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Versions: (draft-cheshire-ipv4-linklocal) 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 RFC 3927

                                                         Stuart Cheshire
Document: draft-ietf-zeroconf-ipv4-linklocal-05.txt       Apple Computer
Expires 15th October 2002                                  Bernard Aboba
                                                               Microsoft
                                                         15th April 2002


            Dynamic Configuration of IPv4 Link-Local Addresses


               <draft-ietf-zeroconf-ipv4-linklocal-05.txt>


Status of this Memo

   This document is an Internet-Draft and is in full conformance with
   all provisions of Section 10 of RFC2026.  Internet-Drafts are
   working documents of the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF),
   its areas, and its working groups.  Note that other groups may
   also distribute working documents as Internet-Drafts.

   Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six
   months and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents
   at any time.  It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as
   reference material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."

   The list of current Internet-Drafts can be accessed at
   http://www.ietf.org/ietf/1id-abstracts.txt

   The list of Internet-Draft Shadow Directories can be accessed at
   http://www.ietf.org/shadow.html

   Distribution of this memo is unlimited.


Abstract

   In general, to participate in wide-area IP networking, a host needs
   configuration information, either entered manually by the user, or
   received automatically from an information source on the network such
   as a DHCP server. However, such external configuration information
   may not always be available. It would be beneficial for a host to
   have some useful subset of IP networking that it can depend upon to
   be always functional, even when no configuration information is
   available to the host, or the configuration information the host has
   is incorrect. This document describes a method by which a host may
   automatically configure an interface with an IPv4 address in the
   169.254/16 prefix that is valid for link-local communication on that
   interface.








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Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction..................................................3
   1.1 Conventions and Terminology Used in this Document.............4
   1.2 Applicability.................................................5
   1.3 Issues with Autoconfiguration.................................6
   1.4 169.254/16 Not To Be Used for Other Purposes..................6
   1.5 Supporting Multiple Addresses per Interface...................6
   1.6 Supporting Multiple Interfaces................................7
   1.7 Communication Between Link-Local and Routable Addresses.......7
   2.  IPv4 Link-Local Address Selection, Defense and Delivery.......8
   2.1 Selecting a Link-Local Address................................8
   2.2 Claiming a Link-Local Address.................................9
   2.3 Shorter Timeouts on Appropriate Network Technologies.........10
   2.4 Announcing an Address........................................10
   2.5 Ongoing Address Conflict Detection and Address Defense.......10
   2.6 Source Address Selection.....................................12
   2.7 Link-Local Packets Are Not Forwarded.........................12
   2.8 Devices may Assume Link-Local Packets are Local..............13
   2.9 Higher-Layer Protocol Considerations.........................14
   2.10 Privacy Concerns............................................14
   3.  Considerations for Multiple Interfaces.......................15
   3.1 Link-Local Addressing on Only One Interface..................15
   3.2 Single Shared Link-Local Address.............................15
   3.3 Different Link-Local Address for Each Interface..............16
   3.3.1 Example Illustrating (Incorrect) Ambiguous Address Re-Use..17
   3.3.2 Example Illustrating Acceptable Address Re-Use.............18
   3.4 Collision Detection for Multi-Homed Hosts....................19
   4.  Considerations for Joining of Previously Separate Networks...20
   5.  Security Considerations......................................21
   6.  IANA Considerations..........................................21
   7.  Acknowledgements.............................................21
   8. Intellectual Property.........................................22
   9.  Copyright....................................................22
   10. References...................................................23
   11. Authors' Addresses...........................................24
   Appendix. Prior Implementations..................................24
   A.1 Apple Mac OS 8.x and 9.x.....................................24
   A.2 Microsoft Windows 98/98SE....................................25
   A.3 Windows 2000 and Windows ME..................................26













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1. Introduction

   As the Internet Protocol continues to grow in popularity, it becomes
   increasingly valuable to be able to use familiar IP tools such as ftp
   not only for global communication, but for local communication as
   well. For example, two people with laptop computers with built-in
   wireless Ethernet may meet and wish to exchange files. It is
   desirable for these people to be able to use IP application software
   without the inconvenience of having to manually configure static IP
   addresses or set up a DHCP server [RFC 2131].

   This document describes a method by which a host may automatically
   configure an interface with an IPv4 address in the 169.254/16 prefix
   that is valid for link-local communication on that interface. This
   is especially valuable in environments where no other configuration
   mechanism is available. The IPv4 network 169.254/16 is registered
   with the IANA for this purpose. Allocation of link-local IPv6
   addresses is described in "IPv6 Stateless Address Autoconfiguration"
   [RFC 2462].

   Microsoft Windows 98 (and later) and Mac OS 8.5 (and later) already
   implement versions of this functionality. This document standardizes
   this protocol and simplifies it in one important way -- in previous
   implementations, link-local addresses were only available after a
   host had tried and failed to contact a DHCP server. This standard
   removes that restriction, making link-local addresses available all
   the time, independent of DHCP. A host need not implement a DHCP
   client in order to use a link-local address. Even for hosts that
   do implement a DHCP client, information received from DHCP servers
   has no bearing on a host's link-local address configuration.

   This document prescribes rules for how IPv4 link-local addresses
   MUST be treated by hosts and routers. In particular, it describes
   how routers MUST behave when receiving packets with IPv4 link-local
   addresses in the source or destination address. With respects to
   hosts, it discusses claiming and defending addresses, maintaining
   a link-local address and routable addresses on the same interface,
   and multihoming issues.















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1.1. Conventions and Terminology Used in this Document

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
   document are to be interpreted as described in "Key words for use in
   RFCs to Indicate Requirement Levels" [RFC 2119].

   This document describes link-local addressing, for IP communication
   between two hosts on a single link. Two hosts are considered to be
   on the same link if, when one host sends packets to the other, using
   unicast, multicast, or broadcast, the entire link-layer packet
   payload arrives unmodified. The link-layer *header* may be modified,
   such as in Token Ring Source Routing [802.5], but not the link-layer
   *payload*. In particular, if any device forwarding a packet modifies
   any part of the IP header or IP payload then the packet is no longer
   considered to be on the same link. This means that the packet may
   pass through devices such as Ethernet repeaters, bridges, hubs or
   switches and still be considered to be on the same link for the
   purpose of this document, but not through any device like an IP
   router that decrements the TTL or otherwise modifies the IP header.

