones -- an object containing telephone information associated
      with the entity, with the following members:

      *  office -- an array of strings, each being a telephone number

      *  fax -- an array of strings, each being a telephone number

      *  mobile -- an array of strings, each being a telephone number

   o  remarks -- an array of strings, each containing comments about the
      entity

   o  links -- see Section 6

   o  registrationDate -- a string containing the date the entity was
      registered

   o  lastChangedDate -- a string containing the date of last change
      made to the entity

   o  lastChangedBy -- a string containing an identifier of the party
      responsible for the last change made to the entity registration

7.2.  The DNR Entity Object Class

   The DNR entity object class is a superset of the RIR entity object
   class (Section 7.1).  It has the following additional members:

   o  registrationBy -- a string containing an identifier of the party
      responsible for the registration of the entity

   o  sponsoredBy -- a string containing an identifier of the party
      through which the registration was made, such as an IANA approved
      registrar





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   o  resoldBy -- a string containing an identifier of the party
      originating the registration of the entity.

   o  status -- an array of strings indicating the state of the entity

   o  port43 -- a string containing the fully-qualified host name of the
      WHOIS [RFC3912] server where the object instance may be found.












































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   The following is an example of a DNR entity:


       {
         "handle" : "XXXX",
         "entityNames": [ "Joe Bob, Inc.", "Bobby Joe Shopping" ],
         "status" : [ "validated", "locked" ],
         "postalAddress" :
         [
           "123 Maple Ave",
           "Suite 90001",
           "Vancouver",
           "BC",
           "12393"
         ],
         "emails" : [ "joe@bob.com", "bob@joe.com" ],
         "phones" :
         {
           "office" : [ "1-958-555-4321", "1-958-555-4322" ],
           "fax" :    [ "1-958-555-4323" ],
           "mobile" : [ "1-958-555-4324" ]
         },
         "remarks" :
         [
           "she sells seas shells",
           "down by the seashore"
         ],
         "links" :
         [
           {
             "value" : "http://example.com/entity/XXXX",
             "rel" : "self",
             "href" : "http://example.com/entity/XXXX"
           },
         ],
         "port43" : "whois.example.net",
         "registrationDate" : "1990-12-31T23:59:60Z",
         "registrationBy" : "ABC123",
         "lastChangedDate" : "1990-12-31T23:59:60Z",
         "lastChangedBy" : "ABC123",
         "sponsoredBy" : "SponsorXYZ",
         "resoldBy" : "ResellerPDQ"
       }








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8.  The Nameserver Object Class

   The nameserver object class is used by both RIRs and DNRs.  Unlike
   other object classes used by both registries where the RIR object
   class is a subset of the DNR object class, a clear delineation is not
   made with the nameserver object class because some DNRs have the same
   or a similar registration model as the RIRs.  RIRs and some DNRs
   register or expose nameserver information as an attribute of a domain
   name, while other DNRs model nameservers as "first class objects".

   The nameserver object class accommodates both models and degrees of
   variation in between.

   The following is an example of a nameserver object.


     {
       "handle" : "XXXX",
       "name" : "ns1.example.com",
       "status" : [ "active" ],
       "ipAddresses" : [ "192.0.2.1", "192.0.2.2" ],
       "remarks" :
       [
         "she sells seas shells",
         "down by the seashore"
       ],
       "links" :
       [
         {
           "value" : "http://example.net/nameserver/xxxx",
           "rel" : "self",
           "href" : "http://example.net/nameserver/xxxx"
         }
       ],
       "port43" : "whois.example.net",
       "registrationDate" : "1990-12-31T23:59:60Z",
       "registrationBy" : "ABC123",
       "lastChangedDate" : "1990-12-31T23:59:60Z",
       "lastChangedBy" : "ABC123",
       "sponsoredBy" : "SponsorXYZ",
       "resoldBy" : "ResellerPDQ"
     }


                                 Figure 8

   Figure 8 is an example of a nameserver object with all values given.
   Registries using a first-class nameserver data model would embed this



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   in domain objects as well as allowing references to it with the
   /nameserver query type (all depending on the registry operators
   policy).  Other registries may pare back the information as needed.
   Figure 9 is an example of a nameserver object as would be found in
   RIRs and some DNRs, while Figure 10 is an example of a nameserver
   object as would be found in other DNRs.

   The following is an example of the simplest nameserver object.


     {
       "name" : "ns1.example.com"
     }


                                 Figure 9

   The following is an example of a simple nameserver object that might
   be commonly used by DNRs.