   This document uses the term "routable address" to refer to all
   unicast addresses outside the 169.254/16 prefix, including global
   addresses and private addresses such as Net 10/8 [RFC 1918], all of
   which may be forwarded via routers.

   Wherever this document uses the term "host" when describing use of
   link-local addresses, the text applies equally to routers using
   link-local addresses on any or all interfaces.

   Wherever this document uses the term "sender IP address" or "target
   IP address" in the context of an ARP packet, it is referring to the
   fields of the ARP packet identified in the ARP specification [RFC
   826] as "ar$spa" (Sender Protocol Address) and "ar$tpa" (Target
   Protocol Address) respectively. For the usage of ARP described in
   this document, each of these fields always contains an IP address.

   In this document, the term "ARP Probe" is used to refer to an ARP
   request packet, broadcast on the local link, with an all-zero 'sender
   IP address'. The 'sender hardware address' MUST contain the hardware
   address of the interface sending the packet. The 'target hardware
   address' field is ignored and SHOULD be set to all zeroes. The
   'target IP address' field MUST be set to the address being probed.

   In this document, the term "ARP Announcement" is used to refer to
   an ARP request packet, broadcast on the local link, identical to
   the ARP probe described above, except that both the sender and
   target IP address fields contain the IP address being announced.





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1.2. Applicability

   The specifications in this document apply to any IEEE 802 media [802]
   including Ethernet [802.3], and other similar link-layer network
   technologies that operate at data rates of at least 1Mb/s, have a
   round-trip latency of at most one second, and support ARP [RFC 826].
   Wherever this document uses the term "Ethernet", the text applies
   equally to any of these network technologies.

   Link-layer network technologies that support ARP but operate at rates
   below 1Mb/s or latencies above one second may need to specify
   different values for the following parameters described in Sections
   2.2, 2.3 and 2.4:
   (a) the number of, and interval between, ARP probes,
   (b) the number of, and interval between, ARP announcements,
   (c) the maximum rate at which address claiming may be attempted, and
   (d) the time interval between conflicting ARPs below which a host
       MUST reconfigure instead of attempting to defend its address.

   Link-layer network technologies that do not support ARP may be able
   to use other techniques for determining whether a particular IP
   address is currently in use. However, the application of claim-and-
   defend mechanisms to such networks is left to a future document.

   This protocol is intended for small ad-hoc networks -- a single link
   containing only a few hosts. Although there are in principle 65024
   available link-local addresses, attempting to use all those addresses
   on a single link would result in it taking an inordinate length of
   time for a host to find an available address. The precise definition
   of "a few hosts" may vary depending on the situation, but it is
   reasonable to say that it should not be more than 1300 hosts. A host
   connecting to a link that already has 1300 hosts, selecting a
   link-local address at random, has a 98% chance of selecting an unused
   link-local address on the first try. A host has a 99.96% chance of
   selecting an unused link-local address within two tries. The
   probability that it will have to try more than ten times is about 1
   in 10^17. This does not mean that a host should attempt to count the
   number of other hosts on the link and refuse to operate if it finds
   there are more than 1300. It does mean that network operators with
   more than 1300 hosts on a single link may want to consider dividing
   that single link into two or more subnets.












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1.3. Issues with Autoconfiguration

   Implementations of IPv4 link-local address autoconfiguration MUST
   expect address collisions, and MUST be prepared to handle them
   gracefully by automatically selecting a new address whenever a
   collision is detected, as described in Section 2. This requirement to
   detect and handle address collisions applies during the entire period
   that a host is using a 169.254/16 link-local address, not just during
   initial interface configuration. For example, address collisions can
   occur well after a host has completed booting if two previously
   separate networks are joined, as described in Section 4.


1.4. 169.254/16 Not To Be Used for Other Purposes

   Note that addresses in the 169.254/16 prefix SHOULD NOT be configured
   manually or by a DHCP server. Manual or DHCP configuration may cause
   a host to use an address in the 169.254/16 prefix without following
   the special rules regarding duplicate detection and automatic
   configuration that pertain to addresses in this prefix. While RFC
   2131 indicates that a DHCP client SHOULD probe a newly received
   address with ARP, this is not mandatory. Similarly, while RFC 2131
   recommends that a DHCP server SHOULD probe an address using an ICMP
   Echo Request before allocating it, this is also not mandatory, and
   even if the server does this, link-local addresses are not routable,
   so a DHCP server not directly connected to a link cannot detect
   whether a host on that link is already using the desired IPv4
   link-local address.

   Administrators wishing to configure their own local addresses
   (using manual configuration, a DHCP server, or any other mechanism
   not described in this document) should use one of the existing
   private address prefixes [RFC 1918], not the 169.254/16 prefix.


1.5. Supporting Multiple Addresses per Interface

   IPv4 link-local addresses are independent from any other IPv4
   addresses that a host may have. Each interface on a host may have
   a link-local address in addition to zero or more other addresses
   configured by other means (e.g. manually or via a DHCP server).
   Under normal circumstances, there is no reason to configure more
   than one link-local address on any given physical interface.

   There are several reasons why it is beneficial for hosts to maintain
   a link-local address in addition to any other addresses they may
   have. For example, a DHCP server may appear on a network where hosts
   are already communicating using link-local addresses, and it is





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   beneficial for already-established link-local TCP connections to
   continue working even after the hosts have contacted the DHCP server
   and configured additional routable addresses.

   Another example of why it is beneficial for hosts to maintain a link-
   local address in addition to other addresses is that there may be
   situations where two portable devices such as laptop computers are
   brought together from two different networks. Each device may have
   its own incompatible configuration parameters (subnet mask, default
   router, etc.) that were previously assigned manually or by DHCP, and
   even though connected to the same physical link they would be unable
   to communicate successfully using these incompatible configuration
   parameters. If each host also configures a link-local address, this
   will allow them to communicate.

   This does not necessarily require that a host implement an arbitrary
   number of addresses per interface. A simple host may implement just
   the special case of a single link-local address and a single 'other'
   address. (Note that any host running IPv6 is already required to have
   the ability to maintain multiple IPv6 addresses per interface.)


1.6. Supporting Multiple Interfaces

   Hosts that support multi-homing have additional considerations if
   they wish to use IPv4 link-local addresses on more than one interface
   at a time. These are discussed in Section 3.