     {
       "name" : "ns1.example.com",
       "ipAddresses" : [ "2001:db8::123", "2001:db8::124" ]
     }


                                 Figure 10

   The nameserver object class has the following members:

   o  handle -- a string representing an registry unique identifier of
      the nameserver

   o  name -- a string containing the DNS name of the nameserver

   o  ipAddresses -- an array of strings containing IPv4 and/or IPv6
      addresses of the nameserver

   The members "status", "remarks", "links", "port43", "sponsoredBy",
   "resoldBy", "registrationBy", "registrationDate", "lastChangedDate",
   and "lastChangedBy" take the same form of the members of the same
   name of the entity object (Section 7).








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9.  The Domain Object Class

   The domain object class represents a DNS name and point of
   delegation.  For RIRs these delegation points are in the reverse DNS
   tree, whereas for DNRs these delegation points are in the forward DNS
   tree.  The RIR domain object class is a subset of the DNR object
   class.

   In both cases, the high level structure of the domain object class
   consists of information about the domain registration, nameserver
   information related to the domain name, and entities related to the
   domain name (e.g. registrant information, contacts, etc...).

   The following is an elided example of the domain object showing the
   high level structure.


   {
     "handle" : "XXX",
     "name" : "blah.example.com",
     ...
     "nameServers" :
     [
       ...
     ],
     ...
     "entities" :
     [
       ...
     ]
   }


9.1.  The RIR Domain Object Class

   The following is an example of a JSON object representing a reverse
   DNS delegation point or the RIR domain object class.


   {
     "handle" : "XXXX",
     "name" : "192.in-addr.arpa",
     "nameServers" :
     [
       { "name" : "ns1.rir.net" },
       { "name" : "ns2.rir.net" }
     ],
     "delegationKeys" :



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     [
       {
         "algorithm": 7,
         "digest" : "E68C017BD813B9AE2F4DD28E61AD014F859ED44C",
         "digestType" : 1,
         "keyTag" : 53814
       }
     ],
     "remarks" :
     [
       "she sells seas shells",
       "down by the seashore"
     ],
     "links" :
     [
       {
         "value": "http://example.net/domain/XXXX",
         "rel" : "self",
         "href" : "http://example.net/domain/XXXXX"
       }
     ],
     "registrationDate" : "1990-12-31T23:59:60Z",
     "lastChangedDate" : "1990-12-31T23:59:60Z",
     "lastChangedBy" : "joe@bob.com",
     "entities" :
     [
       {
         "handle" : "XXXX",
         "entityNames": [ "Joe Bob, Inc.", "Bobby Joe Shopping" ],
         "roles" : [ "registrant" ],
         "postalAddress" :
         [
           "123 Maple Ave",
           "Suite 90001",
           "Vancouver",
           "BC",
           "12393"
           ],
         "emails" : [ "joe@bob.com", "bob@joe.com" ],
         "phones" :
         {
           "office" : [ "1-958-555-4321", "1-958-555-4322" ],
           "fax" :    [ "1-958-555-4323" ],
           "mobile" : [ "1-958-555-4324" ]
         },
         "remarks" :
         [
           "she sells seas shells",



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           "down by the seashore"
         ],
         "links" :
         [
           {
             "value": "http://example.net/entity/xxxx"
             "rel" : "self",
             "href" : "http://example.net/entity/xxxx"
           }
         ],
         "registrationDate" : "1990-12-31T23:59:60Z",
         "lastChangedDate" : "1990-12-31T23:59:60Z",
         "lastChangedBy" : "joe@bob.com"
       }
     ]
   }


   The following is a description of the members of this object:

   o  handle -- a string representing a registry unique identifier of
      the domain object instance

   o  name -- a string denoting the DNS zone name, which is a domain
      name

   o  nameservers -- an array of nameserver objects as defined by
      Section 8

   o  delegationKeys -- an array of objects, each with the following
      members:

      *  algorithm -- an integer as specified by the algorithm field of
         a DNS DS record as specified by RFC 4034 [RFC4034] in
         presentation format

      *  digest -- an string as specified by the digest field of a DNS
         DS record as specified by RFC 4034 in presentation format

      *  digestType -- an integer as specified by the digest type field
         of a DNS DS record as specified by RFC 4034 in presentation
         format

      *  keyTag -- an integer as specified by the key tag field of a DNS
         DS record as specified by RFC 4034 in presentation format






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   o  entities -- an array of entity objects as defined by Section 7.1.

   The members "remarks", "links", "registrationDate",
   "lastChangedDate", and "lastChangedBy" take the same form of the
   members of the same name of the entity object (Section 7).

9.2.  The DNR Domain Object Class

   The DNR domain object class is a superset of the RIR domain object
   class (Section 9.1) and has the following additional members.

   o  variants -- an array of objects, each containing the following
      values:

      *  relation -- an array of strings, with each string denoting the
         relationship between the variants and the containing domain
         object.