1.7. Communication Between Link-Local and Routable Addresses

   For some devices, engineering constraints may mean that it is only
   possible to implement a single address per interface, either link-
   local, or routable, but not both at the same time. For this reason,
   the rules in Section 2.6 allow communication from a routable source
   address to a link-local destination address on the same physical
   link, and vice versa. This allows, for example, a laptop computer
   with only a routable address to communicate with web servers world-
   wide using its globally-routable address while at the same time
   printing those web pages on a local printer that has only a link-
   local address.












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2. IPv4 Link-Local Address Selection, Defense and Delivery

   The following section explains the link-local address selection
   algorithm, how link-local addresses are defended, and how IPv4
   packets with link-local addresses are delivered.

   Windows and Mac OS hosts that already implement IPv4 address auto-
   configuration are compatible with the rules presented in this
   section. However, should any interoperability problem be discovered,
   this document, not any prior implementation, defines the standard.


2.1 Selecting a Link-Local Address

   When a host wishes to configure a link-local address, it selects
   an address using a pseudo-random number generator with a uniform
   distribution in the range from 169.254.1.0 to 169.254.254.255. The
   IPv4 network 169.254/16 is registered with the IANA for this purpose.
   The first 256 and last 256 addresses in the 169.254/16 network are
   reserved for use by future IETF-Standard protocols and MUST NOT be
   selected by a host using this dynamic configuration mechanism.

   The pseudo-random number generation algorithm MUST be chosen so that
   different hosts do not generate the same sequence of numbers. If the
   host has access to persistent information that is different for each
   host, such as its burned-in Ethernet hardware address, then the
   pseudo-random number generator SHOULD be seeded using a value derived
   from this information. This means that even without using any other
   persistent storage, a host will usually select the same link-local
   address each time it is booted, which can be convenient for debugging
   and other operational reasons. Seeding the pseudo-random number
   generator using the real-time clock or any other information which is
   (or may be) identical in every host is NOT suitable for this purpose,
   because a group of hosts that are all powered on at the same time
   might then all generate the same sequence, resulting in a never-
   ending series of conflicts as the hosts move in lock-step though
   exactly the same pseudo-random sequence, conflicting on every address
   they probe.

   Hosts that are equipped with persistent storage MAY, for each
   interface, record the IP address they have selected. On booting,
   hosts with a previously recorded address SHOULD use that address as
   their first candidate when probing. This increases the stability of
   addresses. For example, if a group of hosts are powered off at night,
   then when they are powered on the next morning they will all resume
   using the same addresses, instead of picking different addresses and
   potentially having to resolve conflicts that arise.






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2.2 Claiming a Link-Local Address

   After it has selected an address, a host MUST test to see if the
   address is already in use before beginning to use it. On a network
   such as Ethernet that supports ARP, this test is done using ARP
   probes. On link-layer network technologies that do not support ARP
   other techniques may be available for determining whether a
   particular IP address is currently in use. However, the application
   of claim-and-defend mechanisms to such networks is left to a future
   document.

   A host probes to see if an address is already in use by broadcasting
   an ARP request for the desired address. The client MUST fill in the
   'sender hardware address' field of the ARP packet with the hardware
   address of the interface through which it is sending the packet.
   The 'sender IP address' field MUST be set to all zeroes, to avoid
   polluting ARP caches in other hosts on the same link in the case
   where the address turns out to be already in use by another host.
   The 'target hardware address' field is ignored and SHOULD be set to
   all zeroes. The 'target IP address' field MUST be set to the address
   being probed. An ARP request constructed this way with an all-zero
   'sender IP address' is referred to as an "ARP probe".

   When ready to begin probing, the host should then wait for a
   random time interval selected uniformly in the range zero to two
   seconds, and should then send four probe packets, spaced two
   seconds apart. This initial random delay helps ensure that a
   large number of hosts powered on at the same time do not all send
   their initial probe packets simultaneously.

   If during this period, from the beginning of the probing process
   until two seconds after the last probe packet is sent, the host
   receives any ARP packet (request *or* reply) where the packet's
   'sender IP address' is the address being probed for, then the host
   MUST treat this address as being in use by some other host, and MUST
   select a new pseudo-random address and repeat the process. In
   addition, if during this period the host receives any ARP probe where
   the packet's 'target IP address' is the address being probed for, and
   the packet's 'sender hardware address' is not the hardware address of
   any of the host's interfaces, then the host MUST similarly treat this
   as an address collision and select a new address as above. This can
   occur if two (or more) hosts attempt to configure the same link-
   local address at the same time.

   A host should maintain a counter of the number of address collisions
   it has experienced in the process of trying to acquire an address,
   and if the number of collisions exceeds ten then the host MUST limit
   the rate at which it probes for new addresses to no more than one new
   address per minute. This is to prevent catastrophic ARP storms in
   pathological failure cases, such as a rogue host that answers all



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   ARP probes, causing legitimate hosts to go into an infinite loop
   attempting to select a usable address.

   If, by two seconds after the transmission of the last ARP probe
   no conflicting ARP reply has been received, then the host has
   successfully claimed the desired link-local address.


2.3 Shorter Timeouts on Appropriate Network Technologies

   The time values specified above are intended for use on technologies
   such as Ethernet, where switches that implement Spanning Tree
   [802.1d] often silently discard all packets for several seconds. The
   time values specified above result in a delay of 8-10 seconds before
   a chosen IP address may be used. For a desktop machine on Ethernet,
   this may not be a great problem, but for other types of device,
   particularly portable hand-held wireless devices, a ten-second delay
   before networking services becomes available may not be acceptable.
   For this reason, shorter time values may be used on network
   technologies that allow the device to determine when the link has
   become active and can be reasonably trusted to deliver packets
   reliably. On these network technologies the recommended time values
   are: The host should first wait for a random time interval selected
   uniformly in the range 0-200 milliseconds, and then send four probe
   packets, waiting 200 milliseconds after each probe, making a total
   delay of 800-1000 milliseconds before a chosen IP address may be
   used.

   Should future versions of the IEEE Spanning Tree Protocol be enhanced
   to inform clients when the link is ready to begin forwarding packets,
   then the shorter time values may be used on these networks too.


2.4 Announcing an Address

   The host MUST then announce this by broadcasting two ARP
   announcements, spaced two seconds apart. An ARP announcement is
   identical to the ARP probe described above, except that now the
   sender and target IP addresses are both set to the host's newly
   selected IP address. The purpose of these ARP announcements is to
   make sure that other hosts on the link do not have stale ARP cache
   entries left over from some other host that may previously have been
   using the same address.


2.5 Ongoing Address Conflict Detection and Address Defense

   Address collision detection is not limited to the address selection
   phase, when a host is sending ARP probes. Address collision detection
   is an ongoing process that is in effect for as long as a host is
   using a link-local IPv4 address. At any time, if a host receives an


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   ARP packet (request *or* reply) where the 'sender IP address' is the
   host's own IP address, but the 'sender hardware address' does not
   match any of the host's own interface addresses, then this is a
   conflicting ARP packet, indicating an address collision. A host MUST
   respond to a conflicting ARP packet as described in either (a) or (b)
   below:

   (a) Upon receiving a conflicting ARP packet, a host MAY elect to
   immediately configure a new link-local IP address as described above,
   or

   (b) If a host currently has active TCP connections or other reasons
   to prefer to keep the same IP address, and it has not seen any other
   conflicting ARP packets recently (for Ethernet, within the last ten
   seconds) then it MAY elect to attempt to defend its address, by
   recording the time that the conflicting ARP packet was received,
   and then broadcasting one single ARP announcement, giving its own
   IP and hardware addresses as the sender addresses of the ARP. Having
   done this, the host can then continue to use the address normally
   without any further special action. However, if this is not the first
   conflicting ARP packet the host has seen, and the time recorded for
   the previous conflicting ARP packet is recent (within ten seconds for
   Ethernet) then the host MUST immediately cease using this address and
   configure a new link-local IP address as described above. This is
   necessary to ensure that two hosts do not get stuck in an endless
   loop with both hosts trying to defend the same address.

   A host MUST respond to conflicting ARP packets as described in either
   (a) or (b) above. A host MUST NOT ignore conflicting ARP packets.

   Forced address reconfiguration may be disruptive, causing TCP
   connections to be broken. However, it is expected that such
   disruptions will be rare, and if inadvertent address duplication
   happens, then disruption of communication is inevitable, no matter

   how the addresses were assigned. It is not possible for two different
   hosts using the same IP address on the same network to operate
   reliably.

   Immediately configuring a new address as soon as the conflict is
   detected is the best way to restore useful communication as quickly
   as possible. The mechanism described above of broadcasting a single
   ARP announcement to defend the address mitigates the problem
   somewhat, by helping to improve the chance that one of the two
   conflicting hosts may be able to retain its address.

   All ARP packets (*replies* as well as requests) that contain a link-
   local 'sender IP address' MUST be sent using link-level broadcast
   instead of link-level unicast. This aids timely detection of
   duplicate addresses. An example illustrating how this helps is
   given in Section 4.


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2.6 Source Address Selection

   Since each interface on a host may have a link-local address in
   addition to zero or more other addresses configured by other means
   (e.g. manually or via a DHCP server), a host may have to make a
   choice about what source address to use when it sends a packet or
   initiates a TCP connection.

   If the destination address is in the 169.254/16 prefix (including the
   169.254.255.255 broadcast address), the host SHOULD use its link-
   local source address, if it has one. If the host does not have a
   link-local source address, then it MAY choose to ARP for the
   destination address and then send its packet, with a routable source
   IP address and a link-local destination IP address, directly to its
   destination on the same physical link. The host MUST NOT send the
   packet to any router for forwarding.

   If the destination address is the 255.255.255.255 broadcast address
   or a multicast address, then the host may use either its link-local
   source address or a routable address, as appropriate.

   If the destination address is a unicast address outside the
   169.254/16 prefix, then the host SHOULD use an appropriate routable
   source address, if it has one. If the host does not have a routable
   source address, then it MAY choose to ARP for the destination address
   and then send its packet, with a link-local source IP address and a
   routable destination IP address, directly to its destination on the
   same physical link. The host MUST NOT send the packet to any router
   for forwarding.

   In the case where two hosts on the same link each have both a link-
   local address and another address configured via some other means,
   the host may use either its link-local source address or a routable
   address, depending on which is expected to be more likely to remain
   stable for the expected lifetime of the connection. Note that link-
   local addresses may be forced to change over time, as described in
   Section 2.5.


2.7 Link-Local Packets Are Not Forwarded

   Any host sending an IPv4 packet with a source and/or destination
   address in the 169.254/16 prefix MUST set the TTL in the IP header
   to 255. This includes multicast and broadcast packets with a source
   address in the 169.254/16 prefix.

   This allows hosts to guard against misconfigured routers, which may
   allow packets to leak in from outside the local link. Since even the
   most dysfunctional router will decrement the TTL in the IP header, a
   host can know with reasonable certainty that any packet received with



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   a TTL of 255 did come from another host on the local link. A host
   receiving a packet with a source and/or destination address in the
   169.254/16 prefix and a TTL less than 255, MAY choose to consider
   such packets as potentially having been generated by a malicious
   attacker outside the local link, and MAY choose to silently discard
   such packets. [See Appendix for details of current implementations.]

   An IPv4 packet whose source and/or destination address is in the
   169.254/16 prefix MUST NOT be sent to any router for forwarding, and
   any network device receiving such a packet MUST NOT forward it,
   regardless of the TTL in the IP header. Similarly, a router or other
   host MUST NOT indiscriminately answer all ARP requests for addresses
   in the 169.254/16 prefix. A router may of course answer ARP requests
   for the one (or more) own link-local address(es) that it has
   legitimately claimed for its own use according to the claim-and-
   defend protocol described in this document.

   This restriction also applies to multicast packets. IP packets with
   a link-local source address MUST NOT be forwarded off the local link
   even if they have a multicast destination address.


2.8 Devices may Assume Link-Local Packets are Local

   The non-forwarding rule means that hosts may assume that all
   169.254/16 destination addresses are "on-link" and directly
   reachable. The 169.254/16 address prefix MUST NOT be subnetted.
   This specification utilizes ARP-based address collision detection,
   which functions by broadcasting on the local subnet. Since such
   broadcasts are not forwarded, were subnetting to be allowed then
   address conflicts could remain undetected.

   The non-forwarding rule is important because it is expected that
   many link-local-only devices will be extremely simple devices of
   the kind that currently use X10 [X10], USB [USB] or FireWire [1394].