      *  variantNames -- an array of strings, each being a variant
         domain of the containing domain object.

   o  expirationDate -- a string containing the date and time this
      domain name registration will expire

   o  registrationBy -- a string containing an identifier of the party
      responsible for the registration of the domain name

   o  sponsoredBy -- a string containing an identifier of the party
      through which the registration was made, such as an IANA approved
      registrar

   o  resoldBy -- a string containing an identifier of the party
      originating the registration of the domain name

   o  status -- an array of strings indicating the state of the domain
      name

   o  transferDate -- a string containing the date and time this domain
      name was transferred

   o  port43 -- a string containing the fully-qualified host name of the
      WHOIS [RFC3912] server where the object instance may be found.

   The following is an example of a JSON object representing a forward
   DNS delegation point or the DNR domain object class.


   {



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     "handle" : "XXXX",
     "name" : "blah.example.com",
     "variants" :
     [
       {
         "relation" : [ "registered", "conjoined" ],
         "variantNames" : [ "blah2.example.com", "blah3.example.com" ]
       },
       {
         "relation" : [ "unregistered", "restrictedRegistration" ],
         "variantNames" : [ "blah3.example.com", "blah4.example.com" ]
       }
     ],
     "status" : [ "locked", "transferProhibited" ],
     "nameServers" :
     [
       {
         "handle" : "XXXX",
         "name" : "ns1.example.com",
         "status" : [ "active" ],
         "ipAddresses" :
         [
           "2001:db8::123", "2001:db8::124",
           "192.0.2.1", "192.0.2.2"
         ],
         "remarks" :
         [
           "she sells seas shells",
           "down by the seashore"
         ],
         "links" :
         [
           {
             "value" : "http://example.net/nameserver/XXXX"
             "rel" : "self",
             "href" : "http://example.net/nameserver/XXXX"
           }
         ],
         "registrationDate" : "1990-12-31T23:59:60Z",
         "registrationBy" : "ABC123",
         "lastChangedDate" : "1990-12-31T23:59:60Z",
         "lastChangedBy" : "ABC123",
         "sponsoredBy" : "SponsorXYZ",
         "resoldBy" : "ResellerPDQ"
       },
       {
         "handle" : "XXXX",
         "name" : "ns2.example.com",



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         "status" : [ "active" ],
         "ipAddresses" :
         [
           "2001:db8::125", "2001:db8::126",
           "192.0.2.3", "192.0.2.4"
         ],
         "remarks" :
         [
           "she sells seas shells",
           "down by the seashore"
         ],
         "links" :
         [
           {
             "value" : "http://example.net/nameserver/XXXX",
             "rel" : "self",
             "href" : "http://example.net/nameserver/XXXX"
           }
         ],
         "registrationDate" : "1990-12-31T23:59:60Z",
         "registrationBy" : "ABC123",
         "lastChangedDate" : "1990-12-31T23:59:60Z",
         "lastChangedBy" : "ABC123",
         "sponsoredBy" : "SponsorXYZ",
         "resoldBy" : "ResellerPDQ"
       }
     ]
     "delegationKeys" :
     [
       {
         "algorithm": 7,
         "digest" : "E68C017BD813B9AE2F4DD28E61AD014F859ED44C",
         "digestType" : 1,
         "keyTag" : 53814
       }
     ],
     "remarks" :
     [
       "she sells seas shells",
       "down by the seashore"
     ],
     "links" :
     [
       {
         "value": "http://example.net/domain/XXXX",
         "rel" : "self",
         "href" : "http://example.net/domain/XXXX"
       }



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     ],
     "port43" : "whois.example.net",
     "registrationDate" : "1990-12-31T23:59:60Z",
     "registrationBy" : "ABC123",
     "lastChangedDate" : "1990-12-31T23:59:60Z",
     "lastChangedBy" : "ABC123",
     "sponsoredBy" : "SponsorXYZ",
     "resoldBy" : "ResellerPDQ",
     "expirationDate" : "2016-12-31T23:59:60Z",
     "transferDate" : "1990-12-31T23:59:60Z",
     "entities" :
     [
       {
         "handle" : "XXXX",
         "entityNames": [ "Joe Bob, Inc.", "Bobby Joe Shopping" ],
         "status" : [ "validated", "locked" ],
         "postalAddress" :
         [
           "123 Maple Ave",
           "Suite 90001",
           "Vancouver",
           "BC",
           "12393"
         ],
         "emails" : [ "joe@bob.com", "bob@joe.com" ],
         "phones" :
         {
           "office" : [ "1-958-555-4321", "1-958-555-4322" ],
           "fax" :    [ "1-958-555-4323" ],
           "mobile" : [ "1-958-555-4324" ]
         },
         "remarks" :
         [
           "she sells seas shells",
           "down by the seashore"
         ],
         "links" :
         [
           {
             "value" : "http://example.net/entity/xxxx"
             "rel" : "self",
             "href" : "http://example.net/entity/xxxx"
           }
         ],
         "registrationDate" : "1990-12-31T23:59:60Z",
         "registrationBy" : "ABC123",
         "lastChangedDate" : "1990-12-31T23:59:60Z",
         "lastChangedBy" : "ABC123",