   The designers of these devices currently assume that they will
   communicate only with other local devices, and this allows them to
   produce cost-effective devices by implementing a degree of security
   appropriate for that expected environment. Any network gateway device
   that blindly forwards the contents of link-local IP packets off the
   local link (or onto the local link) exposes simple link-local-only
   devices to a much greater degree of risk than their designers may
   have planned for.

   This does not mean that link-local devices are forbidden from any
   communication outside the local link. IP hosts that implement both
   link-local and conventional routable IP addresses may still use
   their routable addresses without restriction as they do today.




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   Extremely simple IP devices that implement only a link-local address
   may also communicate with hosts outside the local link, provided
   that such communication is mediated through a device capable of
   enforcing appropriate security controls. For example, a home heating
   thermostat that implements only a link-local address could be
   controlled from a remote Web browser, by having an intermediary
   on the local network which accepts incoming HTTP connections, uses
   appropriate cryptographic methods to verify the authority of the
   remote user, and then uses link-local packets to communicate with
   the thermostat to get status and issue commands.

   It should be understood that this mediated communication is not
   mandatory; it is an option afforded to designers of extremely simple
   devices. Any designer of a device desiring unmediated communication
   outside the local link need only implement today's conventional IP
   host software (e.g. a DHCP client) in order to enjoy the same degree
   of global addressability available to other conventional IP hosts.
   Such networked devices should of course implement a degree of
   security appropriate to being connected to a global public network.


2.9 Higher-Layer Protocol Considerations

   Similar considerations apply at layers above IP.

   For example, DNS Resource Records containing link-local addresses
   SHOULD NOT be sent to hosts outside the link to which those
   link-local addresses apply. Since DNS treats Resource Record Sets
   [RFC 2181] as indivisible units (e.g. for generating DNS reply
   packets, signatures, etc.), RRSets SHOULD only contain A records
   where all the addresses have the same scope. Link-local and routable
   addresses SHOULD NOT be mixed in a single set.

   Designers of Web pages (including automatically generated web pages)
   SHOULD NOT contain links with embedded link-local addresses if those
   pages are viewable from hosts outside the local link where the
   addresses are valid.


2.10 Privacy Concerns

   Another reason to restrict leakage of link-local addresses outside
   the local link is privacy concerns. If link-local addresses are
   derived from a hash of the hardware address, some argue that they
   could be indirectly associated with an individual, and thereby used
   to track that individual's activities. Within the local link the
   hardware addresses in the packets are all directly observable, so as
   long as link-local addresses don't leave the local link they provide
   no more information to an intruder than could be gained by direct
   observation of hardware addresses.



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3. Considerations for Multiple Interfaces

   This section does not specify protocol requirements; it offers
   implementation advice. Implementers of multi-homed hosts have three
   basic choices: (1) configure a link-local address on only one active
   interface at a time, (2) adopt networking APIs that include interface
   identifiers, and configure a single shared link-local address used by
   all active interfaces, or (3) provide networking APIs that identify
   interfaces by IP address (the norm) and maintain some additional
   address uniqueness properties in order to support the use of IP
   addresses as unambiguous interface identifiers. This section
   discusses these three choices.

   For applications that send packets (or initiate outgoing
   connections) without identifying a desired source interface, by
   interface identifier, source IP address, or any other means, an
   operating system that configures link-local addresses on multiple
   interfaces has two choices. It can either restrict such
   applications to using link-local addresses on only one default
   interface, or it can ARP for the given destination address on all
   interfaces, and use the first response it gets. While clearly sub-
   optimal, in most cases this heuristic approach will successfully
   establish communication with the desired correspondent host.


3.1 Link-Local Addressing on Only One Interface

   A multi-homed host may elect to configure an IPv4 link-local address
   on only one of its active interfaces. In some situations this will
   be adequate. Implementers who are not planning to support IPv4 link-
   local addresses simultaneously on multiple interfaces may skip the
   remainder of this section.


3.2 Single Shared Link-Local Address

   Some operating systems have networking APIs that allow applications
   to specify network interfaces by name, index value, or other local
   identifier, and to identify interfaces this way both for incoming
   and outgoing packets/connections. For operating systems that have
   this capability (and have application software that makes use of it)
   it is sufficient to configure all interfaces with a single common
   IPv4 link-local address, and defend that address on all interfaces.










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3.3 Different Link-Local Address for Each Interface

   Many operating systems have networking APIs that allow applications
   to bind endpoints only to a desired source IP address, or similarly
   when a packet is received, identify the interface on which it arrived
   only by its IP address, not by its name or other identifier. A multi-
   homed host in this situation should ensure that each of its
   interfaces is configured with a different link-local address, to
   enable use of the source address as an unambiguous interface
   identifier. To provide this property, if the selection algorithm
   chooses an address that is already in use on one of the host's other
   interfaces, then the process should be repeated until a unique
   address is selected.

   In addition, this kind of host should probe for, and defend, all of
   its link-local addresses on all of its active interfaces that are
   using link-local addresses.

   When bringing up a new interface, the host SHOULD first probe for all
   of its existing link-local addresses on that new interface. If any of
   the addresses are found to be already in use by some other host on
   that new link, then the interfaces in question MUST be reconfigured
   to select new unique link-local addresses. The host should then
   select a link-local address for the new interface, and probe on all
   of its active interfaces to verify that this new address is unique
   on all the links that the host has connections to.

   This uniqueness requirement simplifies host software layers above
   IP (application software and transport protocols) by allowing them
   to identify connections using only the source and destination IP
   addresses, without also needing interface identifiers. Since link-
   local addresses are only unique per-link, hosts on different links
   could be using the same link-local address. Uniqueness of source
   addresses on the multi-homed host allows connections to the same
   destination address on different links to be disambiguated by their
   different source addresses.

   Note that this also requires that the multi-homed host using
   different link-local addresses on multiple interfaces MUST
   implement the "strong end system" model [RFC 1122] for packets
   from link-local source addresses, so that packets are only sent out
   from the interface that matches the source address in the packet.
   (The "weak end system" model may still be used for other packets.)

   When bringing up multiple interfaces simultaneously (e.g. at system
   boot time) the process can be streamlined by configuring all
   interfaces concurrently. First all interfaces should be brought up in
   an un-numbered state. Once this is done, all interfaces can then
   concurrently go through the process of selecting a locally unique
   address and probing for that address simultaneously on all active
   interfaces (including all other interfaces that are themselves
   currently in the process of selecting and probing for an address).