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         "sponsoredBy" : "SponsorXYZ",
         "resoldBy" : "ResellerPDQ"
       }
     ]
   }














































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10.  The IP Network Object Class

   The IP Network object class models IP network registrations found in
   RIRs and is the expected response for the /ip query as defined by
   [I-D.ietf-weirds-rdap-query].  There is no equivalent object class
   for DNRs.  The high level structure of the IP network object class
   consists of information about the network registration and entities
   related to the IP network (e.g. registrant information, contacts,
   etc...).

   The following is an elided example of the IP network object type
   showing the high level structure.


   {
     "handle" : "XXX",
     ...
     "entities" :
     [
       ...
     ]
   }


   The following is an example of the JSON object for the network
   registration information


   {
     "handle" : "XXXX-RIR",
     "startAddress" : "2001:db8::0",
     "endAddress" : "2001:db8::0:FFFF:FFFF:FFFF:FFFF:FFFF",
     "ipVersion" : 6,
     "name": "NET-RTR-1",
     "description" : [ "A network used for routing" ],
     "type" : "DIRECT ALLOCATION",
     "country" : "AU",
     "parentHandle" : "YYYY-RIR",
     "remarks" :
     [
       "she sells seas shells",
       "down by the seashore"
     ],
     "links" :
     [
       {
         "value" : "http://example.ent/ip/2001:db8::/48",
         "rel" : "self",



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         "href" : "http://example.net/ip/2001:db8::/48"
       },
       {
         "value" : "http://example.net/ip/2001:db8::/48",
         "rel" : "up",
         "href" : "http://example.net/ip/2001:C00::/23"
       },
     ],
     "registrationDate" : "20110509",
     "lastChangedDate" : "20110509",
     "lastChangedBy" : "joe@bob.com",
     "entities" :
     [
       {
         "handle" : "XXXX",
         "entityNames": [ "Joe Bob, Inc.", "Bobby Joe Shopping" ],
         "roles" : [ "registrant" ],
         "postalAddress" :
         [
           "123 Maple Ave",
           "Suite 90001",
           "Vancouver",
           "BC",
           "12393"
         ],
         "emails" : [ "joe@bob.com", "bob@joe.com" ],
         "phones" :
         {
           "office" : [ "1-958-555-4321", "1-958-555-4322" ],
           "fax" :    [ "1-958-555-4323" ],
           "mobile" : [ "1-958-555-4324" ]
         },
         "remarks" :
         [
           "she sells seas shells",
           "down by the seashore"
         ],
         "links" :
         [
           {
             "value" : "http://example.net/entity/xxxx",
             "rel" : "self",
             "href" : "http://example.net/entity/xxxx"
           }
         ],
         "registrationDate" : "1990-12-31T23:59:60Z",
         "lastChangedDate" : "1990-12-31T23:59:60Z",
         "lastChangedBy" : "joe@bob.com"



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       }
     ]
   }


   The following is a description of the members of this object:

   o  handle -- a string representing an RIR unique identifier of the
      network registration

   o  startAddress -- the starting IP address of the network, either
      IPv4 or IPv6

   o  endAddress -- the ending IP address of the network, either IPv4 or
      IPv6

   o  ipVersion -- an integer signifying the IP protocol version of the
      network: 4 signifying an IPv4 network, 6 signifying an IPv6
      network

   o  name -- an identifier assigned to the network registration by the
      registration holder

   o  description -- an array of strings containing descriptive text
      about the network registration

   o  type -- a string containing an RIR specific classification of the
      network

   o  country -- a string containing the name of the 2 character country
      code of the network

   o  parentHandle -- a string containing an RIR unique identifier of
      the parent network of this network registration

   o  entities -- an array of entity objects as defined by Section 7.1.

   The members "remarks", "links", "registrationDate",
   "lastChangedDate", and "lastChangedBy" take the same form of the
   members of the same name of the entity object (Section 7.1).











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11.  Autonomous System Number Entity Object Class

   The Autonomous System Number (autnum) object class models Autonomous
   System Number registrations found in RIRs and represents the expected
   response to an /autnum query as defined by
   [I-D.ietf-weirds-rdap-query].  There is no equivalent object class
   for DNRs.  The high level structure of the autnum object class
   consists of information about the network registration and entities
   related to the autnum registration (e.g. registrant information,
   contacts, etc...), and is similar to the IP Network entity object
   class.

   The following is an example of a JSON object representing an autnum.


   {
     "handle" : "XXXX-RIR",
     "startAutnum" : "10",
     "endAutnum" : "15",
     "name": "AS-RTR-1",
     "description" : [ "AS for Exchange" ],
     "type" : "DIRECT ALLOCATION",
     "country": "AU",
     "remarks" :
     [
       "she sells seas shells",
       "down by the seashore"
     ],
     "links" :
     [
       {
         "value" : "http://example.net/autnum/xxxx",
         "rel" : "self",
         "href" : "http://example.net/autnum/xxxx"
       }
     ],
     "registrationDate" : "20110509",
     "lastChangedDate" : "20110509",
     "lastChangedBy" : "joe@bob.com",
     "entities" :
     [
       {
         "handle" : "XXXX",
         "entityNames": [ "Joe Bob, Inc.", "Bobby Joe Shopping" ],
         "roles" : [ "registrant" ],
         "postalAddress" :
         [
           "123 Maple Ave",



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           "Suite 90001",
           "Vancouver",
           "BC",
           "12393"
         ],
         "emails" : [ "joe@bob.com", "bob@joe.com" ],
         "phones" :
         {
           "office" : [ "1-958-555-4321", "1-958-555-4322" ],
           "fax" :    [ "1-958-555-4323" ],
           "mobile" : [ "1-958-555-4324" ]
         },
         "remarks" :
         [
           "she sells seas shells",
           "down by the seashore"
         ],
         "links" :
         [
           {
             "value" : "http://example.net/entity/XXXX",
             "rel" : "self",
             "href" : "http://example.net/entity/XXXX"
           }
         ],
         "registrationDate" : "1990-12-31T23:59:60Z",
         "lastChangedDate" : "1990-12-31T23:59:60Z",
         "lastChangedBy" : "joe@bob.com"
       }
     ]
   }


   The following is a description of the members of this object:

   o  handle -- a string representing an RIR unique identifier of the
      autnum registration

   o  startAutnum -- the starting number [RFC5396] in the block of
      autonomous system numbers

   o  endAutnum -- the ending number [RFC5396] in the block of
      autonomous system numbers

   o  name -- an identifier assigned to the autnum registration by the
      registration holder





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   o  description -- an array of strings containing descriptive text
      about the autnum registration

   o  type -- a string containing an RIR specific classification of the
      autnum

   o  country -- a string containing the name of the 2 character country
      code of the autnum

   The members "remarks", "links", "registrationDate",
   "lastChangedDate", and "lastChangedBy" take the same form of the
   members of the same name of the entity object (Section 7.1).







































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12.  Error Response Body

   Some non-answer responses may return entity bodies with information
   that could be more descriptive.

   The basic structure of that response is an object class containing an
   error code number (corresponding to the HTTP response code) followed
   by a string named "title" followed by an array of strings named
   "description".

   This is an example of the JSON version of the common response body.

   {
     "errorCode": 418
     "title": "Your beverage choice is not available",
     "description":
     [
       "I know coffee has more ummppphhh.",
       "But I cannot provide."
     ]
   }

                                 Figure 11

   A client MAY simply use the HTTP response code as the server is not
   required to include error data in the response body.  However, if a
   client wishes to parse the error data, it SHOULD first check that the
   Content-Type header contains the appropriate media type.























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13.  IANA Considerations

   This specification registers the "application/rdap" media type.

      Type name: application

      Subtype name: rdap

      Required parameters: n/a

      Optional parameters: level

      Encoding considerations: n/a

      Security considerations: n/a

      Interoperability considerations: n/a

      Published specification: [[ this document ]]

      Applications that use this media type: RDAP

      Additional information: n/a

      Person & email address to contact for further information: Andy
      Newton &andy@hxr.us&

      Intended usage: COMMON

      Restrictions on usage: none

      Author: Andy Newton

      Change controller: IETF

















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14.  Internationalization Considerations

14.1.  Character Encoding

   The default text encoding for JSON and XML responses in RDAP is
   UTF-8, and all servers and clients MUST support UTF-8.  Servers and
   clients MAY optionally support other character encodings.

14.2.  URIs and IRIs

   [I-D.ietf-weirds-using-http] defines the use of URIs and IRIs in
   RDAP.