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3.3.1 Example Illustrating (Incorrect) Ambiguous Address Re-Use

   Figure 1 shows a network topology where host A has an interface on
   link X with link-local address P, and host B, also on link X, has
   address Q. If we allow host A to have another interface on a
   different link that also has address Q, then although there are
   no conflicts strictly within the scope of either link, there is
   potential for confusion. When host A sends a UDP packet from source
   address P to destination address Q without specifying an explicit
   outgoing interface identifier, it is ambiguous whether A intends
   to talk to itself, or to host B. By ensuring that all of a host's
   link-local addresses are distinct not only from each other, but also
   from all addresses currently active on all links that the host is
   connected to, we remove this ambiguity.


                  |               |
                  |   P ----- Q?  |
                  |-----| A |-----|
                  |     -----     |
                  |               |
                  |               |
                 X|               |Y
                  |               |
                  |               |
        -----     |               |
        | B |-----|               |
        ----- Q   |               |
                  |               |

        Figure 1. (Incorrect) Ambiguous Re-Use of Address Q






















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3.3.2 Example Illustrating Acceptable Address Re-Use

   Note that it is acceptable for different hosts on separate links to
   be using the same link-local address on their respective separate
   links. Figure 2 shows a network topology where host B on link X is
   using address Q, while at the same time, host C on link Y is also
   using address Q. This is entirely in keeping with the concept of
   link-local addresses. Link-local addresses are only unique amongst
   the member hosts of a single link. Hosts B and C are not on the same
   link, hence there is no requirement for them to have distinct
   addresses. Note that in this case, host A is still able to
   communicate with both hosts B and C, because a packet sent from
   source address P to destination address Q travels on link X to host
   B, and a packet sent from source address R to destination address Q
   travels on link Y to host C. TCP connections are uniquely identified
   by the source and destination addresses and port numbers, not just by
   the destination address and port number alone. To support link-local
   addressing on multiple interfaces simultaneously, the network
   software API must allow applications to bind endpoints to a desired
   source interface as well as specifying the desired destination
   address for a TCP connection. Networking implementations that only
   allow the destination address to be specified should limit themselves
   to configuring only one interface for link-local addressing.


                  |               |
                  |   P ----- R   |
                  |-----| A |-----|
                  |     -----     |
                  |               |
                  |               |
                 X|               |Y
                  |               |
                  |               |
        -----     |               |     -----
        | B |-----|               |-----| C |
        ----- Q   |               |   Q -----
                  |               |

        Figure 2. Acceptable Re-Use of Address Q













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3.4 Collision Detection for Multi-Homed Hosts

   If a host receives an ARP packet (request *or* reply) on an interface
   that's using a link-local address, where the 'sender IP address' in
   the ARP packet is equal to *any* of the host's current link-local
   addresses, and the 'sender hardware address' in the ARP packet is
   equal to *none* of the host's active interfaces, then this is a
   conflicting ARP packet and must be handled as such.

   If a host receives an ARP packet (request *or* reply) where the
   'sender hardware address' is not the hardware address of the
   interface on which the packet was received, but *is* the hardware
   address of one of the host's other interfaces, then this indicates
   that the host has two or more interfaces connected to the same
   network link. This can happen if the user of a multi-homed host with
   two Ethernet interfaces connects both interfaces to the same Ethernet
   hub. It can also occur less obviously, such as a host with both wired
   and wireless Ethernet interfaces, in an environment where a wireless
   gateway is available, and (perhaps unknown to the user) happens to be
   bridged onto the same wired Ethernet.

   If a host implementing a single shared link-local address (Section
   3.2) receives such an ARP packet, it should cease using its link-
   local address on one of the two interfaces in question. If there is a
   performance difference between the two interfaces (e.g. Gigabit wired
   Ethernet and 11Mb/s wireless), then the host should generally cease
   using its link-local address on the lower performance interface.

   If a host implementing a different link-local address for each
   interface (Section 3.3) receives such an ARP packet, it should
   silently discard it and not treat it as a conflict. Such a host
   should not shut down either interface's link-local address, because
   to do so would break existing connections established to the
   discontinued IP address.



















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4. Considerations for Joining of Previously Separate Networks

   Hosts on disjoint network links may configure the same link-local
   address. If these separate network links are later joined or
   bridged together, then there may be two hosts which are now on the
   same link, trying to use the same address. When either host attempts
   to communicate with any other host on the network, it will at some
   point broadcast an ARP packet which will enable the hosts in question
   to detect that there is an address conflict.

   When these address conflicts are detected, the subsequent forced
   reconfiguration may be disruptive, causing TCP connections to be
   broken. However, it is expected that such disruptions will be rare.
   It should be relatively uncommon for networks to be joined while
   hosts on those networks are active. Also, 65024 addresses are
   available for link-local use, so even when two small networks are
   joined, the chance of collision for any given host is fairly small.

   When joining two large networks (defined as networks with a
   substantial number of hosts per segment) there is a greater chance
   of collision. In such networks, it is likely that the joining of
   previously separated segments will result in one or more hosts
   needing to change their IPv4 link-local address, with subsequent
   loss of TCP connections. In cases where separation and re-joining
   is frequent, as in remotely bridged networks, this could prove
   disruptive. However, unless the number of hosts on the joined
   segments is very large, the traffic resulting from the join and
   subsequent address conflict resolution will be small.

   Sending ARP replies that have link-local sender IP addresses via
   broadcast instead of unicast ensures that these conflicts can be
   detected as soon as they become potential problems, but no sooner.
   For example, if two disjoint network links are joined, where hosts
   A and B have both configured the same link-local address, X, they
   can remain in this state until A, B or some other host attempts to
   initiate communication. If some other host C now sends an ARP request
   for address X, and hosts A and B were to both reply with conventional
   unicast ARP replies, then host C might be confused, but A and B still
   wouldn't know there is a problem because neither would have seen the
   other's packet. Sending these replies via broadcast allows A and B
   see each other's conflicting ARP packets and respond accordingly.

   Note that sending periodic gratuitous ARPs in an attempt to detect
   these conflicts sooner is not necessary, wastes network bandwidth,
   and may actually be detrimental. For example, if the network links
   were joined only briefly, and were separated again before any new
   communication involving A or B were initiated, then the temporary
   conflict would have been benign and no forced reconfiguration would
   have been required. Triggering an unnecessary forced reconfiguration
   in this case would not serve any useful purpose. Hosts SHOULD NOT
   send periodic gratuitous ARPs.