14.3.  Language Tags

   Section 5.3 defines the use of language tags in the JSON responses
   defined in this document.

14.4.  Internationalized Domain Names

   Appendix C illustrates the model for query and response regarding
   internationalized domain names (IDNs).





























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15.  Contributing Authors and Acknowledgements

   This document is derived from original work on RIR response in JSON
   by Byron J. Ellacott of APNIC, Arturo L. Servin of LACNIC, Kaveh
   Ranjbar of the RIPE NCC, and Andrew L. Newton of ARIN.  Additionally,
   this document incorporates word on DNR responses in JSON by Ning
   Kong, Linlin Zhou, Jiagui Xie, and Sean Shen of CNNIC.

   The components of the DNR object classes are derived from a
   categorization of WHOIS response formats created by Ning Kong, Linlin
   Zhou, and Guangqing Deng of CNNIC, Steve Sheng and Francisco Arias of
   ICANN, Ray Bellis of Nominet, and Frederico Neves of NIC.BR.







































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16.  References

16.1.  Normative References

   [RFC0791]  Postel, J., "Internet Protocol", STD 5, RFC 791,
              September 1981.

   [RFC1166]  Kirkpatrick, S., Stahl, M., and M. Recker, "Internet
              numbers", RFC 1166, July 1990.

   [RFC2616]  Fielding, R., Gettys, J., Mogul, J., Frystyk, H.,
              Masinter, L., Leach, P., and T. Berners-Lee, "Hypertext
              Transfer Protocol -- HTTP/1.1", RFC 2616, June 1999.

   [RFC3339]  Klyne, G., Ed. and C. Newman, "Date and Time on the
              Internet: Timestamps", RFC 3339, July 2002.

   [RFC3986]  Berners-Lee, T., Fielding, R., and L. Masinter, "Uniform
              Resource Identifier (URI): Generic Syntax", STD 66,
              RFC 3986, January 2005.

   [RFC4034]  Arends, R., Austein, R., Larson, M., Massey, D., and S.
              Rose, "Resource Records for the DNS Security Extensions",
              RFC 4034, March 2005.

   [RFC4343]  Eastlake, D., "Domain Name System (DNS) Case Insensitivity
              Clarification", RFC 4343, January 2006.

   [RFC4627]  Crockford, D., "The application/json Media Type for
              JavaScript Object Notation (JSON)", RFC 4627, July 2006.

   [RFC5322]  Resnick, P., Ed., "Internet Message Format", RFC 5322,
              October 2008.

   [RFC5396]  Huston, G. and G. Michaelson, "Textual Representation of
              Autonomous System (AS) Numbers", RFC 5396, December 2008.

   [RFC5646]  Phillips, A. and M. Davis, "Tags for Identifying
              Languages", BCP 47, RFC 5646, September 2009.

   [RFC5952]  Kawamura, S. and M. Kawashima, "A Recommendation for IPv6
              Address Text Representation", RFC 5952, August 2010.

   [RFC5988]  Nottingham, M., "Web Linking", RFC 5988, October 2010.

   [ISO.3166.1988]
              International Organization for Standardization, "Codes for
              the representation of names of countries, 3rd edition",



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              ISO Standard 3166, August 1988.

   [I-D.ietf-weirds-rdap-query]
              Newton, A. and S. Hollenbeck, "RDAP Query Format",
              draft-ietf-weirds-rdap-query-00 (work in progress),
              September 2011.

   [I-D.ietf-weirds-using-http]
              Newton, A., Ellacott, B., and N. Kong, "Using HTTP for
              RESTful Whois Services by Internet Registries",
              draft-ietf-weirds-using-http-01 (work in progress),
              May 2012.

   [E164]     ITU-T, "The International Public Telecommunication Number
              Plan",  Recommendation E.164, May 1997.

16.2.  Informative References

   [RFC3912]  Daigle, L., "WHOIS Protocol Specification", RFC 3912,
              September 2004.

   [RFC3730]  Hollenbeck, S., "Extensible Provisioning Protocol (EPP)",
              RFC 3730, March 2004.

   [JSON_acendancy]
              MacVittie, "The Stealthy Ascendancy of JSON", 04 2011.

   [JSON_performance_study]
              Montana State University - Bozeman, Montana State
              University - Bozeman, Montana State University - Bozeman,
              and Montana State University - Bozeman, "Comparison of
              JSON and XML Data Interchange Formats: A Case Study",
              2009.


















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Appendix A.  Suggested Values

   Due to the wide variation between the hundreds of registry operators
   and the on-going policy refinement by registry communities, values of
   some data cannot be formally standardized.  This section lists
   suggested values for such data but is not nor will ever be a complete
   list of values and their meanings.

A.1.  Status

   Many of the object classes have a member named 'status'.  This member
   is an array of strings, with each string denoting a status associated
   with the containing object.  The following is a list of suggested
   values to use in the 'status' array:

   o  'validated' -- Signifies that the data of the object instance has
      been found to be accurate.  This type of status is usually found
      on entity object instances to note the validity of identifying
      contact information.

   o  'update prohibited' -- Updates to the object instance are
      forbidden.

   o  'transfer prohibited' -- Transfers of the registration from one
      registrar to another are forbidden.  This type of status normally
      applies to DNR domain names.

   o  'delete prohibited' -- Deletion of the registration of the object
      instance is forbidden.  This type of status normally applies to
      DNR domain names.

A.2.  Roles

   Entity object classes have a member named 'roles'.  This member is an
   array of strings, with each string indicating the role or
   relationship the entity object instance has with a containing object,
   such as a domain name or IP network.  An entity object instance can
   have more than one type of relationship with a containing object.
   The following is a list of suggested values to use in the 'roles'
   array:

   o  'registrant' -- The entity object instance is the registrant of
      the registration.

   o  'tech' -- The entity object instance is a technical contact for
      the registration.





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   o  'admin' -- The entity object instance is an administrative contact
      for the registration.

   o  'abuse' -- The entity object instance handles network abuse issues
      on behalf of the registrant of the registration.

   o  'billing' -- The entity object instance handles payment and
      billing issues on behalf of the registrant of the registration.

   o  'registrar' -- The entity object instance represents the authority
      responsible for the registration in the registry.

A.3.  Variant Relations

   Section 9.2 describes a structure for noting variants of domain names
   and the relationship those variants have with a registered domain
   name.  The following is a list of suggested values to use as the
   variant relation values:

   o  'registered' -- the variant names are registered in the registry.

   o  'unregistered' -- the variant names are not found in the registry.

   o  'restrictedRegistration' -- registration of the variant names is
      restricted to certain parties or within certain rules.

   o  'openRegistration' -- registration of the variant names is
      available to generally qualified registrants.

   o  'conjoined' -- registration of the variant names is conjoined with
      the registration of the containing domain registration.




















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Appendix B.  Suggested Data Modeling with the Entity Object Class

B.1.  Registrants and Contacts

   This document does not provide specific object classes for
   registrants and contacts.  Instead the entity object class may be
   used to represent a registrant or contact.  When the entity object is
   embedded inside a containing object such as a domain name or IP
   network, the 'roles' string array can be used to signify the
   relationship.  It is recommended that the values from Appendix A.2 be
   used.

   The following is an example of an elided containing object with an
   embedded entity that is both a registrant and admin contact:


   {
     ...
     "entities" :
     [
       {
         "handle" : "XXXX",
         "entityNames": [ "Joe Bob, Inc.", "Bobby Joe Shopping" ],
         "roles" : [ "registrant", "admin" ],
         "postalAddress" :
         [
           "123 Maple Ave",
           "Suite 90001",
           "Vancouver",
           "BC",
           "12393"
         ],
         "emails" : [ "joe@bob.com", "bob@joe.com" ],
         "phones" :
         {
           "office" : [ "1-958-555-4321", "1-958-555-4322" ],
           "fax" :    [ "1-958-555-4323" ],
           "mobile" : [ "1-958-555-4324" ]
         },
         "remarks" :
         [
           "she sells seas shells",
           "down by the seashore"
         ],
         "registrationDate" : "1990-12-31T23:59:60Z",
         "lastChangedDate" : "1990-12-31T23:59:60Z",
         "lastChangedBy" : "joe@bob.com"
       }



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     ]
   }


B.2.  Registrars

   This document does not provide a specific object class for
   registrars, but like registrants and contacts (see Appendix B.1) the
   'roles' string array maybe used.










































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   The following is an example of an elided containing object with an
   embedded entity that is a registrar:


   {
     ...
     "entities" :
     [
       {
         "handle" : "XXXX",
         "names": [ "RegistrarsRUS" ],
         "roles" : [ "registrar" ],
         "postalAddress" :
         [
           "1212 Tulip Ave",
           "Suite 1",
           "Marina Del Rey",
           "CA",
           "12393-2193"
         ],
         "emails" : [ "joe@bob.com", "bob@joe.com" ],
         "phones" :
         {
           "office" : [ "1-958-555-4321", "1-958-555-4322" ],
           "fax" :    [ "1-958-555-4323" ],
           "mobile" : [ "1-958-555-4324" ]
         },
         "remarks" :
         [
           "we registrar for less!"
         ],
         "links" :
         [
           {
             "value" : "http://example.net/entity/XXXX"
             "rel" : "alternate",
             "type" : "text/html",
             "href" : "http://www.example.com"
           }
         ]
       }
     ]
   }