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5. Security Considerations

   The use of this functionality may open a network host to new attacks.
   In particular, a host that previously did not have an IP address,
   and no IP stack running, was not susceptible to IP-based attacks.
   By configuring a working address, the host may now be vulnerable
   to IP-based attacks.

   The ARP protocol [RFC 826] is insecure. A malicious host may send
   fraudulent ARP packets on the network, interfering with the correct
   operation of other hosts. For example, it is easy for a host to
   answer all ARP requests with responses giving its own hardware
   address, thereby claiming ownership of every address on the network.

   The use of link-local addresses may somewhat reduce the breadth of
   attack to which a device may be subject, from the entire Internet to
   only attackers who have access to the local link, but that should not
   be seen as a reason to ignore security issues. Developments such as
   wireless networking mean that an attacker does not necessarily need
   to be inside the building to have access to the local link. Even a
   device using only link-local addresses should still implement
   end-to-end cryptographic security at a level appropriate to that
   device and its intended operating environment.


6. IANA Considerations

   The IANA has allocated the network prefix 169.254/16 for the use
   described in this document. The first and last 256 addresses in this
   range (169.254.0.x and 169.254.255.x) are reserved for future IETF
   Standards actions. No other IANA services are required by this
   document.


7. Acknowledgements

   We would like to thank (in alphabetical order) Jim Busse,
   Pavani Diwanji, Donald Eastlake 3rd, Peter Ford, Spencer Giacalone,
   Josh Graessley, Erik Guttman, Myron Hattig, Hugh Holbrook,
   Richard Johnson, Kim Yong-Woon, Rod Lopez, Satish Mundra,
   Thomas Narten, Erik Nordmark, Howard Ridenour, Daniel Senie,
   Dieter Siegmund, Valery Smyslov and Ryan Troll for their
   contributions.










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8. Intellectual Property

   The IETF takes no position regarding the validity or scope of any
   intellectual property or other rights that might be claimed to
   pertain to the implementation or use of the technology described in
   this document or the extent to which any license under such rights
   might or might not be available; neither does it represent that it
   has made any effort to identify any such rights. Information on the
   IETF's procedures with respect to rights in standards-track and
   standards-related documentation can be found in BCP-11. Copies of
   claims of rights made available for publication and any assurances of
   licenses to be made available, or the result of an attempt made to
   obtain a general license or permission for the use of such
   proprietary rights by implementors or users of this specification
   can be obtained from the IETF Secretariat."

   The IETF has been notified of intellectual property rights claimed
   in regard to some or all of the specification contained in this
   document.  For more information consult the online list of claimed
   rights.

9. Copyright

   Copyright (C) The Internet Society 15th April 2002.
   All Rights Reserved.

   This document and translations of it may be copied and furnished to
   others, and derivative works that comment on or otherwise explain it
   or assist in its implementation may be prepared, copied, published
   and distributed, in whole or in part, without restriction of any
   kind, provided that the above copyright notice and this paragraph are
   included on all such copies and derivative works. However, this
   document itself may not be modified in any way, such as by removing
   the copyright notice or references to the Internet Society or other
   Internet organizations, except as needed for the purpose of
   developing Internet standards in which case the procedures for
   copyrights defined in the Internet Standards process must be
   followed, or as required to translate it into languages other than
   English.

   The limited permissions granted above are perpetual and will not be
   revoked by the Internet Society or its successors or assigns.

   This document and the information contained herein is provided on an
   "AS IS" basis and THE INTERNET SOCIETY AND THE INTERNET ENGINEERING
   TASK FORCE DISCLAIMS ALL WARRANTIES, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING
   BUT NOT LIMITED TO ANY WARRANTY THAT THE USE OF THE INFORMATION
   HEREIN WILL NOT INFRINGE ANY RIGHTS OR ANY IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF
   MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.




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10. References

   [802]      IEEE Standards for Local and Metropolitan Area Networks:
              Overview and Architecture.
              Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers,
              IEEE Standard 802, 1990.

   [802.1d]   ISO/IEC 10038, ANSI/IEEE Std 802.1D-1993 "MAC Bridges".

   [802.3]    Local Area Networks Standard, 802.3 Carrier Sense
              Multiple Access. ANSI/IEEE Standard, October 1985.

   [802.5]    Local Area Networks Standard, 802.5 Token Ring Access
              Method. ANSI/IEEE Standard; October 1985.

   [1394]     Standard for a High Performance Serial Bus.
              Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers,
              IEEE Standard 1394-1995, 1995.

   [RFC 826]  D. Plummer, "An Ethernet Address Resolution Protocol -or-
              Converting Network Addresses to 48-bit Ethernet Address
              for Transmission on Ethernet Hardware", STD 37, RFC 826,
              November 1982.

   [RFC 1122] R. Braden, "Requirements for Internet Hosts --
              Communication Layers", RFC 1122, October 1989.

   [RFC 1918] Y. Rekhter et.al., "Address Allocation for Private
              Internets", RFC 1918, February 1996.

   [RFC 2119] S. Bradner, "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
              Requirement Levels", RFC 2119, March 1997.

   [RFC 2131] R. Droms, "Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol",
              RFC 2131, March 1997.

   [RFC 2181] R. Elz and R. Bush, "Clarifications to the DNS
              Specification", RFC 2181, July 1997.

   [RFC 2462] S. Thomson and T. Narten, "IPv6 Stateless Address
              Autoconfiguration", RFC 2462, December 1998.

   [USB]      Universal Serial Bus Implementers Forum
              <http://www.usb.org/>

   [X10]      X10 Ltd. <http://www.x10.com/>







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11. Authors' Addresses

   Stuart Cheshire                   Bernard Aboba
   Apple Computer, Inc.              Microsoft Corporation
   1 Infinite Loop                   One Microsoft Way
   Cupertino                         Redmond, WA 98052, USA
   California 95014, USA             Phone: +1 425 936 6605
   Phone: +1 408 974 3207            Fax: +1 425 936 7329
   EMail: rfc@stuartcheshire.org     EMail: bernarda@microsoft.com

Appendix. Behavior of Legacy Implementations

A.1. Apple Mac OS 8.x and 9.x.

   Mac OS chooses the IP address on a pseudo-random basis. The selected
   address is saved in persistent storage for continued use after
   reboot, when possible.