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Appendix C.  IDN Query and Response Model

   Internationalized Domain Names (IDNs) differ from other types of
   domain names because multiple domain names as would be represented by
   a name in Master File format (see [RFC4343]) may be registered by a
   single IDN.  IDNs are based on Unicode, and Unicode can have multiple
   means for encoding the same word depending on the character set and
   language being used.  And the rules for determining which IDN
   encoding maps to a "wire-format" domain name vary from DNR to DNR.

   When an IDN maps to multiple domain names, the various mappings are
   called variants.  The DNR Domain object class (Section 9.2)
   represents the variants using a string array.

   The following is an example of an elided DNR domain object with
   variants.


   {
     "handle" : "XXXX",
     "name" : "blah.example.com",
     "variants" : [ "blah2.example.com", "blah3.example.com" ],
     ...
   }


   Because IDNs can have multiple targets in a mapping and due to the
   variance in DNR mapping rules, it is up to the client to reduce an
   IDN to a domain name in Master File format so as to narrow the lookup
   of the domain name to the proper subset.  A query of a DNR using the
   IDN itself might map across multiple registrations depending on the
   mapping rules of the DNR.



















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Appendix D.  Postal Addresses vs Location

   The postal address data listed in the entity object class (Section 7)
   does not necessarily represent location.  The intent of this
   information is to provide a means to send postal mail to an entity.
   While in some cases it may also be the location of the entity, there
   is no guarantee that the two are the same.

   Additionally, the postal address data represented in this document
   does not follow any specific standard for postal addresses because
   many registries do not keep postal address data in an
   internationalized standard form.  Publication of such data in a
   format that suggests an internationalized standard form when such
   data is not known to be well-formed for that purpose would be
   misleading.




































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Appendix E.  Motivations for Using JSON

   This section addresses a common question regarding the use of JSON
   over other data formats, most notably XML.

   It is often pointed out that many DNRs and one RIR support the EPP
   [RFC3730] standard, which is an XML serialized protocol.  The logic
   is that since EPP is a common protocol in the industry it follows
   that XML would be a more natural choice.  While EPP does enfluence
   this specification quite a bit, EPP serves a different purpose which
   is the provisioning of Internet resources between registries and
   accredited registrars and serves a much narrower audience than that
   envisioned for RDAP.

   By contrast, RDAP has a broader audience and is designed for public
   consumption of data.  Experience from RIRs with first generation
   RESTful web services for Whois indicate a large percentage of clients
   operate within browsers and other platforms where full-blown XML
   stacks are not readily available and where JSON is a better fit.

   Additionally, while EPP is used in much of the DNR community it is
   not a unversial constant in that industry.  And finally, EPP's use of
   XML predates the specification of JSON.  If EPP had been defined
   today, it may very well have used JSON instead of XML.

   Beyond the specific DNR and RIR communities, the trend in the broader
   Internet industry is also switching to JSON over XML, especially in
   the area of RESTful web services (see [JSON_acendancy]).  Studies
   have also found that JSON is generally less bulky and consequently
   faster to parse (see [JSON_performance_study]).





















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Appendix F.  Changelog

   Initial -00  Adopted as working group document 2012-September-18.

   -01

         Minor spelling corrections.  Changed "Registry Data" to
         "Registration Data" for the sake of consistency.

         Transitioned to RFC 5988 links and relationshipt types from our
         own custom "uris" structure.

         Some examples had 'status' as a string.  Those have been
         corrected as 'status' is always an array of strings.

         Domain variants can now have a multi-valued relationship with
         domain registrations.

         "names" in the entity object class was changed to
         "entityNames".

         Some IP address examples change to IPv6.

         Change phone number examples and added reference to E.164.

         Added section on motivations for using JSON.

         Added error response body section.

         Added JSON naming section.

         Added common data structures section.

         Added the IANA Considerations section and the media type
         registration.

         Added 'lang' name/value.

         Added internationalization considerations section.












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Authors' Addresses

   Andrew Lee Newton
   American Registry for Internet Numbers
   3635 Concorde Parkway
   Chantilly, VA  20151
   US

   Email: andy@arin.net
   URI:   http://www.arin.net


   Scott Hollenbeck
   Verisign Labs
   12061 Bluemont Way
   Reston, VA  20190
   US

   Email: shollenbeck@verisign.com
   URI:   http://www.verisignlabs.com/































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