   Mac OS sends four DHCPDISCOVER packets, with timeouts of 1, 2, 4,
   and then 8 seconds.  When no response is received from any of these
   requests (15 seconds), it will autoconfigure.

   Upon finding that a selected address is in use, Mac OS will select a
   new random address and try again, at a rate limited to no more than
   one attempt every two seconds.

   Autoconfigured Mac OS systems check for the presence of a DHCP
   server every five minutes. If a DHCP server is found but Mac OS
   is not successful in obtaining a new lease, it keeps the existing
   autoconfigured IP address. If Mac OS is successful at obtaining a
   new lease, it drops all existing connections without warning. This
   may cause users to lose sessions in progress. Once a new lease is
   obtained, Mac OS will not allocate further connections using the
   autoconfigured IP address.

   Mac OS systems do not send packets addressed to a link-local address
   to the default gateway if one is present; these addresses are always
   resolved on the local segment.

   Mac OS systems by default send all outgoing unicast packets with a
   TTL of 255. In Open Transport 2.7.8 and later, all multicast and
   broadcast packets are also sent with a TTL of 255 if they have a
   source address in the 169.254/16 prefix, including multicast packets
   that previously would have been sent with a lower TTL, such as
   packets addressed to the all-hosts link-local multicast address
   224.0.0.1.

   Mac OS implements media sense where the hardware (and driver
   software) supports this. As soon as network connectivity is detected,
   a DHCPDISCOVER will be sent on the interface. This means that systems
   will immediately transition out of autoconfigured mode as soon as
   connectivity is restored.

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A.2. Microsoft Windows 98/98SE

   Windows 98/98SE systems choose their IP address on a pseudo-
   random basis. This ensures that systems rebooting will obtain the
   same autoconfigured address, unless a conflict is detected. The
   address selection algorithm is based on computing a hash on the
   interface's MAC address, so that a large collection of hosts should
   obey the uniform probability distribution in choosing addresses
   within the 169.254/16 address space.

   The Windows 98/98SE DHCP Client sends out a total of 4 DHCPDISCOVERs,
   with an inter-packet interval of 6 seconds.  When no response is
   received after all 4 packets (24 seconds), it will autoconfigure an
   address.

   The autoconfigure retry count for Windows 98/98SE systems is 10.
   After trying 10 autoconfigured IP addresses, and finding all are
   taken, the host will boot without an IP address.

   Autoconfigured Windows 98/98SE systems check for the presence of a
   DHCP server every five minutes. If a DHCP server is found but Windows
   98 is not successful in obtaining a new lease, it keeps the existing
   autoconfigured IP address. If Windows 98/98SE is successful at
   obtaining a new lease, it drops all existing connections without
   warning. This may cause users to lose sessions in progress. Once
   a new lease is obtained, Windows 98/98SE will not allocate further
   connections using the autoconfigured IP address.

   Windows 98/98SE systems do not send packets addressed to a link-local
   address to the default gateway if one is present; these addresses are
   always resolved on the local segment.

   Windows 98/98SE systems by default send all outgoing unicast packets
   with a TTL of 128, so a host implementing the TTL check described in
   Section 2.7 will also discard packets from these hosts. There is no
   way a host can distinguish between packets generated locally with a
   TTL of 128, and packets generated by a remote attacker, deliberately
   constructed with a spoof source address in the 169.254/16 prefix, and
   a TTL higher than 128, such that after passing through one or more
   misconfigured routers, the TTL will have decremented to 128 by the
   time it reaches the victim network. Hosts that require compatibility
   with these Windows systems MAY choose to forego the protection of the
   TTL check described above, by providing a user-settable option to
   allow the user to choose between performing the TTL check (more
   secure) or omitting the TTL check (more compatible but less secure).
   Alternatively, if Windows compatibility is desired without
   sacrificing protection against malicious off-link packets, this can
   be achieved by configuring the Windows machines to use a default TTL
   of 255, thereby allowing the use of the TTL check as a reliable
   determination of whether the packet originated locally. This
   configuration is performed by setting the Windows Registry Key
   HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Services:\Tcpip\
   Parameters\DefaultTTL of type REG_DWORD to value 255.]

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   Windows 98/98SE systems do not implement media sense. This means that
   network connectivity issues (such as a loose cable) may prevent a
   system from contacting the DHCP server, thereby causing it to auto-
   configure. When the connectivity problem is fixed (such as when the
   cable is re-connected) the situation will not immediately correct
   itself. Since the system will not sense the re-connection, it will
   remain in autoconfigured mode until an attempt is made to reach the
   DHCP server.

   The mini-DHCP server included with Windows 98SE Internet Connection
   Sharing (ICS), which functions as a NAT, allocates out of the
   192.168/16 private address space by default.

   However, it is possible to change the allocation prefix via a
   registry key, and no checks are made to prevent allocation out of the
   link-local prefix. When configured to do so, Windows 98SE ICS will
   NAT packets from the link-local prefix off the local link. Windows
   98SE ICS does not automatically route for the link-local prefix, so
   that hosts obtaining addresses via DHCP cannot communicate with
   autoconfigured-only devices.

   Other home gateways exist that allocate addresses out of the link-
   local prefix by default. Windows 98/98SE systems can use a 169.254/16
   link-local address as the source address when communicating with
   non-link-local hosts. However, Windows 98/98SE does not support
   router solicitation/advertisement. This means that Windows 98/98SE
   systems will typically not be able to discover a default gateway when
   in autoconfigured mode.


A.3. Windows 2000 and Windows ME

   The autoconfiguration behavior of Windows 2000 and Windows ME systems
   is identical to Windows 98/98SE except in the following respects:

   Media Sense
   Router Discovery
   Silent RIP

   Windows 2000 and ME implement media sense. As soon as network
   connectivity is detected, a DHCPDISCOVER will be sent on the
   interface. This means that systems will immediately transition
   out of autoconfigured mode as soon as connectivity is restored.

   Windows 2000 and ME also support router discovery, although it is
   turned off by default. Windows 2000 also supports a RIP listener.
   This means that it is possible to discover a default gateway while
   in autoconfigured mode.

   ICS on Windows 2000/ME behaves identically to Windows 98SE with
   respect to address allocation and NATing of link-local prefixes.


Expires 15th October 2002            Cheshire & Aboba          [Page 26]


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